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CHEMICAL DETECTION ANAL-ysis of water:- Analytical scientists analyze water using 2 tests, either Quantitative testing or Qualitative testing.

Quantitative:- Quantitative tests tell you the number of different contaminations in water, different toxic chemicals as well as microorganisms. Qualitative:- Qualitative testing tells you the volume of different microorganisms/toxins/contaminations present in the water. Anions:- Anions are formed by non metals and are negative meaning the atom has gained extra electrons(An-ions go to the An-ode(+)). A basic example of this is Cl + e -> ClCations:- Cations are usually formed by metals and are positive meaning the atom has lost its electrons and need more to become an atom yet again. A basic example of this is Na -> Na(+) + e Flame tests:- This is the simplest qualitative test to find out what substance contains what ions. This just involves dipping a piece of metal wire in HCl to make sure its clean, wipe it off and dip it in the substance you want to test. When placed over a fire it should change color. The reason it changes color is because its electrons need to release energy, they do this by jumping energy levels which send off photons. The frequency of photons emitted varies with each ion therefore emitting different color. Ion K+ Na+ Cu2+ Ca2+ Li+ Some flame test results Flame Color Lilac Yellow Green Brick red Dark crimson red

Testing for Cations :- As flame tests arent sufficient enough to prove that a substance really does contain that ion we need to do other tests. These tests are called precipitation tests and are carried out by adding an unknown substance with a few drops of sodium hydroxide. As metal oxides are insoluble a precipitate forms, changing the color of the whole solution. When NaOH reacts with a metal oxide it produces a solid hydroxide of the cation for example; NaOH + AlSo -> AlOH + NaSo and so on. Ion Ammonium (NH4+) (Aq) Aluminium (Al3+) (Aq) Calcium (Ca2+) (Aq) Copper(II) (Cu2+) (Aq) Iron(II) (Fe2+) (Aq) Iron(III) (Fe3+) (Aq) A couple precipitation reactions Precipitate None; colorless gas given off White White Blue Green Rust (Red-brown)

The reason precipitation reactions (NaCl (aq) + AgNO3 (aq) -> Na+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + Ag+(aq) + No3(aq) )happen is because negative ions and positive ions are attracted to eachother. Since NaCl is soluble and AgNO3 is soluble the ions stay in the solution. AgCl is not soluble however and will form a precipitate. Acid:- Acids are on a ph scale ranging from 6 (weak) to 0 (acidic as fuck). Acidity is just the presence of H+ ions and these can easily be detected using simple methods like blue litmus paper or universal indicator. Blue litmus paper turns red and so does universal indicator. Detecting acids can also be done by effervescence. Acids react with metals (reactive ones) like magnesium, iron and zinc to form hydrogen gas. This can be tested by placing a lit splint above the test tube. This will create a small pop. Furthermore, acids can be detected using carbonates too. Put placing a carbonate in an acid it will produce a gas, water and a salt with the gas being CO2 which turns limewater milky/cloudy. Testing for Anions:- You can also use litmus paper or universal indicator to see if a substance contains hydroxide ions. These will turn purple or blue as its alkaline. If hydroxide ions arent present then adding some HCl will indicate whether a carbonate or sulphite is present. If a carbonate is present it releases CO2 As I explained earlier. If it contains Sulphite ions however, it will release a choking gas which makes potassium dichromate paper turn from orange to green. This gas is SO2(Sulphur Dioxide)

Ion Test ClAdd Nitric Acid BrAdd Silver Nitrate solution IAdd Silver Nitrate solution Co3(2-) Add HCl SO3(2-) Add HCl OHAdd HCl then Barium Chloride So4(2-) Litmus Paper Some anion tests results

Result White Precipitate Cream Precipitate Yellow Precipitate Gas turns limewater milky Choking gas White Precipitate Blue color

When you try to balance ionic equations you have to know the charges first. Ions will always try to become atoms by ionic bonding, this means that if an ion has a charge of +3 it will pair up with 3 other ions with a single charge. Like this; Mg(2+) + OH(-) -> Mg(OH)2. Concentration:- Grams per decimeter cubed (3) (Cm/Dm3) Concentration tells us how much of a substance we have in a certain volume. This is very important when dealing with solutions. In this case its dm3 which is equal to 1000cm3. Remember kids, decimeter is just a fancy way of saying liter, 1L = 1dm3 = 1000cm3 Mass:- Grams (g)

Saltwater experiment:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Measure the crucible weight, record it on a piece of paper Measure the volume of saltwater and add it to the crucible Put the crucible over a Bunsen burner and turn on the flame When all the water evaporates measure the mass of the crucible again, now with the salt Subtract the initial mass with the final mass Since the experiment usually just contains 25cm3 of salt water, to find out how much is in 1000cm3 you need to divide 1000 by 25, and multiply it by the final mass. 7. There you go, you found out how much salt was in the water The Mole level; Abdulla Khouri :- The most accurate unit of measurement of mass in chemistry is the mole. A mole of an element or solution is the Mr. expressed in grams. A scientist called "Avagadro" made this rule and he stated that one mole of any substance contains the same number of particles(6 x 1023). So a mole of O2 is just 16(mr) x 2(since its diatomic) = 32g.. Its as easy as that!

Calculating moles:- To calculate the number of moles in a substance you need to be given both Mass(g) and the Mr (you usually have to find this out by yourself. If you dont know how, go back to grade 10). The equation is N = m/Mr Where N is the number of moles, m is mass and mr is relative molecular mass. This can also be made into a memory triangle = M N Mr The easiest was of solving these questions is to look for what they ask for like this; What mass of calcium oxide is left when 5kg of calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed?(CaCo3 = CaO +CO2) We do this in 3 steps:


: Since they only mentioned CaO and CaCO3 you ignore the CO2. So now you find the moles of CaCO3, N = 5000/100 = 50 moles of CaCO3 is present in 5kg of it. 2. Now you use the ratio to help you find the number of moles in CaO, since there is only one molecule of Calcium Carbonate and one molecule of Calcium oxide, the ratio is 1:1 meaning there are also 50 moles of Calcium oxide being produced during the thermal decomposition 3. Now you switch th N = m/Mr around to make: m = N x Mr, So m = 50 x 56 = 2800g (2.8kg. thats it! You got the answer. Calculating concentrations:- To calculate concentrations you need to memorize this triangle: N C V Where N = Moles (mol), C = Concentration (mol dm-3) and V = Volume (dm3) For example 10g dissolves in 2 dm3, the concentration for this is 10/2 = 5g/dm-3 Calculating volume of gases:- Avagadro also mentioned that 1 mole of any gas at room temperature and normal pressure (1 unit) will take up 24dm3 of volume. This is true for most gases. Memory triangle is: V = Volume V N = Number of moles Vm = Molar Volume, how much volume

N Vm of one mole of gas occupies, this is usually 24dm3

For example, calculate the number of moles of oxygen in 100dm3. This is just simply so, 100/24 = 4.17 moles. Easy peasy Titration:- titration is an important part of quantitative analysis. In order to find an unknown concentration of a solution we carry out a titration with a solution of known volume and concentration must be EXACT. We normally titrate acids and alkalis of which acids will go into the pipette(to measure it, then poured into a burette) and the alkali will go into the conicle flask along with an indicator (remember phenolphthalein?). You then pour acid from the burette into this cornicle flask in tiny amounts at a time while swirling at every interval. When this changes color the titration is complete.

Standard solution:- The concentration/volume of something it takes to completely react with another substance.

When using a burette or anything cylindrical to measure out a liquid you should look at it from the bottom of the meniscus at the same level