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Author(s)

Messegee, James Allen.

Title

Influence of axial and radial clearances on the performance of a turbine stage with blunt
edge non-twisted blades.

Publisher

Monterey, California. U.S. Naval Postgraduate School

Issue Date

1967

URL

http://hdl.handle.net/10945/12330
This document was downloaded on March 12, 2013 at 15:37:49

NPS ARCHIVE
1967
MESSEGEE,

3.

A?Sffli

H Iffi

INFLUENCE G'F AXIAL AND RADIAL CLEARANCE


ON THE PfiRLFORMANCE OF A TUfcSINE STAGE
msh non-twisted blades

mm

mum

JAMES AILEM MESSEGEE

'

mwfflm

JBH
nil

'/,
.

{SSTpOSTORADUATE SCHOQb

3?

INFLUENCE OF AXIAL AND RADIAL CLEARANCES

ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A TURBINE STAGE

WITH BLUNT EDGE NON-TWISTED BLADES

by

James Allen Messegee


Lieutenant, United States Navy
B.S., University of Washington, 1959

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for the degree of

AERONAUTICAL ENGINEER
from the

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL


September 1967

ABSTRACT

This thesis was undertaken to determine the effects of axial

and radial clearances on the performance of a single stage turbine

with blunt leading edges and non- twisted blades.

A series of tests

was conducted on the so-called Mod II Turbine using the Transonic

Turbine Test Rig of the Turbo-Propulsion Laboratory, Department of

Aeronautics, of the Naval Postgraduate School.

The results of these

tests are presented together with a comparison of the experimental

results and results predicted by a three-dimensional turbine performance calculating method.

In addition, measured flow conditions up-

stream of the stator, between the stator and the rotor, and at the
rotor discharge are presented and compared with predicted values.

LIBRARY
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL
MONTEREY, CALIF. 93940
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Section
1.

Introduction

14

2.

Turbine Description

15

3.

Test Installation

16

4.

Analysis and Data Reduction

19

5.

Description of Performance Tests

29

6.

Results and Discussion of Performance Tests

31

7.

Description, Results and Discussion of Flow Surveys

37

Bibliography

47

Appendix
I

II

Formula Development for Mean Streamline Analysis 112

FORTRAN IV Computer Program for Performance

120

Data Reduction
III

Reduced Performance Data

137

LIST OF TABLES

Page

TABLE
I.

II.

Mod. II Turbine Design Parameters

48

Measured Data for Turbine Performance Tests,

49

Transonic Turbine Test Rig.


III.
IV.
V.

VI.

Mod II Turbine Test Runs in 1967

50

Chronological Record of Mod II Turbine Tests in 1967

51

Stator Exit Flow Survey Results of Run 66

53

Rotor Exit Flow Survey Results of Run 67

54

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Page

Figure
1.

Mod II Turbine Stator (View showing stator entrance)

55

2.

Mod II Turbine Stator (View showing stator exit)

56

3.

Mod II Turbine Stator (View showing blade profiles)

57

4.

Mod II Turbine Rotor (View showing rotor entrance)

58

5.

Mod II Turbine Rotor (View showing rotor exit)

59

6.

Mod II Turbine Rotor (View showing blade profiles)

60

7.

Mod II Turbine Blade Profiles

61

8.

Mean Streamline, Design Point Velocity Diagram

62

9.

TTR Test Cell Piping Installation

63

10.

Transonic Turbine Test Rig

66

11.

Transonic Turbine Test Rig (View showing turbulence


reduction screens with stator and rotor removed)

65

12.

Arrangement of Mod II Turbine Blading in Test Rig

66

13.

TTR Stator Assembly and Shroud

67

14.

Rotor Bearing Support Assembly and Mod II Turbine


Rotor

68

15.

Thermodynamic Process of Fluid in an Axial Turbine


Stage

69

16.

Velocity Diagram of a Turbine Stage

70

17.

Vector System for the Rotor Assembly

71

18.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Varied Axial


Clearance

72

19.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Varied Axial


Clearance

73

20.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Varied Axial


Clearance

74

21.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Varied Axial


Clearance

75

Page

Figure
22.

Referred Mass Flow Rate vs. Pressure Ratio, Varied


Axial Clearance

76

23.

Referred Mass Flow Rate vs. Pressure Ratio, Varied


Axial Clearance

77

24.

Referred Dynamometer Torque vs. Referred Rotor Speed,


Varied Axial Clearance

78

25.

Referred Dynamometer Torque vs. Referred Rotor Speed,


Varied Axial Clearance

79

26.

Efficiency vs. Isentropic Head Coefficient; Turbines


in General

80

27.

Theoretical Degree of Reaction vs. Referred Rotor


Speed, at Tip Radius, Varied Axial Clearance

81

28.

Theoretical Degree of Reaction vs. Referred Rotor


Speed, at Hub Radius, Varied Axial Clearance

82

29.

Theoretical Degree of Reaction vs. Referred Rotor


Speed, Predicted vs. Measured

83

30.

Efficiency vs. Isentropic Head Coefficient; Varied


Radial Clearance

84

31.

Efficiency vs. Isentropic Head Coefficient; Varied


Radial Clearance

85

32.

Efficiency vs. Isentropic Head Coefficient; Varied


Radial Clearance

86

33.

Efficiency vs. Isentropic Head Coefficient; Varied


Radial Clearance

87

34.

Referred Mass Flow Rate vs. Pressure Ratio, Varied


Radial Clearance

88

35.

Referred Dynamometer Torque vs. Referred Rotor Speed

89

36.

Referred Dynamometer Torque vs. Referred Rotor Speed

90

37.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Predicted vs.


Measured

91

38.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Predicted vs.


Measured

92

39.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Predicted vs.


Measured

93

Figure

Page

40.

Efficiency vs. Referred Rotor Speed, Predicted vs.


Measured

94

41.

Referred Mass Flow Rate vs. Referred Rotor Speed,


Predicted vs. Measured

95

42.

Referred Mass Flow Rate vs. Referred Rotor Speed,


Predicted vs. Measured

96

43.

Referred Dynamometer Torque vs. Referred Rotor Speed,


Predicted vs. Measured

97

44.

Referred Dynamometer Torque vs. Referred Rotor Speed,


Predicted vs. Measured

98

45.

Referred Horsepower vs. Referred Rotor


Predicted vs. Measured

99

46.

Referred Horsepower vs. Referred Rotor Speed,


Predicted v& Measured

100

47.

Illustration of Pressure Survey at Stator Entrance

101

48.

Total Pressure Variation with Peripheral Position at


the Stator Entrance

102

49.

Illustration of Stator Discharge Pressure

103

50.

Static Pressure vs. Blade Diameter, Stator Discharge


Survey

51.

Absolute Velocity vs. Blade Diameter; Stator Discharge 105


Survey

52.

Absolute Velocity vs. Blade Diameter; Rotor Discharge 106


Survey

53.

Absolute Velocity vs. Blade Diameter; Rotor Discharge 107


Survey

54.

Static Temperature vs. Blade Diameter; Rotor Discharge 108


Survey

55.

Absolute Flow Outlet Angles as Function of Radius;


Measured vs. Predicted

109

56.

Referred Velocities and Relative Rotor Outlet Angle


as Function of Radius

110

57.

Mod II Turbine Rotor

111

Speed,

Survey

104

TABLE OF SYMBOLS

Symbols
2

Cross-sectional area (in

Flow channel throat diameter (in)

Conversion factor, 2gJc

(ft /sec

R)

Specific heat at constant pressure for air (0.24 BTU/lb

Diameter

Force (lb

Gravitational constant (32.174 lb -ft/lb -sec


m
t

Total enthalpy (BTU/lb

Blade height

Static enthalpy (BTU/lb

HP

Horsepower

"l

Unit vector

Conversion factor (778.16 ft-lb /BTU)

j"

Unit vector

IT

Unit vector

k.

Isentropic head coefficient (dimensionless)

Moment (ft-lb

Absolute Mach number (dimensionless)

M_

Relative Mach number (dimensionless)

Mass flow rate (slugs/sec)

Rotational speed (RPM)

Unit vector directed outward from a surface

Total pressure (psia)

Static pressure (psia)

is

(in.)

(in)

Gas constant for air (53.345 ft-lb ,71b


t

11

R)

2
)

R)

R
m

Root mean square radius

Radius

Theoretical degree of reaction (dimensionless)

Surface where fluid enters or leaves a control volume (in.)

Distance between blades

Entropy (BTU/lb -R)

Static temperature (R)

Total temperature (R)

Blade thickness at the trailing edge

Peripheral velocity (ft/sec)

Absolute velocity (ft/sec)

Relative velocity (ft/sec)

Flow rate (lb /sec)

Number of blades in a blade row

(in.)

(in.)

(in.)

(in.)

Greek Letters
o<

Absolute flow discharge angle (degrees)

Relative flow discharge angle (degrees)

fr

Ratio of specific heats for air (1.401)

Referred pressure ratio (dimensionless)

Loss coefficient (dimensionless)

Y)

Efficiency (dimensionless)

Referred temperature ratio (dimensionless)

Area restriction factor

or blockage factor (dimensionless)

Density (lb /sec)


m

Flow function (dimensionless)

CO

Angular velocity (radians /sec)

12

Subscripts
a

Axial direction

ax

Area normal to the axial direction

CL

Closure plate

Equivalent thermodynamic property

Blade hub

In the axial direction or around the machine axis

is

Isentropic

Labyrinth seals

Mean streamline

Properties at the flow measuring nozzle


Properties at the entrance to stator blades

Properties in the plenum ahead of stator assembly

Denotes forces due to pressure

Rotor

Radial direction

REF

Referred value

Stator

Blade tip

TH

Theoretical value

Peripheral direction

Properties at the exit of the stator

Properties at the exit of the rotor

13

1.

Introduction
The Mod II Turbine is a test model of the fuel pump drive turbine

designed by Professor M. H. Vavra of the Department of Aeronautics,

Naval Postgraduate School, for an advanced liquid rocket engine.

It

was designed for good off-design point performance, ruggedness, and

simplicity.

Good off-design point performance was needed because the

rocket was to produce variable thrust over a large percent variation


of full thrust.

Ruggedness was a design criteria because the rocket

must endure stop-start operations.


of manufacture and low unit cost.

Simplicity of design provides ease


In addition,

the Mod II Turbine was

designed to allow for adequate space in the blades for internal cooling passages.

The foregoing considerations lead to a turbine design

with thick non- twisted blades which have blunt leading edges.
The amount of test data which is available on turbine designs of
this type is very limited.

Turbine designers have a particular need

to know what effects are induced in turbine performance by varied

clearances between the stator and rotor and between the rotor tips
and the shroud.

This project hopefully helps fill this need.

The Transonic Turbine Test Rig located at the Aeronautics

Propulsion Laboratory of the Naval Postgraduate School provides a


unique test bed for determining the effects of axial and radial clearances on the performance of turbines at varied pressure ratios and
speeds.

This report covers the testing of the Mod II Turbine in the

Test Rig at two radial clearances, five axial clearances, four pressure ratios, and varied rotational speeds between 10,000 and 19,000
RPM.

The author is very appreciative of the many hours of cheerful

assistance during the equipment set-up and data acquisition given by

14

Also, the willing

Mr. Jim Hammer of the Department of Aeronautics.

assistance of Lt.

Commons, U.S.N, and the helpful advice given

P. M.

by Lt. R. H. Harrison, U.S.N, are greatly appreciated.

Particular

thanks are given to Professor Vavra for his patient instruction and

guidance.

2.

Turbine Description
Figures

1,

and

2,

and Figures 4, 5, and

3,

the Mod II Turbine stator and rotor, respectively.

single stage unit of the reaction type.


are listed in Table

are photographs of
The turbine is a

Pertinent turbine dimensions

together with the design point performance

Unless otherwise specified, the values in Table

parameters.

refer

Most of the dimensions given in Table

to the mean blade radius.

are self-explanatory; however, the following quantities need to be

defined more clearly.

The throat diameter, a, shown in Fig. 7, is the

minimum distance between the blades at the mean radius.


area, A

tn

is

defined as

A..
th

2 ah

(1)

Definitions of the absolute and relative exit angles,


shown in Fig.

The throat

8.

o(

and ft

are

Figure 8 depicts the so-called velocity triangles

for the Mod II Turbine at the design conditions.

measured from the axis.

All angles are

Positive angles are measured to velocity

vectors with peripheral components in the direction of the rotor

rotational speed vector, U.

Definitions of the loss coefficients

and other performance parameters listed in Table I are presented in

Section 4.

During the designing of a turbine, loss coefficients must

be assumed in order to determine proper areas for the flow channels.

15

Large losses can result from improper area design.

Turbine designers

usually use experimentally determined loss coefficients.

The loss

coefficients used in designing the Mod II Turbine and listed in Table

were derived from experimental data presented by Klein

3.

Test Installation
The turbine was tested on the Transonic Turbine Test Rig, here-

after referred to as the TTR.

The TTR is designed and instrumented to

determine the performance characteristics of a turbine stage at varied


axial and radial clearances, and to measure the flow properties before

and after each blade row.

It has the unique capability of determining

mean flow conditions in a turbine without introducing flow disturbing


probes into the flow stream.

instrumentation and data reduction techniques are presented by

lation,

Commons

Detailed descriptions of the TTR instal-

2
.

This discussion will be limited to the salient features of

the TTR from which performance data on the Mod II Turbine were obtained.

Compressed air is used as the working fluid in the TTR.

It is

supplied by a twelve stage axial compressor located in a test cell


The supply air enters the TTR test cell at the

adjacent to the TTR.


inlet valve for Tank

as shown in Fig. 9.

Tank

and plenum chamber for the exhauster and for Tank

is a settling tank
2.

The exhauster is

used to lower the pressure in the test hood below atmosphere to obtain
large pressure ratios across the turbine being tested.

Klein, Armin, Experimentelle Nachprufung eines Berechnungsverfahrens fur axiale Stromungsmaschinen am Beispiel einer Turbinenstufe.
Forschg. Ing-Wes. 31 (1965) Nr. 5.
2

Commons, P. M.
Instrumentation of the Transonic Turbine Test Rig to
Determine the Performance of Turbine Inlet Guide Vanes by the Application
of the Momentum and Moment of Momentum Equations (NPGS Thesis, Sept. 1967)
,

16

Air for the turbine leaves Tank


and goes into Tank

through the flow rate nozzle

which is the settling tank for the turbine plenum.

The flow rate nozzle is instrumented with total pressure taps and a
total temperature probe ahead of the nozzle and static pressure taps

downstream of the nozzle.

The air path from Tank

2,

through the

turbine inlet valve, and into the test hood to the turbine plenum is
shown in Fig.

9.

Figure 10 is a cross-section of the arrangement inside the test


hood.

The turbine plenum is supported independently from the stator

assembly and surrounds the upstream end of the stator assembly.

The

plenum is instrumented with total temperature and total pressure probes

A small amount of air leaks from the plenum through the labyrinths that
seal the plenum pressure from the pressure inside the hood.

Air flows

radially from the plenum into the stator assembly, thence through the
turbulence reduction screens to the stator.

Six fixed total pressure

probes and two moveable total pressure and temperature Kiel probes are
located between the screens and the stator.

The total pressure probes

are fixed at a radial distance which approximately divides the flow

entering the stator into equal mass flow rate increments.

The fixed

probes and the conical turbulence reduction screens are shown in


Fig.

11.

The closure plate, shown in Fig. 12, is attached to the stator

assembly by a cylindrical member and a spoked wheel type flexure


device, which is instrumented with strain gages to determine the

torque and the axial force transmitted from the closure plate to
the stator assembly.

Also, the cavity between the closure plate

and the stator assembly is instrumented with a static pressure port.

17

Static pressure ports are arranged along the shroud at %-inch

intervals beginning at the exit of the stator.

The arrangement of

these ports on the downstream end of the shroud is shown in Fig. 12.

The radial clearance between the rotor tips and the shroud is

determined by the inside diameter of the shroud.

Different shrouds

are available for installation on the test rig to provide varied


radial clearances.

The entire stator assembly is supported by flexures which allow


the assembly to move in the axial direction and around the axis.

Reluctance type force gages are located between the moveable stator
assembly and the fixed structure.

The force gages measure the axial

force, and the moment about the axis, which are transmitted from the

moveable stator assembly to the fixed structure.


The rotor is cantilevered from the rotor bearing support stand.

Figure 14 shows the rotor mounted in the bearing stand.

matched precision ball bearings support the rotor shaft.

Two sets of
The bearings

are lubricated by an oil mist system.

The axial distance between the stator and rotor is varied by

sliding the rotor bearing assembly in the support stand.

The bolt

at the top of the rotor bearing support stand locks the sliding

assembly in the desired axial position.

A quill shaft connects the rotor shaft to the dynamometer shaft.


A six-spoked flux cutter is fitted to the dynamometer end of the quill
shaft.

The flux cutter passes through the field of a magnetic pickup

from which the RFM of the rotor is obtained.

The dynamometer is an air brake device which is cantilevered


from the dynamometer bearing support stand.

are similar to the rotor bearings.

18

The dynamometer bearings

A twenty inch long arm is attached

to the shaft between the dynamometer bearing stand and the dynamometer.

The arm acts on a reluctance type force gage from which the dynamometer
torque is determined.

Table II lists the quantities recorded during

a performance test run.

All pressures are measured on a mercury

manometer, except the pressure differential across the flow nozzle

which is read on a water filled, U-tube.

All the temperatures are

obtained from Iron-Cons tantan thermocouples referenced to an ice bath.

4.

Analysis and Data Reduction

General
The turbine performance data were analyzed with a one- dimensional

mean streamline approach.

Steady axisymmetric flow conditions were

assumed to exist at the entrance and discharge of each blade row.

Adiabatic flow conditions were assumed to exist through the entire


stage.

The mean flow conditions were assumed to exist at the root

mean square of the blade radii, hereafter referred to as the mean


radius, R

The mean radius is found as

Rm=L
where R
R_

J (inches)

= radius of blade tip

= radius of blade hub

(2)

(inches)
(inches)

For simplicity in the following development, the mean radius will be

considered constant through the stage.

In the actual calculations,

the variation in mean radius between the stator blades and the rotor

blades was taken into account.

calculations was

The major portion of the data reduction

performed by the IBM 360 digital computer located at

the Naval Postgraduate School.

19

Flow rate
The flow rate through the turbine is the flow rate through the

flow measuring nozzle less the flow rate through the labyrinth seals.

Thus

ft

WN

0)

- W,,

where

W = Flow rate through the test turbine (lb /sec)


m
W
N

Flow rate through


the flow measuring nozzle (lb /sec)

W_ = Flow rate through the labyrinth seals (lb /sec)


L
m

The flow rates through the flow nozzle and through the labyrinth seals
are determined by measuring the applicable quantities listed in

The calibration methods and data reduction formulae are

Table II.

discussed by Commons..
Stage entrance properties

The total pressure at the stator entrance, P^

to

is taken as the

average pressure indicated by the six fixed pressure probes.

validity of this assumption is explored in Sec. 7.


ature, T

The

The total temper-

is obtained from the Kiel probes.

Stator discharge properties

The fluid properties at the stator discharge and the stator

performance parameters are obtained by determining the velocity triangle


at the stator exit.

The peripheral component, V

of the absolute

velocity is obtained by application of the moment of momentum law to


the fluid contained in the stator assembly.

presented in Appendix I,

Ibid. Sec, 4

20

From the derivation

V,

(Mcl +M s )9/k Rm

(4)

where

= Peripheral component of absolute velocity at the stator


l

(ft/sec)

exit,

= Moment applied to the stator assembly by the moment capsule

shown on Fig. 12.

(ft-lb f )

= Moment applied to the stator assembly by the closure plate


\jLi

(ft-lb

The axial velocity component, V

is

found by application of

the conservation of momentum law to the fluid in the stator assembly.

From Appendix

I,

(5)

where

= Axial velocity component at the stator discharge (ft/sec)

a
l

= Force applied to the stator assembly by the axial force gage

(See Fig. 13^

(lb

= Axial force applied to the stator assembly by the closure

F
LiJj

plate (lb
F

= Net pressure force acting on stator assembly.

(See Appendix I,

p. 112).

I,

p = Static pressure at any radius at the stator exit.

Refer to Appendix

(lb

p. 112

(lb /in.

for the solution to the pressure integral

given in Eq. (5)

21

Since the continuity equation must be satisfied by the fluid flow

through the stator, the axial velocity component, V

may be determined

as,

Refer to Appendix

I,

p. 112

for the derivation of Eq.

(6).

In the data reduction computer program, contained in Appendix II,

both Eq. (5) and Eq. (6) are satisfied by an iteration procedure which
determines a compatible static pressure distribution in the radial

direction at the stator exit.

The stator exit velocity is then found

as

!*lk

(7)

Referring to Fig. 16, the stator absolute discharge angle is

(8)

*"*r(-fc>
The relative axial velocity component is

v*<

(9)

and the relative peripheral component is

(10)

where
CJ

rotor rotational speed (rad/sec)

The relative velocity is now found as

and the relative stator discharge angle is

ft

. 7.N-

(J*!)

(12)

22

The absolute and relative Mach numbers are found as

where

a.,

<

d4)

is the local speed of sound at the stator exit,

a, =

Ce

13 >

if

R*

obtained as

t, 3

(is)

where

y = specific heat ratio for air (1.401).


The effectiveness of the stator is measured by the stator loss

coefficient which, referring to Fig. 15, is defined as

JL-Jiii_
- Tic.

(i6)

where
= static temperature at the stator discharge if the expansion

T
is

process
from (T
r

to

,P

to

to p, were isentropic.
1

It can be seen on Fig.

15

that an equivalent definition for the

stator loss coefficient is

V * "

*
V|

17

>

th

where
= velocity at stator exit if expansion through the stator were

V,

th

isentropic.

By using the energy equation and

the equation of state for an isentropic

expansion

fanJ+w
23

fcJ

(%,&!

(18)

Combining Eqs.

(16) and (17)

TO

(19)

29^[WVp)Y]

^C

In the actual

is an average value of the stator effectiveness.

flow passage through the stator the major part of the losses is due
to the boundary layers which form along the surfaces of the blades.
In fact, expansions along streamlines away from the bounding surfaces

should be nearly isentropic.

For this reason, it is quite difficult

to obtain a meaningful average stator loss coefficient by measuring


the flow properties with probes introduced into the flow stream.

Obviously, it would require a great number of points to be measured


very near the surfaces.

Herein lies the significant advantage of the

TTR with the force capsule arrangement which gives mean flow conditions
by measuring external forces on the stator assembly.

The stator

efficiency is given by

7f

The flow function

(20)

?,
is given by

Vavra

as

and the isentropic flow function as

The stator flow restriction factor or blockage factor is defined as

Vavra, M. H. Problems of Fluid Mechanics in Radial Turbomachines


Rhode-SaintParts I & II. Von Karman Institute Course Note 55a
Genese, Belgium: Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, March 1965,
equation C(7)
,

24

Rotor discharge properties


By considering the flow through the rotor relative to the moving

rotor blades, the fluid properties at the rotor exit can be determined
in a manner quite analogous to the method applied to the flow through

the stator.

The peripheral component of the relative velocity at the rotor

exit is found from the moment of momentum equation.

From Appendix

P. 112,

Wf

Mo 9/

(24)

where
WL = moment measured by the dynamometer force capsule.

Appendix

I,

p. 112

the axial component of the relative velocity is

*&&.

Wtt

From

(25)

where the static temperature at the rotor discharge is found by


combining the energy and continuity equations as

T - SlcpAttf lj-.
'*-

*h&

2ft' Ra*

WJi

Wi

m^.,1

v-w&wh^-^-T&r^

,,,s
<26)

'i

The various velocity components and discharge angles for the rotor

exit can now be computed.

it,

From Fig. 16,

w*

* IVUl +

<

28 >

(29)

25

I,

<

V*

is,

= rAN -'

Jk-

+ Vu\ j

Vz

(30)

(>

(3D

"-" 1

(32)

<fc>

Analogous to the stator loss coefficient, the rotor loss coefficient


is defined as

(33)

W*w

where

= relative velocity at the rotor exit if the expansion


2

th

through the rotor were isentropic, (ft/sec).


This expansion is shown in Fig. 15 from (PW ;T_) to (P ,T.

).

IS

is calculated as
2

th

"

a^'+IsJ^Wty*"*]}*

(34)

The efficiency of the rotor is defined by

(35)

Stage performance parameters

The overall efficiency of the turbine stage is that percent of


the isentropic temperature drop across the stage which is used in

developing work output.


stage,

AT

The isentropic temperature drop across the

is shown in Fig.

15.

is

26

It is computed as

AT* =*.)-

(Ve^]

(36)

'to

AT.
C

is often expressed in terms of a theoretical velocity,

as

AT.

(37)

=-

The temperature drop which represents the work output is shown on


Fig.

15 as

AT w

It is computed as

ATW

(38)

--.

or, by Eulers turbine equation, as

ATW =

(Vt,

(39)

-*)/$ Jj,

The efficiency is then computed as

(40)

This efficiency is known as the total to static efficiency.


The isentropic expansion across the stage is considered to start at
the total pressure ahead of the stage and extend to the static

pressure after the stage.

The kinetic energy of the fluid leaving

the stage is considered as a loss.

The percent of AT.

associated with a theoretical isentropic

expansion across the rotor from


degree of reaction.

p,

to p

is known as the theoretical

In terms of velocities it is defined as

* = i-

wo

3r
U
6

27

is an important stage parameter.

It is an indication of the

amount of acceleration experienced by the flow in each row of blades


*

in the turbine stage.

Using Eqs. (18), (36), and (37), r

is expressed

as
'

(2ial
i^,*i
(

r* .

(42)

The values of r
and p

for p.,

at the hub and tip are computed by substituting


in Eq.

p,

(42).

The peripheral speed of a turbine rotor, U, is usually a fixed

value which is determined by the allowable stress level in the rotor


blades.

For this reason,

is commonly used to define dimensionless

II

stage performance parameters.

The isentropic head coefficient, k.

relates the isentropic

energy change across the stage to the peripheral speed by the relation

tu

<>'

The work coefficient k

relates Lhe actual work accomplished


in
r

a stage to the peripheral speed as

k.

is used by designers to estimate the number of stages

necessary to handle a given isentropic energy change at any given

peripheral speed, U.

Similarly, k

is used to estimate the

flow rate

through a stage necessary to produce a specified amount of power at any


given speed U.

28

In order to compare the results of the performance tests from run


to run, and with predicted results, the NA.SA reference system is

employed.

The reference parameters are defined as

yR '

Tt

>f 1.401X58.35X518.4)

(45)

for air

(*

VstS.4

and

(47)

Vfc.7

The performance values which are measured on the TTR and then

reduced to referred values are flow rate,

iv =

A6

(lb /sec)

(48)

(ft-lb

(49)

dynamometer moment,

M ><-

horsepower,

HPREF

HP/

(hp)

(50)

(rpm)

(51)

4jr

and rotational speed

N RPC =N/
5

Description of Performance Tests


The performance tests were conducted from January through August

1967.

The turbine was operated about 150 hours while performance data

were being taken.

Table III lists the test parameters used in each run,

29

The first series of test runs was performed at a radial clearance

between the rotor tips and the shroud, AlT


to each run,

0.200, 0.0410, 0.620,

Prior

Five axial positions, Ax, of

1.000 and 1.500 inches, were used in the first

The second series of tests was performed at a radial

set of tests.
AlT

of 0.033 inch.

the axial clearance between the stator and rotor, Ax,

was set at the desired position.

clearance,

Since the changes in performance

of 0.015 inch.

parameters with a change in axial clearance were found to be small


at the original radial clearance, it was decided to conduct the final
set of tests at only three axial clearances; namely, L x of 0.200,

0.410, and 1.000 inch.

At each combination of axial clearance, L x, and radial clearance,

AT, the turbine was tested at four pressure ratios across the stage,
(P

/p

ratio,

(P

namely, at 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6.

An additional pressure

/p 9 ) of 1.45, was examined during run number 63.

The test data items shown in Table II were recorded at a number


of rotational speeds, N, between 10,000 RPM and 19,000 RPM, at each

combination of radial clearance, axial clearance and pressure ratio.


The pressure ratios listed in Table III are approximate due to the

difficulty experienced in holding exact pressure ratios while varying


the RPM.

This was a particular problem during the initial tests

conducted with the exhauster operating.

As experience was gained and

better techniques were developed, it became possible to hold the pressure


ratios to within one-half a percent of the desired pressure ratio.

The torque absorption capacity of the dynamometer limited the


range of head coefficients, k

over which the tests could be performed.

The maximum head coefficient obtained in these tests was about 3.6.

30

A chronological list of the test runs is given in Table IV.


Also included are the important changes made on the TTR, the duration
of each run, and any difficulties occuring during the run.

The chief

mechanical difficulties encountered were fluctuations in input pressure


due to fluctuations of the axial compressor, slippage of the dynamometer

torque arm during the run, and force capsule calibration changes due to

changes in capsule temperature.

These difficulties as well as several

other minor difficulties were easily overcome by minor design changes.

Calibration checks were made on the force capsules and the dynamometer
arm position at the end of each run.

bility of the input pressures during

With this information and the stathe.

runs, the author feels that

runs 56 through 63, run 68 and run 78 yielded the most accurate perform-

ance data.

6.

Results and Discussion of Performance Tests


General

A complete set of raw data and reduced performance data for TTR
test runs 51 through 80 is filed in the Turbo- Propulsion Laboratory
Office.

Reduced data for test runs 58 through 63, 68, 77, and 78 are

contained in Appendix III.

The performance parameters used in Appendix

III have been defined in Sec. 4.

In order to illustrate particular

phenomena, some of the data from Appendix III have been graphically

Figures 18 through 29 are plotted

displayed in Figs. 18 through 56.

to show the influence of axial clearance from the stator to the rotor,

Ax, on the turbine performance.

The influence on the turbine perform-

ance of the radial clearance between the rotor and the shroud,

illustrated in Figs. 30 through 36.

31

Ah,

is

Figures 37 through 46 are graphical

comparisons between the results of test runs 59 and 68, and performance characteristics predicted for the Mod II Turbine by the three-

dimensional prediction method described by Harrison

Influence of axial clearance


The most important finding of this study is that the total to
static stage efficiency increases with increasing axial clearance up
to an axial clearance,

x, of about 1.000 inch.

This was found to be

true at both radial clearances used in these tests.

Figures 18 and

19 show efficiency versus referred rotor speed at a stage pressure

ratio, P

/p 9

of 1.3 for radial clearances, AP

of 0.033 inch and

0.015 inch respectively.

Data scatter in Fig. 18 precludes a quanti-

tative analysis of the increase in efficiency with increase in axial

clearance.

But in Fig. 19, the data are smooth enough to state with

certainty that the total to static stage efficiency increases about


one point with an increase in axial clearance, A x,

1.000 inch.

from 0.200 to

Similar results are shown for a pressure ratio,

(P

/p

of 1.4, in Figs. 20 and 21.

Equation (40) shows that for a given stage pressure ratio, P

/p

a given inlet total temperature, T

and a given rotor speed, N, the

stage efficiency is a function of the dynamometer torque, M

mass flow rate, W.

and the

The influence of varied axial or radial clearance

on efficiency can then be defined as a function of changes in mass flow

rate and changes in dynamometer torque.

By comparing referred mass

flow rates, the effects of varied inlet temperature conditions need not

be considered.

Moreover, the changes of mass flow rate with changes in

Harrison, R. G., An Analysis of Single Stage Axial-Flow Turbine


Performance Using Three-Dimensional Calculating Methods, (NPGS Thesis,
Sept.

1967).

32

rotor speed are quite small.

Therefore, for a given radial clearance,

the influence of changes in axial clearance on the flow rate can be

depicted by plotting referred mass flow rate as a function of pressure


ratio.

This was done for a radial clearance, AT, of 0.015 inch in

Fig. 23 and for a radial clearance,

hlT

of 0.033 inch in Fig. 22.

The

conclusion drawn from Figs. 22 and 23 is that increased axial clearance


has little effect on the mass flow rate.

Similarly, to show the influence of varied axial clearance on the


torque produced by the turbine, the referred dynamometer moment was

plotted against the referred rotor speed.


Figs. 24 and 25.

These plots are shown in

It can be concluded from these graphs that the increase

in efficiency with an increase in axial clearance is primarily the result

of an increase in produced torque.

To summarize the last three paragraphs, the Mod II Turbine will


operate most efficiently at an axial clearance, A x, of 1.000 inch.

At any other axial clearance the torque will decrease and the mass flow
rate will remain about the same.

During the test runs, the most noticeable effect as the axial
clearance was increased was an increase in the static pressure at the
stator tip and a decrease in the static pressure at the stator hub.

This phenomenon is apparent in all test data.

The pressure change

shows up in the reduced performance parameters as a change in the

theoretical degree of reaction.

The theoretical degree of reaction

increases at the tip and mean radii

with increasing axial clearance.

and decreases at the hub radius

To show a typical result, the theo-

retical degree of reaction at the tip and hub were plotted in Figs. 27
and 28 for run 78.

33

That the efficiency should increase with an increase in degree of

reaction is quite consistent with the data shown by Fig. 26 which is


taken from Vavra
'

varied from a

k.

is

The isentropic head coefficient for these tests


of 1.5 to about a k.
of 3.5, and the theoretical
is

degree of reaction at the mean was about 0.25.


an increase in r

Referring to Fig. 26,

would be expected to increase the efficiency.

The

physical reason that the efficiency increases with an increase in degree


of reaction is that the flow through the rotor becomes more accelerated.

And a more accelerated flow means less opportunity for flow separation
to occur.

Knowing this, the phenomenon described above leads to the

conclusion that losses are occurring in the Mod II rotor due to decelerated
flow conditions.

From

Ax

of 1.000 to 1.500 inch there was a further increase in r

but a slight reduction in efficiency.

This would indicate that, in this

range of axial clearances, the increase in losses due to the increased


length of the boundary layer along the shroud and/or other effects outweighs the increase in efficiency due to the increase in the mean degree
of reaction.

The reason that the pressure distribution between the stator and

rotor changes with a change in axial clearance is not entirely clear.


One likely possibility is that the blunt leading edges of the rotor

blades cause

an adjustment in the velocity field upstream of the rotor.

Since the relative and absolute velocity fields between the blade rows

are subsonic, the presence of the rotor can be felt upstream in the form
of an induced pressure.

If this is the phenomenon which raises the

efficiency of the machine, the rotor must induce a pressure field which
Vavra, M. H. Aero-Thermodynamics and Flow in Turbo-Machines,
New York, London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960, pg. 436.
,

34

guides the flow particles into the rotor flow channel at a more optimum
angle as the axial clearance is increased.

It has been demonstrated

with stationary cascades on a water table that the axial distance between
blade rows greatly influences the stream paths of the flow particles.
However, the flow through a stationary row and a moving row of blades

might produce different conditions.


The change in pressure distribution may be due entirely to unsteady

conditions caused by the moving rotor blades passing through the wakes
of the stator blades.

If this is the case, these phenomena will not be

observed on a rectilinear cascade.

In an unsteady

f low^so-called

Reynolds stresses are produced which must be added to the force field

calculated from mean momentum flow.

Experimental investigations about

the magnitude of Reynolds stresses in turbomachines seem

existent in the available literature.

to be non-

Further studies with the TTR and

Mod II Turbine should provide some answers to these important unsteady


flow questions.

Influence of radial clearance

The total to static efficiency increased from one to four percent

when the radial clearance between the rotor tips and the shroud was
decreased from 0.033 inch to 0.015 inch.

Figures 30 through 33 show

the efficiency as a function of the isentropic head coefficient for

pressure ratios of 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6.

There is no clear relation-

ship between the efficiency change and pressure ratio, RPM, or axial

clearance.

It can be concluded, by comparing Figs.

Figs. 30 through 33,

18 through 21 and

that the efficiency of the Mod II Turbine will

increase about three percent, if the radial rotor tip clearance is

decreased from 0.033 inch to 0.015 inch.

This increase is apparently

independent of RPM, axial clearance and pressure ratio.

35

The most interesting finding was that the increase in efficiency

with decrease in radial clearance is mostly due to a decrease in mass


flow rate.

That is, if all other conditions are the same, the Mod II

Turbine will develop the same torque at a radial clearance of 0.015


inch as it will at 0.033 inch but at less mass flow rate.
is graphically portrayed by Figs.

34,

35, and 36.

This fact

Figure 34 shows the

referred mass flow rate as a function of stage pressure ratio for both
radial clearances of 0.015 and 0.033 inch.

Figures 35 and 36 are plots

of referred dynamometer torque as a function of referred RPM for various

stage pressure ratios at radial clearances of 0.015 and 0.033 inch,

respectively.

By comparing Fig. 35 with Fig. 36 it can be seen that the

torque developed by the turbine is nearly independent of radial clearance


It should be noted that the pressure ratios portrayed in Fig.

slightly different from those in Fig. 36.

35 are

This fact must be considered

on comparing the two figures since the torque developed by a turbine is

very dependent on the stage pressure ratio.


Figures 37 through 40 show the experimentally determined stage

efficiencies on the same plots with predicted efficiencies as a function


of referred rotor RPM.

The predicted values are depicted by the curves

and the experimental values by the plotted points.

The experimentally

determined efficiencies can be seen to be from one to three percent


lower than the predicted values at both radial clearances.

This dif-

ference is mostly attributable to a difference in measured and predicted mass flow rates.

Figures 31 and 42 are plots of the mass flow rates,

and Figs. 43 and 44 are plots of the dynamometer torque.

The predicted

and measured torque data are generally quite closely in agreement.

Likewise the predicted and measured power data, shown on Figs. 45 and 46,
agree very well.

36

Description, Results and Discussion of Flow Surveys

General
Flow surveys were conducted with temperature and pressure probes

before the stator, between the stator and rotor, and at the rotor
discharge.

The surveys were conducted to gain data from which compar-

isons could be made with predicted flow properties and flow properties

calculated from the mean streamline analysis method presented in


Section 4.

In addition, the flow survey ahead of the stator was

conducted to gain a measure of the validity of the basic assumptions


of the mean streamline analysis.

Flow survey upstream of the stator

A number of flow surveys were made with the two Kiel probes
located upstream of the stator entrance.

Total temperatures and total

pressures were recorded at one-tenth inch increments between the radii


of 3.7 inches and 5.0 inches from the TTR axis.

Figure 47 depicts the

results of a typical pressure survey with the Kiel probe on the left-

hand side.

The total pressure can be seen to vary about 2.5 percent

between the stator hub and tip radii.

The same distribution of pres-

sure was found by the survey data of the other Kiel probe.

The tem-

perature data from all traverses showed the total temperature was nearly

constant at all radii.

Therefore the assumption that the fluid prop-

erties at the stator entrance are uniform is not entirely satisfied.


The reason for the low total pressure at the hub radius is that
the flow particles are accelerated around the hub curvature much more

than the particles which follow a path at a greater radius.

Since a

constant loss coefficient is associated with the screens, the particle

which passes the screen with the greatest velocity will incur

37

the

greatest increase in entropy.

Further, since no appreciable amount

of energy is transferred in the process, all particles enter the

stator at the same energy level (i.e., total temperature).

However

the particles near the hub are at a higher entropy level and there-

fore at a lower total pressure; thus,

they have less energy available

for the expansion across the stage.

The non- uniform pressure causes two problems with the mean streamline analysis.

First,

the total pressure measured ahead of the

stator must be measured at such a location that it represents the

pressure at the mass averaged mean streamline radius.

Secondly, the

loss coefficients determined by the analysis will not be exactly

representative of the loss coefficients which would exist for uniform


flow conditions.

The positions of the fixed total pressure probes are at very nearly
the same radius as the mass flow weighted mean streamline measured at
the stator exit as shown in Fig. 47.

It is therefore felt that the

total pressure is very nearly representative of the mean condition.

design change of the TTR to allow for flow surveys immediately upstream of the stator blades would permit the researcher to make a more

quantitative analysis of the flow in this region.

The one- dimensional

analysis is designed to yield first-cut estimates of loss coefficients


and other design parameters.

Therefore, it is felt the non-uniform

conditions at the stator entrance do not significantly detract from


the usefulness of the calculated results.

The assumption of axisymmetric flow conditions is apparently quite


valid.

The differences in pressure measured by the right and left Kiel

probes at any radius were less than one percent of the absolute pressure.

38

Further, the maximum variation in pressure indicated by the six


fixed probes was always about one percent.

A typical result is

shown in Fig. 48.

Flow survey at the stator discharge

Pressure and temperature surveys were conducted at the exit of


the stator nozzles during runs 64, 65, 66, 77, and 80.

Two 5-hole

flow probes built by the United Sensor Corporation, type DA 125, were

used on different occasions for the pressure surveys.

These probes

measure yaw and pitch angle, and total and static pressure.
pressure and yaw angle are considered exact as read.

The total

However, the

static pressure must be corrected for pitch angle, Mach number, and

immersion effects.

Additionally, the pitch angle must be corrected

for Mach number and immersion effects.

Calibration curves supplied by

the manufacturer are filed in the Turbo- Propulsion Laboratory Office

by instrument serial numbers.

Since the Mach number of the flow at

the stator discharge was much larger than the Mach number at which
the probes were calibrated, it was necessary to linearly extrapolate

the calibration data.

The temperature surveys were conducted with a

locally manufactured, shielded Iron-Constantan thermocouple.

During run number 66, traverses were made at six peripheral positions
from stator blade number four to blade number three.

were taken at each peripheral position.

Ten data points

The position of each data point

is shown in the plane of the stator blade trailing edges

in Fig. 49.

The calculated velocity distribution from the hub to the tip is shown
in Fig. 50 for data points 21 through 30 and 31 through 40.

points were taken about half-way between the blades.

These

The continuity

equation was checked by


il z

2Trr/V&,dir

39

(52)

Equation (52) was integrated in an approximate manner by dividing


the flow annulus into small increments, calculating the density and

axial velocity that existed at the mean radius of each increment, and
summing as

W=?rr|tf/,r4r

The only quantity on the right side of Eq.

(53)

(52) which was neither

known nor calculated from the measured flow probe data was the static

temperature in the density relation.

This temperature was found from

the energy equation as

Tt. -

|3V >

The results of this calculation are listed in Table V.

The mass

flow rate calculated from the survey data is 4.718 lb /sec.

The mass

flow rate measured by the flow nozzle reduced by the labyrinth leakage

flow is 4.430 lb /sec.


a mass

Thus the survey probe data apparently yield

flow rate which is about six percent too high.

However, it

must be kept in mind that the position of data points 21 through 30


was in the region where the flow is nearly isentropic.

Therefore it

can be assumed that the mass averaged axial velocities are six percent

smaller than the velocities listed in Table V.

This reasoning can

lead to the calculation of an approximate loss coefficient as follows.

The mass averaged axial velocity is found as

V*,

Ui

T7

"

* (4.718)

40

<

55

>

where

al

axial velocity
from Table VI at the radius, R
J

which

divides the flow channel into equal increments of mass flow,

W = flow rate from Table VI.


.*

= measured flow rate.

Then

w*."
1

a
c% "

Jl

"

= 585C*Vsec)

(56)

cos^o.r

where
= mass averaged stator exit velocity

V1

= measured stator exit angle at radius, R

of

The stator loss coefficient can now be calculated as

>

^s

VlVg9J^P

Tt.Cl-^/p)^]

- 1- 585 >g (32.1 7)-na.a = o.Qfcf


"
"

SMLl-Cfin-*"

(57)

where
= static pressure measured by the flow probe at R

p.

= mean total pressure at the stator entrance

P
o

= total temperature measured at the stator entrance,

T
o

The temperature surveys at the stator exit indicated that the total

temperature was very nearly constant at all radii.


The results of the survey data are graphically compared to the

predicted results on Figs. 55 and 56.

The absolute exit angles, of,,

coincide very closely with the exit angles computed in the mean streamline analysis.

However, the mean velocities from the mean streamline

analysis were consistently higher than the measured velocities.

41

Flow survey at the rotor discharge

Pressure and temperature surveys were conducted at the rotor

discharge during run numbers 67 and 76.


total inlet temperature, T

During run number 67 the

total pressure, P

and the RPM were

set to the same values as used in the traverse at the stator exit

conducted during run 66.

Therefore, the results from run 67 can be

used with the results of run 66 to determine the actual velocity

Similarly the inlet conditions of

triangles at any blade radius.

run 76 match run 75.

The power developed by the machine can then be

determined and compared to the power measured.

Likewise, other

performance variables can be computed and compared with the results


of the mean streamline analysis and the predicted values.

Figure 52 shows the velocity distribution at the rotor exit,

measured during run 67, and computed by the method described previously
On the other hand, Fig. 53 shows the

for the DA- 125 type probe.

velocity distribution computed with the following assumptions:


1.

The total pressure, P

and total temperature, T

are

assumed correct as measured by the probes.


2.

The static pressure, p

is taken as

the atmospheric

barometric pressure.
3.

The static temperature is then computed from

\=
4.

Ttl

VpJ

(58)

The velocity is computed as

V = [26J-^(Tti -Ta)J

42

It is felt this method of data reduction is more accurate

than the method which uses the probe calibration curves supplied by
the vendor.

Since immersion effects on static pressure measurements

can be quite large

and are not taken into account, the calibration

curves cannot be considered exact.


Since the absolute rotor exit angle, o(

has been measured, the

axial and peripheral velocity components may be computed from

t^VkCofOfe

(59)

=\4Stn<* 2

(60)

and

Vy

Also, the relative velocity components are obtained from

WAz =

(6D

V* t

and

Ut

=Vu 2 - U *

(62)

Then, the relative discharge flow angle is


=
j9>2
2 "

TW

Wyx

(63)

Waz

Table VI lists the results of run 67.

The mass flow rate was

computed as
It

ft B

,;7f?

Vd t

*r

(64)

n,

Because of the shape of the pressure probe, data points could be


taken only at greater distances from the shroud than 0.16 inch.
This condition made it necessary to assume the velocity distribution

between the shroud and the measuring stations closest to it.


to the assumption used to develop Eq.

43

(89), Appendix I,

Similar

the axial

velocity distribution was considered to be linear from zero at the

With this assumption, the

shroud to the nearest measured velocity.

mass flow rate was determined to be 4.42 lb /sec.

This value coincides

with the mass flow rate of 4.41 lb /sec measured by the flow
closely
J

nozzle.

The radius which divides the mass flow into two equal parts was
found to be 4.361 inches.

By comparison,

the root mean square radius

used in the computer program for the rotor is 4.187 inches.

difference causes the derived peripheral velocity from Eq.


in error by about six percent.

by Eqs.

This
(24)

to be

Therefore, all quantities calculated

(25) through (33) will be in error also.

discrepancy, the rotor exit velocities,

Because of this

flow angles, and loss coef-

ficients obtained by the mean streamline analysis method should be

considered only as approximations of the actual values.


The power produced by each increment of rotor area was computed
from

=||/(V^)

AHP

The formulas for calculating the variables in Eq.

(65)

(65) are listed in

Table VI.

From a summation of these increments, the total power developed


by the rotor was determined to be 63.3 horsepower.
lated by Eq.

(38)

The power calcu-

from the measured dynamometer torque and the RPM was


and 63.1 HP for the data from run 67.

62.1 HP for the data from run 66

The results of the flow survey from run 67 are compared to the

predicted results given by Harrison

on Figs. 55 and 56.

It is felt

that the discrepancy between predicted and measured exit angles is

Harrison,

loc

cit.

44

caused by the separated flow regions in the rotor which were not taken
into account in the prediction method.

In Fig. 5 dark areas can be

seen at the tip and hub of the rotor blades.

These areas consist of

oil and dust which accumulated on the blades during the runs because of

separations at these locations.

Also in Fig. 57 dark areas can be seen

along the blade near the hub, as well as


outward.

dark lines that point radially

Apparently thick boundary layers or separated flow regions

exist in these areas.

The dark lines are probably caused by dust

particles being thrown outward by centrifugal forces.

8.

Recommendations
The following recommendations are not presented as original

thoughts of the author, but rather as a listing of the logical steps

which should be undertaken as a continuation of this study.


1.

Blade shapes geometrically similar to the Mod II blading

should be tested in the Rectilinear Cascade Test Rig of the Naval

Postgraduate School.

The loss coefficients found in the present

study could be validated and the interesting changes of the pressure

distribution with axial clearance could be investigated.


2.

The non-steady flow conditions caused by the rotor passing

through blade wakes of the stator should be examined in greater detail.

The wake patterns could be measured by hot wire anemometers now availThe change of the pressure distribution with axial clearance

able.

may be related to non-steady flow phenomena.


3.

The TTR should be modified to obtain more uniform flow con-

ditions at the stator entrance.

A fix that should be attempted is to

remove the turbulence reduction screens and to insert anouter wall

45

contour in the channel leading to the stator entrance.

If this change

is unsuccessful in reducing turbulence and increasing uniformity, then

the TTR stator assembly should be fitted with a larger diameter inlet

Also, it would be very useful to have the capability of conduct-

pipe.

ing a flow survey immediately upstream of the stator entrance.


4.

Turbine.

Further performance tests should be conducted on the Mod II


Particularly, tests at higher head coefficients should be

performed after the water brake dynamometer becomes available.

It may

be determined that the relationship between efficiency and axial clear-

ance is a function of head coefficient.

46

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.

Vavra, M. H., Aero-Thermodynamics and Flow in Turbomachines


New York, London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960.

2.

Problems of Fluid Mechanics in Radial Turbomachines,


Vavra, M. H.
Parts I and II. Von Karman Institute Course Note 55a
Rhode-Saint-Genese, Belgium: Von Karman Institute for Fluid
Dynamics March 1965

3.

Vavra, M. H., Problems in Axial Turbines


Course Ae 432, NPGS September 1966.

Unpublished notes for

4.

Klein, A., Experimentelle Nachprufung eines Berechnungsverfahrens


fur axiale Stromungsmaschinen am Beispiel einer Turbinenstufe
Ing-Wes. 31 (1965), Nr. 5.
Forch.
.

5.

Commons, P. M.
Instrumentation of the Transonic Turbine Test
Rig to Determine the Performance of Turbine Inlet Guide Vanes
by the Application of the Momentum and Moment of Momentum
Equations
NPGS Thesis, September 1967.
,

6.

Harrison, R. G. An Analysis of Single Stage Axial-Flow Turbine


NPGS
Performance Using Three-Dimensional Calculating Methods
Thesis, September 1967.
,

47

TABLE

MOD II TURBINE DESIGN PARAMETERS

ITEM

SYMBOL

Number of Blades

Blade Height

Hub Radius

Mean Radius

Tip Radius

Throat Diameter

Throat Area

Axial Exit Area

Exit Angle

<*

deg.

68

Relative Exit Angle

fi

deg.

9.2

-66.4

Loss Coefficient

<r

0.079

0.093

Blockage Factor

0.970

0.965

UNITS

19

18

in.

1.435

1.618

in.

3.398

3.300

in.

4.188

4.188

in.

4.851

4.918

in.

0.4635

0.5400

12.705

15.610

37.65

41.77

in.

u
th

in.

ax

ROTOR

STATOR

Isentropic Head Coef.

K.

2.56

Work Coefficient

K
w

2.14

Theoretical Degree
of Reaction

is

0.435

Efficiency (Total to
Static^

Rotational Speed

Stage Pressure Ratio

o/o

RPM
to

83.80

14,200
1.484

/P
2

48

TABLE II

MEASURED DATA FOR TURBINE PERFORMANCE TESTS


TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG
Desired
Quantity
1.

Measured
Item

Measured
Units

Symbol

FLOW RATE
Flow nozzle total pressure

in. Hg.

3.

in.

Turbine plenum total pressure

in.Hg.

PSPL

STATOR ENTRANCE PROPERTIES


Stator entrance total pressure

in.Hg.

Stator entrance total temperature

millivolts

PTPL

to

TTPL

to

STATOR DISCHARGE PROPERTIES

PTIP

Stator tip static pressure

in.

Stator hub static pressure

in. Hg.

PHUB

Force exerted on stator


assembly by the axial force
capsule

counts

FAX

Moment exerted on stator


assembly by the stator
torque capsule

counts

Static pressures at the end


of the shroud

in.Hg.

Hg

4.

TNDZ

tn

DH

Pressure differential across


flow nozzle

PNDZ

tn

Flow nozzle total temperature millivolts

2.

Computer
Character

Axial force exerted on the


stator assembly by the
closure plate

counts

Moment exerted on the stator


assembly by the closure pla

counts

TORQ

15'

17'
19'

CL

CL

P15-P20

P
1

18

20

CLFAX

CLTRQ

:e

ROTOR DISCHARGE PROPERTIES


Static pressure in the test
hood

in.Hg.

Dynamometer torque

counts

Rotor rotational speed

RPM

49

hd

*D
N

PHD

DYNAR

RPM

TABLE III

MOD II TURBINE TEST RUNS 1967


JAN -AUG
.

Run No

A x

o 51
* 52
* 53
* 54

0.410
0.620
0.620
0.410
0.410
0.410
0.410
0.620
1.000
0.200
0.410
0.410.
1.500
1.000

0.033

o 55

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

56
57

58
59
60

61
62
63
o 64
o 65
o 66

0.015

o 67

*
*
*
*
*
*

68

o
o
o
o
*

75
76
77
78
79

0.410
0.410
0.200
0.410
0.200
0.200
0.410
0.410
0.410 & 1. 000
.200,. 410 1.000

69
70
71
72
73
o 74

.200
.410

o 80
o =

* =
+ =
- =

(approximate)
1.4,1.5
1.4,1.5
1.3,1.4,1.5
1.6,1.8

13-20
14

11-18
15-18

Test
Purpose

+
-

+
+
1

1.4
1.4

1.3,1.5,1.6
1.3,1.4,1.5,1 .6
1.3,1.4,1.5,1 6
1.3,1.4
1.5,1.6
1.3,1.4,1.45,: L.5,1.6
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4

1.3,1.4,1.5,1.6
1.3,1.4,1.5
1.6

1.3,1.4
1.3,1.4,1.5
1.3,1.5
1.3,1.4

13-19
13-19
10-17
10-17
10-17
11-17
13-17
11-19
14.6
14.6
14.6
14.6
11-18
11-19
14-19
11-17
11-18

+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
+
+

1.3

11-5

1.3,1.4,1.5
1.3,1.4

11-19
11-19
11-18
11-17
10-17

1.3

1.3,1.4
1.3

P = P
without exhauster
Barometer
2
with exhauster
performance characteristics P. < P
r
2
Barometer
hood check
,

N
(RPM x 10

to/,

lini

(in.)

50

=
=
3 =
4 =
1

+
2

+
+

Dynamometer check
Spring capsule dyna,
Stator exit survey
Rotor exit survey

TABLE IV

CHRONOLOGICAL RECORD OF MOD II TURBINE TESTS 1967


Run No.

Date

Remarks

Duration
(Hrs)

51

1-26

3.5

Dynamometer arm slipped, put set screw in arm

52

2-3

2.5

Tested hood for leaks, tested dynamometer

2-9

Tested waterbrake, slight bearing problem

53

4-3

3.0

54

4-24

5.25

55

4-25

Dyna. capsule 25 counts off at shut down


fc

Px

= 1.6 & 1.8, dyna. capsule off 30 counts

Checked dyna. capsule at various temperatur&s


by heating with a lamp. - very temp, sensitive
-50 to +17
counts

Installed constant temp, environment system


around dynamometer capsule
p

56

5-11

3.0

= 1.4 with dyna.


Performance test at */pz
capsule; took tare readings during run. Dyna,
checked good at shut-down

57

5-16

2.5

Used spring capsule to check dyna. readings


obtained during run 56 - satisfactory

58

5-31

6.0

Good data

59

6-1

6.0

ii

ii

it

60

6-5

5.5

it

ii

ii

61

6-7

3.0

ii

ii

ii

62

6-9

4.0

ii

tt

it

63

6-13

5.0

ii

ii

ii

6-14

no apparent problems

Replaced shroud with new shroutf? Ar = 0.015 in.;


cleaned all probes & lines with high press. N~
Unable to calibrate closure plate axial force
device.
Designed new device & assembled mach
w/o closure plate instrumentation

to

6-21

Temp. & press, traverse at stator exit. Y.C.


DA125 S/N 926

64

6-23

6.5

65

6-26

3.5

66

6-27

5.5

60 data point pressure traverse at stator exit


with DA125 S/N 926, 10 data points with S/N 928
for comparison.

67

6-28

5.0

Temp. & press, traverse at rotor discharge.


Y.C. D.A. 125, S/N 926. Two peripheral positions
checked about 30 apart .-readings less than
0.25 cm. HO. difference

ii

it

51

ii

ii

ii

ii

ii

TABLE IV (cont.)

68

7-5

69-76

7-10
to
8-5

75

6.5

44.0

Good performance data

no apparent problems

All dyna. readings during these runs are


Set screw had worn a grove
possibly in error.
in the shaft causing slippage. Discovered
during run #77. Also A.C. compressor very
unstable.

7-20

Installed new closure plate axial force


flexture. Calibrates good.

7-31

Traverse before stator with left & right Kiel


probe.
Transverse aft of stator with S/N 928.

76

Traverse aft of rotor with S/N 928

77

Discovered torque arm movement during run


made calibration of movements.

78

Spring; capsule dynamometer used

79

Checked capsule calibrations

80

Traverse aft of stator with S/N 928

52

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FIGURE 1

MOD II TURBINE STATOB

After tests)

(View showing stator entrance)

55

U;
-->

**~^

CO
a>

t>

+J

r-*
i*

<i-

->

<i-.

<
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i-

IX

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<
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X.

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c
o
s

57

1
H

t>
N

FIGI

P1

58

er ba

ranre)

FIGURE 5

MOD

II

TURBINE RCTOR (After tests)

(View showing rotor exit)

59

P!8 )

60

-3,

"1364

PERIPHERAL WRECTIOM

pOTO p

S t - 1.4349

FIGURE 7

MOD

II

TURBINE BLADE PROFILES

61

m
UJ

00
UJ

62

5
c

CJ

UJ

63

C5

PC
Eh

w
PC

n
ft.

o
CO

64

FIGURE

11

\NSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

(View showing turbulence reduction

screens with stator and rotor removed)

65

t-t

CC
e-

w
(a

fi

o
n
O

<c
C\J

CO

w
B
CS
E

H
CQ
B

S
I
CC
5

66

Q
O
CO

o
K\

CQ

C5

CO

a.

CO

CO

IX
E-<

>^WWVWWW

67

68

To sTt,

o- te,

TE2

-i

AT, 8

W
w 22

TH

ATW

i.

Nott. U, = U 2
C = 2g J Cp

FIGURE 15

THERMODYNAMIC PROCESS OF FLUID


AXIAL TURBINE STAGE

69

<>

IN

AN

STATOR EXIT PLANE

Vd,* Wo,

ROTOR EXIT PLANE

Lvur**

FIGURE

16

Wu 8

*J

VELOCITY DIAGRAM OF A TURBINE STAGE

70

FIGURE

17

VECTOR SYSTEM FOR THE ROTOR ASSEMBLY

71


84

82

80
78

t~
MZ

**

>

i-'

| 74

^
+

^> A

9.

V
^

72

O)

70

^68
66

pto

- I.O

\
N

\
\

64

62

Radial Clear ance


Axial Clearance
+
I.OOOin.
--0.4IOin.
=

A
O

033 in

\^

C .200in

60
58

56
54

10,000

11,000

12,000

13,000

Referred Speed

FIGURE

18

72

N/fg-

14,000

WM)

15,000

o
00

00

CD

Efficiency

OJ
h-

00
co

Totol - Static T) (%)

73

(D
(0

<0

84

82

80
-+ -*-_

m 78

^-

5'

O 76

<

"i-

~o^>-i

H
o
o

74

CO

^ A

? 72

OX

70

to

68

66

Radial

)learan< :e =

0.0 33in.

Axial Clearance

64

I.OOOi n.
0.410 ir

i.

0.200i n.

62

60
58

56

54

11,000

12,000

13,000

14,000

Referred Speed

FIGURE 20

74

N/fzr

15,000
(

RPM

>

16,000

asrr

"^

Efficiency

>*

To

o
1

72
w

/% =

to

Ar =0.015
26

68

1.40
in.

Ax = I.OO0

Ax

= 0.410

DO

Of

12,000

13,000

14,000
Referred Speed

FIGURE

75

15,000

16,000

N/jd (RPM)
21

17,000

76

78

79

90%
^-o
^>^

80%
/>*=

70%
r*=

25

60%
-

50%
1.5

2.0

25

3.0

FIGURE 26

80

4.0

CO
<0

c
3

o
o
o

0)
(0

c
3

cr

CC

-O

O
O

o
o
J -

<

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<

13

5;

II

ii

ii

<

ii

<

O
o

(0

<

NT

IC

'

-V

1
REACTION

<

OF

27

a
RADIUS)

in.

DEGREE

FIGURE

TIP

O.OI5

<

AT

=
Ar

\D

\i

THEORETICAL

o
o
<1

(D

CJ

1
<a

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o

81

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O

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V

q^IqCM

\X

it

1.51

Ax=

a>

>

2)

Cl

J
:

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93

if I

55

FIG

00

CD

0.
*-

5
s.
GC

5 o
X

<T

n
UJ
CE
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u.
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oc

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94

00

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CD

CO
CD

CSJ

CD

CD

_J

o
UJ
ct

D
o
u.

..

3.7

1.60

3.6

ooo

1.

51

3.5

34

W0
^s***^

**

^^^L

1.40

33
\ SEC./

3.2

'

3
'

.Expet ResuH
.

3.1

^-13.
p
2

J[

3D
8

40

1.51

c)

1.60

c3

J
10

II

12

13

14

15

16

17

3
tyfe" *I0" (RPM)

VARIATION OF REFERRED FLOWRATE WITH REFERRED


Ar= 033in.
Ax = l.000in.

FIGURE

95

41

RPM

18

10

II

12

H/j0

13

14

15

16

VARIATION OF REFERRED FLOWRATE WITH REFERRED


Ar = O.OI5ln.
Axl.000in.

FIGURE 42

96

17

*I0-3(RPM)

RPM

18

12

13

14

15

}(Aq xI0-3(RPM)
REFERRED MOMENT VS

REFERRED RPM

FIGURE 43

97

16

(FT- LB)

10

II

12

13

14

15

H/jxlCT 3 (RPM)
REFERRED MOMENT VS REFERRED RPM
Ax =1.000 In.
Ar a O.OIOin.
FIGURE 44

98

16

17

18

64

"^

62

G"

M
a

l.60\

60
58
56
oo 5^^( 5^^

0*T

LSI

52

50
48
HP 46

^44
42

*-s

A
*A A

-^

40

A
1.40

38
36

34
~~

32

L.

30 "

r^**^

*x

Pto

II

:xper Results

. 1.31"

28
**

1.40 A

26

1.51

1.60
I

24
1

<)

2,

nTIs

3
* ,0

"3

5
(RPM)
1

REFERRED POWER VS REFERRED RPM


Ar=0.033in.
Ax I. 000 in.
FIGURE 45

99

18

_!
60 -

64
B s a D

62

60
58
56

-o<-

54

aS,

NJ-30

52
G

50

HP

>to

46

44
A

AA

42

- 4^
P

1.40

A
A

>

1.40 A
1.50 o
1.60 a

36

t *wnAr Bii Ite-

40
38

1A
OH
32

"-*-

30

^*v^

28

K..J0
2

jC

>v

26
10

II

12

13

lyte" x

14

15

16

IO" 3 (RPM)

REFERRED POWER VS REFERRED RPM


Ax |. 000 In.
Ar=O.OI5ln.
FIGURE 46

100

17

18

v>
i

Radius (inches)

101

CO

< o

c
o
D

O
+

M
<r

ui

i s
ui UJ
S
CL
f *

in

CM

Z w
UJ

CO

c
e
o o
o

(E

CO

O
e

s w

CO

O
CM

I
!2

cc

UJ

O D
I
< UJ

fe

b
CO
ro

(t>HU|)*d OJOttOid 10401

102

u.

UJ
S UI
I z
H
cc
s h- >CO
-I <
UJ

a)

cc

"^

PRESSURE PROBE POSITIONING AT MEAN RADIUS


RUN**66
Stotor
Blade *4

Stator

Blade*3

Trailing

Edge Plane

Probe Center line

STATOR DISCHARGE PRESSURE SURVEY


(Flow Probe DA- 125
*926)
FIGURE

49
103

RUN*66

>

DCin)

X(in )
0a.

9.70

StOior

ip

/
9.30

= 1.4

0.2

WW

'* 900 RPM

0.8

/i

Measu red Pre ssure

j Between

'
'

Blades

Measu red Pre ssure

Pred icted P ressure Distrib ution

\ Between Blades

V-To

\ 7/

S Satisfy

Momer tum

a nd

Com linuity.

y
/

1.2

6.90

1.0

Distribution

7.30

'

/
/

/
/

Distribution

7.70

1/
1/

1/
Ji

8.10

A*)
/>-'

/
'

0.6

//
/

1.4

._-&

32

"'/

I
33
Pr ssure

STA1 rOR

(in

34
Ha )

Dt! 5CHAR< 3E

FI6UR E 50

104

35

SUR VEY

*
/
/

0.4

8.50

r
/

/
8.90

>

36

D(m)
9.70

X(in)
,

to

"'"A
1

\
\

\
\

9.30

0.2

h-=I\

RPM

13,900

\
\

Measured Velocity

| Between Blades

*
\

8.90

- \

0.4

^ Measured Velocity

L Between Bladee

\
\

\
\

yo

8.50 0.6

lionn
Mean veiuuuy iiurn
Ttoomei itum

8.10

0.8

7.70

1.0

Continv nty

vv
\\

\\
\

I*

7.30

<^

1.2

\
\

\
\

690

1.4

I
500

600

700

Velocity (ft/sec.)

STATOR DISCHARGE SURVEY


FIGURE

105

51

800

DOn)

y.ooo

X(in)

u
|

uo

Rntrtr Tin
lip
noior

\
\

\
\
>

s
\
\

9.436 0.2

\
6

9.036

Q4
3

6
8.636 0.6

V
8.236 Q8

p
7836

1.0

P
jO

7.436

1.2

")

7.036

1.4

6.636

1.6
1

200

100

300

Velocity (ft/sec)

ROTOR DISCHARGE SURVEY


FIGURE 52

106

400

0(ia)

X(in.)

9.838

9.436 0.2

9.036 0.4

8.636 0.6

8.236 0.8

7.836

1.0

7.436

1.2

7036

1.4

6.636

1.8

200

100

300

Velocity (ft/sc)

ROTOR DISCHARGE SURVEY


FIGURE 53

107

400


D(in)

X(in)

9.836

r*

noior Tin
lip

9.436 0.2

Q
9.036 0.4

Q
8.636 0.6
//

8.236 0.8

y
/o
7.836

1.0

fo

o/
7.436

1.2

7.036

1.4

6.636

1.6

1.0

II

1.2

Temperature (MV)

ROTOR DISCHARGE SURVEY


FIGURE 54

108

1.3

73

iStator Outlet

72

91

71

Q
l

(deg.)

_Exp< jr.

69

^>

70

Points

|P

68
67
3.0

3.4

4.2

3.8

4.6

5.0

r,(in.)

ABSOLUTE FLOW OUTLET ANGLES


AS FUNCTION OF RADIUS
(Ax=l.000in.,Ar=0.0l5in., P /P^ 1.40, RPM/J<9= 13,934)
FIGURE 55

30

A*

25
iRotor Outlet]

20

ft

15

a?d

'Oft

IO

(deg.)

-5
3.0

3.4

4.2

3.8
r

109

(in.)

4.6

50

700

A3

4 c*/-it
| OTOT or

JLrt
xd^D

Outlet

600

|Vo

Exper Points

-^ >w

500

i=

J*

-ah

n o o

300

(F17SECI

Rotor Outlet

'

200

O-^^

*" - "

VZ

100

o
f\

o
3 8

2 .4
r,

and

4 .2

4. 6

5.0

r2 (in.)

REFERRED VELOCITIES AS FUNCTION OF RADIUS


A rOOI5", Pfo /Pz= 40,
I

yW= 13,934

-80
o

-75

V)

&-70

(deg.)

-65

-60

fi

o Q o

-55
30

34

3.6

42

4.6

5.0

ra (in.)

RELATIVE ROTOR FLOW OUTLET ANGLE AS FUNCTION


OF RADIUS (Ar=O.OI5",f\ /P =l.40,JfJe7"= 13,934)
2
FIGURE 56

110

o
ris-.

CO
cr.

1=5

Q
s

APPENDIX

FORMULA DEVELOPMENT FOR MEAN STREAMLINE ANALYSIS


A.

The peripheral component of the velocity at the stator exit is

determined by applying the moment of momentum equation to the fluid


contained in the stator assembly.

The assumed control volume sur-

rounds the fluid in the assembly.

It is assumed that significant

flow separations do not exist, and the fluid shear stresses at the

entrance and exit of the control volume are thus negligible (see

Vavra

g
).

With this assumption the moment of momentum equation may

be written for this application as

-fSo

Js

x v>

dm 8e + /

x V,

J?

dm,

(66)

ti

where

M
S

Moment applied to the control volume by the stator assembly.


o

Surface where fluid enters the control volume,


Surface where fluid leaves the control volume.

S
1

The vector conventions for Eq.

(66) are depicted on Fig.

Since

13.

net pressures which could produce moments on the stator assembly


do not exist, pressure integrals have been omitted from Eq.

(66).

In the axial direction the component of M is

MC

-J/t n

Vu.dm,. +

J/

rj

Vu,

dA

tl

f(

(67)

Vavra, M. H. Aero-Thermodynamics and Flow in Turbomachlnes


John Wiley and Sons. Inc., 1960, r94.
London:
,

112

New York,

The air enters the stator assembly from the plenum in a radial

Therefore the peripheral velocity component, V

direction.

is

Thus

zero.

Since the average flow conditions are assumed to exist at the

mean radius, Eq. (67) can be integrated to yield

K m VUl

(68)

The moment applied to the inside of the shroud by the rotating

fluid downstream of the stator exit is considered small.

Thus, the

moment applied to the fluid by the stator is the sum of the moment
applied to the stator assembly by the stator assembly moment capsule,
and the moment applied to the stator assembly by the closure plate J

hence

Ml

M t + Mc

(69)

where

Moment applied to stator assembly by the stator assembly


s

moment capsule.

Mp

(ft-lb f )

= Moment applied to stator assembly by the closure plate.

Substituting Eq. (69) into Eq. (68) and with m

W/g, there is

The axial velocity component at the stator exit is obtained by

B.

applying the conservation of momentum law to the same control volume


as used above.

For this application the momentum equation may be

written as

r -

J$ dm Sa

V?cfiT)f ,+

J;;^'PodS.-/ ;-,i?1 dS 1

113

(7 i)

where
Force applied to the fluid by the stator assembly.

The

vector field conventions are shown in Fig. 13.


Since neither

n.

nor

V.

have a component in axial direction, the

vector component equation in the axial direction is

f= t L v.<K

-t/

t|

-Pids,

(72)

The pressure integral cannot be integrated unless the pressure

distribution at the stator exit is known.

The pressures at the tip

and hub of the stator are recorded and the distribution is assumed
to be linear.

The static pressure at any radius, r, at the stator

exit is therefore assumed to be

f,-^^T^t

)Cn

'

K)

(73)

where
p.

Static pressure at radius, r, at the stator exit.

p,

Static pressure at the stator hub.

Static pressure at the stator tip.

r,

Radius at the stator hub.

Radius at the stator tip.

The pressure integral in Eq

Std%,

(72) can now be integrated as

**niiifiW-ti)+te&(

(74)

and the velocity integral as

/.MK

^A
114

*v*>%

(75)

The axial force applied to the fluid in the stator assembly is

reacted to by the sum of the forces applied to the assembly by the


axial force capsule, the closure plate, and the net pressures;
that is.

(76)

where
F

Force applied to the stator assembly by the axial force

capsule (lb f )
F

= Force applied to the stator assembly by the closure

plate (lb

SF

= Force applied to the stator assembly by the net pressure

force

(lb,.)

Figure 13 shows the applicable areas used in Eq. (77) for

determining the net pressure force.

2 a

+
-*L- A * pbA b +pt A c + ft Ae + VAh.

(77)

With Eqs. (74), (75), and (76); Eq. (72) is solved as

r
(

V-

-^-

(78)
3

)}

9/

The thermodynamic properties of the fluid at the stator discharge

and the performance parameters for the stator can now be calculated.

Referring to Fig. 15, the static temperature is

115

From the equation of state the density is

(80)

<? '

*/lUT,

The equation of continuity can now be checked as

*=

W*,

A, =

A Kt#1

(so

where
= Effective axial flow area at the stator exit.

A
A

= Actual axial flow area at the stator exit.

ax
1

= Factor to account for finite thickness of the stator

te
l

blade trailing edges.

is given by Vavra

te

from cascade data as

Ktefl-T^'
te

00 t, y

10-

^3

VS

(82)

where the variables in Eq. (82) are shown in Fig.

7.

The axial velocity component at the stator exit may be obtained

independently from the momentum methods mentioned previously by

combining Eqs

(79),

(80),

and (81).

is obtained by combining Eqs.

(79),

First, the static temperature

The resulting

(80), and (81).

quadratic equation gives

T.

9JcP

'

Using Eq.

(79)

R*\V*

Vavra, M. H.
School, 1966.

f1

lL

2W*R,>
9J<p A*f>*

/
k

ViH

2SJrp

n A.-|

''t.-'-l

"I

(83)

the axial velocity component is found as

VM

A^ z

h
lziT<r(Tt0 -T,)-vt,2

(84)

Unpublished notes for course Ae 432, Naval Postgraduate

116

C.

The peripheral component of the relative velocity at the rotor

discharge is found by the application of the moment of momentum

equation to the fluid contained between the rotor blades.

With the

same assumptions as used previously, the component of the relative

moment of momentum equation in the axial direction is

ft.

-?

(R,Wu, + ft>^)c/m 8j +J^ (,WMl +wRf)Q'rn K

(85)

where
M.

= Moment exerted on the fluid between the rotor entrance

and exit.
The vector field conventions are shown in Fig. 17.

Once again, the

shear stresses at the entrance and exit surfaces are considered

negligible.

Therefore Eq. (85) is only valid when large separated

flow conditions do not exist.

Substituting W/g for m and integrating

Mi - (W Uz M.

U( )

(86)

Kr*ty/
g

is a negative quantity and is equal to the moment applied to

the rotor shaft by the dynamometer, M_, plus the moment absorbed by
the rotor and dynamometer bearings.

The bearing losses were calculated

and found to be of the order of one-tenth of one percent of the power

produced by the Mod II Turbine.


ignored.

Therefore, the bearing losses were

Substituting M^ for (-)M. in Eq.

WU2.=

Wu,

-9M D //?^

The relative axial component, W

az

(87)
,

the equations of continuity and energy.

W^^A WAl
z

(86) gives

117

is

determined by satisfying

The continuity equation is

AiAa*Kt n

(88)

where
A = Effective axial area at the rotor exit.

= Actual axial area at the rotor exit.

ax
2

= Factor to account for finite thickness of the rotor

te
2

blades at the trailing edges.

Equation (82) must be modified slightly for the rotor because


of rotor tip clearance effects.

This is accomplished by assuming one-

half of the area between the blade tips and the shroud to be the effective flow area of the tip clearance flow.

M
where

is

te

then

w c\)

1-

\ K' f^l
+

(89)

are shown in Fig. 7 and where:

and a

s_,

2
2

Ar = Radial clearance between the rotor tips and the shroud.


= Tip radius of rotor blades.

'2
- Hub radius of rotor blades.

r,

h
2

For the relative flow field, with no change of mean radius across
the energy equation can be written as

the rotor,

Ti +

Wf!x

=rz+<r

(90)

where
T

= Equivalent temperature

(see Fig. 15).

T. = Static temperature at the rotor exit.

W = Relative velocity at the rotor exit.

Rearranging Eq

Tt

'

T,

(90) and replacing W_ by the components W

and W

W\

(9i)

-vil

118

v&,

>

where the unknowns are T. and W


I

a2

By the equation of state

(92)

Ve.T.

where
p_ = Static pressure at the rotor exit = pressure in the test hood

Combining Eqs.

(88),

(91), and (92) and solving for T by the quadratic

equation

Then by Eqs.

(88) and

u/

(92)

VVR& T*

119

(94)

APPENDIX II

FORTRAN IV COMPUTER PROGRAM FOR PERFORMANCE DATA REDUCTION


A.

Inputs

The input variables and their units are explained in comment

statements in the executive program.

The FORTRAN input statements are

contained in Subroutine INPUT.


B.

Outputs

Three output forms are included in the program.


1.

A printout of the input variables is accomplished by Subroutine

2.

A printout of the general performance results is accomplished

INPUT

by Subroutine OUTPUTA.
3.

A printout of the referred stage performance parameters is

accomplished by Subroutine OUTPUT.


Samples of the last two output forms are contained in Appendix III.

120


i
1

'

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odd ITom

cc^x

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in

3a;

h-

-h-_J

srwir-sj-
U.(\Jw -o
LU3<"tO

Of

r>

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o>~ in
O aj ~'I

{\l

X .00 -J UL

oox o *<r
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3TO.Q.

00

rnma

00

X
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Mat;

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X
xa

aac

pa

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oaoi

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3"

ac

21< x

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h-

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f*-h-(M
aa^<i
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tc
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5TriC-'>0

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APPENDIX III

REDUCED PERFORMANCE DATA


A.

Order of listings
The referred performance parameters and general flow results for

runs 58 through 63, 68, 77, and 78 are listed in numerical order.

The

data point number is listed on the far left hand side of each even

numbered page.

Read horizontally across both the odd and even numbered

pages for the results pertaining to that data point.


B.

Definition of parameters
The listed parameters are defined in Sec. 4.

C.

Units
1.

The units of referred parameters are listed at the top of each

column.
2.

All velocities are feet per second.

3.

All temperatures are degrees Rankine.

4.

All angles are degrees.

Positive angles are measured in the

direction of the rotor rotation vector.


5.

All other parameters are dimensionless.

137

REPORT
TUR B C P ROPULSIO N LA B ORATO R'

RECUCEO PERFCRMANCE DATA OF TURBINE FRi


RADIAL ROTOR
MOO I I CONFIGURATION
OATE OF TEST
58
TEST RUN NO.

TURBINE TYPE
POINT

PRESSURE
RATIO

2
3

4
5

6
7
8

9
10

FCR PCINTS
11
-t2

13
14
15

16
17

FCR PCINTS
18

19
20

^4

22
23

24

1.3072
1.3027
1.3034
1.3043
1.3055
1.3070
1.3078
1.3095
1.2944
1.2896
1

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC

3.5161
3.3283
3 . 0016
2.7702
2.5500
2.3756

75.89
76.48

3.1706
3.1434

19 48

7 4. 71

3.

73.87
69.62
62.63

3.1412
3.0882
3.0785

2.0608
1.8055
1.5040

77 .4 5

76.69
77.20
76.04

3.1403
3.1407
3.1351

TO IC AVG. PRESSURE RATI0= 1.3031

1.5044
1.5044
1.5055
1.5065
1.5063
1.50 5 5
1.5049
11

EFFICIENCY
TOT-STATIC
PERCENT

ISENTRCPIC
HEAD COEFF.
(R=4.125 IN.

TU

3.408C
-3^^42-7

3.2172
0900
2.8704
2 . 697 4
2.4349
3.

17 AVG.

3.6724
3.5979
3.46C2

1.6039^

1.6086
1.6122
1.6160

3.1439
2.7906
2.4818

371 6

MAX.

3.5716
-3^ 57 64

76.50
75.21
75.93

3.5682
3.5687
3.5652

73.65

3.5399

. 1

MAX.

74.00
74.59
75.10

3.6924
3.6926
3.6931

74 . 71

3 .6 9 46-

74.71
74.40
73.44

3.6940
3.6924
3.6903

FCR PCINTS 18 TO 24 AVG. PRESSURE RATI0= 1.6072

138

77

PRESSURE RATI0= 1.5054

1.6052
1.6030
1.6012

77.31

1330

MAX.

SHEET
r

DM

OF

usnpgs monterey, calif*


TESTS

WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG


.033 IN.
AXIAL CLEAR. STATOR-ROTOR= 0.620 IN.
DATA REDUCTION METHOD MF

TIP CLEAR. =

/67

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB
15.971
15.429
14.85
14.131
13.673
13.00 4
12.28 4
11.82 8
10.04 4
8. 162

)EVIATI0N
22.06 1
21.83 9
21.20 4
20.449
19.877
19.206
17.611

REFERRED
POWER
HP

31.253
30.841
31.286
31.029
31.343
30.949
30.449
30.326
26.939
23.817

0.485

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM

DEGREE OF
REACTION
1

10279
10500
11067
11534
12041
12502
13021
13468
14090
15328

PCT. -1.042 PCT.

53.610
53.585
53.075
52.270
52.709
52.496
50.646

(HUB)

(TIP)

.0237
.0253
.0295
.0378
.0418
.0485
.0512
.0537
.0572
.0554

.4368
.4406
.44^4
.4476
.4537
.4554
.460*
.4637
.4626
.4698

PAVG. /PATMO= 1.1202

.0592
.0620
.0619
.0665
.0703
.0704
.0808

12765
12889
13149
13427
13929
14358
15107

DEGREE OF
REACTION

.4649
.467-4

.4681
.4732
.4736
.4731
.4896

DEVIATION +0.077 PCT. -0.061 PCT., PAVG. /PATMO= 1.2005


24.280
24.193
23

86 7

23.484
22.742
21.37 4
19.930

60.906
61.229
61.526
61.430
61.785
61.767
61.214

.0814
.0807
.0825
.0859
.0898
.0921
.0995

13177
13294
13541
13741
14271
15181
16135

.4738
.4724
.4730
.4772
.4829
.4831
.4901

DEVIATION +0.551 PCT. -0.371 PCT., PAVG. /PATMO= 1.1513

139

GENERAL RESULTS
RUN NUMBER

W^M4
5

6
7

8
9

10
12
13
14

45
16
17
13

19
20
21
22

2i
24

2C7.9 9356
2C6.6 3495
213. 7811 6
221.6 1146
230. 2!9192
241.1 5169
1

3^ 9 8

2
3

4
-5-

6
7
8

10
11
12
14
15
16
4318
19

20
2422
23

24

NT

65

266.1 2573
293.2'9321
334.5 6228
249.75797
250.4 5009
257.8 C981
264.6 9409
58

275.0 7617
296.4 7681
273.5 C366

274.33911
277.1377C
284.98755
297 .02563
317.32715

TEMPERATURES (CEG
PC

40-

X2-

Vt-

605. 07178
597. 00757
-5 9 4. 45 6 3
590 08716
591. 10303
589. 47021
586. 7<
588. 83789
578. 55103
571. 57397
715. 95605712. 08521
718. 00195
714. 79736
710. 26732
706. 57568
706. 21655
765. 91309
763. 809J
761. 28882
759. 60278
760. 82422
754. 1428-2
755. 29541

2
3-

58

PLENUM
TOTAL

12 03862

307. 12769
304. 59253
296. 55762

2 34- 0AZ36
274. 47314
260. 72949
343. 10474
96
331. 43799
325. 72461
315. 00879
29-4m> 8 3325

280.41138

(DISCHARGE

ROTOR
DISCHARGE

531.91919
532.17212
532.94531
5 33.0166
533.17700
533.444C9
533.56130

526.71216
526.00684
526.28003
525.80078
525. 71851
525. 67896
525. 68262

534. 73486
526. 77783
527. 23779
52 6.3632-3
526 57520
527 11230
527. 88818
52 8. 10 05 9
527. 91797
528. 69360
529. 35181

527. 89893
515. 66895
515. 72754

STATOR

562. C9106
561. 57739
561. 57739
561. 91992
562. C9106562. 09106
562. C9106
562. 43335
562. 26221
561. 91992
569. 43164
569. 43164
5b9. 2612-3569. 09106
569. 09106
569. 43164
569. 601,84576. 73193
577. 23975
577. 57812
577. 91650

274. 85962
263. 41431
2 48.46 103
235. 55698
227. 08884
218. 47209
240*33-293
207. 68874
197. 85625
199. 77663

^.00464-

>2

529.90356
529 74902

57 7. 91650

577. 91650
578. C8569

530. 59131
530. 61572

140

64-060
515. 89136
515. 27881
515. 47852
5 1 5 9 7534
516. 44482
516. 64453
516. 63306

-54-5,

516.22729
515.63672
515.21216

W2

U2

Ul

360.56836
361.71460
366.84717
366.37329
369.87207
368.46582
368.86914
369.05908
351.25684
345.92773
478.76514
480.55518
469.26587
463.11548
469.98804
471.52783
459.71191
503.76587
507.64697
510.66284
510.05591
509.50146
514.02881
510.89331

385.25928
393.35669
414.59009
432.22485
451.29883
468.57349
488.00732
504.92212
528.13477
574.38037
481.52930
486.20801
495.92480
506.36157
525.29150
541.63037
569.95361
500.24341
504.92212
514.45898
522.19653
542.35010
576.89966
613.24829

ISENTROPIC
FROM Ti

OISCHARGE

521.87671
522.18237
522.27148
522.75513
522.58130
522.52222
522.59497
522.56348
523.81592
524.18481
509.82129
510.10327
509.20972
509.08301
509.48730
510.27808
509.66650
507.00830
507.89722
508.49731
508.67773
508.04321
503.66626
508.05859

530.60449
530.26514
529.80981
530.36670
530.21387
530.55762
531.04663
5U. 57593
534.38940
537.21411
520.85962
520.94702
521.14136
521.72144
521.27759
521.77490
523.28955
522.66943
522.84570
522.89575
523.31006
522.98560
522.97803
523.59131

383.85791
391.92603
413.08228
430.65259
449.65747
466.86914
486.23242
503.08545
526.21387
572.29126
479.77783
484.43945
494.12109
504.51978
523.38110
539.66064
567.88086
498.42407
503.08545
512.58789
520.29736
540.37793
574.80127
611.01782

TOTAL

141

FLOW ANGLES (CEGREES FROM AXIAL)

RUM
POINT
i

2
3

4
5
6
7

-
9
10
11

42

ALPHA

-NU M BER

_^8
ALPHA

70.32079
70.14719
70.11757
70.064^1
70.04758
70.06096
69.94408
69.94h
70.06828
69.92221
69.79179

22.3C272
23.84007
27.57643
31 . 71561
34.87515
38.55869
41. 87430

50.89944
56.62328
15.32744
15.89893
20. 76490
24.35106
26.43724

69.62-85-

13
14
15

69.88020
69.80528
69. 67345

46-

69
69
69
69

5 7 3 33

IJJ-

36.23778
14.75771
14.74558

24

82103
79808
73656
69.64214
69.60426
69.65169
69.42334
69.53738

POINT

EFFICIENCIES AND LOSSES


EFFICIENCY

17
18
19

20
21
22
23

15^ 9 3845

17.63284
21.65027
26.88229
33^32498

TOTAL STATIC

12
13
14
15

0.75889
0.76479
0.77450
. 766E9
0.77204
0.76045
0.74707
0.73873
0.69617
0.62630
0.77315
0.77175
0.76496
0.75205
0.75934

16

17
18
19

0.73649
0.73996
0.74589

2
3
-4-

6
7
-8

10
11

20
21
22
23

24

39.67426
35.54257
31 .3 359 5

27.34827
23.05640
17.42496
13 .4 12 30

4.56895
10.83141
37.58510
36.18852
35.82030
33.68849
29.70300
26.04521
20.87721
39.56721
38.65807

36^95975
35.63754
32.87640
25.97505
X9^67Q2 7

ZETA
ROTOR

iL.^4568

0.22698
0.22761
0.22185
0.22409
0.25877
0.28213
0.23893
0.23084
0.26331
0.28067
0.24480
n* ?? K>?\

0.27003
0.31226
0.29334
0*27657
0.27970
0.27907
0.24596
0.25364

0.74707
0.74715
0.74404
0*73441

'

142

42. 15587

0.32537
0.29808
0.25530

0.7MO*

BETA

BETA

RELATIVE
MACH 1

ABSOLUTE
MACH 1

DELTA BETA

57.74443
58.49832
58.89896
59.0 3250
59.28270
59.21751
59.15654
59.05365
58.22336
57.85263
59.79359
59.91846
59.09369
58.62050
59.23347
59.36630
58.65613
58.33118
58.66498
58.89758
58.81387
58.67542
58.97610
58.73427

99.90030
98.17258
94.44153
90.
\7 36845
w ^r ^
86.63097
82.27391
76.58150
72.46594
62.79230
47.02121
97.37869
96.10698
94.91399
92.30899
88.93648
85.41151
79.53334
97.89839
97.32304
95.85733
94.45142
91.55182
84.95116
78.40454
-7 vj

C.

0.2431
0.2329
0.2197
0.2081
0.2006
0.1930
0.1862
0.1834
0.1745
0.1762
0.2773
0.2728
0.2708
0.2636
0.2523
0.2436
0.2314
0.3045
0.3005
0.2938
0.2886
0.2791
0.2610
0.2483

0.5352
0.5279
0.5255
J
\J *
0.5213
0.5221
0.5206
0.5181
0.5199
0.5104
0.5041
0.6362
0.6325
0.6382
0.6353
0.6309
0.6272
0.6267
0.6798
0.6775
0.6748
0.6730
0.6741
0.6677
0.6687
-r

rr

BLOCKAGE
FACTOR

ZETA
STATOR

.91621
.91344
.91420
0- .91524
.91655
.91532
.91578
.91X92
.91660
.91971
.92134
Q, .92353
0, .92108
0, ,92255
0,.92245

0.04092
0.05046
0.05598
0.06512
0.05877
0.06277
0.06835
0.06303
0.05507
0.06038
0.07222
0.07888
0.06434
0.06758
0.07655
0.08583
0.06855
0.06647
0.07133
0.07447
0.07719
0.07318
0.09183
0.08412

O..S2254

92141
92350
92381
0. 9 244
0. 92569
0. 92581
0. 92479
0,
0.
0.

0*S2538

143

REPORT
-T-

U R B C -P ROPUL S IO N

REDUCED PERFORMANCE DATA


FURdlNt TYPE

MOD

PUINT

PRESSURE
RATIO

3102
3114
31G5
3158
3050
3097
3084
3100
3115
1.2895

4
5

6
7
8
9

10

FCR PCINTS
11

12
13
14
15

16

FCR PCINTS
17
18
19

20

21
22
23
24
25

CONFIGURATION

TEST RUN NO.

59

EFFICIENCY
ISENTROPIC
TOT-STATIC
HEAO COEFF.
(R=4.125 IN.)
PERCENT
3.4989
3.3037
^r 0912
2.9257
2.4918
2.4035
2.2 27 8
2.0497
1.7962
1.5472

TO

1.4034
1.4034
4038
4025
4025
.4029
4055
1.4089
1.4099

3. 26 10

3.0453
2.9609
2.7908

2.456^
16 AVG.

3.3090
3. 1759

3.0413

2^ 9174

8387
6015
3109
0247

FCR PCINTS 17 TO 25 AVG.

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC
3.1465

75.55
76.29

3. 1586
3 . 15 4^

^7-7^21

75.29
76.32
74.88
73.82
72.16
69.23
66.13

3.

1394

3.1426
3.1334

^^43^5
3.1347
3.1301
3.1021

1.3082

MAX,

76.87

3.5734

77 . 23

^.7-47-

76.61
76.56
76.6?

3.5724
3.5725
3.5724
^.57.27

^7-5^90

PRESSURE RATIO= 1.5127

^4^04-

2
2
2

TURBINE FR

RADIAL ROTOR
DATE OF TEST

TU 10 AVG. PRESSURE RATIO=

1.5C83
1.5104
1.512 3
1.5123
1.5159
1.5173
11

C.F

L A BC BA TQ R

MAX,

3, 3434

77 .4 8

76.73
74.95
76.57
7 8. 4 <

78.19
77.95
76.30
X404-

3.3337
3.3405
3.3448
3.3407
3.3385
3.3408
3.3337

-3.32 59

PRESSURE RATI0= 1.4047

MAX

CCNTD. ON SHEE

144

SHEET
i

USNPGS MONTEREY, CALIF,


TESTS WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

DM

.033 IN.
TIP CLEAR. =
AXIAL CLEAR.
/67
DATA REDUCTION METHOO MF

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB
i

80 6

15.732
15.228
14.477
13.361
12.92
12.261
11.50 7
10.341
8.80 9

REFERRED
POWER
HP

31.133
31.655
31.925
31.418
30.963
30.684
30.193
29.604
28.479
25.341

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM

STATOR-ROTOR;

OEGREE OF
REACTION

10347
10570
11013
11400
12174
12475
12936
13515
14467
15112

1.000

DEGREE OF
REACTION

(HUB)

(TIP)

.0083
.0110
.0123
.0190
.0278
.0358
.0386
.0412
.0410
.0101

.4470
.4530
.4479
.4450
.4564
.4531
.4680
.4696
.4725
.4565

DEVIATION +0.573 PCT. -1.428 PCT., PAVG./PATMO^ 1.1268


21.530
2

1 .

32 5

20.79 3
20.490
19.960
18.571

53.643
54.099
53.771
53.737
54.065
53.678

.0474
.0510
.0527
.0545
.0580
.0625

13088
13326
13584
13 777

14229
15183

.4746
.4766
.4773
.4798
.4803
.4858

DEVIATION +0.303 PCT. -0.292 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.2082


19.006
18.432
17.682
17.677
17.706
17.414
16.67 4
1

40 3

13.971

42.137
41.609
40.759
41.586
42.529
42.422
42.539
41.836
40.577

.0236
.0259
.0281
.0315
.0326
.0348
.0380
.0488
.0519

11646
11858
12109
12358
12618
12797
13402
14268
15257

.4592
.4622
.4648
.4626
.4666
.4652
.4698
.4768
.4781

DEVIATION +0.366 PCT. -0.160 PCT., PAVG./PATM0= 1.1645


T

OF

145

IN,

REPORT
I-Utf&C

PRGPULS13AI LABORATORY

REDUCED PERFCRMANCE DATA CF TURBINE FRC


TURBINE TYPE
POINT

26
27

29
30
31

-J2

MUD

PRESSURE
RATIO
1.5991
1.5990
1.6009
1.6008
1.6006
1.6030
1.6073

I I

CONFIGURATION

TEST RUN NO.

59

RADIAL ROTOR
DATE OF TEST

ISENTRCPIC
EFFICIENCY
TOT-STATIC
HEAD COEFF.
<R=4.125 IN,)
PERCENT
3.6349
3.5212
3 . 4161
3.

1825

2.9863
2.7969
2

4 6 24

FOR POINTS 26 TO 32 AVG.

75.63
75.45
75**2-

76.14
75.76
76.32

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC
3.6862
3.6847
3.6821
3.6799
3.6786
3.6777
U6-737

PRESSURE RATI0= 1.6015

146

MAX.C

SHEET

OF 2

USNPGS, MONTEREY, CALIF.


M

TESTS

WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG


.033 IN.
AXIAL CLEAR. STATOR-ROTOR= 1.000 IN.
DATA REDUCTION METHOD MF

IP CLEAR. =

/67

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB
24.55 5
24.09 9

23.715
23.116
22.271
21.73 8
20.30 4
>E

REFERRED
POWER
HP
61 .676

61.498
61.500
62.122
61.774
62.396
62.278

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM

DEGREE OF
REACTION

13195
13405
13622
14117
14571
15078
16113

DEGREE OF
REACTION

(HUB)

(TIP)

.0647
.0664
.0681
.0725
.0752
.0759
.0835

.4821
.4833
.4855
.4890
.4898
.4901
.4979

VIATION *0.3t>2 PCT. -0.159 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.15

147

GENERAL RESULTS

^PCINT

6
7

24
25
26

21
28
29
30

^4
32

210.39188

2C8. 97163
217 . 17159

228.75798
24C. 12752
247.21349

^59967-5

273.66455
303.43140
333.72192
258*57*9X
260.72949
265.66235
268.16284
273.9C576
291.87915
231.91692
237.35011
247.40923
246.6C745
245. 31918
245.7C757
257.5f789
28C.7C361

591.09570
593.74536
588.38184
727.236^2
725.38477
725.27759
723.05737
720.2583X1

59

V2

-V4

594W42*a

23

60 8. 4975 6
611.15332
596.76416
595.41309

20
21
11

VELOCITIES (FT/SEC)

RUN NUMBER

613.06104
605.26318

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
_L9

718.12671
684.85083
683.1C498
680^62866
680.32251
679.27588
672.09619
672.05908
673.43921
6/1.08252
774.23022
7 7 3.3Z524
773.14575
769.99902
767.21997

3C6. 87842

272.51514
274.91089
277.80908
281.60107
289.07642
292.89771
3C8. 90332

762.34-L28

757.48120

148

VO

278.26196
267.47046
2-5-9-^46*7-5

251.28174
227.86395
221.74252
21^.60435
207.32816
202.04755
199.78871
3U...47119

304.78857
299.55103
293.91187
284^04028
267.82593
304.70898
297.93628
290. 30 957
284.42310
277.42456
269.16724

257^9287

243.37457
229.64301
346.51904
__34-0^76-929

335.36328
321.81445
310.76001
2SL8*78857

280.37109

W2

355.39307
366.95581
365.44995
356.57007
364.26343
364.13574
360.51074
362.71460
360.30005
344.28125
471.41040
476.26050
473.03350
474.43213
479.42993
479.64697
412.10889
406.90234
397.55688
404.56885
414.86353
420.12720
420.84668
416.33301
414.04370
511.573^7
509.17114
508.30249
513.65308
511.75488
520.67041
526.03687

U2

Ul

387.26465
395.83447
412.43677
426.99512
456.11182
467.40723
484.65454
506.34863
542.02734
566.26709
494.12109
503.26489
513.23340
520.72778
537.72412
574.04834
439.29443
447.14746
456.47021
465.86523
475.65430
482.39575
505.20117
537.86768
575.16016
502.72705
510.97412
519.40088
538.40552
555.79688
575.16016
614.71118

388.67822
397.27954
413.94238
428.55396
457.77686
469.11328
486.42383
508.19678
544.00586
568.33423
495.92480
505.10205
515.10669
522.62842
539.68701
576.14380
440.89795
448.77954
458.13672
467.56567
477.39063
484.15649
507.04541
539.83105
577.25928
504.56201
512.83936
521.29688
540.37109
557.82544
577.25928
616.95508

149

TEMPERATURES (CEG
PCINT
l

2
3
4
5

6
7
8
-9-

10
11
12
-13
14
15
16

17
18
19

20

2 t-

22
23
24
-2526
27
28
29
30
31
32

PLENUM
TOTAL

STATOR
CISCHARGE

ROTOR
DISCHARGE

564.65625^
565.33936
565.33936
565.51025
565.55156
565.85156
565.85156
565.85156
565.85156566.C2246
574.52S05
574.66816
575.37621575.88501
575.71558
576.22388
573.51099

523.38159
534.85522
534.52856
534.42993
536.21753
536.35156
536.41797
536.77783
_ 536.5166C537.21509
530.52051
531.06350
-53L+6C498
532.38086
532.54761
533.31104
5 34.4&291
534.34229
534.26369
534.31836

529.22339
529.50781
528.90088
528.99341
529.37012
529.27661
529.29224
529.25098
528.93237
530.47827
519.95264
519.78491
52CU28784
520.67407
519.95850
519.93530
527.95923
527.82959
528.01807
527.29785

573. 17163

572.83203
572.83203
572.83203
572.83203
572.83203
572.83203

-534.43677
535.24414
535.24829
535.09375

572.832-03

535.29028
535.9C479
536.27075
5 3 7.01099
537.53442

585.17C17
585.67456
586.01099
586.34717586.51514
5H6. 51514
586.68311

538. 15918

538.93799

150

52-6+38159

526.44385
525.85937
525.42285
525+27905
523,35083
523.83545
523.96558
52 3.49J80
523.58960
522.82788
522.22314

FROM Tl

TOTAL
DISCHARGE

523.59912
524.82764
524.61450
524.29785
525.94946
525.85205
525.57983
525.79687
525.43236
527.73608
513.35522
513.66846
514.04321
514.65723
514.59302
514.96924
521.35107
521.07642
520.88232
520.93140
520.90991
521.66943
521.39478
520.67725
520.79248
514.50708
514.99658
515.15259
515.58521
515.97827
516.47070
516.52979

532.90674
533.14160
532.82544
533.34790
534.16821
534.36206
534.91602
535.48291
536.59375
539.74561
525.51636
525.44165
526.16064
526.65796
526.20142
527.02441
532.43481
532.51733
533.11157
532.35840
531.38940
531.46753
531.38062
531.97949
533.11548
529.53052
530.12427
530.38770
530.09644
530.54321
529.96655
530.16333

ISF.NTROPIC

151

FLOW ANGLES (CEGREES FROM AXIAL)

HUH NUWBRFLINT
l"
2
3

ALPHA

6
7

70.14183
70.16603

70-033-20

15

70.15860
7C.2C630
69.99789
69.959^0
69.88861
69.86005
69.74545

16

69.66-498

10
11
12
13
14

17
18
19
20-

21
12
23

24
25
26

27
28
29
30
31

11

70.87402
70.87019
70.77545
70.73326
70.76463
70. 55257
70.54350
70.57672
70.61256
69.94922
69.91418
69.91113
69.86955
69.78464
69.63132
69.55777

BETA

24.63344
23.39796
27.35992

70.59125
70.25215
70.35716
70.58066
7C. 10620

ALPHA

59-

42.93517
40.12894
37.88387
36.03708
26.97951
24.19919
19.89769
L3*20712
4.11323
-4.22384
36.99933
35.35403
33.64110
32.10754
28.61507

33*39029-

37.36863
39.49748
43.20201
46 .10776
51.11537
56.04420
20.33228
21. 8983
23.83044
24.98961
27.12794
3 3.43983
22.18254
25.29848
29.58777
29*79395
29.33020
29.45518
33.71577
-

40. 16-486

45.91084
13.78541
15.99491
-_17.875I-

20.32784
23.97716
25.58481
31*17242

152

2U28596

42.57426
41.29103
39.46866
3^*88393
36.22942
33.76372
29.49689
23*04788
14.05512
40.00073
38.79381
37.64122
34.56747
31.44864
27.37498
19.33398

BF-TA

DELTA BETA

~IZ', 25?t

100.38071

=fi:SS2M

22:ra
93.64857

-57.61150
-58.41461
-58.40718
-58.28790
-58.46017
-58.08430
-57.21953
-59.04654
-59.28407
-59.09074

"SSBPf

^MHft

gill*

5'
s-**
0.2359
0.2286
0.2217
0.2007
0.1953
0.1890
0.1825
0.1779
0.1758
0.2758
g-ig?*
0.2650
0.2598
g'1112
#

n"II22
n'ltof
n"s??I
n 1155

85.39412
82.60637
78.18559
71.66728
62.19753
52 99568
96.04587
94163811
92173184
9f:I 8 938
88.051^Q
80.76877
101.16788
99.46326
0512
21-Z
95.94708
95.19688

^ISOl!

n7nn?

'IVUtti
-59.39467

88.891^/^

015992
n cqk

:fi-3^?9
-58.95627
-58.84502
-58.73372
-53.65710
-59.06348
-53.92709

82103438
73.01138
98.84575
97152753
96.29832
93163095
90137573
86.88544

o:5?24
n ?oi7

~55

M?^

-59.^38^2
-59.48280
"ifl"??lfi

I|HIa??
-ia*0AtZ
1
-?oaI/
-58.96747

-59.5 1045

-59.83841

iVAffiS

153

n'^7
n'^nl
C>'Z??l

S?7?
nil
n'UlZ

Brftil
n a-joi
o'tllk
0!6342
0.6041
0.6027
0.6005

2'^??
n'llll
2

n'2ft

n'fno
o'a???

n'Ulo
%:%]%%
0.6654

?Aftft

lllq
n?2?
0.2561
g.2509
0.2447
g-3J3
0.2267
0.2146
0.2024
0.3054
0.3002
0.2953
0.2832
0.2734

0.2463

'

EFFICIENCIES AND LOSSES

6
7

a
9

10
11

12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19

21
22

23
24
25
26
27
ZB
29
30
31

0.3 52 26

0.7 5552

T
2
3

20

ZETA
KCTOR

EFFICIENCY
TCTAL STATIC

PCINT

0.76286
0.77211
0.75288
0.76317
0.74884
0.73818
CU72161
0.69230
0.66134
0.76867
0.77225
0.76612
0.76561
0.76619
0^35898
0.77480
0.76729
0.74951
0.7656S
0.78402
0.78192
0.77955
JU76 30 3
C.74C43
0.75627
0.75449

0.29884
0.28316
0.31239
0.24316
0.24382
0.26281
0.24800
0.25403
0.22948
0.26730

0.2493-8,

0.25591
0.24816
0.22464
-CU2L253
0.32245
0.33289
0.35576
_.Q^a23Q2-

0.28144
0.25077
0.23866

L.254_A2

0.24735
0.29237
0.29433

0.7 53 2 3

CL*2_9456

0.26924
0.26357
0.22525

0.76138
0.75765
0.76318

154

3LCCKAGE
FACTOR
,9C5 79~
.91012
.90884
.90QJ4
.91519
0. .90930
.91582
3 .91423

ZETA
STATOR

0.03051
0.05363
0.04382
0.04709
0.05258
0.06623
0.05368
0.06654
0.06028
0.04862
0.05731
0.06208
0.06427
0.06802
0.07744
0.07928
0.02198
0.02294
0.02707
0.02488
0.0244?
0.04531
0.04528
0.03635
0.04206
0.05718
0.05806
0.05885
0.06176
0.06631
0.08030

.91221
0, .91401

.92014
,

0, .92039

0. .91974

155

,92054
.91982
0, .92111
0. .90150
,89990
0. .90240
0, .9Q448
0, ,90436
0. .90367
0. .90432
0,,9 0190
0, .90208
0, .92261
0. 92272
0. 92214
0, .92292
0, .92322
0, ,92247
c, .92279

REPORT
^URftC- 4>ftPU4,-S4 Q N L A B ORATORY

REDUCED PERFORMANCE DATA GF TURBINE FRi


MOC II CONFIGURATION
RADIAL ROTOR
DATE OF TEST
60
TEST RUN NO.

TURBINE TYPE
PCINT

ISENTRCPIC
HEAD COEFF
(R=4.125 IN

PRESSURE
RATIO

4730
7325
562C
3895
1750
9949
1.7736
1.5296

298 1
3023
3043
304 7

2977
2985
2996
1.2987
ECR

PCINTS
9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

ECR PCINTS
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24

FOR PCINTS

TO

1.4C03
1.4022
1.403c
3962
3996
3962
3964
1.3996
9

TO

1.4992
1.4998
1.4955
1.4950
1.4969
1.4971
1.4940
1.4953
17

EFFICIENCY
TOT-STATIC
PERCENT
75.31
75.53

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC
3.
3.

1518
1465

3.1424

74.95
72.92
72.36

3.

1387

3.1407

47,74
61. 82

1255
3,1294
3.
3.

1360

AVG. PRESSURE RATI0= 1.3005

3.5092
3.0094
2.8271

75.21
76.05
75.42

,2,6015

75,34--

2.4033
2.2430
1.9770

74.84
73.42
70.51

U 7-48-3

32-8-

3.3294
3.1597
2.8544
7

3-7-

3.4135
3.4085
3.4059
3. 3853
3.3812
3.3585
3.3565
3.3442

PRESSURE RATIO= 1.3993

16 AVG.

2,

68.

MAX

143-

2.5249
2.3671
2.1156

TO 24 AVG.

7 4.1474.71
74.51
75.94
75.63
74.79
74.28
71.09

MAX.

3.5784
3.5790
3.5639
3.5572
3.5498
3.5548
3.5420
3.5395

PRESSLRE RATIO= 1.4966

MAX.J
i

CCNTD. ON SHEE:

156

SHEET
<

USNPGS

WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

AXIAL CLEAR.
.033 IN.
TIP CLEAR. =
DATA REDUCTION METHOD MF
/67

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB

13. S3 7
1 3 . 39 I

12.828
79 8
17

11
9

89 I
38 8

REFERRED
POWER
HP

15.46

11

30.055
30.450
30.458
30.346
28.967
28.669
26.966
24.593

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM

10212
11477
11948
12427
12897
13482
14321
15402

STATOR-ROTOR

DEGREE OF
REACTION

0.200 IN.

DEGREE OF
REACTION

(HUB)

(TIP)

0535
0625
0676
0702
0717
0729
0713
0673

.4014
.4157
.4210
.4269
.4281
.4336
.4360
.4435

DEVIATION +0.324 PCT. -0.215 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1297


1

99 2

17.79 3
17.114

16.178
1

48

14.523
13.08
1

9
00 2

41 504
42 066
41 804
40 890
40 849

39.532
37.959
37.133

11480
12419
12832
13277
13862
14299
15234
16252

.0715
.0756
.0765
tO810
.0849
.0854
.0853
.0827

.4144
.4237
.4283
.4347
.4382
.4378
.4476
.449 3

DEVIATION +0.309 PCT. -0.220 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1695


40
03 9
28 6
60 8

21
21

20

19
19 037
18. 179

17.37
1

72 6

086
542
840
686
515
033
258
48 157
51

51
50
51
51
51
50

.0896
.0933
.0940
.0940
.0956
.0964
.0959
.0957

12540
12869
13165
13847
14215
14746
15193
16086

.4300
.4323
.4354
.4388
.4409
.4420
.4485
.3657

)EVIATION +0.215 PCT. -0.173 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.2014


T

OF 2

MONTEREY, CALIF.

TESTS

3M

157

REPCPT

TURBC PRGJ

TURBINE TYPE
PCINT

25
26

27
Zd
29
30
-31

32
f-CR

:ATOR>

RECUCED PERFORMANCE DATA CF TURBINE FRC


RADIAL ROTOR 1
MOO I I CONFIGURE ICN
DATE OF TEST
60
TEST RUN NO.
PRESSURE
RATIO
1.6C52
L.6076
1.6065
1.6106
1.6000
1.6151
1.6155
1.5974

EFFICIENCY
ISENTRCPIC
TCT-STATIC
HEAC CCEFF.
(R=4.125 IN.)
PERCENT
3.6541
3.4064

^47C52.9974
2.7898
2.6142
2.4948
2.3780

74.12
74.64
74.67
75.01
74.61
75.74
74.93
75.04

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC
3.7094
3.7051
3^703 3
3.6875
3.6813
3.6796
3.6940
3.6621

PCINTS 25 TO 32 AVG. PRESSURE RATIO= 1.6073

158

MAX.C

SHEET

OF 2

USNPGS, MONTEREY, CALIF.


TESTS

1M

WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

.033 IN.
CLEAR. =
AXIAL CLEAR.
DATA REDUCTION METHOD MF
/67

IP

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB

REFERRED
POWER

24.374

61.296
61.830
61.741
62.071
60.841
62.876
62.531
60.666

23. 704

22.851
22.28 1
21.20 8
2

1 .

02 2

20.418
19.556

HP

)EVIATIUN 4-0.516 PCT

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM

ST ATOR-ROTOR;

DEGREE OF
REACTION

13210
13702
14193
146 34

15070
15712
16088
16296

0.200 IN

DEGREE OF
REACTION

(HUB)

(TIP)

1115
1146
1138
1131
1147
1181
1189
1150

.4435
.4485
.4500
.4520
.4538
.4597
.4639
.460 3

0.614 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1690

159

GENERAL RESULTS
VEL O CITIES

RUN NUMBER

C4M
1

1
4
5

2^7. 42427

595 .87866
581 .65894
580. .48755
580^ ^^ft^fl

249.2641C
260.37476
271.88452
3C2. 31274
341.41821
233.54947
244.12029
_243. 7^-996
260.34668
274.09839
285.45557

580.59863

13
14
14
16
17
18
19

650. 56&34>
651. .40869
719. ,45312
717. .99194
712. .64&6-S-

20
21
22

712 ,35498
7C9, .01733
7C8 .60327

25
26

27
28
29
30
31
32

227.07161

593. ^2026

668 .45410
662 .48242
662.7
654..2627C
657 .63525
652 .69800

23
24

2C7. 49220

596 .91650
593 .15698

U
12

V2

V4

10

(-E4/4C4
ec

3. 3

3-5-45-

338.66138
257.60498
259.94067
263. 94,724
270.83569
275.84839
288.65991

7C6. 68164
707. 11938
769, .38330
764..68628
,

762*7
761 .47533
757, ,23145
762. ,29980
758. ,59595
755. .41211

160

#t
269.58472
238.55130
229,95544
222.59268
210.26653
204.50180
200. 89865
204.72096
300.68530
275.21973
24*6.70532

252.69954
244.89256
236.38019
226.69427
224.91476
319.29370
310.74780
293-91528
285.36279
276.71973
268.27734
260V .2722?

298. 5 IB 3

*.

327.55029
275.31616
278.81567
26^.22949
268.78687
297.53394
3C3. 25244
311.32056
316.50781

255.29721
344.93213
330.06030
31 7. 93896
307.89014
296.66455
289.29956
283*35669
276.32178

*<*

fc.

"T

t- C. C_

W2

Ul

355.85889
359.52734
360.98047
359.28857
358.90454
363.05005
355.45483
349.93164
413.19946
419.62500
416.21265
415.61792
414.55322
410.47070
406.40308
410.93018
457.21411
460.56348
458.29614
464.70752
466.65308
463.53198
461.09814
452.07300
506.19482
512.47852
511.42920
515.82568
508.85205
521.98096
522.66138
512.84888

383.89185
431.57666
449.42725
467.56567
485.27197
507.26123
538.93164
579.59863
433.55615
469.11328
484.69653
501.50317
523.67212
540.26294
575.60400
614.07568
475.08716
487.68359
498.98389
524.89575
538.85937
559.08521
576.10767
609.97314
503.19458
522.30469
541.41455
558.47314
575.28027
599.78833
614.14795
622.17334

U2

382.49561
430.00708
447.79297
465.86523
483.50708
505.41626
536.97119
577.49048
431.97949
467.40723
482.93359
499.67896
521.76758
538.29810
573.51025
611.84229
473.35937
485.90967
497.16895
522.98657
536.89966
557.05176
574.01270
607.75488
501.36450
520.40479
539.44556
556.44189
573.18774
597.60693
611.91431
619.91040

161

TEMPERATURES ICEG
PCINT

565.51025
565.85156

566. 19312

6
7
8

10
11
12
1

PLENUM
TOTAL

14
15

16

az
18
19

20
21

22
23
24
2*
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

STATOR
OISCHARGE

ROTOR
OISCHARGE

C,35.R6108
536 57471
526. 88037
536. 98804

531.28198
530.44141
530.31543
530.23706
531.199??
530. 85132
531. 34888
531. 74951
5?6 aiai2
525. 96021
525. 77734
526. 13086
525 66943
526. 30640
526. 41699
525 92334
_522 23975
52? 04272
522 46802
521 45142
223
521 34595
521. 56519
521. 96191
_5_1S_ 2835 7
519. 85205
520. 36719
520. 12183
-521 0136J
518. 87012
518. 98584
520. 06738

38

3H35

538. 49463
538. 67969
538. 65454
523. 61108
534. 44263
534. 41528
535. 34326
535. 1450?
535. 85352
536. 06447
535. 99341
33 ? 87B4
531. 8C200
522. 611C8
532. 81177
533. ?C654
523. 425C5
533. 82080
533. 76929
521. 36279
532. 8C615
533. 89771
534. 56299
535. 4 36?&
534. 79541
535. 26416
535. 83374

,13281
,30298

566.53418
566.53418
566.53418
566.70483
566.70483
570*79277
570.96289
570.96289
570.96289
571
571
571
571
574
574
574
575
575

30298
30298
3593J
69873
86816
03760

,03760.

575.20728
575.37671
575.37671
580^6201?
581.46387
582 30713
582 81299
583.
583 14990
583 14990
583 31836

162

ISENTROPIC
FROM Tl

DISCHARGE

526.45923
526.56396
526.59009
526.50634
528.03882
527.98779
528.11523
528.04053
520.62158
521.02905
520.81738
521.66089
521.17578
521.96802
521.92749
521.75806
514.58691
514.88696
515.67676
515.77490
515.98657
516.13599
516.41650
518.98535
510.46143
511.48120
512.53564
512.99976
514.03052
512.62842
512.87427
514.23535

534.86450
534.73193
535.00610
535.40723
536.84058
537.00244
538.95386
541.44922
531.35254
530.91919
531.13696
531.77100
531.92114
533.08691
534.58667
535.46704
527.76172
527.66528
528.26392
527.55518
527.61401
528.27954
528.98047
530.88965
526.09595
526.32080
527.13696
527.06152
528.38013
526.52246
527.05078
528.40332

TOTAL

163

FLOW ANGLES (CEGREES FROM AXIAL)


RUN

POINT

ALPHA

NUM8~6fl

ALPHA

43.32562
45.95955
51.30089

6 .1 60 6 5-

20
21
22
23

24--

25
26
27
2-8-

29
30
31

12

69.91943
69.76682
69.82042
69.7^9*3
69.88152
69.83392
69.86528

20.42540
26.54305
3C. 49716

^l,2662-

10,2-12-40

82

41.28296
46.78522
50.5683519.49399
21.25023
24.01357
2-7-,32-42-5

27.62206
29.16492
31.34332

^.^1

164

9-*-87^6

29.66226
33.77127
36.94687
43t1A53
14.38838
17.22316
21.10298

33

69.75453
69.69338
69.66797
69.7347^
69.66547
69.61591
69.67595
69.29051
69.69371
69.58099
69.53946
69.55104
69.55072
69.61208
69.42662
69.6*140

40.24582

33.64627
30.99736
2 6.40 Q O7
22.53046
17.84143
8.93418
-0,69 329
38.76472
36.69446
34.35202
10.15&31
27.07990
23.07430
19.42946
Hnr62787
39.27826
36.07063
33.00813

37.85228
795

69.802-95-

41.17168
31.85452
28.11427
24.67452
16.69522
10.50621
1.58383

40 *2 5459

69.67-46-6

BETA

23.27457
33.29710
36.53429

70.12555
70.02550
70.01773
70.15733
69.74147
69.73343
69.75447

13
14
15
16
17
18
19

60

26.90227
23.37039
19.81793
14,46302

ABSOLUTE
BETA

57.61368
58.13632
58.09726
58.03015
58.14604
58.62727
57.87584
57.10950
58.01578
58.63820
58.30461
58.6 3007

58.52859
58.49373
58.1 3435

58.45067

57.9 1841

53.26292
53.26276
58.87917
59.09212
58.82448
58.84175
58.08763
58.28905
58.69072
58.64711
59.04758
58.79694
59.51515
59.42139
59.37007

MACH

DELTA BETA

98.78535
89.99084
86.21153
82.70767
74.84126
69.13348
59.45966
47.22183
98.26160
92.28447
89.30197
85.03014
81.05905
76.33516
67.06853
57.75737
96.68314
94.95738
92.61478
89.03748
86.17201
81.89877
78.27121
69.71550
97.56731
94.76135
91.65524
89.28027
85.69920
82.88554
79.23932
77.53510

0, ,5259
0, .5222
0, .5224
0. .5244
0, ,5112
0, .5102

0.5099
0.5102
0.5901
0.5844
0.5847
0.5767
0.5798
0.5750
0.5730
0.5738
0.6366
0.6350
0.6297
0.6294
0.6262
0.6257
0.6238
0.6242
0.6807
0.6756
0,6732
0.6717
0.6674
0.6723
0.6687
0.6655

165

RELATIVE
MACH 1
0, ,2375
0, ,2100

0, ,2024
0, ,1959
0, .1848
0, ,1797

0.1765
0.1799
0.2655
0.2428
0.2353
0.2227
0.2159
0.2083
0.1997
0.1981
0.2825
0.2748
0.2650
0.2521
0.2444
0.2369
0.2297
0.2254
0.3052
0.2916
0.2806
0.2716
0.2615
0.2551
0.2498
0, 2434

EFFICIENCIES AUQ LCSSES


PCINT

13
14
15

0.75313
0.75528
0.75218
0.74948
0.72920
0.72365
0.67760
C.61S24
0.75207
0.76054
0.75423
0^75^42
0.74835
0.73422
0.7C507

16

0.6&372-

2
3

4
5

6
7

*-9

10

U
12

17
18
19

20
21
22

23
24

25
26
27
28
29
30
31

ZETA
ROTOR

EFFICIENCY
TCTAL STATIC

0.31793
0.27059
0.26190
0.26448
0.23555
0.21585
0.24487

&^2JJ-WZ

0.30741
0.25685
0.26141

.0,2-4332-

0.74135
0.74712
0.74513
Q. 759^4
0.75629
0.74791
0.74293
O^TOa^Z
0.74125
0.74639
0.74669

0.24575
0.24359
0.25442

^2-319
0.30929
0.29256
0.28427
.0*24533

0.23191
0.23193
0.23217
U158A3
0.30778
0.28087
0.26899
0.24823
0.25003
0.22172
0.21808

C75012

0.74615
0.75737
0.74988

166

BLOCKAGE
FACTOR

ZETA
STATOR

0.91726
0.91685
0.91606

0.05331
0.06250
0.06073
0.04935
0.07458
0.07606
0.07926
0.07372
0.05891
0.07093
0.06944
0.07258
0.06509
0.07288
0.07298
0.07702
0.06880
0.07031
0.07576
0.07387
0.08281
0.08330
0.08006
0.13269
0.06701
0.07701
0.08135
0.08875
0.08552
0.08394
0.08994

0.946^4-

0.92415
0.92046
0.92074
a. 9 243
0.92192
0.92214
0.92167
0^942-63

0.92094
0.91681
0.91818
0.-91&2-1

0.9 23 74

0.92469
0.92325
|

0.9-22-52

0.92033
0.92187
0.92098
0-9-04 9 5

0.92708
0.92668
0.92666
0.92382
0.92068
0.92501
a.92aa6

167

REPORT

TURBt P#04HW_SIGN tA&GRATORY

KECUCEO PERFCRMANCE DATA OF TURBINE FRC


RADIAL ROTOR 1
MCC II CONFIGURATION
DATE OF TEST
TEST RUN NO.
61

TUReiNE TYPE
POINT

ISENTRCPIC
HEAC CCEFF
(R=4.125 IN

PRESSURE
RATIO

-3
4
5

6
7

FOR PCINTS
9

10
11

12
13
14
15

44
FCR PCINTS

3.4936
2.7523
- 2. 5 674
2.3932

1.30 76
1.3005
1.3018
1.3023
1.3018
1.3026
1.3027
1.3029
1

TO

1.4045
1.3954
3972
3961
3967
3981
1.3979
1.396 5
9

2. 1951

2.0432
- 1 . 7843
1.5503
8

EFFICIENCY
TOT-STATIC
PERCENT

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC

75.64
75.60
75.32
75.64
74.66
72.44

47*96

3.1764
3.1331
3*1296
3.1209
3.1208
3.1176
3*14 7 1

62. 71

3.

AVG. PRESSURE RATIC= 1.3028

3.3912
2.9578
2.7664
2. 5927
2.2261
2.1180
1.9703
4. 739 4

76. 11

77.13
76.81
75

7"

73.96
72.35
71.97

1153
,

MAX.C

3.4068
3.3683
3.3687
3*3447
3.3586
3.3545
3.3524

4&*50
3^35^82
TO 16 AVG. PRESSURE RATIO= 1.3978
MAX.

168

SHEET

OF

USNPGS, MONTEREY, CALIF,


)M

TESTS WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

.033 IN.
AXIAL CLEAR. STATOR-ROTOR'
DATA REDUCTION METHOD MF

IP CLEAR. =

67

REFERRED
TOROUE
FT-LB
1
1

5
3

.
.

90 4
78

13.26 8
12.839

12.129
1 1 .

35 3

9.95 4
8.55 9

REFERRED
POWER
HP

31.237
30.194
30.156
30.245
29.813
28.956
27.175
25.071

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM
10317
11510
11939
12375
12912
13398
14340
15388

DEGREE OF
REACTION

0.410 IN.

DEGREE OF
REACTION

IHUB)

(TIP)

.0385
.0505
.0559
.0627
.0628
.0668
.0667
.0625

.4321
.4443
.4492
.4520
.4551
4618
.4625
.4658

)EVIATI0N +0.369 PCT. -0.174 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1276

18.936
17.558
16.94 2
16.141
14.58

13.917
1

34 2

11.93 5

42.271
41.587
41.567
40,860
39.866
39.059
38.816
36.903

11726
12442
12888
1^298
14360
14743
15283
14242

.0546
.0623
.0632

_^489
.0755
.0786
.0786

^0765

.4477
.4532
.4566
.4405
.4668
.4675
.4706
.4744

)EVIATI0N +0.478 PCT. -0.169 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1658

169

GENERAL RESULTS
V ELOCITI E S

RUN NUMBER
PCI N T

T/S E C)
61
-*4-

-^2-

^4r

2C9 60948
228 85414
237 . 23 88 3
243 77751
257 5481C
272 32666

9
10

608.63745
594.60693
592 . 0900 9
591.05347
589.83594
587.65332
5 88 .79810
588.50391
668.70215
661.29663

4-4-

66 0.1 68 70

11 6 00

3C0.5C537
342 22925
233. 99501
241
250 .
258
2e6
296.

97949
56911
45215
^7- 83301
339.26733

655.65356
655.06934
650.38794
650 .93115
651.30957

12
13
14
t-

16

37057

TEMPERATURES (CEG
PCINT

566 .C22 46

5 35

566.53418
566.70483
567.04590
567^0*593
567.04590
567.21655
567.38696

170

201 69652
294. 43213
271. 46411
^6-2, 04 29 7
251. 79199
235. 35686
229. 73326
225. 944r7^

223.57727

19751

ROTOR
DISCHARGE
53

.733 8 9

5 30

537.11401
537.53320
537.97532
538 . 09595
538.30981
538.36841
538.56763

531.14844
530.98975
530.87134

533.89282
534.18701
534.85156

525.42139
525.24561
525.66211

_5^A^945^B^

52-5^29^39

535.42383
535.53491
535.66406

525.55127
525.34912
525.72949

569^644-84-

570.28247
570.45264
570.62280
570,62280
570.62280
570.79272
570.96289

-2^0- T ^^-696

STATOR
DISCHARGE

PLENUM
TOTAL

276. 56494
238. 01244
22 8. 03 4 53
219. 53047
211. 79671
205. 30698

42 43

530.94507
531.29688
531.69263
5 24 .88

84

W2

Ul

359.2 1362
356.3 4058
359.4 0112
363.3 2153
362.6 4697
358.9 0039
350.7 4219
347.6 5210
418.9 6265
417.0 0854
417.6 1035
414.7 3120
410.9 1699
411.3 0078
413.5 8911
408.2 1899

388. 03052
433. 08838
449. 28345
465. 83813
486. 06396
504. 34619
539. 90332
579. 41895
442. 40942
469. 68896
486. 60376
502. 15088
542. 27832
556. 70996
577. 18750
613. 50024

ISENTROPIC
FROM Tl

DISCHARGE

525.1 8013
526.7 8198
526.9 4556
527.1 7114
527.2 3828
527.2 0483
527.2 4341
527.4 4678
518.8 3496
520.2 3437
520.3 5303
520.7 9395
520.5 0977
520.8 6401
520.8 9648
521.0 1733

534. 38989
535. 50659
535. 67310
535. 81641
536. 26196
537. 11621
539. 11426
541. 43848
529. 43799
530. 26929
530. 45117
531. 24316
532. 13086
532. 86426
533. 23437
535. 30737

\J2

386. 61914
431. 51318
447. 64941
464. 14380
484. 29614
502. 51196
537. 93945
577. 31152
440. 80029
467. 98071
484. 83398
500. 32446
540. 30615
554. 68506
575. 08813
611. 26880

TOTAL

171

FLOW ANGLES (CLGREES FROM AXIAL)


RUN NU M BE R

POINT

T~

ALPHA

ALPHA

11

70.23701
70.162dl
70.15144
7- . 21237
70.14384
70.15227
70.15292
7C.13OA0
70.05685
70.13091
70.05336

IZ

69. 9 6812-

2
3
__4
5

6
7

-9

10
13
14

15

2
3

18.92877
13.63541
3.98376

=4*39U6

20.88130
27.22986
30.53574

39.22562
34.11237
30.74525
24^87900
18.18375
13.63553
8.70869
-0.45 22-3

41.5C076
BiUi-2793
43.5C195
45. 93950
SC . 95045

hO LOSSES

ZETA
ROTOR

754-3-8-

0.42-7-CM3

9
10
11
12
13
14
15

0.76112
0.77133
0.76811

-U

2-4^2931-8

. 1

0.75640
0.75599
C. 75317

-8

44 09

42.75870
46.29941
52.12648

EFFICIENCY
TOTAL STATIC

0.7 5J47-

0.73962
0.72353
0.71971

Q.-6&50-4

172

41.91637
32.03058
28.16434

56. 51 073

70.04123
69.92375
69.93015
69 . 92419

0.74663
0.72435
0.67963

BETA

23.40265
34.40492
36.89117
39

EFFICIENCI ES
POINT

64

0.34458
0.29774
0.27934
25860
0.24996
0.26648
0.29238
0.3Q669
0.29681
0.26883
0.25762
0.25969
0.26108
0.25722
0.24640
0.26266
.

__

RELATIVE
MACH I

ABSOLUTE
BETA

DELTA BETA

57.6 2077

58.0 0229
58.1 3435
58.6 4241

58.5 7143
58.3 8330
57.5 5493
57.1 0005
58.5 4504
59.0 2463

58.9 4507
58.8 7459
58.5 1035

58.4 7910
58.8 2880
58.4 2723

99.53714
90.03287
86.29869
82.93559
77.50020
72.01871
61.53868
49.70819
97.77066
93.13699
89.69032
85.75359
76.69409
72.11462
67.53748
57.97499

MACH

0.5365
0.5232
0.5208
0.5197
0.5186
0.5165
0.5175
0.5172
0.5910
0.5837
0.582 5
0.5782
0.5776
0.5732
a.^736
0.5739

0.2438
0.2094
0.2006
0.1930
0.1862
0.1805
0.1761
0.1772
0.2602
0.2396
2312
2220
2075
2025

0.1992
0.1970

BLOCKAGE
FACTOR

ZETA
STATOR

0.91955
0.91853
0.91860

0.03130
0.04280
0.04800
0.04727
0.04776
0.04990
0.04645
0.04851
0.05233
0.04901
0.05302
0.05803
0.05261
0.06621
0.06257
0.05772

0.91881
0.91956
0.91942
0. 91 8^2

0.92131
0.91874
0.91869
0^ 92018
0.92074
0.91959
0.91975
0.9226-3

173

REPORT

TURBC PROPULSIO N LABGRAT^fP

REDUCED PERFORMANCE DATA OF TURBINE


TURBINE TYPE
POINT

MOD II CONFIGURATION
62
TEST RUN NO.

PRESSURE
RATIO

12
13
14

1.4983
1.5953
1.5949
1.6034
1.5997
1.5S78
1.5944

-15-

1^596-4-

16

1.5980

2.3909

4
5

7-

9
10
-t4

1.5023
1.5048
1.5046
1.5033
1.5071
1.5069

L4992-

RADIAL ROTOR
OATE OF TEST

EFFICIENCY
ISENTROPIC
TOT-STATIC
HEAD COEFF.
(R=4.125 IN.)
PERCENT
3.4776
3.3088
3 . 0792
2.8832
2.7C31
2.5183
2 . 356C
2.0748
3.5853
3.4016
3 . 3003
3.0737
2.8301
2.6973

502

174

FR(

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC

76.72
76.45

3.5609
3.5583
558 9

77 . 15

77.52
76.66
76.38

3.5613
3.5578
3.5563

88

3 . 536 3

7 4.

73.02
75.77
76.42
7 6.

16

76.68
77.68
75.91
75.43
76.36

3.5339
3.6888
3.6867
3 . 6903
3.6635
3.6675
3.6681
3 .6 670
3.6641

SHEET
t

JM

OF

USNPGSt MONTEREY, CALIF.

WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

TESTS

AXIAL CLEAR. ST ATOR-ROTOR= 0.410 IN.


=
.033 IN.
OATA REDUCTION METHOD MF

TIP CLEAR.

/67

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB
22.01

21.419
20.85 4
70.269
19.446
18.68 9
17.518
1

00 9

24.39 3
2 3.94 2

23.652
22.761
27.122
2

1 .

06 5

20.373
19.97

REFERRED
POWER
HP

52.862
52.837
53.319
53.505
^3.167
52.932
50.990
49.625
61.550
62.003
62.515
62. 198

62.926
61.244
60.990
61.817

REFERREO
SPEED
RPM
12616
12959
13431
13866
14362
14878
15290
16283
13255
13604
13884
14355
14942
15273
15726
16258

175

DEGREE OF
REACTION

DEGREE OF
REACTION

(HUB)

(TIP)

.0708
.0733
.0782
.0793
.0836
.0854
.0919
.0930
.0890
.0934
.0978
.1009
.0972
.1021
.1063
.1059

.4573
.4629
.4665
.4654
.4706
.4723
.4753
.4798
.4665
.4699
.4739
.4795
.4753
.4809
.4830
.4819

GENERAL KESULTS
,_4j/SEV _
62
RUN NUMBER
-RG-IM
1

4
5

6
7

8
9

10
12
13
14

45

16

V2-

4M.

248 .t>9847
253 .26920
2*6 .9^926262 .41211
271 .43091
281 .4C283
292 . 78*35
316 .92944
266 .85229
268 .33813
271 .7 8-198
273 .93774
279 .43604
289 .19824

715. 22217
714. 59204
710^ 02 8 3 2
7C8. 15186
7C6. 63794
705. 51807
695*
697. 35132
753. 99878
75C. 91260
7 50* 53564
745. 29272
744. 60132
739. 85986
740. 08594
749. 41089

2S-8

.34L55

3C8 .61816

TEMPERATURES (DEG
PC1NT

08944

564.^6

2
3

6457Z

7
8

565.68C91
566.36353
567.04590
567.24655^
567.21655
567.38696
567.72803

9-

568.92065-

569.09106
569.26123
569.43164
569.60184
569.60181
569.60181
569.60181

17041
38770
21069

4
6

10
11

12

L4
14
15
16

18945
41309
31689

79736
65015
26221
1

3 53

05225
02441
86865

176

314. 91479
306. 42358

293 . 29785
283. 50488
273. 96948
265. 01855
25 5. 66228
245. 88350
333. 83838
323. 60620
31Z* 65674
303. 56030
292. 82349
284. 46313
-278. 04419
273. 91187

STATOR
DISCHARGE

PLENUM
TOTAL

Wi

ROTOR
DISCHARGE
4-^87305

512.60791
512.64771
512.90112
_54 2*94 553
512.64941
513.76C99
514.06343
509.04785
508.70898
508.31250
508.24683
507.56519
508. 59595
508.35791
507.06519

W2

Ul

469.38354
468.33223
474.92993
477.07617
475.56299
475.35547
466.74561
465.12573
510.52954
514.37427
517.74780
519.46899
523.95703
514.05591
512.85913
512.06860

473.89966
487.21533
505.28174
521.98071
540.73071
560.12891
575.74805
613.32031
499.77563
513.01953
523.67212
541.48657
563.72778
576.21582
593.31055
613.39209

ISENTROPIC
FROM Tl

TOTAL
DISCHARGE

505.25928
506.00000
506.93408
507.84839
507.78027
507.80664
508.58521
509.02930
501.26172
501.54053
501.21362
501.80444
502.38281
502.68091
502.38184
501.28149

517.01978
517.94556
518.14331
518.63110
519.04614
519.23877
520.89429
522.42163
514.97339
514.70068
514.45898
514.49121
514.06274
515.55542
515.76440
514.99072

U?

472.17603
485.44360
503.44434
520.08228
538.76416
558.09131
573.65381
611.08936
497.95801
511.15356
521.76758
539.51709
561.67725
574.12012
591.15259
611.16113

177

FLCW ANGLES (CEGKEfcS FROM AXIAL)


HUN NU M B E R
POINT
1

2
3

6
7

39

10
11

12
13
14

ALPHA

69.S03-X4

2
3

4
5

6
7
8-

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

38.98843
36.92134
33.31815
26.43201
22.53381
18.35512

28.1 C490
31.6 2312
35.8 9557

44.67209
12.72317
14.50363
15.97250
19.00783
22.2 8442
26.6 5961
29.8 2738

S-835-

EFF4C1ENC1
PCINT

.2-4-* 4-6653^

69.604^91
<,9. 604-91

15

BETA

15.9 3505
19.1 0094
21.2 8723

69.9 8682
69.95140
69.80698
69.74514
69.68507
69.69858
69.70781
6
69.44&30
9 .44430
69.69820
69.64137
69.57109

16

_62
ALPHA

69.52596
69.47231
69.47182

EFFICIENCY
TOTAL STATIC
76720
76445
77152
77520
76661
76379
74880

9^4-8039

38.40442
36.16985
34.44235
34..46Q44
34^46044
27.19753
24.21259
21.03041
1 9 . 1 6924

4J3SSE.S-

ZETA
RCTOR

0.26909
0.27003
0.23818
-0^2-1599

0.22013
0.21113
0.22873

^22617

0.7-3O20

0.75773
76417
76163
76679
77676
75907

0.26792
0.24972
0.24567
0, 22768
0.19046
0.21761
0.22043

7543 3
7636C

-0^21.599

178

BETA

DELTA BETA

-59.37073
-59.26849
-59.72229
-59.8 7840
-59.77103
-59.72945
-59.45837
-59.40483
'59.34532
-59.66508
-59.69081

60.09337
-60.43001
59.8 1644

59.69121
59.71338

98.35916
96.18983
93.04044
90.02515
86.20303
82.26326
77.81349
68.88522
97.74974
95.83493
94.13316
91.25348
87.62753
84.0290?
30.72162
78.88312

ABSOLUTE
MACH

RELATIVE
MACH 1

0.6384
0.6371
0.6323

0.2811
0.2732
0.2612
0.2 52 3
0.2437
0.2357
0.2272
0.2184
0.2981
0.2888
0.2834
0.2707
0.2610
0.2534
0.2477
0.2443

0.6 301

0.6286
0.6275
0.6218
0.6194
0.6733
0.6702
0.6697
0.6645
0.6637
0.6591
0.6593
0.6684

ZETA
STATOR

BLTCKAGL
FACTOR

.06139
.06300
] .07039
.07471
.07808
.07845
0. .07713
0, .07893
0, .07217
'). .07446
o .07992
0, .08320
0, 08819
0, 08921
0, 08676
0. 06660

C.9l Q 92
91973

C.

0.92149
0.92258
C. 921^1
0.9 22?

0.921^1
0.9227?
0.92530
0.92622
C. 9 26

0.921*2
0.92205
0.92498
0.92522
0.92370

179

REPORT
TURBC PROPLM.S1GN -LA8-GRAT0R)

RtCUCEC PERFORMANCE DATA OF TURBINE FR(


RADIAL ROTOR
CCNFIGURM ION
MCC I
DATE OF TEST
TEST RUN NO.
63

TUREINE TYPE
POINT

ISENTRCPIC
HEAD COEFF
(R=4.125 IN

PKbSSUKE
RATIO

2
3

3.4783
3.2664

300 7
301b
3048
30

2^757-7-

2.3948
2.0136

75

1.2987
FCR PC I NTS
6
7

8
9

10
FC-R

POINTS
11
12
13
14
15

i-^K

TC-R

PcINTS

TC

>

TO

3.4043
3.0194
2.6752
2.3154
2.0025

4^.9 5

509
4551

4561
4538
TO

16
17
18
19

5C08
5014
5C08

20

1.5064

76.71
77.86
77^42
76.35
74.25

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
L8M/SEC
3.

3,1442
3.1327
3.

1=^-1,302 7

77. C2
78. 03
7 7. 2

5-

75. 87
72. 74

76.54
78.31
77.04
74.37
73.04

MAX.

MAX,

3.4814
3.4830
3.4728
3.4695
3.4576

PRESSURE RATIO- U4531


MAX.I
4617
76.6 3
3.5647
1200
77.67
3.5570
4842
77.31
3.5532
7103
76. 12
3.5477
2.24 3 6
74.49
3.5238

15 AVC,

50 31

3.59 3C
3. 1133
2.74 38
2.4286
1.9371

5991
6U20
6045
5950
5919

FGR POINTS 21 TO

1046

3.3849
3.3622
3^364 7
3.3687
3.3585

POINTS It TO 20 AVG. PRESSURE RATUJ= 1.5025


21
22
23
24
25

1504

3. 1495

10 AVGw PRESSURE -RAT10= 4^4035

11

-P-RES^UK&

3.4619
2.9993
2-, 6 0-2 a
2.2521
1.9555

1.4C26
1.4044
1.4C47
i.40 3 r
1.4023
6

A-VG..

EFFICIENCY
TOT-STATIC
PERCENT

'5

75. 76

75.45
76.21
75.37
72.09

3.6748
3.6735
3.6656
3.6494
3.6447

AVG. PRESSURE RATIO= 1.5985

180

MAX

MAX.f

SHEET
f

JM

USNPGS

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LR

RFFERRED
POWER
HP

15.812
15.56 5
14.262
13.103
44 2

30.830
31.351
3 1.410
31.095
29.237

REFERRED
SPEED

STATOR-ROTOR= 1.500 IN.

DEGREF OF
REACTION

DEGREE OF
REACTION

RPM

(HUB)

(TIP)

10243
10581
11569
12461
13423

.0310
.0309
.0334
.0304
.0254

.4506
.4522
.458?
.4660
.4672

DEVIATION +0.374 PCT. -0.304 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1238


19.201
18.125
16.617
15.196
13.519

42.343
43.018
42.357
41.585
39.655

.0113
.0225
.0303
.026 9
.0427

11584
12468
13390
14376
15409

4636
4710
4780
4784
4797

)EVIATION +0.086 PCT. -0.086 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1639

20.339
19.63
18. 190
16.336
14.839

47.266
48.500
47.923
46.304
45.137

.0226
.0307
.0406
.0455
.0466

12208
12979
13839
14889
15978

.469 5
.4738
.4800
.4833
.4858

DEVIATION +0.209 PCT. -0.248 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1980


2

1 .

05 8

20. 132

19.219
17.04

52.733
53.383
53.029
52.317
51.111

0328
0395
0424
0460
0562

12630
13310
13837
14299
15757

.4747
.4794
.4844
.4860
.4898

)EVIATI0N +0.261 PCT. -0.114 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1978

24.380
22.636
21.44 8
19.75

WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

AXIAL CLEAR.
TIP CLEAR. =
.033 IN.
OATA REDUCTION METHOD MF
/67

21.93

OF

MONTEREY, CALIF,

TESTS

1 1 .

16.817

61.596
61.549
62.218
60.542
57.603

13272
14283
15238
16102
17993

.0533
.0628
.0679
.0721
.0721

.4851
.4913
.4970
.4990
.4999

)EVIATION +0.376 PCT. -0.416 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1652

181

GENERAL RESULTS
V L0GlTI -E^-4-E TV SEG4
RUN NUMBER
63
-

POINT

599.80225
599.29321

59-3,96021

591.C8081
585.03369
671.88428

6
7
8

10
11
12
13
14

15
16
17
18
19

20
21
22

23
24
25

Y2-

VI

Wl-

2C4. 33617
2C7. 25876
2-3.02359

659.02783
655.41187
654.32983
694.42313
690.00879
688.06274
683.89258

239.78516
267.08325
229.73703
238-98238
253.92865
276.8C933
3C7. 56104
.24 1.86237247.13632
263.80029
2^0.85718

684.69.87-3

317*8122-6

722.52148
720.61060
717.70776
714.9 655 8
712.58765
764.07933
762.33252
755.3 3 6 1 8
748.55103
7*8.67236

252.07901
258.1C571
266.53882
276*57593
3C6. 99780
269.23315
282.63062

665.849-82

2j2*U>55^
3C8. 01392

356.88013

TEMP ER A TURE

EEC R

271.01782
262.68677
-_234V35249
220.21400
204. 50685
300.22021
275,39111
252.84639
237.17805
226.79066
305*368-65

285.30640
266.98853
24^.54605
238.94762
318.82 59 3
301.82422
288.50977
278.60767
255.44917
33*1.08252

314.94678

^9^.S&9AO
275.62720
260.53735

PLENUM
TOTAL

STATOR
DISCHARGE

ROTOR
DISCHARGE

561.91992
562.09106
562.26221
56 2.26221
562.43335
566.02246
566.70483
567.21655
567.38696
567.38696
569.43164

531.96340
532.20532
532.9C601

527.19531
526.71948
526.20239

533 .1899-4

52-5.7-64 96

533.95288
528.45825
529.81567

70.11 2 3

33*49444^

570.45264
570.79272
570.79272
57 2.662 3 5
572.83203
573.17163
573.30737
573.68091
576.73193
577.40894
577.57812
577.74731
577.91650

531.05762
531.87378
531.76198

PCINT

531^07-647-

531.64209
531.76001
529.3C493

_5^<J,2-224>

529.62183
530.30884
530.77148
531,424149-

528.15137
529.05029
53C.1C303
521.12134
531.27539

182

526.39697
521.39282
520.99146
5^4.23560
521.20752
521.44409
520.62939
519.91577
519.92651
520.46265
520.04321
549.23242
518.43237
518.64722
518.89600
548.55078
515.76318
515.78296
514.76367
515*38525
515.41235

W2

Ul

360.44604
365.77075
368.14526
369.01855
361.64355
416.72773
424.60278
424.66846
423.70264
415.88330
442.68164
454.73291
450.62939
443.97168
442.17969
469.09521
472.99683
470.52148
467.12622
466.27759
511.86743
506.45068
517.38916
512.21045
505.09326

383.81982
396.55981
433.66431
467.09790
503.23047
435.67969
469.18506
504.13013
541.30664
580.21045
460.51196
489.87891
522.52051
562.32422
603.45923
477.78638
503.59033
523.67212
541.23462
596.58545
503.84229
542.56641
578.91504
611.80859
683.78613

ISENTRGPIC
FROM Tl

TOTAL
OISCHARGF

521.98608
522.14966
522.55981
522.64941
523.74341
515.67554
516.47827
517.31616
517.97485
517.71021
514.71582
515.48877
515.46484
515.99438
515.87280
512.73169
512.75537
513.19409
513.41626
513.53247
507.90332
508.13843
508.69580
509.74414
509.95190

530.66968
530.29395
530.34131
530.54639
532.33276
525.78467
525.74390
526.60107
527.58350
529.31543
575.49707
524.99805
525.71729
527.50220
528.44800
524.52002
523.97583
524.55884
525.26123
526.39331
521.79492
522.42993
521.86670
523.27979
526.01050

U2

387.42383
395.11743
432.08691
465.39893
501.40039
434.09497
467.47876
502.29687
539.33789
578.10010
458.83716
488.09692
520.62012
560.27881
601.26465
476.04883
501.75879
521.76758
539.26611
594.41553
502.00977
540.59302
576.80908
609.58325
681.29907

183

FLCH ANGLES

RON NUMBER
PCINT
i

2
3

4
5

6
7

4
9

10
11

12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19

20
21

22
23
24
25

ALPHA

(LEGREES FROM AXIAL)


6 3

ALPHA

21.81581
23.49132
31.57175
38.1653
45.78113
19.79764
25.26402

7C. 35411
70.26996
70.13914
70.05412
70.1C789
70.27859
70.13554
70-0339L
69.89589
69.96709
70.0C932
69.65732
69.88042
69.75^66
69.86665
69.97151
69.94691
69.94304
69.83475
69.89735
69.62234
69.79715
69.63574
69.63120
69.68765

BETA

41.92059
39.63066
31.76971
23^70363
13.25702
40.95773
34.76161
-27^L2646
18.22337
8.75763
38.97495
33.60999
27.56607
18.53770
9.49098
39^09143
35.04967
31.44464
27.79214
16.50908
38.98969
33.28943
26.17813
19.04431
4.03426

3^33392

39.01917
46.CC826
19.21899
22.55379
30.05518
38.16559
44.31706
16.96639
21.43475
25. 99173
29.98824
39.097C9
13.36659
22.23427
26.49768
32.92389
43.77295

EFFICIENCIES ANC LOSSES


PC

4
5
6
7
8

9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17
18

19
20
21

22

2i
24
25

tFFICIENCY
TOTAL STATIC
C. 76711
0. 77860

74248
77020
78033
C. 77255
0.75871
0.72745
0.76544
0.78314
0.77C39
0.74375
C.
C.
C.

C, .

0.2 364 7

0.21348
0.18583
0.21481
0.27035
0.20993
0.21496
0.22123
0.21251
0.26608
0.23849
0.23372

7 If, \f\

0.766 29
0. 77667
0.77309
7

f,

I7(ii

XX

0.74487
0.75761
0.75455

ZETA
ROTOR

0.32890
0.29529
0.24965
0.22259
0.20502
0.28754

0.77419
0.76349

0.22437
0.26876
0.26821

Q.

76?fl5

V-r

0.75367
0.72C87

2
c.

1
L

QHf\
7 OO

0.21183
0.21292

184

BETA

58.24429
58.68962
58.92661
59.2 7724

58.99927

58.75459
59.40259

59.65327

59.49716

59.09282
58.94185
59.8 7349
59.55618
58.99731
59.05276

59.07402
59.47330
59.39073
59.14833
59.27144
59.22063
58.89775
59.64388
59.68437
59.32286

RELATIVE
MACH 1

0.530 3
0.5298
0.5247
0.5220
0.5163
0.5961
0.5899
0.5832
0.5797
0.5787
0.6156
0.6110
0.6089
0.6048
0.6055
0.6405
0.6386
0.6356
0.6329
0.6304
0.6781
0.6759
0.6691
0.6624
0.6624

0.2396
0.2322
0.2097
0.1945
0.1805
0.2663
O.2440
0.2238
0.2098
0.2006
0.2707
0.2526
0.2363
0.2207
0.2113
0.2826
0.2675
0.2555
0.2466
0.2260
0.3009
0.2792
0.2594
0.2439
0.2305

ABSOLUTE

DELTA BETA

MACH

100.16489
98.32028
90.69632
82.98087
72.25629
99.71233
94.16420
86.77974
77.72054
67.85045
97.91679
93.48347
87.12225
77.53502
68.54373
98.16550
94.52296
90.83537
86.94048
75.78052
98.21031
92.18718
85.82201
78.72868
63.35712

BLOCKAGE
FACTOA

ZETA
STATOR

0.92070
0.92006
*947 38
0.91275
0.91172
0.91180
0.91357
0.91068
0.91274
0.91386
0.91631
0.91831
0.91655
C. 91673
0.91534
0.91847
0.91821
0.91889
0.91748
0.91241
0.91855
0.91988
0.91698
0.91865
0.91857

0.02664
0.02970
0.05045
0.06335
0.06213
0.04920
0.05926
0.07057
0.08052
0.07120
0.06431
0.07192
0.07455
0.08278
0.07474
0.06435
0.06332
0.06542
0.07275
0.07554
0.07311
0.07130
0.08486
0.08705
0.08278

185

REPORT
TORBC PRCP3JL SIGN LABGRATOR

REUUCFD PERFCR^ANCE DATA CF TURBINE FR


RADIAL ROTOR
configirat i-cn
yuc
DATE OF TEST
6B
TEST RUN NO.

TURBINE TYPE
POINI

ISENTRCPIC
HEAL CGEFF
(R=4.125 IN

PRESSURE
R A T

2
3

4
5

6
7

FCR

c:

4012
3961
3971
3986
3996
4008
4006

PCIN1S

TO

3 8

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

FOR PCINlb
17
18
19

20
21

22
23
24

ECR PLIN1S

599
7

24 4

4995
5026
503C
5C30
5066
40

3 4

5047
5028
17

TC

9527
7445
8

4268
02

5 8

7233
518C
1512
88 16

6441
-268
16

79 42
79 21
79, 15
78 48
78, 07
77 37
75, 28
72, 28

REFERRED
FLO* RATE
LBM/SEC
3.

3381

3.3155
3.3193
3.3103
3. 3128

3.3049
3.3C94
3.3110

AVG. PRESSURE RATIO= 1.3989

TC

5 56

5491
3906

3C52
2984
29H9
2980
299 8
2996
29 8

941C

39 7 4

EFFICIENCY
TOT-STATIC
PERCENT

78.40
78.73
78.40
78.01
77.20
75.23
71.37
66.08

1050
1060
3.0653
3.0682
3.0640
3.0637
3.0604
3.0562
3.
3.

AVG. PRESSLRE RATI0= 1.3003

3.3379
1003
2.8956
2.6951
2.5572
2.3785
3.

1211
1.8661

2.

24 AVG.

81. 12
80. 73
79. 50
80. 31
80. 28
78. 39
76. 76
74. 08

VAX,

MAX.

5083
5074
5053
50 3 6

3.4987
3.4 99 3

3.4934
3.4869

PRESSURE RATI0= 1.5032

MAX

CGNTD. ON SHFE

186

sheet
:y

usnpgs, monterey, calif.


with transonic turbine test rig

om tests

.015 in.
axial clear.
tip clear. =
oata reduction method mf
/67

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB
19.320
17.73 4

17.150
16.32

15.766
15.118
13.75
1

48 7

REFERRED
POWER
HP

42.937
42.206
42.113
41.731
41.672
41.281
40.317
38.717

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM
11674
12502
12899
13425
13885
14344
15397
16287

stator-rntor= 1.000

DEGREE OF
REACTION
1

DEGREE OF
REACTION

(HUB)

(TIP)

.0582
.0676
.0711
.0744
.0797
.0829
.0860
.0849

.5260
.5277
.5276
.5312
.5328
.5328
.5364
.5374

DEVIATION +0.162 PCT. -0.203 PCT., PAVG. /PATMO= i.1662


10360
.0403
31.317
.5091
15.880
31.584
15.015
11050
.0457
.5143
11537
.0591
30.452
.5168
1 3 . 86 6
13.289
30.373
12006
.0604
.5175
12974
12.124
29.945
.0675
.5219
29.324
13907
11.07 6
.0671
.5246
9.60 8
27.769
14873
.0644
.5246
8.43 7
15946
.0631
25.612
.5232

DEVIATION 0.377 PCT. -0.173 PCT., PAVG. /PATMO= 1.1281


22.414
54.827
12849
.0784
.5363
54.815
13365
2 1 . 54 5
.0856
.5386
20.50
53.984
13833
.0883
.5406
19.968
54.504
14339
.0910
.5431
46 9
1 9
54.705
14760
.0980
.5469
1 8 . 29 2
53.168
.0964
15268
.5459
16.904
52.079
16183
.0999
.5492
15.253
50.026
17229
.0998
.5525
DEVIATION 0.223 PCT. -0.247 PCT., PAVG. /PATMO= 1.2035
.

of 2

187

in,

REPORT
T0R6C PROPULSION LABORATOR

RECUCEC PERFORMANCE DATA OF TURBINE FR


TURBINE TYPl
POINT

NCC

PRESSURE
RATIO
b964

25
2b

39

27

5923

28
29
30

5954

31

596 8

32

3 7

^92
59 4

6045

CONFIGURATION

RADIAL ROTOR
DATE OF TEST

TEST RUN NO.

68

ISENTRCPIC
HFAC COEFF
<R=4.125 IN

EFFICIENCY
TOT-STATIC
PERCENT

4941
3098
C8C3
90C9
6886
5616
3887
C977

FOR PC1NTS 25 TO 32 AVG.

188

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC

04
06
78 42
7a
78

78
79
78

75
07
48

77 49
74 39

PRESSURE RATIO= 1.5957

6313
6293
6209
6183
6155
6095
6126
6146
,

MAX

SHEET
V

USNPGS

OF

MONTEREY, CALIF.

OM TESTS

WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

AXIAL CLEAR. ST ATOR-ROTOR= I. 000


TIP CLEAR. =
.015 IN.
DATA REDUCTION METHOD MF
/67

REFERRED
TORUUE
FT-LB

REFERRED
POWER

24.431
23.730
22.925
22.325
21.606
20.885
19.959
18.052

62.486
62.255
62.290
62.508
62.958
62.312
61.754
59.891

HP

REFERRED
SPEED

DEGREE OF
REACTION

DEGREE OF
REACTION

RPM

(HUB)

(TIP)

13435
13781
14273
14708
15307
15673
16253
17428

.0985
.1031
.1075
.1119
.1115
.1158
.1198
.1210

.5501
.5511
.5510
.5548
.5568
.5594
.5583
.5653

DEVIATION +0.550 PCT. -0.214 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.1675

189

IN,

LENEH/iL RESULTS

vEtecTTf es

RUN MjNBER

68

K-IM
1

2
3

4
5

6
7
8

10
ii
12
13
14
15
16
17
Id
19

20
21
22
26
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

V2
215, .74155
220. ,52319
7 ?A
230, .92804
238. .47234
246, .26219
270, .03633
257. ,00098

629 .60229
623 .66309
617
614 .*05078
6 14 .05322

cm

6H .24048
6

1.3

.50122

615 .85913
570 .22510
5 66 .71802
553 .34839
555 .04248
549 .04199
551 .02100
5 50 . 16846

<

152, .36496
157. ,88794
2C0, ,75482
2C9, .93118
225, .56129
246, .13707
274. ,92139
311. 73022
236, ,35636
239, ,04375
244* rf3-&45
246. .5C63C
247, ,90678
264. ,55005
jpi
A ^jr7 ROf
A
c c i iu
3C6. ,07910
259. ,53955

5 55 .23804
680 .07227
679 . 1C522
6 76 .49731
670 .43311
663 .19727
674 .03149

66-9 .47168
666 .4 56 JO
734 .73047
711 . 12256
711 .84619
705 .03564
720 .78149
698 .50732
712 .76465
703 .59644

<

258, ,61084
3 (-C
itt,
261, ,80762
271, 15287
269, 22217
2UC*
O j UJ7 Uo
3C7, ,06958
,

c.

190

wl

267. ,49707
246, ,61536
238. ,26138
229, ,08687
224. ,41199
220. .55176
218, ,75084
221, ,20448
246, .26928
230, ,00241
213, ,05516
207, ,71129
197, ,04674
196, ,14902
199. ,72488
211, ,06706
283, ,84180
273, 14209
26 3, ,70605
,

254, ,01537
247. ,53049
244. ,68663
238. ,47722
238, ,95050
312, ,17017
292. ,02 78 3
282, ,95898
272. ,61816
269. ,84473
259. 25537
3C

crJ J
t

UoA

tA
JO 7

~\

253, 25223

W2

Ul

466.39575
459.32959
462.93481

439.06250
470.19287
485.12817
504.92212
522.19653
539.47119
579.05884
612.52856
389.03833
414.95020
433.30420
450.93872
487.28760
522.34082
558.61719
598.88867
483.68872
503.84229
521.51294
541.05469
556.96191
576.03564
610.65674
649.92090
507.87305
521.00903
539.61523
556.13403
578.87891
592.62646
614.57959
658.88208

462.8 3032

463.08691
462.55273
461.38721
455.13452
400.14893
401.92041
401.42383
399.11694
404.11377
403.04395
400.40747
392.31030
526.73828
525.12646
517.70239
528.22046
537.64966
513.98779
514.83276
511.35767
543.21289
560.84717
557.78882
564.42456
552.29590
569.02197
552.05371
554.50195

U2

437.46582
468.48267
483.36377
503.08545
520.29736
537.50903
576.95264
610.30078
387.62329
413.44092
431.72852
449.29883
485.51514
520.44067
556.58545
596.71045
481.92920
502.00977
519.61621
539.08691
554.93604
573.94067
608.43579
647.55688
506.02588
519.11426
537.65259
554.11133
576.77368
590.47119
612.34424
656.48560

191

TEMPERATURES (CEG

PCIM
I

2
3

c
D

6
7
8

V
10
11
12
1

14
15
16
ir?

18
19

20
24
21
23
24

25
26
21
28

O
30
31
32

PLENUM
TCTAL

STATC*
CISCHARGE

ROTOR
DISCHARGE

566.G2246
56^.02246
56b.C2246
566.02246

533.03735
533.65674
534.25684
534.64673

520.77441
521.02759
521.00537
521.03467

-524 . 6 4 64 8

-52-0rS2 J764

66* 02-24-6-

566.C2246
566.C2246
566.C2246
56*.

534.72949
534.7C288
534.46167

-527*25757-

1445

564.31445
564.48535
564.48535
564.48535
564.48535
564.48535
564.48535
567.04590
568.75C49
568.75049
569.77197
569.77197
569.60181
569.77197
569.43164
571.84274
571.98267
571.98267
572.15259
572.32251
572.15259
572.15259
571.98267

192

537.5936
539.0C635
538.85010

539.40127

539.22021
539.29834
538.83203
528.56055
53C. 37451
53C. 66870
532.36987
532.17285
531.79712
532.477C5
532.47192
526. #9^5
529.9C283
529.81714
53C. 79004
-529.G91SO531.55249
529.87817
530.78882

520.79761
520.76807
521.06934
52-8rSB892

528.44531
529.26123
529.06201
520-. 89966
528.73950
529.08813
529.51538
542.-03564

513.48291
513.98877
514.34448
544.03003
514.59546
514.92847
515.20898
510.29150
510.66089
510.41406
510.27832
509^.56616

509.99023
509.81030
510.27808

ISENTROPIC
FROM Ti

517.36523
517.82983
518.37671
518.54492
518.31958
518.28784
518.04956
517.82202
525.64844
525.70923
527.02710
526.81641
527.15942
526.86670
527.00537
526.63403
508.84595
510.21240
510.33643
511.81763
512.14160
511.00757
511.40747
511.36719
502.90137
505.68408
505.51221
506.16162
504.37305
506.5 1904

504.75732
505.05298

TOTAL
(DISCHARGE

524.64746
525.07422
525.21216
525.47217
525.55981
525.84399
526.83594
528.40942
531.96875
531.70386
532.61621
532.72925
533.13330
533.78076
535.37744
537.60156
516.68579
518.23779
518.97290
519.40088
519.14404
520.41919
521.50073
523.00464
515.89673
516.22607
516.06445
515.98193
515.68604
516.02148
516.57104
518.12427

193

PLC* ANGLES
RUN NUM&ER

FCINT
1

2
3

4
5
b
7

8
9

10

U
12

13
lh
lb
16
17
18
19

20
21
22
23
24

25
26
27
26
29
30
31
32

ALPHA

(CEGKtES FROM AXIAL)


68

ALPHA

6.2C296
04895
18.75490

69.42986
69.46504
69.17795
69.15904
69.16827
69.18079
69.11861
69.25374
69.60263
69.47C99
69.29149
69.30286
69.15773
69.16222
69.26352
69.37051
69.41624
69.36816
69.30685
69.08856
68.80219
69.27106
69.17560
69.13222
69.78142
69.01720
69.13025
68.98648
09.53262
68.80513
69.27347
68.90446

J6.

23 + 36 1 73

27.12178

3C. 81245

36.25180
44.37505
10.48623
17.26091
22.22058
27.34261
34.25801
41.27179
47.3369C
53.57162
2.68796
7.99896
14.08164
15.79937
16. 07816
26.43953
32.57431
39,38423
6.19440
4.65913
9.41667
11.33125
16.87099
17.63009
25.71196
32.69691

194

BETA

34.21100
27.49147
22.81136
17.51694
13.32352
6.79677
-1.53297
-9.52449
36.19571
30.22377
23.30597
19.19214
7.53149
-2.15077
-12.75304
22,05447
32.61002
28.82887
24.97464
19.60223
14.35310
12.83670
3.62586
-6.53154
35.56900
29.30998
26.33563
21.97546
20.93111
13.07067
11.66002
-0.55185

BETA

DELTA BETA

^MAcH

^WcTl

96.83263
90-01485
85.43036
80.26041
76104366
7ll58694
6l!l0477
52.67252
97198247
92.17763
B5. 72127
81. 33T89
70.0586?
60152711
49.51712

0.ioi7
0.4985
0.4861
n # aqta
4?t
04ftli

0.1825
0.1730

n Zfl7rt

X*? 754

~aH8$2J
-62.70741
=St*?4II9
-63.83243

95.97537
92.03488
87.68205
82.91994
78.1855?

8:6033
n Anif
0.i989
n sool

-62.61212
-62.44278

66.2379ft

-62.3 1339

illlll??
97.2591?
91.94969
88.89191
84.92291
83:24449

A lofl
8:1242
0:6528
n unn
8" aJS
n*?27

=||:i?2?i
-.
? 23

6 ?:in?$

3,

ifj'tflf
-o<>. 52338
"JI-SII29
-62.74347
-62.72014
-62.79019
-62.63774
-62.19701
-61.73676

"^2?2SS

SI*tII12
-Si's???!
"^3 2715
-62.67790
-62.27017
-63.36536

:2Ht2?7

aI*rI2U
-62.55627
-62.94745

&f

195

kc/li

8:5506

n *ai

'?

n'VtH
n'Ukn
0*54??
ofttl

*afi

g:|f?J
8:|iJ|
0.6228

g-|?$3
2' 2 1 77
0.2102
0.2021
0.1979
0.1945
0.1929
g-J?!i

n'ln^

'?fl7?
vJ.lofZ

S^??
0.2518

2JMI
0.2335
0.2186
0.2164
g*}08
S*IU?
0.2774
0.2587
0-.-2507

8:1*4!

8:1111
0.2242

REPORT

TURBO PROPULSION LABORATORY


REDUCED PERFORMANCE DATA OF TURBINE FRC
TURBINE TYPE

MOO

POINT

PRESSURE
RATIO

1.2988
1.301L
1.3008
1.2991

2
3

FOR POINTS
5

6
7
8

FOR POINTS
9

10
11
12

FOR POINTS
13
14
15
16

TU

II

TO

2991
3004
3011
2988
9 TO

1.4009
1.4012
1.3982
1.3989

77

RADIAL ROTOR
DATE OF TEST

EFFICIENCY
ISENTROPIC
TOT-STATIC
HEAD COEFF.
(R=4.125 IN.)
PERCENT
3.0431
2.5106
1.8738
1.3709
4 AVG.

1.4012
1.3986
1.3992
1.4002
5

CONFIGURATION

TEST RUN NO.

REFERRED
FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC
3.1039
3.0898
3.0719
3.0765

PRESSURE RATIO= 1.2999

2.9253
2.5898
2.1042
1.7431
8

80.88
79.16
75.68
63.49
80.13
78.78
77.27
73.96

80.36
79.12
75.54
64.84

12 AVG. PRESSURE RATIO^

2.9053
2.5888
2.1028
1.7436

79.37
81.02
79.40
73.69

MAX.D

3.0987
3.0776
3.0677
3.0758
1.2998

MAX.C

3.3478
3

34 1

3.3254
3.3250

FOR POINTS 13 TO 16 AVG. PRESSURE RATIO= 1.3998

196

MAX.D

3.3456
3.3330
3.3292
3.3288

AVG. PRESSURE RATIO= 1.3998

3.0499
2.4977
1.8770
1.3682

MAX.C

SHEET

OF

USNPGS, MONTEREY, CALIF,


IN

TESTS WITH TRANSONIC TURBINE TEST RIG

AXIAL CLEAR. STATOR-ROTOR= 0.410


.015 IN.
DATA REDUCTION METHOD MF

IP CLEAR. =

8/09

REFERRED
TORQUE
FT-LB

REFERRED
POWER

15.320
13.602
11.165
8.004

31.846
31.232
29.661
24.802

HP

REFERRED
SPEED
RPM
10920
12062
13955
16277

DEGREE OF
REACTION

DEGREE OF
REACTION

(HUB)

(TIP)

.0791
.0881
.0930
.0790

.4697
.4809
.4891
.4894

EVIATION 4-0.090 PCT. -0.090 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.3001


18.124
16.657
14.720
12.835

43.420
42.298
41.496
39.795

0983
1054
1098
1096

12585
13339
14808
16287

.4860
.4898
.4982
.5030

EVIATION +0.101 PCT. -0.089 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.4000


15.220
31.618
10913
.0536
.4894
13.494
31.034
12081
.0630
.4985
11.143
29.590
13950
.0749
.5052
8.160
25.299
16285
.4988
.0633
lEVIATION +0.096 PCT. -0.083 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.3000

17.897
17.214
15.08S
12.758

43.008
O
f.

*J

"">

**

42^505
39.497

12624
13377
14798
16262

.0763
.0818
.0907
.0915

.5022
.5093
.5136
.5153

lEVIATION +0.101 PCT. -0.113 PCT., PAVG./PATMO= 1.4000

197

IN,

GENERAL RESULTS

VELOCITIES (FT/SEC)

RUN NUMBER
POINT

V2

VI

4
5
6
7
8
9

10
11
12
13
14
15
16

TEMPERATURES (DEG R
POINT
1

2
3

4
5

6
7

8
9

10
11
12
13

14
15
16

Ml

204.92401
227.75537
274.98022
356.32886
234.80237
251.06436
282.94702
323.28101
205.78839
228.95029
275.38525
350.74365
237.10893
244.08421
274.53711
321.71631

597.13525
592,03052
589.87573
589.99756
663.16846
659.09692
656.36011
657.43433
597.68286
594.06396
590.47974
589.22388
661.61597
660.47095
655.28418
654.52490

2
3

77

250.02606
223.17967
197.69690
203.44823
267.52051
249.45665
227.17372
218.57817
250.05664
223.77377
198.11826
204.17590
266.39404
250.21523
227.03908
218.29687

PLENUM
TOTAL

STATOR
DISCHARGE

ROTOR
DISCHARGE

565.68091
565.68091
565.51025
565.51025
568.58008
568.58008
568.58008
568.75049
564.82715
565.16870
565.33936
565.51025
567.55762
567.89844
568.23926
568.58008

536.01001
536.51514
536.55640
536,54443
531.98413
532.43213
532.73169
532.78467
535.10181
535.80225
536.32617
536.62036
531.13281
531.59961
532.50830
532.93188

529.20361
528.86987
528.18848
529.03662
522.05762
522.32935
521.64380
521.41479
528.55103
528.41992
528.03955
528.84058
521.44434
520.59375
520.69189
521.58521

198

W2

U2

Ul

378.26514
374.42065
371.00781
359.02148
434.99902
426.38208
427.30835
426.23340
374.20850
370.53052
369.91821
363.95093
430.99390
439.34595
437.36938
425.77441

410.55957
453.49414
524.60791
611.88037
474.36743
502.79883
558.18555
614.00391
409.98364
454.03418
524.31982
612.20459
475.41138
503.95044
557.64551
612.99634

ISENTROPIC
FROM Ti

TOTAL
DISCHARGE

524.67725
524.68530
524.47168
524.78345
516.44531
516.70288
516.63940
516.53638
523.85767
524.12695
524.24683
524.97339
515.72974
515.85083
516.51123
516.83374

532.69800
533.18628
534.48047
539.60205
526.64526
527.57446
528.30566
530.11133
532.07495
532.78174
534.35010
539.07739
526.12256
525.55127
526.96362
530.19775

409.06641
451.84473
522.69971
609.65527
472.64209
500.96997
556.15527
611.77075
408.49243
452.38281
522.41309
609.97778
473.68213
502.11743
555.61743
610.76685

199

-AhB- -b-6S5tS-

PCINT
1

2
3

4-

0.79421
0.79215
0.79153
0r7-&4*3-

10
11

0.78073
0.77374
0.75281
0*722 8 1
0.78400
0.78730
0.78399

13
14
15

0.77202
0.75231
0.71365

6
7
8~

-*2

0. 66 077

17
18
19

0.81116
0.80728
0.79502

22
23

25
26
27

0.78038
C. 78059
0.78418

-24-

-2*29
30
31

0.20005
0.17443
0.14899
.151 6

0.12174
0.13100
0.14548
.

19 4 79

0.12610
0.129 84
0.14613

0. 8 030 6

0.80279
0.78386
0.76763

21

0.16303
0.15949
0.13448
-0 .12 9 1 7^
0.13027
0.13108
0.14156
0.1 6 77 4

0*7 8 010

4r6

-2#

ZETA
RCTOR

EFFICIENCY
TOTAL STATIC

10 4 31

0.07945
0.14700
0.14520
0.15 846
0.23508
0. 16416
0.16397

0.7 4 85

0.7 8 7 * 9

139 6 7

0.17531
0.12027
0.17236
O. 17*AO

0.79071
0.78477
0.77488

200

ZETA
STATOR

BLQCKAGt
FACTOR

0.09698
0.10027
0.11265
0.12102
0.11940
0.12145
0. 11854
0.11148
0.08917
0.09726
0.11356
0.10813
0.11815
0.11460
0.11846
0.10157
0.09487
0.09850
0.10283
0.11710
0.13388
0.10253
0.11203
0.11479
0.06009
0.11329
0.10734
0.11920
0.08194
0.13217
0.09717

0.92208
0.92046
0.92302
0.92137
0.92263
0.92055
0.92254
0.92309^

0.92020
0.92162
0.91948
0.92046
0.92262
0.92146
0.92003
0.9189^
0.92458
0.92485
0.92508
0.92549
C. 92508
0.92603
0.92536
0.*2513
0.92781
0.92916
0.92819
0.92910
0.92775
0.92782
0.92838
0.92815

7 ->L.R

201

FLOW ANGLES (DEGREES


RUN NUMBER
POINT
1

3
4
5

6
7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

ALPHA

AXIAL)

77

ALPHA

FRi DM

BETA

23.27373
34.25290
47.27664
58.32417
23.72371
31.70511
41.07169
48.68642
24.29871
35.32518
47.43404
57.93956
24.97395
a O 3003
AQC
to.
39.19341
48.70358

70.64803
70,55841
70.68813
70.61951
70.54552
70.55617
70.51382
70.59885
70.78671
70.65186
70.67889
70.55273
70.44252
70.51901
70.47787
70.52094

37.68272
28.00095
9.33776
-15.77644
34.34760
28.41600
15.46605
1.58891
38.13335
28.41360
9.56007
-16.09290
33.75851
TO 11T1Q
dO
DdC 5*7
15.31537
1.06723

ti

EFFICIENCIES ANO LOSSES


POINT
1

2
3

4
5

6
7
8

10
11
12
13

14
15
16

EFFICIENCY
TOTAL STATIC
0.80879
0.79159
0.75685
0.63490
0.80130
0.78778
0.77268
0.73959
0.80359
0.79116
0.75538
0.64837
0.79371
0.81015
0.79398
0.73688

7PTA
C M

C.

ROTOR
0, ,27991
0, ,26974
0, ,25319
0. ,29460
0. ,26744
0, ,27643
0, ,25472
0, ,25249
0, ,29153
0. ,27886
0, ,25798
0, ,27082
0. ,27460
0. ,23363
0. 21535
0, ,24814

202

BETA

ABSOLUTE
MACH 1

RELATIVE
MACH 1

0.5260
0.5213
0.5193
0.5195
0.5864
0.5825
0.5799
0.5809
0.5269
0.5234
0.5200
0.5187
0.5855
0.5842
0.5791
0.5782

0.2202
0.1965
0.1741
0.1791
0.2365
0.2205
C.20C7
0.1931
0.2205
0.1972
0.1745
0.1798
0.2357
0.2213
0.2007
0.1928

DELTA BETA

-60.15440
59.81540

59.81097
58.58897
60.38536
59.93703
60.05315
59.95233
-59.91971
59.72617
-59.76328
-59.23282
-60.08556
-60.91484
-60.89053
-60.08833

97..83713
87, ,81635
69, ,14873
42, ,81253
94, ,73296
88. .35303
75, .51918
61, ,54124
98, ,05305
88, .13977
69, ,32333
43, ,13992
93, ,84407
89, ,23723
76, .20590
61, .15556

BLOCKAGE
FACTOR

ZETA
STATGR

0.00774

0.92366
0.92199
0.92010
0.91992
0.92327
0.92370
0.92511
0.92544
0.92084
0.91763
0.91838
0.91881
0.92322
0.92387
0.92421
0.92425

0.00189
0.00140
0.00281
0.00556
0.00497
0.00521
0.00085

0.00734
0.00371
0.00240
0.00811
0.01053
0.00629
0.00739
0.00977

203

REPORT

TURBO PROPULSION LABORATORY

REDUCEO PERFORMANCE OATA OF TURBINE FR


MOD II CONFIGURATION
78
TEST RUN NO.

TURBINE TYPE
POINT

AXo.zoo

1.2967
1.2994
1.2990
1.2994

FOR POINTS

/5
0.410

EFFICIENCY
ISENTROPIC
HEAD COEFF. TOT-STATIC
PERCENT
(R=4.125 IN.)

PRESSURE
RATIO

//

"

6
7

18

FOR POINTS

AX*
1.000"

FOR POINTS

TO

3.0462
2.5066
1.8987
1.3403
4 AVG.

TO

1.2990
1.3004
1.2997
1.2970

79.01
77.56
74.12
63.04

REFERRED

FLOW RATE
LBM/SEC

3.1018
3.0773
3.0632
3.0864

PRESSURE RATIO= 1.2986

3.0358
2.5119
1.9216
1.3445

1.2970
1.2997
1.2994
1.2994
5

RADIAL ROTOR
DATE OF TEST

79.64
78.61
74.95
63.82

3.0878
3.0728
3.0696
3.0865

AVG. PRESSURE RATIO= 1.2989

3.0231
2.5241
1.9061
1.3271

9 TO 12 AVG.

79.91
78.79
75.72
64.31

MAX.

3.0929
3.0793
3.0688
3.0773

PRESSURE RATI0= 1.2990

204

MAX,

MAX.

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST


No. Copies
1.

Defense Documentation Center


Cameron Station
Alexandria, Virginia 22314

Library
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93940

3.

Commander, Naval Air Systems Command


Navy Department
Washington, D. C. 20360

4.

Commander, Naval Ship Systems Command


Navy Department
Washington, D. C. 20360

5.

Capt. A. Bodnaruk, USN


Naval Ship Systems Command (Code 6140)
Navy Department
Washington, D. C. 20360

6.

Office of Naval Research (Power Branch)


Attn. Mr. J. K. Patton, Jr.
Navy Department
Washington, D. C. 20360

7.

Mr. R. Beichel
Liquid Rocket Plant

20

Aerojet-General Corporation
Sacramento, California 95809
8.

Chairman, Department of Aeronautics


Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93940

9.

Professor M. H. Vavra
Department of Aeronautics
Naval Postgraduate School
Monterey, California 93940

Lt. J. A. Messegee, USN


USS Coral Sea, CVA 43
F.P.0.
San Francisco, California

10.

206

UNCLASSIFIED
Security Classification

DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA


(Security ctaaeUicatlon ot

ORIGINATING ACTIVITY

I.

tttlm,

R&D

body of abatract and Indexing annotation muet be entered tehen the ereraJI

(Corporate author)

re p eet la

2a.

REPORT SECURITY

2*.

CROUP

L.

canealHed)

ASSIRICA TIOM

Unclassified

Naval Postgraduate School


Monterey, California
REPORT TITLE

3.

Influence of Axial and Radial Clearances on the Performance of a Turbine Stage


With Blunt Edge Non- Twisted Blades
DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (Type

4-

Thesis
AUTHORW (Lmet name,

ot report

and ineluaive datea)

tint name, initial)

Messegee, James A.
REPORT DATE

6-

7-

TOTAL

*.

ORIGINATOR'S REPORT NUMBERfS)

b.

OTHER REPORT

September 1967
8a

b.

NO.

7b. NO.

OR REF
9

NO.

UaJuwu^I^cK cLkaX
10.

OF RASES

205

CONTRACT OR GRANT
PROJECT

NO.

NO(S) (A ny other numbere that may be aaelgned

AVAILABILITY/LIMITATION NOTICES

and each tr*


T S 1 gn

TIB.

r i^^HP^^^necy

Hl'UUly

imiTPWWfP

*P
11.

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

13.

ABSTRACT

12.

SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY

This thesis was undertaken to determine the effects of axial and radial
clearances on the performance of a single stage turbine with blunt leading edges
and non-twisted blades. A series of tests was conducted on the so-called Mod II
Turbine using the Transonic Turbine Test Rig of the Turbo-Propulsion Laboratory,
Department of Aeronautics, of the Naval Postgraduate School. The results of
these tests are presented together with a comparison of the experimental results
and results predicted by a three-dimensional turbine performance calculating
method.
In addition, measured flow conditions upstream of the stator, between
the stator and the rotor, and at the rotor discharge are presented and compared
with predicted values.

nn
U \J

porm
1

JAN 64

1473

207

UNCLASSIFIED
Security Classification

UNCLASSIFIED
Security Classification

KEY WO R OS

ROLE

axial turbine
axial clearance
radial clearance

blunt blades

DD,'N.?..1473
5

/N 01

I)

10

r,

q 7

<back)

208

IINCLASSri'IKD
Security Classification

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