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Cardinal Richelieu

Charlemagne (742-814), also recognized as Carolus Magnus or Charles the Wonderful, was King of the Franks (771-814) and the Western Emperor (or Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (800-814). He was also the best ruler of the Carolingian Dynasty. When we say that he dominated the Franks, we indicate that he dominated the spot that is now France, Belgium, the Netherlands and element of Germany. When we say david paul that he dominated the Holy Roman Empire, we mean that he dominated France, Belgium, the Netherlands, all of Germany, and northern Spain. As a result he finished up ruling most of Christian Western Europe. During his reigns, Charlemagne was often at war in opposition to neighboring Christian kingdoms: he defeated the Saxons (772-804), he subdued and was topped king of the Lombards of northern Italy (773-774) and he fought towards the Moors (Arabs) in Spain (778). In the battles in opposition to the Moors at Roncevalles, Spain, 1 of Charlemagne's warriors, Roland, was killed heroically in fight. This motivated the great poem, the Chanson de Roland. Charlemagne invested the remaining many years of his reigns consolidating his armed forces gains. He established a funds and royal court at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in what is now Germany. Charlemagne pressured the peoples he conquered to turn into Christians. For instance, in 785, he approved demise for any of the Saxons he conquered who refused to be baptized. For this purpose, he received the support of Pope Leo III, who gave him the imperial title of the Holy Roman Emperor. Charlemagne was crowned as the Holy Roman Emperor on Christmas Day 800. Apparently, even with his wars from the Moors in Spain, Charlemagne was to sustain welcoming relations with Muslim nations around the world in the East. In 798 the caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, sent ambassadors to Charlemagne bearing a celebrated gift of a white elephant. Charlemagne's method of governing his empire was to divide it among his counts and bishops, who each and every presented the two land and the energy to control the lives of the individuals who lived on that land. These counts and bishops in turn had to pledge allegiance to the emperor and battle for him in fight. This technique of government, named feudalism, prevailed all above Europe until the time of the French Revolution. Charlemagne presided above a revival of understanding in his realms, that has often been termed the Carolingian Renaissance. He promoted education and learning, architecture, the

arts, manufacturing, commerce, greater administration and very good regulations. Education and learning was promoted via Latin learning taught at cathedral and monastic colleges. Notable architectural achievements provided beautiful new palaces and church buildings. Several of the best students of the age, such as the Anglo-Saxon, Alcuin of York, had been invited to appear to Charlemagne's courtroom at Aachen. Liturgical and scriptural texts have been purified and appeared in new editions. Charlemagne himself knew Latin and Greek and wrote letters and poems that have survived to this day. Charlemagne's existence and achievements have been renowned in his day and grew to become the subject matter of legends and literary performs. In the finish, Richelieu had reached complete david paul art electrical power for the French monarchy.