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INTRODUCTION

The coconut considered being the most important and useful of tropical palms has been in cultivation in India from time immemorial. It perhaps yields more products of use to mankind than any other tree. Each and every part of the coconut is used in India in one way or other and the classics of India have rightly eulogized it as Kalpavriksha (the all giving tree) owing to the multifarious used of various palm parts and products in our daily life. Even though the coconut is known both as food and oilseed crop, it has also assumed significance as a beverage and fiber crop in our country and the days are not far away when the coconut will be the main source of timber for various constructions in coconut growing areas in our country. Although coconut is grown in more than 80 countries in the world, the main four countries i.e. Philippines, India, Indonesia and Srilanka , accounts for 78 percent of the area and production. In production of coconut nut India is the largest producer with the production of 13968 million nuts from an area of 1.79 million ha, which accounts for 26.06 percent share in production. Philippines ranks second position in area under coconut with 3.09 million ha and 11935 million nuts respectively. Productivity is highest in India followed by Indonesia and Philippines. Productivity in copra equivalent is also highest in India although average copra weight is highest in Thailand i.e. 300gm per nut.

In our country coconut is now grown under varying soil and climatic conditions in 17 states and 3 union territories. It is versatile in its adaptability to a wide range of soil conditions. The all India cocon ut estimate clearly indicate that 91 percent of the total area and production of coconut in the country is concentrated in the Southern States viz. Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Among the four Southern States Kerala accounts for largest area and production followed by Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Coconut is one of the most important plantation crops of Orissa. The area under and production of coconut in the state is 47.3 thousand ha and 246.8 million nuts respectively. Orissa ranks first amongst the coconut producing states in India after the traditional South Indian states. About 85 percent of the area under and production of coconut is located in the four undivided coastal districts of Puri, Cuttack, Balasore and Ganjam. Puri ranks the highest in production of coconut nuts in the state.

SIGNIFICANCE
The significance of coconut palm can be gauged from the fact that it is grown in more than 80 countries of the world and in 17 states and 3 union territories in India. The fruit of the coconut is considered auspicious and finds place in most of the religious ceremonies in all the states. Coconut occupies a unique position in the Socio-economic structure of the country and it is intimately related to the prosperity of a vast multitude of small and marginal growers especially along the coastal states.

About 10 million people in the country are engaged in coconut cultivation, processing, marketing and trade related activities.

SCOPE
The study highlights the profile of co conut industries and its economic significance. Additionally it discusses the coconut production and by-products and its impact on Indian economy.

OBJECTIVES
This project report is prepared with the following objectives:
To assess the economics importance of coconut industry To study the production and utilization aspect of coconut world over. To study the comparison of the coconut production between the

states in India during 2002-03.

METHODOLOGY
The study is conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the available secondary data are analyzed. In the second stage the data have been processed, analyzed, compared and interpreted. The findings are presented in tables. The secondary data relate to coconut production in India. They are collected from reports, journals and number of articles. he analysis includes coding, editing and analyzing the data with the help of a statistical tool i.e. percentage. Ratio analysis has been conducted to study the coconut production in India.

LIMITATION
The study might have certain limitations. There are some data gaps as secondary data was not available for some period. Because of time and cost constraints the scope of the study has been made specification. However the present study can be of immense help for further rese arch.

CHAPTERISATION
This project report is divided into five chapters.
Chapter 1 discusses briefly the problems, studied, their scope,

objectives and research methodology adopted.


Chapter 2 deals with the coconut Industry, its economic importance,

the development and working of the coconut Development Board.


Chapter 3 presents different types of industries based on different

parts of coconut tree. And the steps taken to make coconut cultivation profitable.
Chapter 4 analysis the world, National and state level production at

coconut, and a comparison between the productions of states is made to give a proper idea of the problem.
Chapter 5 is the concluding chapter, which summarizes briefly the

findings.

COCONUT INDUSTRY
The coconut considered being the most important and useful of the tropical palms has been in cultivation in India from time immemorial. It perhaps yields more products of use to mankind than any other tree. Each and every part of the coconut is used in India in one way or other and the classics of India have rightly eulogized it as Kalpavriksha (the all giving tree) owing to the multifarious used of various palm parts and products in our daily life. Even though the coconut is known both as food and oil seed crop, it has also assumed significance as a beverage and fiber crop in our country and the days are not far away when the coconut will be the main source of timber for various constructions in coconut growing areas in our country. Antiquity of coconut in India is well established from its mention in Kishkindha Kanda and Aranya Kanda in Valmiki Ramayana (3rd century BC). There are three different views regarding the origin of coconut. According to the first view, the palm evolved from a stock which gave ri se to the American members of the genus cocoas and originated in the northern end of the Andes in Tropical America from where it was taken into the Pacific. The second view is that from a place of origin on the coasts of Central America, the equatorial currents of the sea took it to the Pacific Island. According to the third view, which is more generally accepted it is assumed to have originated in the South Asia or in the Pacific from where it reaches America. References have been made on coconut in

Reghuvamsa of Kalidasa and Sangam literature, which testify the antiquity of coconut in India. But its origin in India remains disputed. Marco polo, the famous European traveler who visited India 13th century called coconut the Indian nut and the logic for suc h a reference needs investigations by historians.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
The importance of the coconut palm can be gauged from the fact that it is grown in more than 80 countries of the world and in 17 states and three union territories in India. The fruit of the coconut is considered auspicious and finds place in most of the religious ceremonies in all the states irrespective of whether the palm is grown locally or not. This it self is testimony to the importance of the coconut palm in India culture. Though coconut cultivation was originally confined to the coastal and deltaic tracts, it is now grown even in the interior area in many states. Coconut occupies a unique position in the socio-economic structure of the country and it is intimately related to the prosperity of a vast multitude of small and marginal growers especially along the coastal states. With an area of 1.795 million ha and a production of 13.968 million nuts, coconut contributes over Rs.7000 crores annually to the GDP of the country. Copra the dried Kernel of coconut is the richest source of edible oil and the contribution of the crop to the total edible oil pool in India is around 6 percent. The raw material for coir industry is derived from coconut husk and the country

earns foreign exchange to the tune of Rs.239 crores by way of export of coir and products. About million people in the country are engaged in coconut cultivation, processing, marketing and trade related activities. In the coastal tracts most of the people depend on coconut for their sustenance and to many people depend on the sole income, since the coconut garden accommodates most of the fruits and vegetable crops besides animal husbandry, the coconut based farming system satisfies the day to day need of a family in a state like Kerala, besides providing a large quantify of biomass to satisfy the fuel requirement of a small family. Coconut palm therefore assumes importance as a renewable energy source. As a result of diversification in the utilization of coconut through the development of new products such as coconut cream, spray dried coconut milk powder, preserved and packed tender coconut water based vinegar, coconut has become important as an agro-based raw material for many industries. Besides, coconut shell, a by-product of coconut processing industry, is a raw material of commercial importance, which is used for the manufacture of shell charcoal, activated carbon, ice cream cups, shell powder and handicraft. Coconut shell is also widely used as fuel in rural households and for copra kilns, it is also as fuel in limekilns, brick kilns bakeries and of late used as a boiler fuel. Charcoal made from coconut shell is used in smothery and laundry. Well-powdered coconut shell charcoal was used as a dentifrice in olden times.

Toddy trapping is one of the important industries connected with coconut farm in Kerala and Goa. Fermented toddy is an intoxicant drink, which is popular in the West coast of India. Coco-fenny, a commercial barrack is manufactured from coconut toddy in many coconuts growing areas in the country especially in Lakshadweep. Coconut wood is used for various purposes in the construction of houses and for mankind furniture. It is also used to manufacture various handicrafts of aesthetic value.

FORMATION BOARD

OF

THE

COCONUT

DEVELOPMENT

An autonomous body with statutory powers was however felt imperative and the farmers from the major growing states especially from Kerala consistently represented before the Government of India for setting of such an organisation. The systematic functioning of other Commodity Boards and the popularity gained by them induced the coconut farmers to clamor for the formation of a Coconut Board with statutory powers. As a result of this demand, the Government of India under an act of the Parliament (CDB Act 1979) constituted the Coconut Development Board ceased to exist there after. The staff and infrastructure of the Directorate were transferred to the Coconut Development Board. The Coconut Development Board started implementation of the development programs from 1982-1983, which was the third year of the Sixth Five Year plan period. The major source of funds for the Coconut Development Board was the cases on milling copra, which was

subsequently abolished in 1986. Since then the Board has b een depending on the budgetary grant received from the Government of India for all its activities.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE COCONUT DEVELOPMENT BOARD THE COCONUT INDUSTRY


The development programmes of coconut received more attention after the formation of the Board. The major functions of the Board interalia include adopting measures for the development of coconut industry, recommending measures for improving marketing of coconut and its products, regulating import and export of coconut and its products, adopting measures for assisting coconut growers to get incentive prices for coconut and its products, providing financial, processing and marketing of coconut fixing grade specifications and standards of coconut and its products etc. With the formation of the Board the development programmes for coconut were given new dimensions, by identifying thrust areas where efforts were to be concentrated. The decade prior to the formation of the Coconut Development Board witnessed a declining trend in production and productivity, with the area under the crop remaining almost stagnant. Fast spread of the root-with disease in the major coconut growing state of Kerala further aggravated the coconut situation. The first and the foremost objective identified by the Board were therefore to create a sizeable production potential for stepping for product diversification and by product utilization and streamlining the marketing system of coconut and its products.

Expansion of area under suitable regions of the states was given top priority as a major development programme of the Board. Apart from traditional belts, the crop was introduced successfully in the non -traditional belts of the country, like Bastar in Madhya Pradesh, Purnea and Saharsa in Bihar, and in the states of Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland. With the implementation of the subsidy programme for the past 16 -year, an additional area of more than 82500 ha has been brought under coconut. This programme received encouraging response from the earning

community especially from the non-traditional belt. The programme implemented at various stages contributed much to the production grant as well. The present highest production of 13968 million nuts was attend from a base level production of 5807 million nuts recorded at the time of formation of the coconut development board. The productivity improvement programmes implemented by the board could make favorable impact in stepping of the productivity too at the all India level, by reversing the negative trend productivi ty. As on today India stands in the forefront in coconut productivity in the world with a record of 7777 nuts per ha. This was as low as 4980 nuts during 1983. Death of quality planting material was the measure lacuna in the production and productivity improvement programme. The lacuna was solved great extent by the production and distribution of good quality seeding through the establishment of demonstration seed production farm and coconut nurseries in different region in the country. The board also

assisted the non-traditional trades in the procurement of quality seed nuts for their nursery programmes.

TECHNOLOGY PROCESSING

DEVELOPMENT

ON

POST

HARVEST

When the coconut development board came into existence most harvest processing was in infancy and was confined to traditional copra processing and oil milling in the country. Development of technology for product utilization within the country itself was therefore identified as the measure thrust area and the board has been successful to a great extent. Coconut development board could develop technology with the help of institutions like CFTRI, BFRL and though its own laboratory for products like coconut cream, coconut milk powder, vinegar from mature coconut water and noted-coco. To promote marketing of coconut and its products sale outlets were opened in different traditional and non-traditional areas in order to create awareness of coconut products among the people.

COCONUT PRODUCTS AND INDUSTRIES


Coconut farm forms an important component in the socio-economic and cultural life of every Indian household. Coconut palm provide a large sustainable resource for food fuel, feed, energy, timber, fiber and numerous other products in addition to the wholesome and refreshing drink of the tender nut. The dried kernel of the mature nut yield oil which is used for edible and industrial purposes nearly 60% of the coconut production in the

country is devoted for domestic edible use, drinking purposes tender nut and religious use. This itself is an ample testimony for its importance as a food crop. Coconut is also consumed for culinary purposes in India and Srilanka and as processed food in several Asia-pacific countries. The husk of the mature nut provides fiber use for making coir and coir products. The shell is an important source of fuel in rural household. The trunk of the coconut palm provides timber for the furniture and handicraft items. The least provides material for the construction thatched sheds and for use as fuel among the measure coconut growing country India rank first in the production of coconuts, with a total production of 13968 million nuts covering area of 1.795 million hectares coconut sector contributes to the economic development of the country in various ways. It provides valuable foreign exchange to the turn of Rs. 250 crores through the export of coir and coir products, a wide tax base for collection of government revenue and abundant source of raw material for down stream industrial development. Coconut cultivation and industry in India provides an income to more that 10 million families for their livelihood besides contributing towards the edible oil output in the country. Although India has made substantial contribution towards coconut production, the pace of development in the post harvest processing sector has been rather slow compare to other coconut country such as Philippines, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Malaysia. The coconut processing in India is currently confined to copra making, oil milling and manufacturing of coir and coir p roducts. The

coconut industry survives mainly on coconut oil which experiences wide and erratic price fluctuation from time to time. Manufacture of desiccated coconut and coconut shell based handicrafts are the only other industries outside the traditional lines, which could show their presence felt to some extent. While a few units mainly in Tamilnadu and Karnataka are engaged in the manufacture of shell power, shell charcoal and shell based activated carbon, these products are yet to get a strong footing in the by-product utilization have been very much limited. Lack of modern technologies within the country for large-scale manufacture of value added coconut products are one of major handicaps for the retarded growth of coconut industry. Whatever little efforts have been made in the existing product development area, it was due to the initiatives of the Technology Development Center (TDC) under the Coconut Development Board. This center conducts techno-economic feasibility studies and support

technological research to develop various technologies for the manufacture of value added products from coconut. The board has been able to develop various technologies for the manufacture of value added products from coconut. The board has been able to develop technolo gies for the presentation and packaging of coconut cream, preservation of tender coconut water in manufacture of spray dried coconut mild powder and coconut vinegar production from natured coconut water. The board has also set up a pilot Testing cum Demonstration center under the T.D.C. in order

to carry out pilot testing of the technologies developed in the coconut processing sector so as to ascertain their commercial feasibility.

COPRA MAKING
Copra making skill continues to be a traditional labour orient ed small-scale industry. The industry is mainly confined to the Southern region comprising the states of Kerala and Tamilnadu and the Union territories of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Copra is available in two different forms - edible and milling copra. Edible copra is of high quality and is made both in the form of cups and balls. Milling copra is mostly in the form of cups and to a very small extent in the form of chips. The milling copra production in India varies annually between 600 650 thousand tonnes. There are about 12,000 copra-making units spread over the southern states, of which about two third are concentrated in the state of Kerala alone. Most of these units are resorting to the traditional sun drying method for making copra. Only a few of them are adopting method like indirect hot air drying and waste heat recovery system. The edible copra productions is mainly concentrated in Karnataka, Kerala and to a small extent in Andhra Pradesh production of edible copra is mainly in the unorganized sector and is estimated to be about 1.35 lakh tonnes annually. Edible cup copra is produced mainly in Lakshadweep and two centers in Kerala. It is used as dry fruit and also in the preparation of sweets and bakeries. Edible copra in Karnataka is mainly produced in the form of balls and markets through the regulated markets. It is mainly traded in distant

markets such as Bombay, Pune, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Himachal Pradesh, Assam and Rajasthan. Ball copra in Andhra Pradesh is traded in partially dehusked form and such as, keeping quality at this copra is more than one year. In Kerala edible ball copra production and assembling markets are in Vadakara and Korhikode. Alappuzha in Kerala is the main center for edible cup copra, where the best quality white colored copra is sorted from the bulk milking copra and marketed as edible cop copra. Edible copra always commands a premium price over milling copra, the premium being 35 to 40 percent in the case of ball copra and 15 to 25 percent in the case of cup copra.

COCONUT OIL EXTRACTION


Coconut oil extraction has remained a traditional industry in the processing sector. The price of coconut continues to be dependent on the price of the coconut oil. Coconut oil is produced in India mainly by three methods, namely rotaries, the oil expellers and chekkus, the expellers dominating the scene. There are about 4,50,000 tonnes of oil annually of which 40 percent goes for edible purpose and the remaining for industrial applications like soap making and paints etc. Most of the large scale industries market their products in attractive pouches and bottles, which have ready acceptance amongst the urban consumers. The small-scale units mainly sell their products in loose form. Oil cake, the by-products obtained during crushing of copra forms a major ingredient for cattle and poultry feeds. Also a sizable quantity is diverted to solvent extraction units for oil

extraction for industrial purpose. Oil milling and allied industries provide regular employment to more than 1000 persons. Coconut oil in small packs are becoming more and more popular among the consumers, especially in the urban areas. Taking in to account the increasing demand for small packs, there is a stiff competition in the market. Oil marketed in small packs is of superior quality owing to its low content of free fatty acids and being micro-filtered. Also the airtight sealing ensures elimination of contamination and adulterant to the minimum possible extent. Today there is about 50 brands available in the market. These small packs are priced at 50 percent more than bulk packs.

COIR
The coir industry in India is an important cottage industry of great economic significance especially for the rural sector providing employment to half of million people. About two decades ago the activities of the coir industry was confined to the white coir fibre sector. However, the brown coir fibre has entered in to the market in a big way. The annual production of coir fibre in the country is estimated at 2,50,300 tonnes out of which 1,22,000 tonnes in white fibre and the rest 1,23,300 tonnes in brown fibre.

DESICCATED COCONUT INDUSTRY


DC Industry has been in existence in India for the past forty years. In spite of the availability materials in plenty the industry could not register appreciable growth. There are about 60 units in the country manufacturing DC, which are mainly concentrated in Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh. It is a labour intensive Industry and the processing technology followed in most of these units are outdated and needs to be retained. The total production of the DC in the country is esteemed to be about 2000 tonnes annually. Bulk of the DC produced is consumed by biscuit manufacturing and consumption of DC for household purpose is quite in significance. This is mainly attributed to the low quality of DC and lack of consumer awareness campaigns.

COCONUT SHELL BASES INDUSTRY


Coconut shell, a natural product made up of harden cellulose with high lightning content renders it to be very durable, enabling it to resist quick degradation and easy decomposition even under wet conditions. Bulks of coconut shell in India are used as fuel in households, bakeries, brickyards, lime kilns, iron foundries and other small-scale industries. In recent times, coconut shell has captured the attention of the elite in the Western and European countries who are slowly doing away with the context, coconut shell which is the only material container with varying sizes, toughness and durability has assumed unopposed importance world

wide. With the efforts of the Coconut Development Board four copra processing units is Kerala have been able to export about 12 lakhs coconut shells in the form of cups forks, spoons and hookahs to Spain, Italy, France and other European countries. More export enquiries are being received from other countries like USA, Netherlands and Austria. The re is also an increasing demand for coconut shell from Western countries. The shell is certain to in new used as a packing media throughout the world, if well planned market promotional initiatives are undertaken and proper awareness of the feature and the characteristics of this valuable by-products is created through media advertising. This would not only help country but also generate employment opportunities for the rural unemployed besides bringing in increased returns to the coconut growers. Coconuts shell being very hard and can be carved into all kinds of intricate objects. It would be inlaid with silver or other metals and generally used with great ornamental effect. Articles of very attractive appearance are being produced by expert craftsmen in various parts of the country. Coconut shell is today being commercially exploited for the manufacture of coconut shell powder, coconut shell charcoal and an activated carbon. Coconut shell powder is extensively used as compound filler in the plastic industry, synthetic resin glues and as filter cum extender for phenolic molding powders. This unique product is also being used for specialised surface finishes, mastic adhesives mild abrasive products and polyester type laminates. The demand is for the grade ranging from 12

meshes and above. Coconut shell flour is preferred to many other similar materials like wood bark powder, peanut shell powder etc. in use as extender because of its uniformity in quality and chemical composition. Presently there are about 25 shell powder producing units located in Tamilnadu, Karnataka & Northern Kerala manufacturing about 1500 tones of the product on an annual basis. Coconut shell charcoal finds wide use as fuel and as a base material for the manufacture of activated carbon. Presently crude methods are being employed for the manufacture of activated carbon. Presently crude methods are being employed for the manufacture of shell charcoal resulting in inferior quality and poor recovery of the product. However, there are few units adopting modem methods like the drum kiln methods and waste heat recovery technology for the manufacture of good quality shell charcoal production, which not only reduces the smoke emission but also maximizes the utilization of shell feed stock for charcoal production. However, the WHU technology is yet to be commercially exploited by copra making and DC units as most of these units are of small-scale units. Coconut shell base activated carbon is the most widely sought after product for pollution control and removal of colour/odour of compounds due its small-structure which renders it more effective for these specific applications. Activated carbon is also extensively used for purifying, refining & bleaching of vegetable oils and chemical solutions and purification of drinking water. Presently there are a few shell bases

activated carbon units adopting indigenous technology for the manufacture of the product on a small scale. However, these technologies need to be refined for specific commercial application for improving better absorptive properties. However, there are about 4 units set up in the country with foreign collaboration producing excellent quality of activated carbon. There is a need to develop cost-effective technologies for small-scale manufacture of activated carbon due to problems in bulk collection of raw material and huge transportation costs.

TENDER INDUSTRY

AND

MATURED

COCONUT

WATER

BASES

Tender coconut water is a delicious nutritious and refreshing drink, consumed as a beverage in all the metropolitan cities and smaller towns in the country. Being rich in materials and sterile in its natural form, it is also used in hospital for feeding infants. Today with the efforts of the Coconut Development Board and Defense Food Research Laboratory, Mysore. Technology for the preservation and packing of tender coconut water in cans/pouches have been commercialized. Two units in Karnataka are in the stage of commissioning their unit. Microbiological, chemical and organoleptic analysis has shown that the product could be preserved up to a period of 6 months. The matured coconut water on the other hand could not be commercially launched in the market in spite of the research work conducted by the RRL, Trivandrum. Due to problems like collection, short time between collection and

processing, retention of the delicate flavor and low keeping quality. However, the matured coconut water has been commercially ex ploited for production of coconut vinegar based on the technology-developed by the Board in collaboration with CFTRI, Mysore. Presently there are about five units in Kerala and two units in Tamilnadu producing coconut vinegar on a small scale. Coconut today is a sugar containing juice obtained by tapping the unopened rapidity of the coconut palm. Apart from its traditional use as a alcoholic drink it is used for the manufacture of unrefined sugar and palm syrup. In India, the manufacture of unrefined sugar is concentrated in Tamilnadu and the product is commonly known as jiggery. The production of palm syrup is located in the islands. The palm jiggery produced from coconut today, however faces competition in the local markets in India from a similar product derived from the sap of Palmyra palm.

COCONUT MILK AND MILK BASES PRODUCTS


Today technology for the preservation and packing of canned coconut milk, coconut and spray dried coconut mild powder is available in the country. M/s Fresh Coconut Products (p) Ltd. was the first unit to venture in to the production of coconut milk with the technology developed by the Coconut Board and RRL (Regional Research Laboratory Trivandrum). The unit also produces coconut protein and skin milk bases beverage. M/s Shree Ram Coconut Products (p) Ltd. is another unit which had established a spray dried coconut mild powder unit is Karnataka. M/s

Dinesh Food has also recently ventured into the coconut milk production scenario in Cannonore, which packs coconut milk in pouch base s on the home scale process developed by RRLM Trivandrum.

CHAPTER - 4 MAKING COCONUT CULTIVATION PROFITABLE


The cost of production of coconut has been increasing considerably due to steep rise in labour, fertilizers and transportation. The research has indicated that cultivation of coconut by adding both organic and inorganic fertilizers could boost up annual income to the tune of Rs.7475 per ha compared to inorganic fertilizers alone. Management practices such as organic maturing, raising or cover crops in coconut basins and

incorporation in situ, growing high yielding varieties/hybrids, rationalizing fertilizer application by practices such as skipping. P when soil P is high, use of rock phosphate in acid soils and irrigation are some of approaches suggested for reducing the unit cost of production. Increased return from coconut holdings by adopting inter cropping, mixing cropping and mixed farming can also make coconut gardens with adult bearing palms under intensive cropping system can sustain a medium sized finally on average standards while under high intensity cropping system with irrigation facilities half a ha coconut requires about 150 man days per year while under the different inter/mixed cropping it may go upto 350 mandays. In the mixed farming system the labour utilization was observed to 900 mandays per ha a year. In mixed farming system, cultivation of fodder grasses and fodder legumes enriches the soil by adding more organic matter and nitrogen. It also checks soil erosion. Vermicular utilizing the farm waste has also proved effective for increased productivity with reduced

production cost. Integration of all the technologies would definitely bring about improved profitability. Rainfall has the maximum influence on the yield of coconut as well as copra out turn Good yield, big size and high content of copra of nuts harvested during February, May are due to their development stages falling in the months of June- September when the palm receives plentiful rainfall. The ill effects of summer on coconut and copra yield can be mitigated by irrigation the crop during the dry months. Copra and oil content ar e at maximum in 12 months old nut. By harvesting 11 months old nuts, 10 months old nut and 9 month old nut copra is lost to the extent of 6 percent, 16 percent and 33 percent respectively. The reduction in percent for oil is 5 and 33 percent for 11 and 9 month old respectively.

WORLD

SCENARIO

OF

COCONUT

PRODUCTION

AND

UTILIZATION
Although coconut is grown more then 80 countries in the world, the main four countries, i.e. Philippines, India, Indonesia and Srilanka, accounts for 78 percent of the area and production. Recently India has become the largest producer of coconut with the production of 1.79 million ha, which account for 15.51 percent share in production while its share in area is only 15.51 percent. In area, Indonesia is the leading country with 3.75 million ha under coconut while its share in production is 25.36 percent with estimated production of 13595 million nuts. Philippines ranks second position in are under 11935 million nuts respectively. Productivity is

highest in India having 7779 nuts per ha as against 3630 nuts per ha in Indonesia and 3859 nuts per ha in Philippines productivity in copra equivalent is also highest in India although average copra weight is highest in Thailand i.e. 300g per nut. Globally, nearly 50 percent of total coconut production is converted to copra and this percentage varies from country to country based upon consumption pattern in each country. In Philippines about 93 percent of coconut is converted to copra while in Indonesia it is 50 percent, and in India only about 30 percent of the total production is converted to copra. Coconut oil account for 5 percent of total vegetable oils, 40 percent of which come for Philippines and 22 percent from Indonesia while Indias Sahara is only 10 percent. Philippines also accounts for more than 50 percent of desiccated coconut production followed by Srilanka with its contribution to the tune of one third of total desiccated coconut production. In the normal years of production, 50 percent of total copra production in the world enter the exert market, either in form of copra or coconut oil. However, there has been downward trend in the trade of copra or oil and priorities have been shifted towards export of diversified products. Major procedure of coconut oil for export are Philippines (63 percent) followed by Indonesia. Malaysia and Srilanka, in recent years, export of oil cake (Copra meal) has shown a rising trend. Germany and consumer of oil cake in the world. India is exporting negligible quantity of

deoiled cake and coconut cake based cattle feed. India has also imported coconut oil cake for its solvent extraction units in recent years. Normally 62.5 percent of coconut oil price added with 35 percent of the coconut oil cake price is the market price of milling copra. Coconut oil had premium position is the market price of milling copra. Coconut oil has premium position but it is loosing its competitiveness owing to high competition from other vegetable oils, coconut oil for consumption as edible oil has major threat from imported palm oil due to its lower prices. However, coconut oil is the most preferred oil in toiletry sector in spite of its high price.

NATIONAL PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION


In India coconut is now grown under varying soil and climatic conditions in 17 states and 3 union territories. It is versatile in its adaptability to a wide range of soil conditions. From the West Coast of India it has now spread to interior areas in Tamilna du and even to Bastar in Madhya Pradesh, Kosi region in Bihar and North Eastern states viz. Tripura, Manipur and Nagaland. The coconut production in India, A decade back was 5807.9 million nuts from an area of 1.16 million ha. The all India coconut estimate clearly indicates that 91 percent of the total area and production of coconut in the country is concentrated in the four southern states viz. Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Among the four southern states Kerala accounts for largest area and production sharing 54.7 percent of total production followed by Tamilnadu having 16.6 percent

area and 31.1 percent production, where as Orissa share only 42.9 percent of he total production area and 2.4 percent of the total production which is a negligible one. In the case of productivity among the four southern states and Orissa, Tamilnadu tops with 14553 per nuts per ha followed by Andhra Pradesh with 13682 nuts per ha. The productivity in Kerala is only 6013 nut per ha while Karnataka and Orissa have the productivity of 5220 nuts per ha and 234.5 per ha respectively. High productivity in Tamilnadu is attributed to the adoption of improved cultivators and production technology. When we look back we fine that there has been unpresented increases in the area, production and productivity, in the last 45 years. Area under coconut has increased from 0.626 million ha in 1950-51 to 0.647 million ha in 1955-56 and subsequent the area has increased to 0.717, 0.883, 1.046, 1.069, 1.083, 1.225, 1.513, 1.795 million ha in 1960-61, 1965-66, 197071,1980-81, 1985-86, 1990-91, 1995-96. The production of million nuts increased from 3281 million nuts in 1950-51 to 4224, 4693,5053,6075, 5829, 5942, 6770, 9770 to 13962 million nuts during 1993-94, 1994-95, 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98, 1998-99 199900 2001-02, accounting for 186.6 percent increase in area and 325.6 percent increase in production. Growth rate in production has been 3.27 percent from the base year 1950-51 where as during the growth rate achieved in the production was 7.56 percent.

High rate of growth in the last decade could be attributed to the intensive developmental programmes implemented by the Board and state departments. The increase in productivity in the country during the last one-decade was about 54 percent. In 1983-84 the productivity was only 4983 nuts per ha which has subsequently increased to 7779 nuts in 1995 -96, while the productivity increased in Kerala from 3841 nuts in 1983 -84 to 6013 per has in 1995-96, in Tamilnadu the increase was from 9979 nuts per ha to 14553 nuts per has during the same period. The productivity increase in Andhra Pradesh was most significant. It increased from 4138 nuts per ha in 1995-96. In Karnataka the increase in productivity was, however, marginal from 5204 to 5220 nuts. The other states which recorded substantial increase in the productivity are Maharashtra, Pondichery and West Bengal.

TREND IN AREA, PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY OF COCONUT IN INDIA


Year Area % Increase (000 ha.) 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-2002 2002-2003 % Increase 1225.6 1234.2 1346 1425.5 1472.2 1513.9 1528.9 1537.7 1635.1 1713.8 1795.5 0.46 9.32 5.91 3.28 2.83 0.99 0.58 6.33 4.81 4.77 Production % Increase Productivity Decrease (Nuts per ha) 5524 5.81 14.01 17.49 9.57 3.65 3.91 11.52 6.53 11.06 5.02 5179 5401 5992 6357 6407 6593 7310 7324 7760 7779 Decrease (Million Nuts) 6770.3 6376.8 7269.9 8541.4 9358.5 9700.2 10079.6 112409 11974.7 13299.6 13967.6

Over the Period Growth Rate 569.9 3.89 7197.6 7.51 2255.3 3.48

Coconut is utilized both as tender nut and mature nut. Tender nut is consumed as a thirst quenching mineral drink. In West Bengal more than 80 percent of the total coconut production is consumed as tender nuts while in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu it accounts for 25 -40 percent of total production. In Kerala since copra making, oil extraction and coir making are wide spread, the consumption of tender coconut has increased significantly in the state. However, its consumption has to be increased further to at least 15 percent level on all India season could be avoided. In Kerala, the main coconut growing state, 46 percent of the production is obtained during the March-June. Under Kerala climate the demand for sof t drinks generally increases from November and slowly picks up reaching highest level during April-May. If substantial quantity of tender nuts is harvested during February-August will be naturally low which can balance the demand and supply of coconut. The mineral water boom in the country is a clear indication of the scope of tender nut as a natural soft drink in the cities and towns. There is scope for increasing the use of tender coconut through systematic campaign of the nutrient and medical values.

STATE PRODUCTION OF COCONUT


Coconut is one of the most important plantation crops in Orissa. The area under production of coconut in the state is 47.3 thousand ha and 246.8 million nuts respectively (1995-96). Orissa ranks first amongst the coconut producing states in India after the four traditional south Indian states. About 85 percent of the area under production coconut is located four undivided coastal districts of Puri, Cuttack, Balasore and Ganjam. Different authorities have studied the feasibility of further extension of coconut area in the state and reported about the potential area ranging between 1,00,000 to 1,50,000 ha. Based on the field level sample studies undertaken in 1995 96 the revised production estimate of coconut would be around 4133 million nuts. The district wise revised area and production of coconut is presented in Trade 5. In 1950-51, the area under production of coconut in Orissa was 4.5 thousand ha and 34.4 million nuts respectively, quinequennial changes in the area under production of coconut in Orissa. DISTRICTWISE AREA UNDER AND PRODUCTION OF COCONUT IN ORISSA
Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name of the District Balesore Bhadrak Jaipur Kendrapara Jagatsinghpur Cuttack Area (ha) 3918 2519 2129 2274 2100 3079 Production 40.747 25.19 14.903 20.446 21 30.79

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Nayagarh Khurda Puri Ganjam Gajapati Koraput Malkangiri Nawarangpur Rayagada Kalahandi Nuapara Bolangir Sonepur Phulbani Boudha Sambalpur Jharsuguda Deogarh Bargah Sundargarh Keonjhar Mayurbhanja Dhenkanal Angul ORISSA

4278 5974 6536 6166 1764 228 196 137 283 156 67. 290 161 286 89 190 106 252 252 656 642 1031 10321 1014 47293

25.668 47.792 78.432 55.494 14.112 1.368 0.98 0.68 1.415 0.936 0.335 2.03 1.43 0.445 0.445 0.95 0.53 1.008 0.406 3.28 3.852 8.454 8.454 6.054 413.374

The all Orissa coconut estimate clearly indicates that most of the coconut production in based on district like Balasore, Khurda, Puri and

Ganjam. Among the four major coconut producing district in the state, Puri ranks the highest in production area of 6436 ha followed by Ganjam, Khurda and Balasore with 6166 ha, 5974 ha and 3918 ha respectively. The production nuts is also higher in Puri having a maximum production of 78.432 million nuts, followed by Ganjam, Khurda and Balasore with a production of 55,494 and 40.747 million nuts respectively.

QUINQUENNIQL CHANGE IN AREA AND PRODUCTION OF COCONUT IN ORISSA


Year 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 % increase Over 1991-92 When we look back we find that there has been gradual incr ease in the area, and production, in the last 45 years. Area under coconut has increased from 4,500 ha in 1950-51 to 4,73,000 ha in 1995-96 and the Area (000 ha) 4.5 4.5 5 7.5 10.6 11.6 22.5 27.6 32.6 47.3 951.11% Production (million Nuts) 34.4 32.6 66.2 43.5 39.3 43.8 98.8 134.9 182 413.3 1101.66%

production during the period has risen, fallen for instance in 1950 -51, the production was 34.4 million nuts, which have fallen down to 32.6 million nuts in 1955-56. Again there is a rise to 62.6 million nuts during 1960 -61 and finally it has reached 413.3 million nuts during 1995 -96.
WORLD: AREA PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF COCONUT IN DIFFERENT COCONUT GROWING COUNTRIES
Sl No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Country Area (in'000) Hectares F.S. Micronesia 17 Fiji India Indonesia Malaysia Papua new guinea Philippines 65 1796 3745 280 260 3093 0.15 0.56 15.51 32.35 2.42 2.25 26.71 0.51 3.62 3.26 0.83 1.64 0.65 0.12 9.13 100 % share Production% share Producti- Productivity in million nuts 40 196.4 13968 13595 722 960 11935 287.6 2546 1130 346 1065 160 70 6576.55 53597.55 0.07 0.37 26.06 25.36 1.35 1.79 22.27 0.54 4.75 2.11 0.65 1.99 0.3 0.13 12.27 100 vity(nuts copra equipper hactarevalent (Kg/ha) 2353 3022 7777 3660 2579 3692 3859 4875 6076 2997 3604 5605 2133 5000 6022 4629 470 604 1166 726 515 738 964 975 1093 899 720 1130 639 1000 980

Solomon Islands 59 Srilanka 419 377 96 190 75 14 1092 11578

10. Thailand 11. Vanuatu 12. Vietnam 13. Western samoa 14. Palau 15. Others TOTAL

ALL INDIA FINAL ESTIMATE OF COCONUT (2002)


State/UT Area (000 ha) Andhra Pradesh Assam Goa Karnataka Kerala Maharashtra Orissa Tamil Nadu Tripura West Bengal 90 17.8 24.7 269.4 982.1 8.2 42.9 298.6 9.4 23.1 Percentage Share 5 1 1.1 15 54.7 0.5 2.4 16.6 0.5 1.3 1.4 0.2 2 100 Production (Million nuts) 1231.4 126.2 119 1406.5 5905.7 169.1 234.5 4346 4.7 279.4 85.4 26.5 33.8 13968 Percentage Productivity Share 8.8 0.9 0.9 10.1 42.3 1.2 1.7 31.1 0 2 0.6 0.2 0.2 100 (nuts per ha) 13682 7089 4817 5230 6013 20621 5466 14553 500 12095 3500 9464 16095 7779

Andaman & Nicobar 24.4 Lakshadweep Pondicherry All India Source : 2.8 2.1 1795.5

Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture,

Government of India.

CONCLUSION
Coconut grown in 1.7 million hectares in the country has provided sustainability to a million family and more than 10 million people are engaged in coconut related activities. Undoubtedly, coconut should receive ample research and development at exhibited in terms of increased production and productivity. During this decade product diversification has also received attention. Adaptability of coconut to wide range of climatic conditions coupled with range of trained manpower is the strength for opportunities in coconut industry. The significance of coconut plantation can be measured from the fact that it is grown in more than 80 countries in the world secondly; coconu t occupies a unique position in the socio-economic structure of the country. Thirdly, about 10 million people in the country are engaged in coconut cultivation, processing, marketings and trade related activities. The study highlights the profile at coconut industries and its economic significance. Additionally it discusses the coconut production and by products and its impact on Indian economy.

OBJECTIVES
This project report is prepared with the following objectives
To assess the economic importance of coconut industry. To study the production and utilization aspect of coconut world over. To study the comparison of the coconut production between the

states in India during 1950-1995.

The study is presented in two stages. In the first year the available secondary date are analyzed as second stage the data have been processed analyzed and compared and interpreted. The findings have been presented in table. The secondary data re collected from reports, journals and number of articles. The analysis in the study includes coding, editing and analyzing the data with the help of a statistical tool i.e. percentage analyzed. Being a social Science project the present study have certain limitation given. Certain data gaps as secondary data are not available for ce rtain periods. Time and cost constraints the scope of the study has been made specific. However the present study can be of immense help for further research.

FINDINGS
In the report, the researcher points out that the four leading coconut producing countries in the world are Philippines, India, Indonesia and Srilanaka. India is the largest producer of coconut with a production of 13,968 million nuts from an area of 1.79 million ha. Indonesia is the leading country in area taken four-coconut production. But the weight of an average Copra is highest in Thailand i.e. 300 gms. Per unit. The production of coconut is concentrated in the four southern states viz. Kerala, Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, which accounts for 91 percent of the total areas of coconut production. Kerala accounts for largest are and production sharing 54.7 percent of total are and 42.3 percent of the total production. But no. of productivity it is Tamil Nadu that tops

with 14553nuts/ha. High productivity in Tamil Nadu is attribut ed to the adoption of improved cultures and production technology. It has been a tremendous rise in are, production and productivity in the last 45 years. Area under coconut cultivation has increased form 0.626 million ha in 1950-51 to 1.795 million ha in 1995-96. The production of million nuts has increased from 3281 million nuts in 1950 -51 to 13.967 million nuts in 195-96. High rate of growth in the last decade could be attributed to the intensive development programmes implemented by the Board and state departments. In conclusion it is pertinent to prevent that there is bright future for coconut in India provide we prepare our self to meet the challenges. Available infrastructure, trained man power and wide range of climatic conditions available in the country are indicates of these resources have to be effectively utilized to harms the best for making coconut industry more competitive and dynamic.