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E-mail: bdea@buddhanet.net
Web site: www.buddhanet.net
Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc.
The Great Discourse on the Wheel of Dhamma
Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw
Dnnmmncnnrrnvn11nn 5u11n
Tni oni.+ uiscoinsi o +ni wniii oi un.xx.
Tni Viin.nii
M.n.si S.v.u.w
Translaled by U Ko Lay
Sonsored by
Mr & Mrs Lee Lee Kim & family
&
SukhiHolu Dhamma Iublicalion
SukhiHolu Dhamma Iublicalion
1998
Dn.xx.c.xx.vv.v.++.. Si++.
Pueiisnru rov rvrr uis+vieu+io e.
Sixni Ho+i Su nu
1A-z Iins+ Iioon, M.v.o Ii.z.
}.i. SSz6/, T.x. M.v.o }.v.
;o1 Ii+.iio }.v., Sii.oon
M.i.vsi.
Tii o ;o6z8 I.x o ;o6z;
zV }.i. M.+.o Kicnio
11joo Ain I+.x, Ii.o
M.i.vsi.
Tii o 8z;;118 I.x o 8z;;zz8
Ix.ii sixnino+i+qi.+nix.cox.xv
Iins+ vni+iu .u viniisniu i +ni Soci.iis+ Riviniic oi
+ni Uio oi inx.,
Dicixnin 181
Rivni+iu i Ki.i. Lixvin 1ooo coviis (18;)
Tnis nivisiu iui+io (1s+ vni+io) ooo coviis (18)
Covin: Ino+oon.vn oi . v.i+io (.n+is+ ixow)
i . +ixvii i Tn.ii.u.
Ini+iu nv M~juj~.~ |u~n, Sii.oon
oox i.voi+ .u covin .n+ uisio nv jo+ix~
Svici.i cniui+ Rinicc. T.x, No Cni Cni s Donii Lix
isn 8-8z-1z-8
The Venerable Mahasi Sayadav
as a _eslioner
al lhe Sixlh Council in Myanmar, 1j
Pun::cn1:os : Ec::sn nv 1nr snmr nu1non
1 Aniv.v.s. Si++.
2 Iiu.xi+.is oi Viv.ss.. Miui+.+io
3 Lox.un.xx. Si++.
4 To Ninn.. vi. +ni Nonii Iion+ioiu I.+n
5 In.c+ic.i .sic Ixincisis
6 In.c+ic.i Viv.ss.. Miui+.+io Ixincisis
7 Viv.ss.. Svini+i.i Ision+
8 A.++.i.xxn.. Si++.
9 n.n. Si++.
10 ioon.vnv oi M.n.si S.v.u.w
11 Cii.viu.ii. Si++.
12 n.n. Si++.
13 Hix.v.+. Si++.
14 M.n.si Anno.u 1
15 M.n.si Anno.u 2
16 M.iixv.vi++. Si++.
17 O +ni N.+ini oi Ninn.. (Ninn..v.+i S.xvi++. K.+n.)
18 Iinvosi oi In.c+isio K.xx.++n.. Miui+.+io
19 I.+icc.s.xivv.u.
20 Iin.nniu. Si++.
21 S.xx.v.n. Si++.
22 S.+iv.++n.. Viv.ss.. Miui+.+io Cni+icisx s Riviiis
23 S.xx.v.ninn.,.iv.
24 S.iiixn. Si++.
25 S.+iv.++n.. Viv.ss.. Miui+.+io
26 Sii.v.+. Si++.
27 Tiv.+.x. Si++.
28 V.xixx. Si++.
29 n.nx. Vin.n. Dn.xx.
j
Co+i+s
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Cn.v+in Oi
Inii.ci To Tni Discoinsi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1j
Tni D.+i Oi Tni Discoinsi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Tnnii Kius Oi I+nouic+ios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ounis.++. Au Woniuiv Iii.sinis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z1
Tni Ioonii _is+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z1
Tni Nonii _is+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zz
Tni Riici.+io Oi Tni ounis.++. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
M.xio His W.v To Ailn., Tni Gni.+ Asci+ic . . . . . . . . . . . . zj
T.xio Is+nic+ios Inox Tni Hoiv S.oi Ailn. . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
Ri.ssinio Wonus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z;
Avvno.cnio Tni S.oi Uu.x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
In.c+isio Ix+nixi Ais+ini+iis I Univii. Ionis+ . . . . . . . . z
Tnnii Sixiiis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
Ix+nixi Ais+ini+v Oi Cnisnio Tni Miu
Wi+n Tni Miu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
}n.ic Ansonv+io Oi Ris+n.iio Tni ni.+n . . . . . . . . . . . . j
Ix+nixi Ais+ini+v Oi I.s+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
M.n.'s Iinsi.sio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
6
Rion+ Ri.soio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
Ansonv+io I Iins+ }nl. Wniii A Ii.+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Risixv+io Oi Mi.is . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
Tni Iiion+ixi+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ix+nixi Ais+ini+v Is A Ionx Oi Siii-Mon+iiic.+io . . . . . . . . ;
Cosiuinio Tni _is+io Oi Givio Tni Iins+ Sinxo . . . . 8
Missio Tni I.+n Au Inii+io v Sivi D.vs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jo
Missio Tni Gni.+ Cn.ci v Oi Nion+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j1
}oiniv To Givi Tni Iins+ Sinxo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jz
Mii+io Wi+n Uv.x., Tni N.xiu Asci+ic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . jz
Tni+n Is No+ Sii Wni iiuiu v Miscociv+io . . . . . . . . j
Anniv.i A+ Isiv.+n.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j6
Tnis Tni iissiu Oi Co+iiiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6z
Cn.v+in Two
Sisiois Gn.+iiic.+io Is .si Au Viio.n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6j
Din.un.xx. Ninnl. Vlu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6;
A Low, Coxxo In.c+ici . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
No+ Tni In.c+ici Oi Tni Nonii Ois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
No+ Tiuio To Oi's Wiii.ni (A.++. S.ni+o) . . . . . . . . 6
C. Hoisinoiuins Iuiioi I Sisiois Iii.sinis` . . . . . . . . ;1
Ioin Kius Oi Iuiioici I Woniuiv I,ovxi+s . . . . . . . . ;1
In.c+ici Oi Siii-Mon+iiic.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;z
;
Mi+nous Oi Siii-Mon+iiic.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
Tni Nio.u. Scniv+ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
Invsic.i Siiiinio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;6
Inoii+iiss Iiion+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;6
Wnoo I+invni+.+io Oi Siii-Mon+iiic.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;8
Miscociv+io Rio.nuio Co+ixvi.+io O Iiiiio . . . . 8o
Tni Viiw Oi A Ti.cnin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8o
Tni Miuuii I.+n Tni In.c+ici Au Tni iiii+ . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
How To Avoiu Tni Two Ix+nixis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
A+iuo+i Ion Iuiois+inii Ioou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
How Visio Au Kowiiuoi Ani Diviioviu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
How Visio Au Kowiiuoi Avvi.n S+iv-v-S+iv . . . . . . . . 8
Kowiiuoi Diivis Tnnoion In.c+ici . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Tni Coxxi+.nv Ixvi..+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
S+.n+io Inox Av S+iv Acconuio
To Tni Diiii+ios Oi Tni Tix+s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tni Kiiis.s Ani C.ixiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j
Wnoo iiiii I Tni In.c+ici
Si.nn.+.v.nlxls. Dini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Tixvon.nv Ii++io Aw.v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
Anisio Oi Sivin-Kowiiuoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Iii+n.+ivi Ision+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1o1
Ri.iiz.+io Oi Ninnl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1o1
8
Cn.v+in Tnnii
I.vln.l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1oj
Ii.non.+io O Tni Iion+ioiu I.+n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1o;
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Sviicn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1o8
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Ac+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11o
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Liviiinoou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Siixio Wi.i+n Tnnoion Ui.wiii Mi.s
Is Wnoo Liviiinoou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Siixio Wi.i+n I Coso.ci Wi+n
Mon.i L.w Is Rion+ Liviiinoou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Iiion+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Miuiiiiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Wni+nin Tni Nonii Iion+ioiu I.+n
W.s Sinxoiziu I Di+.ii On No+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
How To Inouici Viv.ss.l S.+i, Ision+ Miuiiiiss . . . . 1zz
Ixvi..+io O Ision+ Moxi+.nv Coci+n.+io
(Viv.ss.l Kn.ix. S.xluni) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1z
Inovin Ision+ Kowiiuoi Oiv v Miuiii No+io . . . . . . . . 1z6
No Ision+ Wi+noi+ Miuiiiiss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1z;
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Coci+n.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1z
Assin+io Tn.+ Viv.ss.l C.o+ Diviiov
Wi+noi+ }nl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1o
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Viiw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
K.xx.ss.x.+. S.xxluini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Tni I.+n I Tnnii S+.ois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

How }nl.-Llnnis Diviiov Ision+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1z


Co+ixvi.+io O Misciii.iois Voii+io.i Ac+ivi+iis
(I.xi.x. S.xnln. Mi+nou) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ioiio Oi Viv.ss.l M.oo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
How Viv.ss.l S.xluni M.oo.s Ani Diviioviu . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;
How Viv.ss.l I.NN. M.oo.s Ani Diviioviu . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;
Tni I.+n Oi Rion+ Tnoion+ (S.xxl S.x.vv. M.oo.) . . . . 1
Cn.v+in Ioin
Tni+n Oi Siiiinio (Dixxn. S.cc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1jz
Cni+ic.i Ix.xi.+io Oi Tni Disv.ni+v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1j
Accin.+i Ilii Tix+ O Diiii+io Oi Dixxn. S.cc. . . . . 1j6
Tni Ioin Nonii Tni+ns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1j;
}l+i Dixxn. Siiiinio Oi Niw ioiio (Rinin+n) . . . . 1j
Viv.nilx. Dixxn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
S.Nxnln. Dixxn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16z
I.+icn.. Dixxn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Av.+iccn.. Dixxn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
I.niv.v. Dixxn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Nivv.niv.v. Dixxn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Misinv I A Mo+nin's Woxn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16j
Siiiinio Oi in+n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16;
Siiiinio Tnnoionoi+ Tni Wnoii Oi Liii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16;
1o
}.nl Dixxn. Siiiinio ic.isi Oi Aoiio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
M.n.l Dixxn. Di.+n As Siiiinio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;o
Sox. Dixxn. Sonnow As Siiiinio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;1
I.niuiv. Dixxn. L.xi+.+io As Siiiinio . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;z
Dixxn. Invsic.i I.i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;
Dox..ss. Gniii As Siiiinio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;
Uv.v.s. Disv.in As Siiiinio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;
Siiiinio Inox Associ.+io Wi+n Tni H.+iiii . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;j
Siiiinio Inox Siv.n.+io Inox Tni iioviu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;6
Siiiinio Inox No+ Gi++io Wn.+ Oi W.+s . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;;
Siiiinio Inox Tni Iivi Gnoivs Oi Gn.svio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1;8
Tni Uvlul.xxn.unls A+ Tni Moxi+ Oi Siiio . . . . . . . . 1;
Iivi Gnoivs Oi Gn.svio A+ Tni Moxi+ Oi Hi.nio . . . . 18z
Iivi Gnoivs Oi Gn.svio A+ Tni Moxi+ Oi Sxiiiio . . . . 18
Iivi Gnoivs Oi Gn.svio A+ Tni Moxi+ Oi I.+io . . . . . . . . 18
Iivi Gnoivs Oi Gn.svio A+ Tni Moxi+ Oi Toicnio . . . . 186
Iivi Gnoivs Oi Gn.svio A+ Tni Moxi+ Oi Tnixio . . . . 18
Siiiinio ic.isi Oi Tni Iivi Gnoivs Oi Gn.svio . . . . . . . . 1
Uvlul. Au Uvlul.xxn.un. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Cn.v+in Iivi
S.xiu.v. S.cc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zoz
Tni S+onv Oi S.xviv. N.o. Kio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zo
Tni S+onv Oi _ii Uv.ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zo6
How Inisn Rinin+n T.xis Ii.ci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z1
11
I n.nx. L.u Hi Sniis nion+,
I Iio's Ii, Too, Hi Iius Diiion+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z18
Tni S+onv Oi S.x.. Div. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zz6
A++.cnxi+ To Wiii Li.us To Rinin+ns
As A S.xi, A Doo, On A Cow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
A Dn.xx.-Ti.cnio S.v.u.w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zz
on A iii.io Ion Tni Six Oi Ion+v Kv.+s` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
No. Nvo's Sx.ii Mi.sini Oi Rici . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zj
Tinninii Liii Now As A Dixo, Now As A Cow . . . . . . . . . . . . z8
Rio.iio Hix. Liii Ai+in iio A Cow Au A Doo . . . . z
Ivi Rinin+n As A Cnowio Liz.nu Is Iossinii . . . . . . . . . . . . zjo
Klx. T.nl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zj1
n.v. T.nl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zj
Vinn.v. T.nl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zjj
Cn.v+in Six
Ninoun. S.cc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z61
How Ciss.+io Oi Cn.vio Is noion+ Anoi+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
M.oo. S.cc. Tni Tni+n Oi Tni I.+n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
Ixvosi+io O Tni Rion+ Viiw (S.xxl Dini) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z;o
Miui+.+io O Tni Ioin Tni+ns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z;o
How Micn Si+.x.v., (Kowiiuoi Tnnoion Hi.nio)` . . . . z;
Diviiovxi+ Oi Iinn.nnlo. M.oo.,
O+ninwisi C.iiiu Viv.ss.l M.oo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z;
1z
Nlx. As Dis+ic+ Inox Rv.,
Ix.xvii Givi v Tni iuun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z8o
Ans+i+ios Dinio Viv.ss.l Miui+.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z8;
Kowiiuoi Oi Tni Ioin Tni+ns Tnnoion
Viv.ss.l Nl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z8
How Tni Ioin Tni+ns Ani Coxvniniuiu Tnnoion
Aniv. M.oo. Aii A+ Tni S.xi Tixi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z1
Viv.ss.l Is Aiso A Cos+i+i+i+ Oi
Tni Ninoun.olxii I.+iv.ul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
Cn.v+in Sivi
S.cc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To Dixxn. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
Kicc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To Dixxn. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
K.+. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To Dixxn. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o;
S.cc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To S.xiu.v. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Kicc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To S.xiu.v. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1j
Ais.v. Kiiis. Ac+i.iiv Ixis+s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
K.+. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To S.xiu.v. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zz
S.cc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To Ninoun. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
Kicc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To Ninoun. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
K.+. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To Ninoun. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
S.cc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To M.oo. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
Kicc. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To M.oo. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z8
K.+. Nl. Wi+n Rio.nu To M.oo. S.ccl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
1
Cn.v+in Iion+
Wni Tni iuun. Diu No+ Auxi+
To Iiion+ixi+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
Acxowiiuoxi+ Oi iuun.noou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Cociiuio S+.+ixi+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
M.++in Ion Cosiuin.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j
Hionin Kowiiuoi Ion Tni Lis+iins
To Tni Ti.cnio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j
Riconus Oi Tni S.onlv.l, Tni Iins+ Gni.+ Coicii . . . .
How Tni Viin.nii Ko.NN. A++.iiu Hionin
Kowiiuoi Wniii Lis+iio To Tni Discoinsi . . . . jo
How M.oo. Nl. Is Dis+-Inii Au S+.iiiss . . . . . . . . . . . . jz
M.oo. N.. Ivoivis Oi+ Oi Viv.ss.l Nl. . . . . . . . . . . . . j
W.s No+ M.oo. Nl. A++.iiu v Avvnici.+io
Oi Tni Discoinsi` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j8
Acci.x.+io v Tni Div.s Au n.nx.s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . j
Tni I.n+nqi.xi Au Avvi.n.ci Oi
Sniio Lion+s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Iinvi+ U++in.ci Oi }ov v Tni iissiu Oi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Tni Viin.nii ANNlsi Ko.NN.'s Riqiis+
Ion Onui.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6z
No+ I.sv To Givi Uv Oi's Tn.ui+io.i iiiiis . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Ci++., Tni Wi.i+nv M. Au Nl.vi++. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6;
Diviiovio Divo+io.i Isvin.+io . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Onui.+io v 'Ini nixxni' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1
iios Wno A++.iiu A Hionin Kowiiuoi
Tnnoion Hi.nio Tni Iins+ Sinxo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;o
Hionin Kowiiuoi A++.iiu Oiv
Ai+in Ac+i.i In.c+ici . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;1
Svs+ix.+ic Giiu.ci Au In.c+ici
I Tni I.niv Iiniou Oi Tni S.s.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;z
Mini Lis+iio To Tni Discoinsi Is No+ Siiiicii+,
Ac+i.i In.c+ici Is Niiuiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;j
How Tni Viin.nii V.vv., I+c.,
S+novi Ion A++.ixi+s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;;
Six An.n.+s Iciiuio Tni iissiu Oi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
Tni Gni.+ Cociiuio In.vin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8o
^^^^^
Nanc iassa |nagataic aranaic sannasan|u!!nasa
Reverence lo lhe lessed One, lhe Ixalled One, lhe Sureme
Inlighlened One.
^^^^^
1j
Cn.v+in Oi
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni Niw Moo u.v oi T.w+n.ii, 1z, inxisi In..
Prrr~cr To Tnr Drscoursr
Today is lhe Nev Moon day of Tavlhalin. Slarling from loday,
ve vill exound lhe Iirsl Sermon of lhe lessed One, namely
lhe Dhammacakkaavauana Suua, commonly knovn as lhe
Greal Discourse on lhe Wheel of Dhamma.
eing lhe Iirsl Sermon ever delivered by lhe lessed One, il
is lhe mosl ancienl and lhe mosl slraighlforvard of His Teach-
ings. Rare is lhe erson, amongsl lhe laily of lhis uddhisl
counlry of lhe Union of urma, vho has nol heard of lhis dis-
course. Numerous are lhose vho have commiued lhis Suua
lo memory. There are in almosl every lovn and village, reli-
gious grous under lhe name of 'lhe Wheel of Dhamma Recil-
ing Sociely', devoled lo grou recilalion of lhe Suua and lis-
lening lo il. uddhisl follovers regard lhis Suua vilh greal
esleem and veneralion as il vas lhe Iirsl Disensalion of lhe
lessed One.
There are nov in exislence numerous Nissaqa or olher forms
of lranslalion, exlaining and inlerreling lhe Ili version of
lhe Suua in urmese, bul lhere is scarcely any vork vhich ex-
licilly shovs vhal raclical melhods are available from lhe
16
Suua and hov lhey could be ulilized by lhe ardenl, sincere
medilalors vho asire lo gain lhe Ialh and ils Iruilion.
We ourselves have exounded lhis Suua on numerous oc-
casions, emhasizing ils raclical alicalion lo medilalion.
We formally oened lhis (Rangoon) Medilalion Cenlre vilh
a discourse of lhis Suua and have reealedly delivered lhe
Sermon here. Ilsevhere loo, vherever a medilalion cenlre
vas nevly oened, ve alvays emloyed lhis Suua as an in-
augural discourse.
The uddhisl Canon has lhree main divisions lhe lhree as-
kels or Ti Piiaka in Ili:
1. lhe Suua Piiaka or lhe Sermon askel
z. lhe Vinaqa Piiaka or lhe Disciline askel
. lhe A|ni!nanna Piiaka or lhe Analylical and Ihilo-
sohical askel.
The Discourse on lhe Wheel of Dhamma is included in lhe
Suua Iilaka vhich is made u of lhe hve Nikyas, namely:
i. lhe Digna Nikqa
ii. lhe Majjnina Nikqa
iii. lhe Samquua Nikqa
iv. lhe Anguiiara Nikqa
v. lhe Knu!!aka Nikqa.
The Samyuua Nikya is divided inlo hve grous knovn as
Vaggas:
a. Sagintagga
b. Ni!natagga
1;
c. Knan!atagga
d. Sa|qaianatagga
e. Mantagga.
The Mahvagga is divided again inlo lvelve subgrous such
as Maggasamyuua, o||hangasamyuua, Saliallhnasamyuua,
elc, lhe lasl of vhich being Saccasamyuua.
The Wheel of Dhamma aears as lhe hrsl discourse in lhe
second tagga of lhe subgrou Saccasamyuua, and il vas re-
ciled as such in lhe roceedings of lhe Sixlh Greal Council. In
lhe Sixlh Greal Council edilion of lhe Ti Iilaka, il is recorded
on ages 68 ;1 of lhe lhird volume of lhe Samyuua Iilaka.
There lhe inlroduclion lo lhe Discourse reads: '|tam nc suiam,
ckam sanaqam. Thus have I heard. Al one lime.'
These vere lhe inlroduclory vords uuered by lhe Venerable
Anand vhen inlerrogaled by lhe Venerable Mahkassaa al
lhe Iirsl Council, held |usl over lhree monlhs aer lhe ass-
ing avay of lhe lessed One. The Venerable Mahkassaa
said lo lhe Venerable Anand:
Iriend Anand, vhere vas lhe Dhammacakkaavauana
Suua delivered` y vhom vas il delivered and on vhose ac-
counl` And hov vas il delivered` The Venerable Anand
ansvered, My Lord, Venerable Mahkassaa. Thus have I
heard. Al one lime lhe lessed One vas slaying al lhe Sage's
Resorl, lhe Ileasance of Isialana (vhere Iacceka uddhas
and Inlighlened Ones alighled from lhe sky), in lhe deer
sancluary, in lhe lovnshi of enares. Then lhe lessed One
addressed lhe grou of hve bhikkhus, These lvo exlremes,
18
hikkhus, should nol be folloved by one vho has gone forlh
from lhe vorldly life.
Tnr D~fr Or Tnr Drscoursr
This inlroduclion lacks a dehnile dale of delivery of lhe Dis-
course. As in all olher Suuas, lhe dale vas menlioned merely
as Once or Al one lime. A recise chronological dala as
lo lhe year, lhe monlh and lhe dale on vhich each Discourse
vas delivered vould have been very helful. ul chronologi-
cal delails vould aear lo be an encumbrance lo commiuing
lhe Suuas lo memory and lo lheir recilalion. Thus, il is nol
easy lo lace a recise dale for each of lhe Suuas.
Il should, hovever, be ossible lo delermine lhe exacl dale on
vhich lhe Dhammacakkaavauana Suua vas delivered, be-
cause il vas lhe Iirsl Sermon of lhe lessed One and also be-
cause reference could be made lo inlernal evidence rovided
in olher Suuas and lhe Vinaya Iilaka lhe uddha auained
Sureme Inlighlenmenl on lhe nighl of lhe full moon of
Kason in lhe year 1o of lhe Greal Ira. Then He reached lhis
Dhammacakkaavauana Suua in lhe early evening on lhe
full moon day of lhe folloving Wso. This year is 1z of lhe
urmese Ira, and il is exaclly zjo6 years since lhe uddha's
hnal Iarinibban. Taking inlo accounl His j years of Disen-
salion before Iarinibban, il lolals u lo zjj1 years. Thus, il
vas on lhe Iirsl Walch of lhe full moon of Wso zjj1 years
ago lhal lhis Iirsl Sermon vas delivered by lhe lessed One.
Weslern scholars regard lhis eslimalion as 6o years loo early.
1
According lo lheir calculalion, lhe Iirsl Sermon vas reached
only z1 years ago. As lhe evenl of lhe Turning of lhe Wheel
look lace in lhe Iasl, ve vould ralher go by lhe orienlal
calculalion and regard lhe Iirsl Sermon as being laughl zjj1
years ago.
The deer ark, in vhich lhe deer vere given sancluary, musl
have been a foresled area vilh deer roaming aboul harm-
lessly. Al resenl, hovever, lhe area has been deleled of
foresl lrees and has become an oen lain vilh cullivaled
alches surrounding human habilalions. In ancienl limes, Iac-
cekabuddhas lravelled in sace by suernalural overs from
lhe Gandhamdana Mounlain and descended lo earlh al lhis
isolaled lace. Likevise, lhe Inlighlened Ones of lhe dim asl
came here by magical ighls and alighled on lhe same sol lo
reach lhe Iirsl Sermon. Hence, lhe name Hermilage or lhe
Sage's Resorl.
The Inlroduclion lo lhe Suua says lhe lessed One reached
lhe Iirsl Sermon lo lhe grou of hve bhikkhus vhile he vas
slaying in lhe leasance of lhe deer sancluary in lhe lovn-
shi of enares. Thal is all lhe informalion lhal could be ob-
lained from lhe inlroduclory slalemenl, vhich is bare and
inadequale. Il needs some elaboralion and ve roose lo ro-
vide one by draving malerials from olher Suuas also.
Tnrrr KrNns Or INfronucfroNs
The inlroduclion lo a Suua exlains on vhose or vhal ac-
counl lhe Suua vas laughl by lhe uddha. Inlroduclions are
of lhree kinds:
zo
a. The inlroduclion vhich gives lhe background slory
of lhe remole dislanl asl. This rovides an accounl
of hov lhe odhisaua, lhe fulure uddha, fulhlled
lhe erfeclions required of an asiranl uddha
beginning from lhe lime of rohecy roclaimed
by Dankara uddha lo lhe lime vhen he vas
reborn in lhe Tusil Heaven as a king of lhe devas
named Selakelu. There is no need nor lime lo deal
more vilh lhis background slory of lhe dislanl asl.
b. The inlroduclion louching on lhe background slory
of lhe inlermediale eriod. This deals vilh lhe
accounl of vhal assed from lhe lime of exislence
in lhe Tusil Heaven lo lhe auainmenl of full
enlighlenmenl on lhe Throne of Wisdom. We shall
give auenlion lo lhis inlroduclion lo a considerable
exlenl.
c. The inlroduclion vhich lells of lhe recenl asl, |usl
receding lhe leaching of lhe Dhammacakka Suua.
This is vhal is learnl from lhe slalemenl Thus
have I heard. Al one lime. quoled above.
We shall nov deal vilh relevanl exlracls from lhe second cal-
egory of inlroduclions, draving our malerials from Sukhu-
mla Suua of Tika Niala, Anguuara Nikya, Iasarsi or
Ariyaariyesana Suua and Mahsaccaka Suua of Mlaan-
nsa, odhir|akumara Suua and Sangrava Suua of Ma||-
himaannasa, Iabba|| Suua, Iadhna Suua of Suuanila,
and many olher Suuas.
z1
Bonnrs~ff~ ANn Woriniv Pir~surrs
Aer lhe odhisaua had assed avay from Tusil Heaven, he
enlered lhe vomb of Mahmy Devi, lhe rincial queen
of King Suddhodana of Kailavauhu. The odhisaua vas
born on Iriday, lhe full moon of Kason in lhe year 68 of
lhe Greal Ira, in lhe leasure-grove of Sal lrees called lhe
Lumbini Grove and vas named Siddhauha. Al lhe age of
sixleen, he married Yasodhar Devi, daughler of Suabud-
dha, lhe Royal Masler of Devadaha. Thereaer, surrounded
by forly lhousand auendanl rincesses, he lived in en|oymenl
of kingly leasures in greal magnihcence.
He vas lhus vholly given over lo sensuous leasure amidsl
om and slendour. One day he came oul lo lhe royal lea-
sure grove for a garden feasl and merry-making accomanied
by auendanls. On lhe vay lo lhe grove, lhe sighl of a decreil,
aged erson gave him a shock and he lurned back lo his alace.
On a second occasion, he sav a sick and diseased erson and
he relurned greally alarmed. When he sel forlh for lhe lhird
lime, he vas agilaled in his hearl on seeing a dead man and
hurriedly relraced his sles. The alarm and agilalion fell by
lhe odhisaua vere described in lhe Ariyaariyesana Suua.
Tnr IcNoiir Qursf
The odhisaua ondered lhus: 'When oneself is sub|ecl lo old
age, lo seek and crave for vhal is sub|ecl lo old age is nol be-
huing. And vhal are sub|ecl lo old age` Wife and children,
slaves, goals and shee, fovls and igs, elehanls, horses,
zz
caule, gold and silver, all ob|ecls of leasures and luxuries,
animale and inanimale, are sub|ecl lo old age. eing oneself
sub|ecl lo old age, lo crave for lhese ob|ecls of leasures, lo be
enveloed and immersed in lhem is nol roer.
'Similarly, il does nol behl one, vhen oneself is sub|ecl lo dis-
ease and dealh, lo crave for sensual ob|ecls vhich are sub|ecl
lo disease and dealh. To go aer vhal is sub|ecl lo old age, dis-
ease and dealh (vhal is nol behuing and roer) conslilules
an Ignoble _esl (Anariqapariqcsana).
'eing oneself sub|ecl lo old age, disease and dealh, lo go in
search of lhal vhich is nol sub|ecl lo old age, disease and
dealh conslilules a Noble _esl (Ariqapariqcsana).'
Tnr Noiir Qursf
The Suua belov describes lhe odhisaua himself engaging al
hrsl in ignoble quesls:
Nov hikkhus, before my Inlighlenmenl vhile I vas only
an unenlighlened odhisaua, being myself sub|ecl lo birlh, I
soughl aer vhal vas also sub|ecl lo birlh, being myself sub-
|ecl lo old age, I soughl aer vhal vas also sub|ecl lo old age.
This vas a denuncialion or slriclure of lhe life of leasure
he had lived vilh Yasodhar amidsl lhe gay sociely of auen-
danl rincesses. Then, having erceived lhe vrelchedness of
such life, he made u his mind lo go in search of lhe Ieace of
Nibbana vhich is free from birlh, old age, disease and dealh.
z
He said, Having erceived lhe vrelchedness of being myself
sub|ecl lo birlh, old age, il occurred lo me il vould be huing
if I vere lo seek lhe incomarable, unsurassed Ieace of Nib-
bana, free from birlh, and old age.
Thus, il occurred lo lhe odhisaua lo go in quesl of Nibbnic
Ieace, vhich is free from old age, disease and dealh. Thal vas
a very laudable aim and ve shall consider il furlher lo see
clearly hov il vas so.
Suose lhere vas someone vho vas already old and de-
creil, vould il be vise for him lo seek lhe comany of an-
olher man or voman vho, like himself, vas aged and frail,
or of someone vho, lhough nol advanced in age, yel vould
surely lurn old in no lime` No, nol al all |udicious.
Again, for someone vho vas himself in declining heallh and
suering, il vould be quile irralional if he vere lo seek com-
anionshi in anolher vho vas ill and aicled vilh ainful
disease. Comanionshi vilh someone, vho lhough en|oy-
ing good heallh resenlly vould soon be lroubled vilh ill-
ness, vould nol be rudenl eilher. There are even lhose vho,
hoing lo en|oy each olher's comany for life, gel inlo ved-
lock and seule dovn. Unforlunalely, one of lhe arlners soon
becomes a bedridden invalid, imosing on lhe olher lhe oner-
ous duly of looking aer lhe slricken male. The hoe of a
hay married life may be dashed vhen one of lhe arlners
asses avay, leaving only sorrov and lamenlalion for lhe be-
reaved one. Ullimalely, each of lhe coule vould be faced
vilh lhe misery of old age, disease and dealh.
z
Thus il is exlremely unvise lo go aer sensual leasures
vhich are sub|ecl lo old age, disease and dealh. The mosl
noble quesl is lo seek oul vhal is nol sub|ecl lo old age, dis-
ease and dealh. Here, al lhis medilalion cenlre, il is a mauer
for gralihcalion lhal lhe devolees, monks and laymen, are all
engaged in lhe noblesl quesl lhe quesl for lhe unageing, lhe
unailing and lhe dealhless.
The Renuncialion Of The odhisaua
On his fourlh excursion lo lhe leasure-grove, lhe odhisaua
mel a monk. On learning from lhe monk lhal he had gone
forlh from a vorldly life and vas engage in merilorious ur-
suils, il occurred lo lhe odhisaua lo renounce vorldly life,
become a recluse and go in search of vhal is nol sub|ecl lo
old age, disease and dealh. When he had gained vhal he had
sel oul for, his inlenlion vas lo ass on lhe knovledge lo lhe
vorld so lhal olher beings vould also learn lo be free from
misery of being sub|ecled lo old age, disease and dealh. A
noble lhoughl, a noble inlenlion indeed!
On lhal same day and al aboul lhe same lime, a son vas born
lo lhe odhisaua's consorl Yasodhar Devi. When he heard lhe
nevs, lhe odhisaua murmured, An imedimenl (rnu|) has
been born, a feuer has been born. On learning of lhis remark,
lhe odhisaua's falher, King Suddhodana, named his nev-
born grandson Irince Rhul (Irince Imedimenl), hoing
lhal lhe child vould indeed rove lo be a feuer lo lhe odhi-
saua and become a hindrance lo his lan for renuncialion.
zj
ul lhe odhisaua had become averse lo lhe leasures of lhe
vorld. Thal nighl he remained unmoved, unsolaced by lhe
amusemenls rovided by lhe royal enlerlainers and venl inlo
an early slumber. The discouraged musicians lay dovn lheir
inslrumenls and venl lo slee lhere and lhen. On avakening
in lhe middle of lhe nighl, lhe sighl of recumbenl, sleeing
dancers reulsed lhe odhisaua and made his magnihcenl
alace aarlmenl seem like a cemelery hlled vilh corses.
Thus al midnighl lhe odhisaua venl forlh on lhe Greal Re-
liremenl riding lhe royal horse, Khandaka, accomanied by
his courlier, Channa. When lhey came lo lhe river Anom,
he cul o his hair and beard vhile slanding on lhe sandy
beach. Then aer discarding lhe royal garmenls, he ul on
lhe yellov robes oered by lhe rahma God, Ghanlikara, and
became a monk. The odhisaua vas only lvenly-nine lhen,
an age mosl favourable for lhe ursuil of leasures. Thal he re-
nounced vilh indierence lhe om and slendour of a sov-
ereign and abandoned lhe solace and comforl of his consorl,
Yasodhar, and relinues, al such a favourable age vhile slill
blessed vilh youlh is really ave-insiring.
M~krNc Hrs W~v To i4r~, Tnr Orr~f Ascrfrc
Al lhal lime lhe odhisaua vas nol yel in ossession of racli-
cal knovledge of leading a holy life so he made his vay lo
lhe lhen famous ascelic Alra vho vas no ordinary erson.
z6
Of lhe eighl slages of mundane jnnic auainmenls, Alra er-
sonally maslered seven slages u lo lhe jnna consciousness
dvelling on Nolhingness (akicaaqaiana jnna) and vas im-
arling lhis knovledge lo his uils.
efore lhe aearance of lhe uddha, such leachers vho had
achieved jnnic auainmenls served as lruslvorlhy maslers
giving raclical inslruclions on melhods of auainmenls. Alra
vas famous like a uddha in lhose limes. The Theravada lil-
eralure vas silenl aboul him. Hovever, in Lalilavislra, a bio-
grahical lexl of lhe norlhern School of uddhism, il vas re-
corded lhal lhe greal leacher had lived in lhe slale of Vesali
and lhal he had lhree hundred uils learning his doclrine.
T~krNc INsfrucfroNs FroV Tnr Hoiv S~cr, i4r~
Hov lhe odhisaua look inslruclions from lhe holy sage
Alra vas described lhus: Having gone forlh and become
a recluse in ursuil of vhal is holy and good, seeking lhe
sureme, incomarable Ieace of Nibbna, I drev lo vhere
Alra Klma vas and addressed him lhus: 'Iriend Klma, I
desire lo lead lhe holy life under your doclrine and disciline.'
When I had lhus addressed him, Alra relied, 'The Vener-
able friend Golama is velcome lo remain in lhis leaching. Of
such a nalure is lhis dhamma lhal in a shorl lime an inlelli-
genl man can realize for himself and abide in ossession of
vhal his leacher has realized as his ovn.' Aer lhese vords
of encouragemenl, Alra gave him raclical inslruclions on
lhe doclrine.
z;
Rr~ssurrNc Worns
Alra's slalemenl lhal his dhamma, if raclised as laughl,
could be realized soon by oneself as one's ovn vas very reas-
suring and insired conhdence. A ragmalic doclrine is lrusl-
vorlhy and convincing only if il could be realized by oneself
and in a shorl lime. The sooner lhe realizalion is ossible, lhe
more hearlening il vill be. The odhisaua vas lhus salished
vilh Alra's vords and lhis lhoughl arose in him: Il is nol
by mere failh lhal Alra announces lhal he has learned lhe
dhamma. Alra has surely realized lhe dhamma himself, he
knovs and underslands il.
Thal vas very lrue. Alra did nol cile any lexls as aulhorily.
He did nol say lhal he had heard il from olhers. He clearly
slaled lhal vhal he knev ersonally he had realized il him-
self. A medilalion leacher musl be able lo declare his convic-
lion boldly like him. Wilhoul having raclised lhe dhamma
ersonally, vilhoul having exerienced and realized il in a
ersonal vay, lo claim lo be a leacher in medilalion, lo reach
and vrile books aboul il aer |usl learning from lhe lexls on
medilalion melhods is mosl incongruous and imroer. Il is
like a hysician rescribing medicine nol yel clinically lesled
and lried by him, and vhich he dared nol adminisler on him-
self. Such reachmenls and ublicalions are surely undeend-
able and uninsiring.
ul Alra laughl boldly vhal he had realized himself. The
odhisaua vas fully imressed by him and lhis lhoughl
z8
arose in him: Nol only Alra has failh, I also have failh. Nol
only Alra has energy, mindfulness, concenlralion, visdom,
I also have lhem. Then he slrove for lhe realizalion of lhal
dhamma vhich Alra declared lhal he himself had learned
and realized. In no lime, lhe odhisaua learned lhe dhamma
vhich led him as far as lhe jnnic realm of Nolhingness.
He lhen aroached Alra Klma and enquired of him
vhelher lhe realm of Nolhingness, vhich lhe lauer had
claimed lo have realized il himself and lived in ossession of,
vas lhe same slage as vhal lhe odhisaua had nov reached,
Alra relied, This is as far as lhe dhamma leads, of vhich
I have declared lhal I have realized and abide in ils osses-
sion, lhe same slage as friend Golama has reached. Then he
uuered lhese vords of raise, Iriend Golama is a suremely
dislinguished erson. The realm of Nolhingness is nol easily
auainable yel Iriend Golama has realized il in no lime. Il is
lruly vonderful. Iorlunale are ve lhal ve should lighl uon
such a dislinguished ascelic comanion as your Reverence.
As I have realized lhe dhamma, so have you realized il, loo.
As you have learnl il, so have I learnl lo lhe same exlenl as
you. Iriend Golama is my equal in dhamma. We have a large
communily here. Come, friend, logelher lel us direcl lhis com-
any of disciles.
Thus Alra, lhe leacher, recognized lhe odhisaua, lhe uil,
as comlelely equal lo himself and honoured him by delegal-
ing lo him lhe lask of guiding one hundred and hy uils,
vhich number vas exaclly half of all lhe disciles Alra had.
z
ul lhe odhisaua slayed al lhe cenlre only for a shorl lime.
While slaying lhere lhis lhoughl came lo him: This doclrine
does nol lead lo aversion, lo abalemenl and cessalion of as-
sion, lo quiescence for higher knovledge and full enlighlen-
menl nor lo Nibbna, lhe end of suerings, bul only as far
as lhe auainmenl lo lhe realm of Nolhingness. Once lhere,
a long life of 6o,ooo vorld cycles follovs, and aer exiring
from lhere, one reaears in lhe Karma exislences and goes
lhrough lhe suerings again. Il is nol lhe doclrine of lhe un-
dying lhal I am looking for. Thus becoming indierenl lo
lhe raclice vhich led only lo lhe jnnic realm of Nolhingness,
lhe odhisaua abandoned il and dearled from Alra's medi-
lalion cenlre.
Aiiro~cnrNc Tnr S~cr Un~k~
Aer leaving Alra's lace, lhe odhisaua vas on his ovn
for some lime, ursuing lhe sureme alh of lranquilily lo
reach lhe undying slale of Nibbna. Then lhe fame of Udaka
or Rmauua (lhe son of Rama or discile of lhe sage Rma)
reached him. He drev lo vhere Udaka vas and soughl lo
lead lhe religious life under lhe dhamma and disciline of
lhe sage Rma. His exeriences under lhe guidance of Udaka,
hov Udaka exlained lo him lhe dhamma, hov lhe odhi-
saua vas imressed vilh lhe doclrine and raclised il, hov
he realized lhe dhamma and recounled lo Udaka vhal he
had gained, vere described in almosl exaclly lhe same vords
as before.
o
We have, hovever, lo nole carefully lhal Udaka or Rmauua,
as his name imlied, vas a son of Rma or a discile of Rma.
The sage Rma vas accomlished in going lhrough all lhe
eighl slages of jnna and reaching lhe highesl jnnic realm of
Neilher Iercelion nor Non-ercelion. Hovever, vhen lhe
odhisaua reached Udaka, lhe old sage Rma vas no more.
Therefore, in asking Udaka aboul Rma's auainmenls, he used
lhe asl lense 'patc!csi'. Hov far does lhis doclrine lead con-
cerning vhich Rma declared lhal he had realized il for him-
self and enlered uon il`
Then lhere is lhe accounl of hov lhis lhoughl occurred lo
lhe odhisaua: Il is nol only Rma vho had failh, induslry,
mindfulness, concenlralion and visdom. I also have lhem.
There is also lhis assage vhere il vas slaled lhal Udaka sel
him u as a leacher. You knov lhis doclrine and Rma knev
lhis doclrine. You are lhe same as Rma and Rma vas lhe
same as you. Come, friend Golama, lead lhis folloving and
be lheir leacher. And again lhe assage vhere lhe odhisaua
recounled, Udaka, lhe discile of Rma, allhough my com-
anion in lhe holy living, sel me u as his leacher.
These lexlual references make il aarenl lhal lhe odhisaua
did nol meel vilh lhe sage Rma, bul only vilh Rma's dis-
cile Udaka vho exlained lo him lhe doclrine raclised by
Rma. The odhisaua folloved lhe melhod as described by
Udaka and vas able lo realize lhe slage of Neilher Iercelion
nor Non-ercelion. Having learnl lhe doclrine himself and
realized and enlered uon lhe realm of Neilher Iercelion
1
nor Non-ercelion like lhe sage Rma, he vas requesled by
Udaka lo accel lhe leadershi of lhe comany.
Il vas nol menlioned in lhe lileralure of lhe Theravadins as
lo vhere Udaka resided and hov big his folloving vas, bul
Lalilavislra, lhe biograhy of lhe uddha of lhe norlhern ud-
dhism, slaled lhal Udaka's cenlre vas in lhe dislricl of Ra|a-
gaha and lhal he had a comany seven hundred slrong. Il is
lo be noled lhal al lhe lime of meeling vilh lhe odhisaua,
Udaka himself had nol yel auained lhe jnnic realm of neilher
Iercelion nor Non-ercelion. He exlained lo lhe odhi-
saua only vhal slage Rma had achieved. So vhen lhe odhi-
saua roved himself lo be lhe equal of his masler by realizing
lhe slage of neilher Iercelion nor Non-ercelion, he oered
lhe odhisaua lhe leadershi of lhe vhole comany. Accord-
ing lo lhe Tik (Sub-commenlary), Udaka laler slrove hard,
emulaling lhe examle sel by lhe odhisaua and hnally al-
lained lhe highesl jnnic slage of neilher Iercelion nor Non-
ercelion.
The odhisaua remained as a leader of lhe comany al lhe
cenlre only for a shorl lime. Il soon occurred lo him: This
doclrine does nol lead lo aversion, lo absence of assion nor
lo quiescence for gaining knovledge, sureme visdom and
Nibbna, bul only as far as lhe realm of Neilher Iercelion
nor Non-ercelion. Once lhere, a long life of 8,ooo vorld
cycles is en|oyed only lo come back again lo lhe exislence of
sensual leasures and be sub|ecled lo much suering. This is
nol lhe doclrine of lhe Undying lhal I long for. Then, becom-
ing indierenl lo lhe doclrine vhich leads only lo lhe realm
z
of Neilher Iercelion nor Non-ercelion, he gave il u and
dearled from Udaka's cenlre.
Pr~cfrsrNc ExfrrVr Ausfrrrfrrs IN Uruvri~ Forrsf
Aer he had le Udaka's cenlre, lhe odhisaua vandered
aboul in Magadha, searching on his ovn for lhe eerless
alh of lranquilily, lhe Undying Nibbna. During his van-
derings, he came lo lhe foresl of Uruvela near lhe big village
of Senanigam. In lhe foresl he sav lhe clear, oving river
Neran|ara. Ierceiving lhus a delighlful sol, a serene dense
grove, a clear, oving slream vilh a village nearby vhich
vould serve as an alms resorl, il occurred lo him: Truly, lhis
is a suilable lace for one inlenl on eorl, and he slayed on
in lhe foresl.
Al lhal lime lhe odhisaua had nol yel vorked oul a recise
syslem of righl slruggle. Auslerily raclices vere, of course,
videly knovn and in vogue lhroughoul India lhen. Concern-
ing lhese raclices, lhree similes came lo lhe mind of lhe
odhisaua.
Tnrrr SrVrirs
A log of snay vood freshly cul from a sycamore lree and
soaked in valer cannol roduce hre by being rubbed vilh a
similar iece of vel say vood or vilh a iece of some olher
vood. }usl so, vhile slill enlangled vilh ob|ecls of sensual de-
sires such as vife and family, vhile slill delighling in assion-
ale leasures and luslful desires are nol yel quieled vilhin

him, hovever slrenuously someone slrives, he is incaable of


visdom, insighl and incomarable full avakening. This vas
lhe hrsl simile lhal occurred lo lhe odhisaua.
Iven if lhe sycamore log is nol soaked in valer bul is slill
green and say, being freshly cul from lhe lree, il vill also
nol roduce any hre by friclion. }usl so, even if he has aban-
doned lhe ob|ecls of sensual desires such as vife and family
and lhey are no longer near him, if he slill delighls in lhoughls
of assionale leasures and luslful desires slill arise in him,
he is incaable of visdom, insighl or full avakening. This is
lhe second simile.
According lo lhe Commenlary, lhis simile has a reference lo
lhe raclices of rahma dhammika ascelics. Those rahmins
led a holy ascelic life from youlh lo lhe age of forly-eighl
vhen lhey venl back lo married life in order lo reserve
lhe conlinuily of lheir clan. Thus, vhile lhey vere raclis-
ing lhe holy life, lhey vould have been lainled vilh luslful
lhoughls.
The lhird simile concerns dry saless logs of vood nol soaked
in valer. These logs of dry vood vill kindle hre vhen rubbed
againsl one anolher. Similarly, having abandoned ob|ecls of
sensual desires and veaned himself of luslful lhoughls and
cravings, he is caable of auaining visdom, insighl and full
avakening, vhelher he raclises exlreme auslerily or vhelh-
er he slrives ainlessly vilhoul lorluring himself.

ExfrrVr Ausfrrrfv Or CrusnrNc Tnr MrNn Wrfn Tnr MrNn


Of lhe lvo melhods oen lo him according lo lhe lhird
simile, lhe odhisaua considered folloving lhe alh of aus-
lerily. Whal if nov vilh my leelh clenched and my longue
cleaving lhe alale, I should ress dovn, conslrain and crush
lhe nalurally arising lhoughl vilh my mind.
The Ili lexl quoled here corresonds vilh lhe lexl in lhe Vila-
kka Sandhna Suua, bul lhe melhod of crushing lhe lhoughl
vilh lhe mind as described in lhe Vilakka Sandhna Suua
vas one rescribed by lhe uddha aer auaining enlighlen-
menl. As such, il involves banishmenl of any luslful lhoughl
vhich arises of ils ovn accord by laking nole of ils aearance
as an exercise of Viassan medilalion in accordance vilh
lhe Saliallhna Suua and olher similar lexls. The melhod of
crushing lhe lhoughl vilh lhe mind as described here refers
lo lhe raclical exercises erformed by lhe odhisaua before
he auained lhe knovledge of lhe Middle Ialh and is, lhere-
fore, al variance vilh lhe Saliallhna melhod.
Hovever, lhe Commenlary inlerrelalion imlies sures-
sion of evil minds vilh moral minds. If lhis inlerrelalion
vere correcl, lhis melhod, being concordanl vilh Saliallhna
Suua and olher lexls, vould have resulled in Inlighlenmenl
for lhe odhisaua. Aclually, lhis melhod led him only lo ex-
lreme suering and nol lo uddhahood. Olher auslerily rac-
lices laken u aervards also led lhe odhisaua merely inlo
vrong alhs.
j
Auslerily raclice folloved by lhe odhisaua al lhal lime a-
eared lo be somevhal like lhal of mind annihilalion being
raclised novadays by follovers of a cerlain school of ud-
dhism. During our missionary lravels in }aan, ve visiled
a large lemle vhere a number of eole vere engaged in
medilalion exercises. Their medilalion melhod consisls of blol-
ling oul a lhoughl vhenever il arises. Thus emlied of mind
(menlal aclivily), lhe end of lhe road is reached, namely, Nolh-
ingness, i.e. Void. The rocedure is as follovs: young Maha-
yana monks sal cross-legged in a rov, aboul six in number.
The masler abbol venl round shoving lhem lhe slick vilh
vhich he vould beal lhem. Aer a vhile, he roceeded lo
adminisler one blov each on lhe back of each medilalor. Il
vas exlained lhal vhile being bealen il vas ossible lhal lhe
mind disaeared allogelher, resulling in Nolhingness. Truly
a slrange doclrine. This is in realily annihilalion of lhoughl
by crushing vilh mind, resumably lhe same lechnique em-
loyed by lhe odhisaua lo crush lhe lhoughl vilh lhe mind
by clenching lhe leelh. The eorl roved very ainful for him
and sveal oozed oul from under his armils, bul no suerior
knovledge vas auained lhen.
Jn4Nrc AisorifroN Or Rrsfr~rNrNc Tnr Brr~fn
Then il occurred lo lhe odhisaua: Whal if I conlrol resi-
ralion and concenlrale on lhe brealhless jnna` Wilh lhal
lhoughl, he reslrained lhe in-brealhing and oul-brealhing of
lhe moulh and nose. Wilh lhe holding of resiralion lhrough
6
lhe moulh and nose, lhere vas a roar in lhe ears due lo lhe
rushing oul of lhe air |usl like lhe bellovs of a frog making
a roaring noise. There vas inlense bodily suering, bul lhe
odhisaua vas relenlless. He held lhe in-brealhings and oul-
brealhings, nol only of lhe moulh and nose, bul also of lhe
ears. As a resull, violenl vinds rushed u lo lhe crovn of lhe
head, causing ains as if a slrong man had slil oen lhe head
vilh a mallel, as if a overful man vere lighlening a rough
lealher slra round lhe head. Violenl vinds ushed around
in lhe belly causing misery like being carved u by a shar
bulcher's knife. And lhere vas inlense burning in lhe belly
as if roasled over a il of burning coals. The odhisaua, over-
come hysically by ain and suering, fell dovn in exhaus-
lion and lay slill. When lhe deilies sav him lying rone, some
of lhem said, The monk Golama is dead. Olher deilies said,
The monk Golama is nol yel dead, he is dying. Again olher
deilies said, The monk Golama is neilher dead nor dying. He
is |usl lying slill, dvelling in lhe slale of Arahalshi. In sile
of all lhese ainful eorls, no higher knovledge vas gained.
ExfrrVr Ausfrrrfv Or F~sfrNc
So il occurred lo lhe odhisaua: Whal if I slrive slill harder,
enlirely abslaining from food` Knoving his lhoughls, lhe
deilies said, Ilease, Lord Golama, do nol enlirely abslain
from food. If you do so, ve shall inslill heavenly nourishmenl
lhrough lhe ores of your skin. You shall remain alive on lhal.
Then il came lo lhe odhisaua: If I claim lo be comlelely
;
fasling and lhese deilies should inslill heavenly nourishmenl
lhrough my ores and I should lhus be suslained, lhal vould
be for me a lie. The odhisaua re|ecled lhe deilies oer saying
lhal he refused lo be in|ecled vilh divine nourishmenl.
Then he decided lo lake less and less nourishmenl, only as
much bean sou as lhe hollov of a hand could hold. Living
on aboul hve or six soonfuls of bean sou each day, his body
reached lhe slale of exlreme emacialion. The limbs vilhered,
only skin, sinevs and bones remained. The verlebrae became
exosed in uneven lums and roluberances. The videly dis-
ersed bones |uued oul, resenling an ungainly, ghaslly a-
earance |usl as in lhe ainlings of lhe odhisaua undergo-
ing exlreme auslerily. The gleam of lhe eyes shrunk dovn
in lheir sockels, looked like lhe reeclion from valer sunk
dee in lhe vell. The scal had shrivelled u like a green, so
gourd vilhered in lhe sun. The emacialion vas so exlreme
lhal if he auemled lo feel lhe belly skin, he encounlered lhe
sinal column, if he fell for lhe sinal column, he louched lhe
belly skin. When he auemled lo evacuale lhe bovel or make
valer, lhe eorl vas so ainful lhal he fell forvard on lhe
face, so veakened vas he lhrough lhis exlremely scanly diel.
Seeing lhis exlremely emacialed body of lhe odhisaua, lhe
eole said, The monk Golama is a black man. Olhers said,
The monk Golama has a brovn comlexion. Again olhers
said, The monk Golama has lhe brovn-blue colour of lhe
loredo hsh. So much had lhe clear, brighl, golden colour of
his skin delerioraled.
8
M4r~'s Prrsu~sroN
While lhe odhisaua slrove hard and raclised exlreme aus-
lerily lo subdue himself, Mra came and addressed lhe odhi-
saua ersuasively in beguiling vords of ily, Iriend Golama,
you have become very lhin and assumed an ungainly aear-
ance. You are nov in lhe resence of dealh. There is only one
chance le in a lhousand for you 'lo live'. Oh, Iriend Golama!
Try lo remain alive. Life is beuer lhan dealh. If you live, you
can do good deeds and gain merils.
The merilorious deeds menlioned here by Mra have no refer-
ence vhalsoever lo lhe merils accruing from acls of charily
and observance of recels, raclices vhich lead lo lhe alh
of liberalion nor lo merils vhich resull from develomenl of
Viassan Insighl and auainmenl of lhe Ialh.
Mra knev of only merils gained by leading a holy life ab-
slaining from sexual inlercourse and by vorshiing lhe holy
hres. These raclices vere believed in lhose limes lo lead lo
a noble, roserous life in fulure exislences. Hovever, lhe
odhisaua vas nol enamoured of lhe blessings of exislences
and he relied lo Mra, I do nol need even an iola of lhe
merils you seak of. You should go and lalk of lhe meril lo
lhose vho sland in need of il.
A misconcelion had arisen concerning lhis uuerance of lhe
odhisaua lhal he vas nol in need of any merils, lhal is 'meri-
lorious deeds are lo be abandoned, nol lo be soughl for nor

carried oul by one seeking release from lhe rounds of exis-


lence like lhe odhisaua'. A erson once aroached me and
soughl elucidalion on lhis oinl. I exlained lo him lhal vhen
Mra vas lalking aboul meril, he did nol have in mind lhe
merils vhich accrued from acls of charily, observance of re-
cels, develomenl of insighl lhrough medilalion or auain-
menl of lhe Ialh. He could nol knov of lhem. Nor vas lhe
odhisaua in ossession lhen of recise knovledge of lhese
merilorious raclices, il is only lhal lhe odhisaua vas lhen
engaged in auslerily exercises laking lhem lo be noble ones.
Thus, vhen lhe odhisaua said lo Mra 'I do nol need any
meril', he vas nol referring lo lhe merilorious raclices lhal
lead lo Nibbna, bul only lo such deeds as vere believed
lhen lo assure one of leasurable exislences. The Commenlary
also suorls our viev. Il slales lhal in saying 'I do nol need
any meril', lhe odhisaua meanl only lhe meril vhich Mra
soke of, namely, acls of meril vhich are roduclive of fulure
exislences. Il can lhus be concluded lhal no queslion arises
of abandonmenl of merilorious raclices vhich vill lead lo
Nibbna.
Al lhal lime, lhe odhisaua vas slill vorking under lhe de-
lusion lhal auslerily exercises vere lhe means of auaining
higher knovledge. Thus, he said, This vind lhal blovs can
dry u lhe valers of lhe river. So vhile I slrive slrenuously,
vhy should il nol dry u my blood` And vhen lhe blood
dries u, bile and hlegm vill run dry. As lhe esh gels
vasled loo, my mind vill become clearer: mindfulness, con-
cenlralion and visdom vill be more hrmly eslablished.
o
Mra vas also under lhe vrong imression lhal abslenlion
from food vould lead lo liberalion and higher knovledge. Il
vas lhis anxiely lhal molivaled him lo coax lhe odhisaua
avay from folloving lhe alh of slarvalion. Wilh lhe same
vrong nolion, a grou of hve ascelics vailed uon him, auend-
ing lo all his needs, hoing lhal lhis abslemious raclice vould
lead lo uddhahood as lhey inlended lo be lhe hrsl reciienls
of lhe sermon on liberalion. Il is clear, lherefore, lhal il vas
a universal belief in lhose days lhal exlreme self-morlihcalion
vas lhe righl alh vhich vould lead lo Inlighlenmenl.
Rrcnf Rr~soNrNc
Aer leading lhe life of exlreme self-morlihcalion for six years
vilhoul any benehcial resulls, lhe odhisaua began lo reason
lhus: Whalever ascelics or brahmins in lhe asl had fell ain-
ful, racking, iercing feelings lhrough raclising self-lorlure,
il may equal lhis, my suering, nol exceed il.
Wherever ascelics or brahmins in lhe fulure vill feel ainful,
racking, iercing feelings lhrough lhe raclice of self-lorlure,
il may equal lhis, my suering, nol exceed il, vhalever ascel-
ics or brahmins in lhe resenl feel ainful, racking, iercing
feelings lhrough lhe raclice of self-lorlure, il may equal lhis,
my suering, nol exceed il. ul, by lhis gruelling ascelicism
I have nol auained any dislinclion higher lhan lhe ordinary
human achievemenl, I have nol gained lhe Noble One's knov-
ledge and vision vhich could urool dehlemenls. Mighl lhere
be anolher vay lo Inlighlenmenl aarl from lhis alh of lor-
lure and morlihcalion`
1
Then lhe odhisaua lhoughl of lhe lime vhen, as an infanl,
he sal alone under lhe shade of a rose-ale lree, enlered and
absorbed in lhe hrsl jnnic slage of medilalion vhile his royal
falher, King Suddhodhana, vas busily engaged in ceremonial
loughing of lhe helds nearby. He vondered vhelher lhis
hrsl jnnic melhod vould be lhe righl vay lo lhe Trulh!
AisorifroN IN Frrsf Jn4N~ Wnrir AN INr~Nf
The odhisaua vas born on lhe full moon of Kason (Aril). Il
aeared lhal lhe royal loughing ceremony vas held some-
lime in Nayon or Wso (May or }une) a monlh or lvo laler.
The infanl child vas laid dovn on a couch of magnihcenl
clolhes under lhe shade of a rose-ale lree. An enclosure
vas lhen formed by seuing u curlains round lhe lemorary
nursery vilh royal auendanls reseclfully valching over lhe
royal infanl. As lhe royal loughing ceremony rogressed in
magnihcenl om and slendour, vilh lhe king himself ar-
laking in lhe feslivilies, lhe royal auendanls vere dravn lo
lhe slendid scene of aclivilies going on in lhe nearby helds.
Thinking lhal lhe royal infanl had fallen aslee, lhey le
him lying secure in lhe enclosure and venl avay lo en|oy
lhemselves in lhe feslivilies. The infanl odhisaua, on look-
ing around and nol seeing any auendanl, rolled u from lhe
couch and remained sealed vilh his legs crossed. y virlue of
habil-forming raclices lhrough many lives, he inslinclively
slarled conlemlaling on lhe incoming, oulgoing brealh. He
vas soon eslablished in lhe hrsl jnnic absorlion characler-
ised by hve fealures, namely, lhoughl concelion, discursive
lhinking, ralure, |oy and concenlralion.
z
The auendanls had been gone for some lime nov. Losl in
lhe feslivilies of lhe occasion, lhey vere delayed in relurning.
When lhey relurned, lhe shadovs lhrovn by lhe lrees had
moved vilh lhe assage of lime, bul lhe shade of lhe rose-
ale lree under vhich lhe infanl vas le lying vas found lo
have remained sleadfasl on lhe same sol. The infanl odhi-
saua vas siuing molionless on lhe couch. King Suddhodana,
vhen informed, vas slruck by lhe seclacle of lhe unmoving
shadov of lhe rose-ale lree and lhe slill, siuing oslure of
lhe child. In greal ave, he made obeisance lo his son.
The odhisaua recalled lhe exerience of absorlion in lhe
resiralion jnna he had gained in childhood and he lhoughl,
Mighl lhal be lhe vay lo Trulh` Iolloving u on lhal
memory, lhere came lhe recognilion lhal resiralion jnna
raclice vas indeed lhe righl vay lo Inlighlenmenl.
The jnnic exeriences vere so leasurable lhal lhe odhisaua
lhoughl lo himself: Am I afraid of (lrying for) lhe leasures
of jnna` Then he lhoughl: No, I am nol afraid of (lrying
for) such leasures.
RrsuVifroN Or Mr~is
Then il occurred lo lhe odhisaua: Il is nol ossible lo auain
lhe jnnic absorlion vilh a body so emacialed. Whal if I lake
some solid food as I used lo lake` Thus nourished and slrenglh-
ened in body, I'll be able lo vork for lhe jnnic slale. Seeing
him arlaking of solid food, lhe grou of hve ascelics misun-

derslood his aclion. They vere formerly royal aslrologers and


counsellors vho had redicled, al lhe lime of his birlh, lhal he
vould become an Inlighlened Noble One, a uddha.
There vere eighl royal aslrologers al lhe courl lhen. When
asked lo redicl vhal lhe fulure held for lhe royal infanl,
lhree of lhem raised lvo hngers each and made double ro-
nouncemenls lhal lhe infanl vould grov u lo be a Univer-
sal Monarch or an Omniscienl uddha. The remaining hve
raised only one hnger each lo give a single inlerrelalion lhal
lhe child vould mosl undoubledly become a uddha.
According lo lhe Mla Iannsa Commenlary (Vol.z, .z),
lhese hve courl aslrologers forsook lhe vorld before lhey gol
enchained lo lhe household life and look lo lhe foresl lo
lead a holy life, bul lhe uddhavamsa Commenlary and some
olher lexls slaled lhal seven aslrologers raised lvo hngers
each giving double inlerrelalions vhile lhe youngesl rah-
min, vho vould in lime become lhe Venerable Kondaa,
raised only one hnger and made lhe dehnile rediclion lhal
lhe child vas a fulure uddha.
This young rahmin, logelher vilh lhe sons of four olher rah-
mins, had gone forlh from lhe vorld and banded logelher
lo form 'The Grou of Iive Ascelics', availing lhe Greal Re-
nuncialion of lhe odhisaua. When nevs reached lhem laler
lhal lhe odhisaua vas raclising exlreme auslerilies in lhe
Uruvela Grove, lhey |ourneyed lhere and became his auen-
danls, hoing 'vhen he has achieved Sureme Knovledge, he
vill share il vilh us. We vill be lhe hrsl lo hear lhe message'.

When lhe hve ascelics sav lhe odhisaua arlaking solid food,
lhey misunderslood his aclion and become disaoinled.
They lhoughl: If living on a handful of ea sou had nol led
him lo higher knovledge, hov could he execl lo auain lhal
by ealing solid food again` They mis|udged him, lhinking
lhal he had abandoned lhe slruggle and reverled back lo lhe
luxurious vay of life lo gain riches and ersonal glory. Thus,
lhey le him in disgusl and venl lo slay in lhe deer sanclu-
ary in lhe lovnshi of enares.
Tnr ENircnfrNVrNf
The dearlure of lhe hve ascelics aorded lhe odhisaua lhe
oorlunily lo slruggle for hnal liberalion in comlele solilude.
The Mla Iannasa (Vol. z, g. 1z) gives a descrilion of hov,
vorking alone vilh no one near him for a full forlnighl, sealed
on lhe lhrone of Wisdom (under lhe lree of Inlighlenmenl), he
auained Omniscience, lhe Inlighlenmenl of a uddha.
The odhisaua had gone forlh al lhe age of lvenly-nine and
senl six years raclising exlreme auslerily. Nov al lhe age
of lhirly-hve, slill youlhful and in good heallh, vilhin heen
days of resumlion of regular meals, his body had hlled u
as before and regained lhe lhirly-lvo hysical characlerislics
of a Greal eing. Having lhus buill u slrenglh and energy
again lhrough normal nourishmenl, lhe odhisaua raclised
lhe in-brealhing, oul-brealhing medilalion and remained ab-
sorbed in lhe bliss of lhe hrsl jnna, vhich vas characlerized
by lhoughl-concelion, discursive lhinking, ralure, |oy and
j
one-oinledness of mind. Then he enlered lhe second slale of
lhe jnna, vhich vas accomanied by ralure, |oy and concen-
lralion. Al lhe lhird slale of lhe jnna, he en|oyed only |oy and
one-oinledness of mind and al lhe fourlh slage, equanimily
and clear mindfulness (one-oinledness).
Iarly on lhe full moon day of Kason (Aril) in lhe year 1o of
lhe Greal Ira, i.e. zjj1 years ago, counling back from lhe year
1z of lhe urmese Ira, he sal dovn under lhe o Tree (lhe
odhi Tree) near lhe big village of Senanigma availing lhe
hour of going for alms food. Al lhal lime, Su|l, lhe daughler
of a rich man from lhe village, vas making rearalions lo
give an oering lo lhe lree-siril of lhe o lree. She senl her
maid ahead lo lidy u lhe area under lhe sread of lhe holy
lree. Al lhe sighl of lhe odhisaua sealed under lhe lree, lhe
maid lhoughl lhe deily had made himself visible lo receive
lheir oering in erson. She ran back in greal excilemenl lo
inform her mislress.
Su|l ul lhe milk rice vhich she had cooked early in lhe
morning in a golden bovl vorlh a hundred lhousand ieces
of money. She covered lhe same vilh anolher golden bovl.
She lhen roceeded vilh lhe bovls lo lhe fool of lhe banyan
lree vhere lhe odhisaua remained sealed and ul lhe bovls
in lhe hand of lhe odhisaua, saying, May your vishes ros-
er like mine have. So saying, she dearled.
Su|l, on becoming a maiden, had made a rayer al lhe
banyan lree: If I gel a husband of equal rank and same casle
vilh myself and my hrsl born is a son, I vill make an oer-
6
ing. Her rayer had been fulhlled and her oering of milk
rice lhal day vas inlended for lhe lree deily in fulhllmenl
of her ledge. Hovever, laler vhen she learnl lhal lhe odhi-
saua had gained Inlighlenmenl aer laking lhe milk rice of-
fered by her, she vas over|oyed vilh lhe lhoughl lhal she had
made a noble deed of lhe grealesl meril.
The odhisaua lhen venl dovn lo lhe river Neran|ara and
had a balh. Aer balhing, he made lhe milk rice oered by
Su|l inlo forly-nine ellels and ale il. The meal over, he
discarded lhe golden bovl inlo lhe river saying: If I am lo
become a uddha loday, lel lhe bovl go uslream. The bovl
dried uslream for a considerable dislance againsl lhe svi
oving currenl, and on reaching lhe abode of lhe snake king,
Kala, sank inlo lhe river lo lie al lhe bouom vilh lhe bovls of
lhe lhree revious uddhas.
Then lhe odhisaua resled lhe vhole day in lhe foresl glade
near lhe bank of lhe river. As evening fell, he venl lovards
lhe o lree, meeling on lhe vay a grasscuuer named Souhiya
vho gave him eighl handfuls of grass. In India holy men used
lo reare a lace lo sil and slee on by sreading sheaves of
grass. The odhisaua sread lhe grass under lhe lree on lhe
easlern side. Then vilh lhe solemn resolulion Never from
lhis seal vill I slir unlil I have auained lhe sureme and ab-
solule visdom, he sal dovn cross-legged on lhe grass cover
facing easl.
Al lhis oinl Mra made his aearance and conlesled for lhe
seal under lhe o lree vilh a viev lo oose lhe odhisaua's
;
resolulion and revenl him from auaining uddhahood. y
invoking lhe virlues he had accumulaled lhrough lhe ages,
fulhlling lhe Ten Ierfeclions such as Charily, elc., he over-
came lhe moleslalions sel u by Mra before lhe sun had sel.
Aer lhus vanquishing Mra, in lhe hrsl valch of lhe nighl
lhrough jnnic medilalions, lhe odhisaua acquired lhe knov-
ledge of revious exislences, in lhe middle valch of lhe nighl,
lhe divine eye, and in lhe lasl valch of lhe nighl, he conlem-
laled on lhe lav of Deendenl Originalion folloved by de-
velomenl of Insighl inlo lhe arising and ceasing of lhe hve
aggregales of grasing. This Insighl gave him in succession
lhe knovledge erlaining lo lhe four Holy Ialhs, resulling h-
nally in full Inlighlenmenl or Omniscience.
Having become a fully Inlighlened One, he senl seven days
on lhe Throne of Wisdom under lhe o lree and seven days
each al six olher laces, forly-nine days in all, en|oying lhe bliss
of lhe fourlh slale of Iruilion (Iruils of Arahalshi) and on-
dering long uon his nevly found syslem of Lav (Dhamma).
ExfrrVr Ausfrrrfv Is A ForV Or Srir-Morfrrrc~froN
The hh veek vas senl under lhe goalherd (Ajjap|a) anyan
lree and vhile lhere he reecled on his abandonmenl of lhe
auslerily raclices: Delivered am I from lhe auslerily rac-
lices vhich cause hysical ain and suering. Il is vell lhal
I'm delivered of lhal unrohlable raclice of auslerily. Hov de-
lighlful il is lo be liberaled and have gained Inlighlenmenl.
8
Mra, vho vas closely folloving every lhoughl and aclion of
lhe uddha, ever alerl lo accuse him of any lases, immedi-
alely addressed lhe uddha: Aarl from lhe auslerily rac-
lices, lhere is no vay lo urify beings, Golama has devialed
from lhe alh of urily. While slill dehled, he vrongly be-
lieves he has achieved urily.
The uddha relied: All lhe exlreme raclices of auslerily
emloyed vilh a viev lo achieve lhe Dealhless (lhe Immorlal
Slale) are useless, unrohlable much as lhe cars, addles and
ushing oles are useless on land, on lhe sand banks. Iully
convinced lhal lhey are unrohlable, I have abandoned all
forms of self-morlihcalion.
The Commenlary also menlions lhal exlreme raclices such
as scanly diel, scanly clolhing, conslilule self-lorlure. Thal ex-
lreme auslerily is a form of self-morlihcalion should be care-
fully noled here for beuer comrehension of lhe Dhamma-
cakka Suua vhen ve deal vilh il.
CoNsrnrrrNc Tnr QursfroN Or OrvrNc Tnr Frrsf SrrVoN
Having senl seven days each al seven dierenl laces, lhe
uddha venl back lo lhe goalherd's banyan lree on lhe hielh
day. Sealed under lhe lree, he considered: To vhom should
I besl leach lhe doclrine hrsl` Who vould quickly comre-
hend lhe Dhamma` Then il occurred lo him: There is Alra
Klma vho is learned, skilled and inlelligenl. He has long
been a erson having bul liule dusl of dehlemenl in lhe eye

of lhe vise. Whal if I leach lhe doclrine lo Alra Klma hrsl`


He vould quickly comrehend lhis Dhamma.
Il is signihcanl lhal lhe uddha had lried hrsl lo seek oul
someone vho vould undersland his leaching quickly. Il is of
ulmosl imorlance lo inaugurale nev medilalion cenlres vilh
devolees vho are endoved vilh failh, zeal, induslry, mind-
fulness and inlelligence. Only such devolees as are in osses-
sion of lhese virlues can achieve enelralive Insighl quickly
and become shining examles for olhers lo follov. Devolees
lacking in failh, zeal, induslry, mindfulness and inlelligence
or enfeebled in mind and body lhrough old age can hardly
be source of insiralion lo olhers.
When ve hrsl launched on leaching lhe Saliallhna Vias-
san Medilalion, ve vere forlunale in being able lo slarl o
vilh lhree ersons (my relalives aclually) endoved vilh un-
usual facullies. They acquired lhe knovledge of avareness of
arising and assing avay (u!aqa||aqa na) vilhin lhree days
of raclice and vere over|oyed vilh seeing lighls and visions
accomanied by feelings of ralure and bliss. Such seedy al-
lainmenls of resulls have been resonsible for lhe vorldvide
accelance and disseminalion of lhe Mahasi Viassan Medi-
lalion lechnique.
Thus, il vas lhal lhe uddha lhoughl of leaching his hrsl
sermon lo someone vho vould quickly gras il and vhen
he considered Alra Klma, a deily addressed him: Lord,
Alra Klma had assed avay seven days ago. Then knov-
ledge and vision arose lo lhe uddha lhal Alra had indeed
jo
assed avay seven days ago and had, by virlue of his jnnic
achievemenls, auained lhe Shere of Nolhingness (Akinca-
ayalana rahma Ilane lhe Slale of Immalerialily).
MrssrNc Tnr P~fn ANn FrurfroN Bv SrvrN D~vs
Greal is lhe loss lo Alra of Klma family, bemoaned lhe
uddha. As Alra vas develoed enough, he vould have
readily underslood lhe leaching of lhe uddha. He could
have gained lhe Ialh and auained Arahalshi inslanlly, bul
his early dealh had derived him of lhis oorlunily. In lhe
Shere of Nolhingness, vhere only menlal slales exisl vilhoul
any forms, he could nol have benehued even if lhe uddha
had gone lhere and laughl him lhe Dhamma. The life san in
lhe Shere of Nolhingness is also very long, being sixly lhou-
sand vorld cycles. Aer exiry lhere he vould aear again
in lhe human vorld, bul vould miss lhe leachings of lhe
uddhas. As a common vorldling he vould do lhe rounds of
exislence, somelimes sinking lo lhe nelher vorld lo face greal
suerings. Thus lhe uddha bemoaned lhal lhe loss of Alra
vas very greal.
Iven novadays lhere are eole, vho are deserving of higher
auainmenls, bul ass avay vilhoul an oorlunily of hear-
ing lhe Saliallhna Medilalion raclice as exounded by us,
or having heard lhe Dhamma lhus laughl bul had nol yel
made lhe eorl lo ul il inlo raclice. The good eole assem-
bled here nov lo hear vhal ve are leaching should see care-
j1
fully lhal such rare oorlunilies for lheir ulimenl nol be
lhrovn avay.
MrssrNc Tnr Orr~f Cn~Ncr Bv ONr Nrcnf
Then lhe uddha lhoughl of leaching lhe hrsl sermon lo
Udaka, son (uil) of lhe greal sage Rma. Again a deily ad-
dressed lhe uddha: Lord, Udaka Rmauua assed avay
lasl nighl. The knovledge and vision arose lo lhe uddha
lhal lhe hermil Udaka had indeed died lhe revious nighl
in lhe hrsl valch and by virlue of his jnnic achievemenls
had auained lhe slale of neilher Iercelion nor Non-erce-
lion (Nevasanasayalana rahma Ilane). This shere is
also a slale of immalerialily, a formless slale and ils life san
exlends lo eighly-four lhousand vorld cycles. This is lhe no-
blesl, lhe loiesl of lhe lhirly-one lanes of exislence, bul lhe
Dhamma cannol be heard lhere. On aearing again in lhe
human vorld, Rmauua could inslanlly auain Arahalshi if
he could bul lislen lo lhe Dhamma because he vas already
so highly develoed. Unforlunalely, he vould nol gel such
an oorlunily again, having missed il by dying one nighl
loo early. The uddha vas lhus moved again lo uuer in ily:
Greal is lhe loss lo lhe hermil Udaka, lhe son (uil) of lhe
greal sage Rma.
Then lhe uddha lhoughl again lo vhom he should give his
hrsl sermon. The grou of hve hikkhus aeared in his
divine vision and he sav lhem living lhen in lhe deer Sanclu-
ary in lhe lovnshi of enares.
jz
JourNrv To Orvr Tnr Frrsf SrrVoN
The lessed One sel oul for enares. Some revious Inlighl-
ened Ones had made lhe same |ourney by means of miracles.
Our Lord Golama uddha, hovever, roceeded on fool for
lhe urose of meeling lhe naked ascelic Uaka on lhe vay,
lo vhom he had somelhing lo imarl.
The uddhavamsa Commenlary and lhe }alaka commenlary
slale lhal lhe lessed One slarled on lhe |ourney on lhe full-
moon of Wso. As lhe deer Sancluary in enares vas eigh-
leen qcjanas (1z miles) avay from lhe o Tree and lhe lessed
One made lhe |ourney on fool, lhe dislance could nol have
been covered in one day unless done miraculously. Il vould
be aroriale, lherefore, if ve hxed lhe slarling dale on lhe
sixlh vaxing of Wso.
MrrfrNc Wrfn Ui~k~, Tnr N~krn Ascrfrc
The lessed One had nol gone far from lhe odhi Tree on
lhe vay lo Gya (six miles) vhen he came uon lhe naked
ascelic Uaka, a discile of lhe greal leader Nalauua of lhe
Naked Secl. On seeing lhe lessed One, Uaka addressed
him, Your counlenance, friend, is clear and serene, your com-
lexion is ure and brighl. In vhose name have you gone
forlh` Who is your leacher` Of vhose leaching do you ro-
fess` The lessed One relied:
Sa|||ni|n sa||ati!unanasani
Sa||csu Dnanncsu anupa|iuc
j
Sa||injanc iannkknaqc tinuuc
Saqam A|iaqa kanu!!iscqqam.
I am one vho has overcome all.
(vhile common vorldlings are aecled by vhal is seen or
heard, ending u in suering, lhe lessed One lranscends all
and remains serene, counlenance clear).
Who knovs all,
I am one vho has overcome all,
I am delached from all lhings,
Having abandoned everylhing, oblained emancialion,
y lhe deslruclion of desire.
Having by myself gained knovledge,
Whom should I call my masler`
The lessed One made knovn his slalus more emhalically
as follovs:
na nc cariqc auni I have no leacher,
sa!isc nc na tpjaii One like me is nol,
sa!ctakasnim |ckasnin In lhe vorld of men and
gods,
nauni nc paiipugga|c None is my counlerarl.
Uon lhis Uaka vondered vhelher lhe lessed One had
gained lhe Arahalshi. The uddha relied:
Anam ni aran |ckc I, indeed, am lhe Arahal in
lhe vorld
Anam saun anuuarc The leacher vilh no eer,
|kcnni Sannsan|u!!nc The sole uddha, sureme,
enlighlened
j
Siii|nicsani Ni||uic All assions exlinguished,
I have gained Ieace, Nibbna.
Uaka lhen asked lhe lessed One vhere he vas bound for
and on vhal urose. To slarl in molion lhe Wheel of Lav, I
go lo lhe Ksis' lovn. In lhe vorld of blind beings, I shall beal
lhe drum of lhe Dealhless, relied lhe lessed One. Uon
lhis Uaka queried: y lhe manner in vhich you rofess
yourself, are you vorlhy lo be an inhnile Conqueror` And
lhe uddha said:
M!is tc jin ncnii, Yc pau Asatakknaqam
jii nc papak Dnann, Tasannanupaka jinc.
Those are lhe Conquerors vho, like me, have reached lhe ex-
linclion of cankers. I have vanquished all lhoughls, ideas, no-
lions of evil (sinfulness). Ior lhal reason, Uaka, I am a }ina,
a Conqueror, a viclorious One.
Uaka belonged lo lhe secl of naked ascelics under lhe leader-
shi of Nalauu vho vas addressed by his disciles as }ina,
lhe Conqueror. The lessed One in his rely exlained lhal
only lhose vho have really exlinguished lhe cankers, eradi-
caled lhe dehlemenls, like him, are enlilled lo be called a }ina.
Trufn Is Nof SrrN WnrN BirNnrn Bv MrscoNcrifroN
Aer lhis declaralion by lhe lessed One lhal he vas lruly an
inhnile Conqueror, lhe naked ascelic Uaka muuered: Il may
be so, friend, shook his head and giving vay lo lhe lessed
One, venl on his |ourney.
jj
Il is imorlanl lo nole carefully lhis evenl of Uaka's meel-
ing vilh lhe uddha. Here vas Uaka coming face lo face
vilh a lruly Inlighlened One, bul he did nol realize il. Iven
vhen lhe lessed One oenly confessed lhal he vas indeed
a uddha, Uaka remained skelical because he vas hold-
ing fasl lo lhe vrong beliefs of lhe naked ascelic secl. In
lhese days loo, lhere are eole vho follov vrong alhs,
refuse lo believe vhen lhey hear aboul lhe righl melhod
of raclice. They shov disresecl lo and lalk disaragingly
of lhose raclising and leaching lhe righl melhod. Such
mis|udgmenls arising oul of false imression or oinion
should be carefully avoided.
Iven lhough he did nol evince comlele accelance of
vhal lhe uddha said, Uaka aeared lo have gone avay
vilh a cerlain amounl of failh in lhe uddha, as he came
back lo lhe uddha aer some lime. Aer leaving lhe
uddha, he laler gol married lo Caa (Chava), a hunler's
daughler, and vhen a son vas born of lhe marriage, he
became veary of lhe household life and became a recluse
under lhe lessed One. Iraclising lhe uddha's leaching,
he gained lhe slage of Once-relurner, lhe Angmi. On
assing avay, he reached lhe Realm of Suddavsa Avih,
(rahm World), vhere he soon auained Arahalshi. Iore-
seeing lhis benehcial resull vhich vould accrue oul of his
meeling vilh Uaka, lhe lessed One sel oul on fool on
his long |ourney lo enares and ansvered all lhe queslions
asked by Uaka.
j6
Arrrv~i Af Isri~fn~N~
When lhe grou of hve ascelics sav lhe lessed One al a
dislance coming lovards lhem, lhey made an agreemenl
amongsl lhemselves saying, Iriends, here comes lhe monk
Golama vho had become self-indulgenl, given u lhe slrug-
gle and gone back lo a life of luxury, lel us nol ay homage
lo him nor go lo greel him and relieve him of his bovl and
robes. Hovever, as he is of noble birlh, ve vill reare a seal
ready for him. He vill sil dovn if he is so inclined.
As lhe lessed One drev near lo lhem, lhey found lhemselves
unable lo kee lo lheir agreemenl because of his illuslrious
glory. One venl lo greel him and receive lhe bovl, lhe second
one look lhe robe and lhe lhird one reared lhe seal for him.
Anolher broughl valer lo vash his feel vhile lhe olher ar-
ranged a fool slool. ul lhey all regarded lhe lessed One as
lheir equal and addressed him as before by his name Golama
and irreverenlly vilh lhe aellalion my friend. The lessed
One sal on lhe reared seal and soke lo lhem:
hikkhus, do nol address my by lhe name Golama nor as
friend. I have become a Ierfecl One, vorlhy of lhe greal-
esl reverence. Suremely accomlished like lhe uddhas
of yore, fully Inlighlened. Give ear, hikkhus, lhe Dealh-
less has been gained, lhe Immorlal has been von by me.
I shall inslrucl you and leach you lhe Doclrine. If you
raclise as inslrucled by me, you vill in a shorl lime, and
in lhe resenl life, lhrough your ovn direcl knovledge,
realize, enler uon and abide in Arahalshi, lhe Nibbna,
j;
lhe ullimale and lhe noblesl goal of lhe Holy life for lhe
sake of vhich clansmen of good families go forlh from
lhe household life inlo homeless one.
Iven vilh lhis bold assurance, lhe grou of hve hikkhus re-
mained incredulous and relorled lhus: Iriend Golama, even
vilh lhe abslemious habils and slern auslerilies vhich you
raclised before, you did nol achieve anylhing beyond merilo-
rious auainmenls of ordinary men (you vere nol able lo lran-
scend human limilalions. uuarinanussa!nanna) nor auain
lhe sublime knovledge and Insighl of lhe Noble Ones vhich
alone can deslroy lhe dehlemenls. Nov lhal you have aban-
doned lhe auslerily raclices and are vorking for gains and
benehls, hov vill you have auained such dislinclion, such
higher knovledge`
This is somelhing lo lhink over. These hve hikkhus vere
formerly courl aslrologers vho vere fully convinced and had
forelold, soon aer his birlh, lhal lhe young odhisaua vould
dehnilely auain sureme Inlighlenmenl. ul vhen lhe odhi-
saua gave u rivalion and slern exerlions, lhey had vrongly
lhoughl lhal uddhahood vas no longer ossible. Il could be
said lhal lhey no longer believed in lheir ovn rohecy. They
remained incredulous nov lhal lhe lessed One declared un-
equivocally lhal he had von lhe Dealhless, had become a
fully Inlighlened One, because lhey held lo lhe vrong nolion
lhal exlreme auslerily vas lhe righl vay lo Inlighlenmenl.
Likevise, novadays, loo, once a vrong nolion has been enler-
lained, eole hold fasl lo il and no amounl of shoving lhe
lrulh vill svay lhem and make lhem believe. They even lurn
j8
againsl lhose vho aueml lo bring lhem lo lhe righl alh
and seak irreverenlly and disaragingly of lheir vell-vish-
ers. One should avoid such errors and self-decelion.
Wilh greal comassion and ily for lhe grou of hve hik-
khus, lhe lessed One soke lo lhem lhus: hikkhus, lhe Ier-
fecl One like lhose of yore is nol vorking for vorldly gains,
has nol given u lhe slruggle, has nol abandoned lhe lrue
alh vhich eradicales lhe dehlemenls, he has nol reverled lo
luxury and declared again lhal he had become a Ierfecl One,
vorlhy of greal reverence, suremely accomlished and fully
Inlighlened. He urged lhem again lo lislen lo him.
A second lime, lhe grou of hve hikkhus made lhe same
relorl lo him. The lessed One, realizing lhal lhey vere slill
suering from illusion and ignorance, and oul of ily for
lhem gave lhem lhe same ansver for lhe lhird lime.
When lhe grou of hve hikkhus ersisled in making lhe
same remonslrance, lhe lessed One soke lhus: hikkhus,
onder uon lhis. You and I are nol slrangers. We had lived
logelher for six years and you had vailed uon me vhile I
vas raclising exlreme auslerilies. Have you ever knovn me
seak like lhis` The hve hikkhus reecled on lhis. They
came lo realize lhal he had nol soken lhus before because
he had nol auained Higher Knovledge lhen. They began lo
believe lhal he musl have acquired lhe Sureme Knovledge
nov lo seak lo lhem lhus. They relied reseclfully, No,
Reverend Sir. We have nol knovn you seak like lhis before.
j
Then lhe uddha said, hikkhus, I have become a erfecl
one vorlhy of lhe grealesl resecl (Aranan), suremely ac-
comlished like lhe uddhas of yore (Taingaia), by my ovn
eorl I have become fully Inlighlened (Sannsan|u!!nc),
have gained lhe Immorlal, lhe Dealhless (anaiana!nigaiam).
Give ears, hikkhus, I shall inslrucl you and leach you lhe
Doclrine. If you raclise as inslrucled by me, you vill in no
lime and in lhe resenl life, lhrough your ovn direcl knov-
ledge, realize, enler uon, and abide in Arahalshi, lhe Nib-
bna, lhe ullimale and lhe noblesl goal of lhe Holy life for lhe
sake of vhich clansmen of good families go forlh from lhe
household life inlo lhe homeless one. Thus lhe lessed One
gave lhem lhe assurance again.
The hve hikkhus gol inlo a recelive mood lhen and re-
ared lhemselves lo lislen reseclfully lo vhal uddha vould
say. They availed vilh eagerness lo receive lhe knovledge lo
be imarled lo lhem by lhe lessed One.
Whal ve have slaled so far conslilules relevanl evenls selecled
from lhe Inlermediale Ioch of Inlroduclions.
We nov come lo lhe Recenl Iasl, inlroduced by lhe vords
Thus have I heard, vhich gives an accounl of hov lhe
lessed One began lo sel in molion lhe Wheel of Dhamma by
giving lhe hrsl Sermon.
The lime vas lhe evening of lhe full moon of Wso zjj1 years
ago as counled back from lhis urmese era 1z. The sun vas
aboul lo sel bul slill visible as a brighl, red shere, lhe moon,
6o
brighl yellov, vas |usl coming u in lhe easlern skies. The
Commenlary on lhe Mahvagga Samyuua menlions lhal lhe
hrsl sermon vas given vhile bolh lhe sun and lhe moon vere
simullaneously discernible in lhe sky.
The audience consisled of only lhe hve hikkhus from lhe
human vorld, bul lhe rahms numbered 18 crores, and lhe
devas, according lo lhe Milinda Iah, innumerable. Thus
vhen lhe hve hikkhus logelher vilh rahms and devas,
vho vere forlunale enough lo hear lhe hrsl Sermon, vere re-
seclfully availing vilh ral auenlion, lhe lessed One began
leaching lhe Dhammacakka Suua vilh lhe vords: Dtc nc,
Bnikknatc, ani pa||ajiicna na sctiia||.
hikkhus, one vho has gone forlh from lhe vorldly life
should nol indulge in lhese lvo exlreme arls (orlions,
shares) vhich vill be resenlly exlained (|nc !tc ania).
Here, ania according lo lhe Commenlary inlerrelalions, con-
noles grammalically kciinsa or |nga vhich means share or
orlion or arls of lhings. Hovever, in viev of lhe doclrine
of lhe Middle Ialh laughl laler in lhe Sermon, il is arori-
ale also lo render Anla as exlreme or end. Again, arl or
orlion of lhings should nol be laken as any arl or orlion
of lhings, bul only lhose arls lhal lie on lhe lvo oosile
ends or exlremes of lhings. Hence, our lranslalion as lvo ex-
lreme arls or orlions. The Singhalese or Siamese commen-
laries render il as |anaka kciinasa meaning 'bad orlion' or
arl, somevhal similar lo lhe old urmese lranslalion of bad
lhing or raclice.
61
Thus il should be noled briey hrsl lhal One vho has gone
forlh from lhe vorldly life should nol indulge in lvo exlreme
arls or raclices.
Kaianc !uc. Yc cqam kncsu knasukna|iknuqcgc ninc,
gnnc, pcinujjanikc, anariqc, anaunasamniic. Yc cqam
auaki|anainnuqcgc !ukknc, anariqc, anauna-samniic.
Whal are lhe lvo exlreme arls or raclices` Delighling in de-
sirable sense-ob|ecls, one ursues sensuous leasure, makes ef-
forls lo roduce such leasures and en|oys lhem. This exlreme
arl (raclice) is lov (bad), vulgar being lhe habil of village and
lovn folks, common and earlhly, being indulged in by ordinary
common vorldlings, nol clean, ignoble, hence nol ursued by
lhe Noble Ones, rohlless and nol erlaining lo lhe lrue inler-
esls one is seeking aer. Such ursuil aer sensuous leasures
is one exlreme arl (raclice) vhich should be avoided.
Ileasurable sighl, sound, smell, lasle and louch conslilule de-
sirable sense-ob|ecls. Taking delighl in such ob|ecls of lea-
sure and en|oying lhem hysically and menlally, one ursues
aer lhese sensuous leasures. This raclice, vhich forms
one exlreme arl is lov, vulgar, common, ignoble and unrof-
ilable and should nol, lherefore, be folloved by one vho has
gone forlh from lhe vorldly life.
The olher exlreme arl or raclice vhich is concerned vilh al-
lemls lo inicl lorlure on oneself can resull only in suering.
Abslaining from food and clolhing vhich one is normally used
lo is a form of self-lorlure and is unrohlable. Nol being clean
6z
nor noble, lhis raclice is nol ursued by lhe Noble Ones. Nei-
lher does il erlain lo lhe lrue inleresls one is seeking aer.
Thus raclice of self-morlihcalion, lhe olher exlreme arl of
raclice, should also be avoided. Avoiding lhese lvo exlremes,
one arrives al lhe lrue alh knovn as lhe Middle Ialh.
Tnus Tnr Birssrn ONr CoNfrNurn
|ic knc, Bnikknatc, u|nc anic anupganna najjnin paiipa!
Taingaicna a|nisan|u!!n cakknukarani, na karani,
upasanqa, a|niqa, san|c!nqa, ni||nqa samtauaii.
hikkhus, avoiding lhese lvo exlreme arls, lhe lessed
One had gained lhe Sureme Knovledge of lhe Middle Ialh,
vhich roduces vision, roduces knovledge and leads lo lran-
quilily (slilling of dehlemenls), higher knovledge and Nib-
bna, lhe end of all suering.
Avoiding lhe lvo exlremes,
Re|ecling vrong alhs,
The Middle Ialh is reached.
Walking lhis lrue Ialh,
Inlighlenmenl is gained,
Nibbna realized.
Hov lhe Middle Ialh, vhich is also knovn as lhe Iighlfold Ialh,
roduces vision, knovledge and hov il leads lo lranquilily and
Inlighlenmenl vill be deall vilh in our sermon nexl veek.
6
May all you good eole resenl in lhis audience, by virlue
of having given reseclful auenlion lo lhis greal discourse on
lhe Turning of lhe Wheel of Dhamma logelher vilh ils Inlro-
duclions, be able lo avoid lhe vrong alh, namely, lhe lvo ex-
lremes and follov lhe Noble Iighlfold Middle Ialh, lhereby
gaining vision and higher knovledge vhich vill soon lead lo
lhe realizalion of Nibbna, lhe end of all suerings.
Sa!nu! Sa!nu! Sa!nu!
6
Cn.v+in Two
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni 6+n W.xio oi Tn.uiovi+, 1z, inxisi In..
This discourse vas delivered by us beginning on lhe Nev
Moon of Tavlhalin vilh lhe inlroduclion, vhich had laken
mosl of our lime. We could deal only vilh lhe oening lines
of lhe Suua. Today, ve vill ick u lhe lhread from lhere.
Dtc nc Bnikknatc ani pa||ajiicna na sctiia||.
hikkhus, one vho has gone forlh from lhe vorldly life
should nol indulge in lhese lvo exlreme arls (lhings,
raclices) vhich vill be resenlly exlained.
And vhy shouldn'l he indulge in lhese` ecause lhe main
urose of one vho has gone forlh from lhe vorldly life is lo
rid himself of such dehlemenls as lusl and anger. This ob|ec-
live could nol be achieved by indulging in lhe lvo exlreme
lhings, for lhey vill only lend lo romole furlher accumula-
lions of lusl and anger.
Whal are lhe lvo exlreme lhings (arls, raclices)` Delighling
in desirable sense-ob|ecls, ursuing and en|oying sensuous
leasures conslilule one exlreme raclice. This raclice is lov,
vulgar, being lhe habil of village and lovn folks, indulged in
by ordinary common vorldlings, nol ursued by lhe Noble
Ones, ignoble, unclean, nol lending lo lhe lrue inleresls one
6j
is seeking aer. Such ursuil aer sensuous leasures is an
exlreme (arl) raclice vhich should be avoided.
There are hve kinds of desirable sense-ob|ecls, namely: lea-
surable sighl, sound, smell, lasle and louch. In brief, all lhe
malerial ob|ecls, animale or inanimale, en|oyed by eole in
lhe vorld.
Delighling in a seemingly leasurable sighl and en|oying il
conslilule raclice and ursuil of sensualily. Here lhe sense
ob|ecl of sighl means nol merely a source of lighl or colour
lhal comes inlo conlacl vilh lhe seeing eye, bul lhe man or
voman or lhe vhole of lhe ob|ecl lhal forms lhe source or
origin of lhal sighl. Similarly, all sources of sound, smell, and
louch vhelher man, voman or inslrumenlal ob|ecls con-
slilule sensuous ob|ecls. As regards lasle, nol only lhe vari-
ous foods, fruils and delicacies, bul also men, vomen and
eole vho reare and serve lhem are classihed as ob|ecls
of lasle. Lislening lo a leasanl sound, smelling a sveel fra-
granl smell are as sensuous as en|oymenl of good, delicious
food, lhe luxury or a comforlable bed or hysical conlacl vilh
lhe oosile sex.
SrNsuous Or~frrrc~froN Is B~sr ANn Vuic~r
Delighling in sensuous leasures and relishing lhem is lo be
regarded as a vulgar raclice because such en|oymenls lead
lo formalion of base desires, vhich are clinging and luslful.
Il lends lo romole self-conceil, vilh lhe lhoughl lhal no one
else is in a osilion lo en|oy such leasures. Al lhe same lime,
66
one becomes oressed vilh lhoughls of avarice, nol vish-
ing lo share lhe good forlune vilh olhers or overcome by
lhoughls of |ealousy, envy, anxious lo deny similar leasures
lo olhers.
Il arouses ill-vill lovards lhose vho are lhoughl lo be o-
osed lo oneself. Ilushed vilh success and auence, one
becomes shameless and unscruulous, bold and reckless in
one's behaviour, no longer afraid lo do evil. One begins lo de-
ceive oneself vilh false imression (ncna) of vell-being and
roserily. The nev informed vorldling (puinujana) may also
come lo hold lhe vrong viev of living soul or aua lo enlerlain
disbelief in lhe resullanl eecls of one's ovn aclions, Kamma.
Such being lhe oulcome of delighling in and relishing of sen-
suous leasures, lhey are lo be regarded as lov and base.
Iurlhermore, indulgence in sensual leasures is lhe habilual
raclice of lover forms of crealures such as animals, pcias, elc.
The hikkhus and Samanas, belonging lo lhe higher slages of
exislences, should nol sloo lov lo vie vilh lhe lover forms
of life in lhe vulgar raclice of base sensualily.
Iursuil aer sensuous leasures does nol lie vilhin lhe rov-
ince of one vho has gone forlh from lhe vorldly life. Il is
lhe concern of lhe lovn and village folks vho regard sensual
leasures as lhe highesl auribules of bliss, lhe grealer lhe lea-
sures, lhe grealer lhe hainess. In ancienl limes, rulers and
rich eole engaged lhemselves in lhe ursuil of sensual lea-
sures. Wars vere vaged, and violenl conquesls made, all for
lhe gralihcalion of sense-desire.
6;
In modern limes loo, similar conquesls are slill being made
in some areas for lhe same ob|eclives. ul il is nol only lhe
rulers and lhe rich vho seek sensual leasures, lhe oor are
also arduous in lhe ursuil of vorldly goods and leasures.
As a mauer of facl, as soon as adolescence is reached, lhe in-
slincl for maling and sexual gralihcalion makes ilself fell. Ior
lhe vorldly householder veiled from lhe uddha Dhamma,
gralihcalion of sense desires aears lo be indeed lhe acme of
hainess and bliss.
Dr))n~nn~VV~ Nrii4N~ V4n~
Iven before lhe lime of lhe uddha, lhere vere eole vho
held lhe belief lhal heavenly bliss could be en|oyed in lhis
very life (Diiina!nanna Ni||na V!a). According lo lhem, sen-
sual leasure vas indeed blissful, lhere vas nolhing lo sur-
ass il. And lhal leasure vas lo be en|oyed in lhis very life.
Il vould be foolish lo lel recious momenls for en|oymenl
ass, vailing for bliss in a fulure life, vhich does nol exisl.
The lime for full gralihcalion of sensual leasure is nov, lhis
very life. Such is lhe Diiina!nanna Ni||na Va!a Heavenly
bliss in lhis very life. This is one of lhe 6z vrong vievs (Mic-
cn!iiini) exounded by lhe uddha in lhe rahma|la Suua
of Slakkhanda in lhe Digha Nikya.
Thus, en|oymenl of sensual leasure is lhe reoccualion of
lovn and village eole, nol lhe concern of lhe recluses and
hikkhus. Ior lhem, lo go aer sense desires vould mean re-
verling lo lhe vorldly life vhich lhey have denounced. Ieole
shov greal reverence lo lhem, believing lhey are leading a
68
holy life, undislurbed by vorldly dislraclions or alluremenls
of lhe oosile sex. Ieole make lhe besl oer of food and
clolhing lo lhe recluses, denying lhese lo lhemselves, oen al
lhe sacrihce of lhe needs of lheir dear ones and lheir family.
While living on lhe charily of lhe eole, il vould be mosl
imroer for hikkhus lo seek vorldly leasures |usl like lhe
householders.
In addilion, hikkhus renounce lhe vorld vilh a vov lo vork
for release from lhe suerings inherenl in lhe rounds of re-
birlh and for lhe realizalion of Nibbna. Il is obvious lhal
lhese noble ideals cannol be auained by lhe hikkhus if lhey
go aer sensual leasures in lhe manner of householders.
Thus, one vho has gone forlh from lhe vorldly life should
nol indulge in delighlful sensuous leasures.
A Low, CoVVoN Pr~cfrcr
The ma|orily of eole in lhe vorld are ordinary common
folks engaged only in seeking lhe means of living and en|oy-
ing sensuous leasures. There are only a fev, vho can rise
above lhe common crovd, vho can see lhe Dhamma and live
a holy life. Il is nol for lhem lo indulge in coarse, vorldly lea-
sures, vhich is lhe main concern of lhe lover class of beings.
Nof Tnr Pr~cfrcr Or Tnr Noiir ONrs
In|oymenl of vorldly leasures is nol lhe raclice of lhe Noble
Ones (Ariyas). One may ask here vhy lhe Ariyas like Viskh,
Anlhaindika and Sakka, lhe king of celeslial beings, vho
6
had already reached lhe hrsl slage of lhe Noble Life (sci-
panna) engaged lhemselves in ursuil of sensuous leasures.
In Scipannas, lusl and assions are nol yel overcome, lhere
slill lingers in lhem lhe inciienl ercelion of agreeableness
of carnal leasures (sukna sa). This oinl is illuslraled in
Anguuara by lhe examle of a erson vho is faslidious in
lhe habils of cleanliness, seeking sheller in a hllhy lace hlled
vilh excremenl lo avoid auack by an elehanl in musl.
This dehling, coarse habil being ignoble and unclean should
be avoided by recluses and hikkhus.
Nof TrNnrNc To ONr's Wrir~rr (AN~ff~ S~;nrfo)
This raclice does nol lend lo one's ovn velfare or vell-be-
ing. In lhe common oular viev, making money and accu-
mulaling veallh, eslablishing a family life vilh relinues and
a circle of friends, in shorl, slriving for success and roser-
ily in lhis vorld, aears indeed lo be vorking for one's ovn
velfare.
Aclually, hovever, such vorldly success and roserily do
nol amounl lo one's ovn vell-being. One's lrue inleresl lies in
seeking vays of overcoming old age, disease, and dealh and
auaining release from all forms of suering. The only vay
lo escae from all forms of suering is lhrough develomenl
of moralily (si|a), menlal concenlralion (san!ni) and Insighl,
visdom (pa). Only lhese, namely, si|a, san!ni, pa are lo
be soughl in lhe lrue inleresl of oneself.
;o
Iursuil of sensual leasures cannol lead lo lhe conquesl of
old age, disease, dealh or all forms of suering. Il only lends
lo breach moralily codes, such as non-commilmenl of illegal
sexual conducl. Seeking vorldly amenilies lhrough killing,
lhe or deceil also amounls lo violalion of moral recels.
Nol lo seak of hysical aclions, lhe mere lhoughl of en|oy-
menl of sensual leasures rohibils develomenl of menlal
concenlralion and visdom and lhus forms a hindrance lo lhe
realizalion of Nibbna, cessalion of all suerings.
Iailure lo observe moral recels is a sure sle lo lhe four
nelher vorlds of inlense suering. Il is lo be noled, hovever,
lhal mainlenance of moral characler alone vilhoul simullane-
ous develomenl of san!ni and pa vill nol lead lo Nib-
bna. Il only encourages rebirlh reealedly in haier exis-
lences, vhere, hovever, manifold suerings such as old age,
disease and dealh are slill encounlered again and again.
Recluses and hikkhus, having renounced lhe vorld, vilh
lhe avoved urose of achieving Nibbna, vhere all suer-
ings cease, should have nolhing lo do vilh ursuils of sensu-
ous leasures lhal only obslrucl develomenl of si|a, san!ni
and pa.
To recailulale, en|oymenl of sensuous leasures is lov and
vulgar, being lhe reoccualion of common eole of lov in-
lelligence, unclean, ignoble, and is nol raclised by lhe Noble
Ones. Il is delrimenlal lo rogress in si|a, san!ni and pa and
lhus vorks againsl lhe lrue inleresl of lhose inlenl on achieve-
menl of lhe unaged, undeceased, lhe dealhless Nibbna.
;1
C~N Housrnoinrrs INnuicr IN SrNsuous Pir~surrs?
The lexl only says lhal 'one vho has gone forlh from lhe vorldly
life should nol indulge in sensuous leasures'. The queslion,
lherefore, arises vhelher ordinary householders vho remain
amidsl lhe vorldly surroundings could freely ursue sensuous
leasures vilhoul any reslrainl. Since lhe gralihcalion of sense
desires is lhe re-occualion of common eole, il vould be
oinlless lo en|oin lhem from doing so. ul lhe householder
inlenl on raclising lhe Noble Dhamma, should advisedly avoid
lhese leasures lo lhe exlenl necessary for lhe raclice. Obser-
vance of lhe hve recels requires abslaining from commil-
menl of sins of lhe esh. Likevise, ossession of vorldly goods
should nol be soughl lhrough killing, lhe or deceil.
Four KrNns Or INnuicrNcr IN Woriniv EN:ovVrNfs
In Isdika Suua of Ialhika Vagga, Digha Nikya, lhe uddha
had slaled four kinds of indulgence in vorldly en|oymenl.
Sunda, in lhis vorld lhere are some foolish, ignoranl eole
vho romole lheir ovn enrichmenl by lhe slaughler of ani-
mals caule, igs, chicken, hsh. This raclice conslilules lhe
hrsl form of indulgence in vorldly en|oymenl.
The, dacoily and robbery conslilule lhe second form of in-
dulgence in vorldly en|oymenl vhile deceilful means of earn-
ing one's livelihood conslilule lhe lhird. The fourlh form of in-
dulgence embraces olher means besides lhese lhree, by vhich
vorldly veallh is gained.
;z
The Suua slaled lhal uddha's disciles, hikkhus, vere free
from lhese indulgences. Lay eole, in observing lhe eighl
recels and len recels have lo mainlain chaslily and ab-
slain from arlaking of food aer midday, dancing and sing-
ing, all lhese being forms of sensuous leasure.
When one is engaged in medilalion raclices, one has lo
forego all kinds of sensuous en|oymenl |usl like lhe hikkhus
vho have gone forlh from lhe vorldly life because lhey lend
lo hinder lhe develomenl of si|a, san!ni and pa. A medi-
lalor, even if he is a layman, musl nol, lherefore, indulge in
vorldly en|oymenl.
This should suce regarding one form of exlreme raclice,
namely, indulgence in vorldly en|oymenl.
Pr~cfrcr Or Srir-Morfrrrc~froN
The raclice of self-morlihcalion, vhich forms lhe olher ex-
lreme raclice resulls only in self-lorlure and suering. Il is
nol lhe raclice of lhe Noble Ones, hence ignoble, unclean
and does nol lend lo one's ovn velfare and inleresl. This ex-
lreme raclice should also be avoided.
Self-morlihcalion vhich leads only lo suering vas raclised
by lhose vho held lhe belief lhal luxurious living vould
cause auachmenl lo sensual leasures, and lhal only auslerily
raclices such as denying oneself sense-ob|ecls such as food
and clolhing vould remove lhe sense desires. Then only lhe
elernal eace, lhe slale of lhe unaged, undiseased, lhe dealh-
;
less could be achieved. Such vas lhe belief of lhose vho rac-
licised self-morlihcalion.
Mrfnons Or Srir-Morfrrrc~froN
Good hikkhus cover lhemselves vilh robes and clolhings
for decency and lo shield lhemselves from heal and cold, from
insecls, ies and mosquiloes. ul self-morlihers go aboul vilh-
oul any clolhing vhen lhe vealher is cold, lhey immerse
lhemselves under valer, vhen hol, lhey exose lhemselves
lo lhe sun, slanding amidsl four hre-laces, lhus sub|ecling
lhemselves lo heal from hve direclions. This is knovn as hve-
fold enances by heal.
They have no use for regular beds, lying on lhe naked ground
for resling. Some of lhem resorl lo lying on rickly lhorns cov-
ered only by a sheel of clolhing. There are some vho remain
in a siuing oslure for days vhile olhers kee slanding only,
neilher lying nor siuing dovn. A form of self-iniclion is lo
lie hanging dovn, susended from a lree branch by lvo legs,
lo sland slraighl on one's head in a losy-lurvy oslure is yel
anolher.
Whereas il is lhe normal habil of good hikkhus lo assuage
hunger by arlaking of food, some self-lormenlors comlelely
cul o food and valer. There are some vho eal on allernale
days only vhile olhers eal once in lvo days, lhree days, elc.
Some raclilioners abslain from food for days, j days, 6
days, ; days, some even for 1j days on end. Some reduce lheir
;
meal lo |usl one handful of food vhile olhers live on nolhing
bul green vegelables and grass or on cov excremenl.
(In Lomahamsa Suua, Ikanila Commenlary, il is slaled
lhal lhe odhisaua himself folloved lhese raclices in one
of his exislences, 1 vorld-cycles, ago. He realized his mis-
lakes vhen he sav signs of fulure miserable life as dealh a-
roached. y abandoning lhe vrong raclices, he managed lo
auain lhe deva vorld.)
All such self-imosed enances conslilule self-morlihcalion (ai-
iaki|anainnuqcga). These raclices vere folloved by Niganda
Nlauua secls long before lhe lime of lhe uddha.
The resenl day }ains are lhe descendanls of lhe Niganda N-
lauua. Their raclice of self-morlihcalion vas commonly ac-
claimed and vell-lhoughl of by lhe mullilude in lhose days.
Hence, vhen lhe odhisaua gave u auslerily raclices and
resumed arlaking of normal meals, his inlimale colleagues,
lhe grou of hve hikkhus forsook him, mis|udging lhal lhe
odhisaua had given u lhe righl raclice, righl exerlion (pa!-
nnati||nania) and lhal he vould nol auain Inlighlenmenl.
Tnr Nrc~Nn~ Scrrifurr
According lo lhe scrilures of lhe Niganda, emancialion
from lhe suerings of samsra (rounds of rebirlh) is achieved
by lvo means:
1. Reslrainl (samtara) This melhod consisls reslrain-
ing sense-ob|ecls such as sighl, sound, smell, lasle,
;j
louch from enlering lheir body as il is lheir belief
lhal lhey vill con|oin vilh lhe alman (aua) lo ro-
duce fresh kamma, vhich vill in lurn form nev life
(exislence).
z. Annihilalion of resulls of asl kamma lhrough
lorlurous enance (npjara) Their belief is lhal
resulls of asl misdeeds (akusa|a kanna) are exialed
and redemlion oblained by submiuing oneself lo
self-morlihcalion.
The uddha asked of lhe naked ascelics vho vere raclising
self-morlihcalion, You slale lhal you go lhrough hysical suf-
ferings lo exhausl lhe resulls of akusa|a kanna of asl exis-
lences, bul do you knov for cerlain lhal you had indeed com-
miued unvirluous acls in revious exislences` Their rely
vas in lhe negalive. The uddha furlher queslioned lhem
vhelher lhey knev hov much akusa|a kanna lhey had done
reviously, hov much of il lhey had exialed lhrough self-
morlihcalion, and hov much of il remained. The relies vere
all in lhe negalive lhey did nol knov.
Then lhe uddha exlained lo lhem lhal in order lo give lhem
lhe seed of inlelleclual advancemenl, il vas fruilless lo rac-
lise lorlurous enance, nol knoving if lhere vere any asl
misdeeds or knov hov much lhey had exialed.
The uddha slaled furlher lhal lhose vho vere lrying lo
absolve lhemselves from lheir asl misdeeds lhrough self-
lorlure may lruly have commiued large amounls of akusa|a
deeds.
;6
The odhisaua reviously adoled exlreme measures of rac-
lice nol vilh a viev lo exiale his asl misdeeds, if any, bul
lhinking lhal lhey vould lead lo higher knovledge. Hovever,
aer hve years of slrenuous eorls, as slaled above, and real-
izing lhal exlreme raclice vould nol lead lo knovledge or
insighl and vondering vhelher lhere vas anolher vay lhal
vould lead lo his cherished goal, he abandoned lhe raclice
of self-morlihcalion.
Pnvsrc~i SurrrrrNc
Iraclice of self-lorlure resulls only in hysical suering, bul
il vas regarded by naked ascelics as being holy. In order
lo sare lheir sensibililies, as exlained in lhe Commenlary
lo lhe Ialisambhid (znd vol., .z1j), lhe uddha did nol de-
nounce lhe raclice as being lov or base, nor vas il described
as vulgar, nol being raclised by ordinary village folk, nor as
common because ordinary common eole did nol indulge
in lhem.
The uddha described lhe melhod simly as ainful, unclean
and ignoble, nol being folloved by lhe Noble Iersons.
Prorrfirss Errorf
Iraclice of exlreme lorlure also does nol erlain lo lhe lrue in-
leresls one is seeking. Nol only lhal, il is nol concerned vilh
higher ideals of si|a, san!ni and pa. Il does nol conlribule
anylhing lo mundane advancemenls. eing a rohlless eorl,
;;
resulling only in hysical suering, lhe auslerily raclices
may even rove falal lo lhe over-zealous raclilioner. Il is ul-
lerly rohlless.
efore lhe aearance of lhe suremely Inlighlened uddha,
il vas videly held lhroughoul India, lhe Middle Counlry, lhal
self-morlihcalion vas a noble, holy raclice (lraining) vhich
lruly led lo liberalion (from evil eecls of bad kamma). The
grou of hve hikkhus also held lhal viev.
Hovever, lhe uddha said lhal lhe exlreme raclice, being
unclean and ignoble, roduced only suering and vas nol
indulged in by Noble Iersons. Il did nol erlain lo lhe inler-
esls one vas seeking. The uddha, lherefore, clearly advised
lhose vho had gone forlh from lhe vorldly life lo avoid lhem
(nol lo indulge in lhem).
A dehnile ronouncemenl regarding unvorlhiness of exlreme
raclice vas necessary al lhal slage because nol only vas il
universally held lhal 'only self-morlihcalion vould lead lo
higher knovledge', lhe grou of hve hikkhus also acceled
lhis belief. As long as lhey held fasl lo lhis viev, lhey vould
nol be recelive lo lhe doclrine of lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh.
Hence, lhe oen denuncialion by lhe uddha lhal self-morlih-
calion vas rohlless leading only lo hysical suering.
The hrsl exlreme orlion (raclice) gives free rein lo mind
and body and is, lherefore, lo be regarded as loo lax or yield-
ing. A (free) mind nol conlrolled by medilalion (concenlralion
or insighl) is liable lo sink lov inlo ursuils of sensuous lea-
;8
sures. Il is learnl lhal some leachers are leaching lhe raclice
of relaxing lhe mind, giving il a free rein, bul lhe mind is such
lhal il requires conslanl guard over il. Iven vhen conslanlly
conlrolled by medilalions, lhe mind vanders forlh lo ob|ecls
of sensual leasures. Il is, lherefore, obvious lhal le by ilself,
unguarded by medilalion, lhe mind vill surely engage ilself
in lhoughls of sensual leasures.
The second exlreme orlion or raclice inicls suering on
oneself lhrough denial of normal requiremenls of food and
clolhing. Il is loo rigid, unbending, deriving oneself of ordi-
nary comforl and is lhus lo be avoided loo.
WroNc INfrrirrf~froN Or Srir-Morfrrrc~froN
A vrong inlerrelalion as lo vhal conslilules self-morlihca-
lion is being made by some leachers in conlradiclion lo lhe
leaching of lhe uddha. According lo lhem, earnesl, lireless
eorl required for medilalion amounls lo self-morlihcalion.
This viev is diamelrically oosed lo lhe exhorlalion of lhe
uddha vho advised slrenuous, unrelenling exerlion (labour)
even al lhe sacrihce of life and limb lo auain concenlralion
and insighl.
'Lel only skin, sinev and bone remain. Lel lhe esh and blood
dry u. I vill exerl incessanlly unlil I achieve lhe Ialh and
Iruilion I vork for.' Such musl be lhe resolule hrmness of
delerminalion vilh vhich lhe goal is lo be ursued, lhe
uddha counselled.
;
Thus, slrenuous, relenlless eorls in medilalion raclices for
achievemenl of concenlralion and Insighl should nol be mis-
conslrued as a form of self-lorlure. Leaving aside medilalion
raclices, even keeing of recels vhich enlails some hysi-
cal discomforl is nol lo be regarded as a raclice of self-morli-
hcalion. Young eole and young novices suer from angs
of hunger in lhe evenings vhile keeing lhe eighl recels,
bul as fasling is done in fulhlmenl of lhe recels, il does nol
amounl lo self-morlihcalion.
Ior some eole, lhe recel of abslaining from laking life is
a sacrihce on lheir arl, lhey suer cerlain disadvanlages as
a consequence. ul as il conslilules lhe good deed of keeing
lhe recel, il is nol lo be vieved as a form of self-morlihca-
lion. In lhe Mahdhamma Samdna Suua of Mla Ianns,
lhe uddha exlained lhal such acls of sacrihce al lhe resenl
lime are bound lo roduce benehcial resulls in lhe fulure. The
uddha said: In lhis vorld, some eole abslain from laking
life, causing some hysical and menlal suerings lo lhem-
selves. They lake u lhe righl viev (of nol killing) for vhich
lhey have lo suer hysically and menlally. These eole lhus
volunlarily go lhrough suering lo kee lhe recels al lhe
resenl lime. Aer assing avay, lhey vill auain lhe higher
abodes of lhe devas. These len merilorious deeds are knovn
as good raclices vhich roduce benehcial resulls in lhe aer-
life lhrough suering in lhe resenl.
Thus, any raclice vhich romoles si|a, san!ni and pa is
nol rohlless, nol self-morlihcalion vhich is lo be indulged in,
8o
bul benehcial and is in line vilh lhe Middle Ialh vhich should
cerlainly be folloved. Il should be dehnilely noled lhal a rac-
lice vhich does nol develo si|a, san!ni and pa bul resulls
merely in hysical suering conslilules self-morlihcalion.
MrscoNcrifroN Rrc~rnrNc CoNfrVii~froN ON FrrirNc
There are some vho hold lhe viev lhal conlemlalion on
leasanl feeling conslilules indulgence in sensuous leasure
(hrsl exlreme) vhile conlemlalion on ainful feeling (suer-
ing) conslilules self-morlihcalion (second exlreme). Thus, lhey
believe lhal one should avoid bolh of lhem and engage only
in conlemlaling equanimily. This is cerlainly an irralional
misconcelion, nol suorled by any lexlual aulhorily.
The uddha had dehnilely slaled in lhe Mah Saliallhna
Suua lhal leasanl feeling, ainful feeling as vell as equanim-
ily are all ob|ecls for conlemlalion. The same slalemenl vas
reealed in many olher Suuas. Thus, il should be dehnilely
noled lhal any ob|ecl vhich falls under lhe calegory of Iive
Grous of Grasing is a legilimale ob|ecl for medilalional con-
lemlalion.
Tnr Vrrw Or A Tr~cnrr
A lay medilalion leacher is reorled lo have slaled, While
engaged in lhe raclice of medilalion, if aer laking u any
oslure, one begins lo feel lired, ainful or benumbed, hol or
unleasanl in lhe limbs, one should al once change lhe os-
81
lure. If one ersisls in raclice of mindfulness in sile of lhe
unleasanl sensalions or liredness, one is aclually engaged in
self-lorlure.
This slalemenl is made aarenlly laking inlo consideralion
lhe velfare of lhe medilalor. Neverlheless, il musl be said lhal
il is unsound and ill-advised. In lhe raclice of concenlralion
or Insighl Medilalion, alience or self-conlrol (knanii samtara)
lays an imorlanl role il is an imorlanl faclor for lhe suc-
cessful raclice of concenlralion or Insighl Medilalion. One-
oinledness of mind can be achieved only lhrough alienlly
bearing some bodily discomforls. Il is vilhin lhe exerience
of anyone vho has raclised medilalion in earnesl lhal con-
linual changing of oslure is nol conducive lo develomenl
of concenlralion. Therefore, unleasanl hysical discomforl
has lo be borne vilh alience. The self-conlrol raclised lhus
is nol self-morlihcalion inasmuch as lhe goal being nol mere
suering, bul for romolion of si|a, san!ni and pa in ac-
cordance vilh lhe vishes of lhe uddha.
The lessed One desired, if ossible, an even more relenlless
eorl lo achieve lhe Noblesl Iruil of Arahalshi by one conlin-
uous siuing, uninlerruled by change of oslure. In lhe Mah
Gosinga Suua of Mla Iannsa, lhe lessed One slaled: A
hikkhu medilales aer making a hrm resolulion 'Unclinging,
I vill remain sealed, vilhoul changing lhe crossed-legged o-
silion unlil lhe satas (lainls) have been removed'. Such a hik-
khu is an adornmenl lo lhe Gosinga monaslery in lhe foresl
of Ingyin lrees, a valuable assel lo lhe foresl abode.
8z
Thus, lo slale lhal alienl conlemlalion of ainful feelings
is a form of self-lorlure is lo denounce lhose yogis vho are
folloving lhe inslruclion of lhe uddha. Il also amounls lo
re|eclion of lhe uddha's vords and discourages lhe eorl
of yogis vho could achieve concenlralion and insighl only
lhrough alienl bearing of ain broughl aboul by molionless
oslure.
Nole: hikkhus, in lhis leaching, a hikkhu aer vell con-
sidering, alienlly uls u vilh cold, heal, hunger, lhirsl,
auack by insecls and reliles, eecls of vind and sun, ac-
cusalion and abuses, ainful discomforl vhich arises, ain-
ful suering vhich is violenl, shar, unbearable, unleasanl,
haleful, fearful, (vhich may even endanger his life). eneh-
cial resulls of such alienl loleralion of heal, cold, hunger,
lhirsl, auacks of insecls, insulls, hysical discomforl, are
non-aearance of lainls, imurilies, suering and burning
vhich vould surely make lheir aearance if nol borne vilh
alience.
Il should be noled seriously lhal lhe lessed One advised in
lhis Sabbhasava Suua lo bear vilh ain or suering vhich
is severe enough lo cosl even one's life. In lhe Commenlary
lo lhe Suua, il is menlioned lhal lhe Ilder Lomasa Naga er-
sisled in his medilalion raclice even vhen enveloed by
snovakes vhile siuing in lhe oen, around aboul lhe full
moon of }anuary/Iebruary. He overcame lhe cold surround-
ing him, vilhoul giving u his medilalion oslure simly by
conlemlalion of lhe inlense cold of lhe Lokanlarika region
of lhe Iurgalories. Such examles of forbearance vhile en-
8
gaged in medilalion examles abound in numerous slories
menlioned in lhe Suuas.
Thus, comaralively mild forms of ain such as sliness of
limbs, heal sensalion, elc. should be borne vilh alience, vilh-
oul changing lhe original medilalion oslure. If ossible, er-
sislence should be mainlained even al lhe risk of one's life as
il vill romole self-conlrol (knanii samtara), concenlralion and
insighl.
If, hovever, discomforling ains and sensalions reach unbear-
able magnilude, lhe body osilion may be changed, bul very
slovly and genlly so as nol lo dislurb mindfulness, concenlra-
lion and insighl.
Thus, raclices vhich are nol concerned vilh romolion of
si|a, san!ni and pa, bul are laken only for mere suer-
ing are dehnile forms of self-lorlure. On lhe olher hand, ar-
duous eorls, hovever ainful and dislressing, if made for
lhe develomenl of si|a, san!ni and pa, do nol conslilule
self-morlihcalion. Il musl be dehnilely laken as lhe Middle
Ialh or lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh ul forvard by lhe lessed
One.
The lessed One himself, aer avoiding lhe lvo exlreme rac-
lices, namely, lhe indulgence in sensual leasures, vhich is
loo lax and self-morlihcalion, vhich is loo rigid, had by fol-
loving lhe Middle Ialh reached uddhahood and gained
Inlighlenmenl.
8
Tnr Mrnnir P~fn fnr ir~cfrcr ~Nn fnr irNrrrf:
|ic Knc, Bnikknatc, u|nc anic anupaganna najjnin paiipa!.
Taingaicna a|nisan|u!!n Cakknukarani, nakarani,
upasanqa, a|niqa, San|c!nqa, Ni||nqa Samtauaii.
The lessed One conlinued: hikkhus, avoiding lhese lvo
exlreme raclices, lhe Talhgala (lhe Masler) has gained lhe
enelralive knovledge of lhe Middle Ialh vhich roduces
vision and foremosl knovledge and lends lo calm, lo higher
knovledge, enelralive insighl and realizalion of Nibbna.
Wilh lhese vords, lhe lessed One lel lhe grou of Iive hik-
khus knov lhal aer giving u lhe lvo exlreme raclices, he
had found lhe Middle Ialh by means of vhich he had erson-
ally gained vision, knovledge, lranquilily, elc.
Ior a full lhirleen years from lhe age of sixleen lo lhe age of
lvenly-nine, he had indulged in sensuous leasures, lhe alh
of exlreme laxily. Al lhe age of lvenly-nine, he had given
u lhe lax vay of living by going forlh from lhe vorldly life.
Then for six years he had raclised exlreme auslerily lhrough
self-morlihcalion. Aer six years of rigorous lraining, he had
nol gained any higher knovledge, he had nol benehled in any
vay from lhe lraining and he realized lhal he had ursued
lhe vrong alh.
Accordingly, he gave u lhe auslerily raclices and resumed
arlaking of normal meals in order lo forlify his hysical
slrenglh lo vork for jnnic auainmenls lhrough brealhing ex-
8j
ercises. The resumlion of meals vas a vell-considered aclion
laken urosely lo enable him lo engage in medilalion exer-
cise on brealhing, vhich is arl of lhe Middle Ialh. As lhe
food vas laken in moderalion in a mindful manner, il should
nol be regarded as en|oymenl of sensory leasure. Nor vas il
self-morlihcalion, lhere being no suering lhrough denial of
food. Thus, il vas dehnilely lhe Middle Way, unrelaled lo lhe
lvo exlreme raclices.
On regaining hysical slrenglh lhrough arlaking of normal
meals, lhe lessed One vorked for and von lhe four jnnic al-
lainmenls. These jnnic concenlralions are recursors lo lhe
Ialh of lhe Ariyas (pu||a |nga nagga), or foundalion for In-
sighl Medilalion and lhus conslilule Righl Concenlralion, one
of lhe sles of lhe Middle Ialh or lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh.
ased on lhis foundalion of Righl Concenlralion, lhe lessed
One, vilh his fully concenlraled mind, develoed Insighl
and Righl Underslanding. In lhis vay, he found oul erson-
ally lhe four Noble Magga or lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh nol
lhrough rigorous abslenlion from malerial food nor lhrough
en|oymenl of sensual leasures (knasukna||ika), bul by follov-
ing lhe Middle Course. Therefore, he slaled: hikkhus, avoid-
ing lhese lvo exlreme raclices (orlions), lhe Talhgala had
gained lhe enelraling knovledge of lhe Middle Ialh. y
lhis he meanl lhal he had gained lhe knovledge of lhe Middle
Ialh, vhich is neilher loo lax nor loo rigorous, by abandoning
lhe lvo vrong raclices, namely, knasukna||ika, vhich is loo
lax and auaki|anaina, vhich is loo auslere.
86
Too exlreme alhs are vrong,
They are lo be avoided.
The Middle is lhe Righl Ialh.
How To Avorn Tnr Two ExfrrVrs
Of lhe hve sense ob|ecls, namely, sighl, sound, smell, lasle
and louch, lhose ob|ecls vhich vould nol violale observance
of Irecels or vhich vould be helful lo lhe raclice of
Dhamma may be en|oyed. Ialing food vhich should be nor-
mally ealen, vearing clolhes vhich should be normally vorn,
conlribule lo easeful raclice of Dhamma, lhus avoiding lhe
exlreme auslerily of self-morlihcalion.
Necessary malerial goods such as food, clolhing, medicine
and sheller (dvelling lace) should be used, accomanied
eilher by reeclive conlemlalion or raclice of concenlralion
or insighl medilalion. Ivery lime conlacl is made vilh lhe hve
sense ob|ecls, lhey should be noled as ob|ecls of insighl medi-
lalion. y adoling a reeclive mood or noling lhese sense
ob|ecls as ob|ecls of insighl medilalion, arlaking of neces-
sary food, clolhes, elc. does nol develo inlo en|oying lhem
vilh delighl or leasure, lhereby avoiding lhe olher exlreme
of indulgence in sensuous leasures. Therefore, lhe lessed
One declared: Having avoided lhese lvo exlreme raclices
(arls), I have come lo undersland lhe Middle Ialh.
ANfrnofr For INnrcrsfriir Foon
Adoling reeclive conlemlalion or raclising Insighl Medi-
lalion amounls lo develomenl of mindfulness, concenlralion,
8;
insighl, vhich are sles in lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh. Il is like
laking anlidoles aer ealing unsuilable, indigeslible food. A
convalescenl, aer a serious illness, has lo be careful vilh his
diel. He has lo avoid lhe vrong kind of food vhich mighl
be harmful. If he could nol resisl lhe lemlalion lo eal unsuil-
able, indigeslible food, he has lo lake digeslive medicine lo
counleracl lhe harmful eecls of lhe food he has ealen. In lhis
vay, he could salisfy his desire lo eal vhal he vanls and, al
lhe same lime, avoid geuing lhe bad eecls of il.
Similarly, by conlemlaling on lhe malerial goods ve have
ulilized or noling lhem as ob|ecls of medilalion, ve have re-
venled lhe arlaking of lhem from develoing inlo sensuous
en|oymenl of lhem.
Ior lhe yogi vho noles everylhing he sees, hears, conlacls,
cognizes, and underslands lhe nalure of imermanence, suf-
fering and insubslanlialily in every henomenon lhal arises
and vanishes, greed (|c|na) and halred (!csa) concerning ob-
|ecls he sees, hears, elc. cannol develo in him. Ivery lime
he arlakes of lhe four essenlial malerial goods, namely, food,
clolhing, medicines and sheller, if he kees on noling his feel-
ings, no dehlemenls can develo in conneclion vilh lhese ma-
lerial ob|ecls.
Thus, he can make use of essenlial malerial goods for com-
forlable living, and al lhe same lime avoid lhe develomenl
of delighl and leasure in lhem lhrough lhe raclice of re-
eclive conlemlalion and Insighl Medilalion. In lhis manner,
lhe lvo exlremes are avoided. Iraclising reeclive conlemla-
88
lion and insighl medilalion al lhe lime of arlaking of food,
elc. amounls lo lhe raclice of lhe Middle Ialh.
Wilh lhis raclice of lhe Middle Ialh, vhich kees noling
every ob|ecl lhal aears al lhe six sense doors, lhereby knov-
ing lheir lrue nalure, vision vill arise, lhe eye of visdom
vill oen u, leading lo lhe realizalion of Nibbna. Such are
lhe benehls lhal accrue from folloving lhe Middle Ialh. The
uddha conlinued lo exlain: The Middle Ialh, underslood
enelralingly by lhe Talhgala, roduces vision, roduces
knovledge.
How VrsroN ANn KNowirncr Arr Drvrioirn
Whoever raclises lhe Middle Ialh, lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh,
in him vision is roduced, knovledge is roduced. Here,
vision and knovledge connole lhe same meaning. Dhamma
is seen so clearly as if by eyesighl, hence vision.
Vision and knovledge cannol arise lhrough indulgence in
sensuous leasure nor lhrough self-lorlure. They aear only
by folloving lhe Iighlfold Ialh. Develomenl of vision and
knovledge is very imorlanl. In lhe leaching of lhe uddha,
medilalion is raclised for lhe urose of develoing lhe
Iighlfold Ialh.
When lhe Iighlfold Ialh is develoed, lhe lrue nalure of
mauer and mind is clearly discerned as if seen by lhe eyes.
The arising and vanishing of mauer and mind is also dis-
cerned lruly as il occurs. The imermanenl, suering and
8
insubslanlial nalure of all malerial and menlal henomena
also becomes very clear, nol lhrough reading nor lislening
lo lhe leacher, bul inluilively by self-exeriencing il. Iinally,
lhe nalure of Nibbna, namely, quiescence of all hysical and
menlal formalions, cessalion of suering in lhe rounds of
exislence vill be clearly seen and fully realized as one's ovn
exerience.
Il is imorlanl lo scrulinize vhelher such ersonal realizalion
has been auained.
How VrsroN ANn KNowirncr Aiir~r Sfri Bv Sfri
To lhe yogis engaged in Viassan Medilalion, vhich lakes
nole of rpa and nna al lhe lime of each arising and vanish-
ing, aearance of vision and knovledge is very clear and
vivid. Al lhe beginning of medilalion, allhough lhe yogi lakes
nole of lhe rising and falling of lhe abdomen, siuing, louch-
ing, seeing, hearing, every lime each henomenon occurs, no
exlraordinary knovledge is gained as his over of concenlra-
lion is nol eslablished yel.
Aer lhe lase of a fev days, lhe mind becomes lranquilized
and his over of concenlralion grovs. The mind raclically
slos vandering forlh lo olher sensual ob|ecls. Il remains
riveued on lhe chosen ob|ecl of medilalion, namely rpa and
nna, as lhey arise. Al lhal lime, lhe dislinclion belveen rpa
(lhe ob|ecl of avareness) and nna (lhe menlal qualily lhal
lakes nole of il) becomes very ronounced.
o
Al lhe slarl of lhe medilalion exercise, lhe yogi can hardly dis-
linguish belveen lhe hysical henomenon of lhe rising and
falling of lhe abdomen and lhe menlal acl of noling lhe he-
nomenon. He remains under lhe imression lhal lhese sea-
rale henomena are one and lhe same. As lhe over of con-
cenlralion increases, rpa (lhe ob|ecl of avareness) becomes
aulomalically dierenlialed vilh every nole-laking from nna
lhal lakes nole of il. They aear searalely, unmixed.
The knovledge arises lhen lhal lhis body is made u of only
lhe rpa and nna. There is no live enlily in il, only lhe lvo el-
emenls of malerial ob|ecl and lhe knoving mind exisling lo-
gelher. This knovledge aears nol lhrough imaginalion, bul
as if il is resenled on lhe alm of lhe hand, hence, il is de-
scribed also as vision, i.e. as if seen by lhe eyes.
As san!ni (lhe over of concenlralion) increases, undersland-
ing arises lhere is seeing because lhere is eye and sighl
(ob|ecl) lo be seen, lhere is hearing because lhere is ear and
sound, bending because of lhe desire lo bend, slrelching be-
cause of lhe desire lo slrelch, movemenl because of lhe desire
lo move, lhere is liking because of ignorance aboul lhe real-
ily (nol knoving vhal realily is), lhere is craving, auachmenl
because of liking, and craving molivales aclion vhich in lurn
gives rise lo benehcial or baneful resulls.
Then, as san!ni conlinues lo grov, il is vividly seen lhal lhe
ob|ecl of avareness and lhe acl of noling il arise and vanish,
arise and vanish as if under one's ovn eyes. Thus, lhe yogi
vill come lo knov very clearly himself lhal nolhing is erma-
1
nenl, everylhing is unsalisfaclory, suering, and lhal lhere
is only ungovernable, unconlrollable henomena vilhoul any
individual or ego enlily.
When he has fully develoed lhis anicca, !ukkna, anaua nna,
knovledge aboul lhe imermanenl, suering, insubslanlial
nalure of lhings, he vill realize Nibbna, lhe cessalion of all
sanknras of rpa and nna, all suering, lhrough lhe knov-
ledge of lhe Ariqpaina lhe ariqa nagga na, vhich consli-
lules lhe higher vision, higher knovledge.
Thus, lhe yogi vho kees nole conslanlly of lhe rpa and nna
as lhey arise in accordance vilh lhe Saliallhna Suua, be-
comes ersonally convinced lhal lhe Iighlfold Ialh roduces
vision and knovledge as slaled in lhe discourse.
Il is clear lhal such direcl ersonal exerience of lrulh (aboul
anicca, !ukkna, anaua) vhich conslilules higher knovledge,
cannol be gained |usl by learning lhe Abhidhamma lexls and
ondering over ils conlenls. No higher knovledge vill arise
by mere reeclion on lhe lexl. In lime, vhen reeclive con-
lemlalion is neglecled, even lhe lexls vill go oul of memory
because il is only suerhcial knovledge gained lhrough exer-
cise of inlellecl, nol lhrough ersonal realizalion.
KNowirncr DrrirNs Tnroucn Pr~cfrcr
If lhe Ialh is raclised lo gain direcl ersonal exerience, il
is usual lhal knovledge deeens as lime goes on. Once Ven-
erable Anand aid a visil lo lhe monaslery of lhe hikkhu-
z
nis, vho recounled lo him lhal lhe hikkhunis of lhe mon-
aslery dvell raclising lhe four Saliallhnas and lhal lheir
knovledge of Dhamma deeened vilh lhe assing of lime.
Anand agreed and said, Il is usually so.
When laler Anand reorled lhis accounl lo lhe lessed One,
lhe lessed One said, Truly so, Anand, if any hikkhu or hik-
khuni dvell in lhe raclice of lhe four Saliallhna, il could be
dehnilely believed lhal lhey vould come lo knov more deely
and more of lhe Noble Trulhs lhan lhey had before.
Tnr CoVVrNf~rv Exii~N~froN
The Commenlary exlained lhal lhe knovledge gained al
hrsl vas concerned vilh lhe discernmenl of lhe four Greal
Ilemenls of Mauer, vhereas lhe laler enhanced knovledge
arose oul of discernmenl of lhe derived elemenls (up!a rpa).
Similarly, knovledge aboul all lhe malerial elemenls (rpa) is
folloved by lhe conlemlalion and discernmenl of Menlal Il-
emenls (nna). Likevise, knovledge aboul rpa and nna is
folloved by discernmenl aboul lheir cause.
Knovledge aboul lhe cause, vhich gives rise lo rpa and nna
is folloved by discernmenl of lhe lhree characlerislics of lheir
imermanence, suering and insubslanlialily.
Thus, lhe knovledge vhich arises hrsl leads on lo lhe Noble
suer-knovledge laler on. In lhe raclice of kqnupassan,
according lo lhe Solanna Suua, one begins vilh noling

malerial forms vhile in lhe rocess of going, slanding, sil-


ling, lying, bending, slrelching, moving, elc. This amounls lo
laking nole of lhe characlerislics of lhe vind elemenl (tqc)
namely, ils qualily of ushing, slrelching and moving, elc.
Only aer lhoroughly underslanding lhe nalure of lhe greal
elemenls, can one discern lhe vorkings of lhe derived ele-
menls such as eyes, sighl, ear, sound, by noling seeing, hear-
ing, elc. Having maslered lhe nalure of all lhe malerial forms,
auenlion is nexl given lo lhe arising of mind and menlal for-
malions. In lhis vay, suerior knovledge aears sle by sle
in consequenlial order.
Sf~rfrNc FroV ANv Sfri AccornrNc To
Tnr DrrrNrfroNs Or Tnr Trxfs
Having learnl lhe dehnilion and descrilion of rpa, nna, elc.,
from lhe Abhidhamma lexls, one can slarl from lhe derived
elemenls (up!a) inslead of from lhe greal fundamenlal ele-
menls. Il is ossible loo lo begin vilh nna before invesligal-
ing rpa. Iuuing aside rpa and nna, one can slarl consider-
ing Causes and Iecls according lo lhe Lav of Deendenl
Originalion or conlemlaling lhe henomena of arising and
vanishing, or lhe lhree characlerislics of imermanence, suf-
fering and insubslanlialily.
Some say lhal il is a slov rocess lo begin vilh lhe knov-
ledge of dierenlialion belveen nna and rpa (nna-rpa
pariccnc!a na). Il vould be much quicker lo begin vilh lhe
avareness of conslanl arising and vanishing of nna and rpa

(u!aqa||naqa na) and |nanga nna. They even say lhey refer
lhe quicker melhod.
ul sludying nna and rpa and lheir dehnilions and descri-
lions from lhe lexls and beginning lo conlemlale on lhem,
slarling from vherever one desires, vill nol give rise lo lrue
viassan Insighl. Consequenlly, lhe arising of a laler knov-
ledge suerior lo lhe recedenl one in accordance vilh lhe
Teaching cannol be exerienced lhis vay. }usl as a sludenl in-
creases lhe relenlive over of lhe lexl he has learnl by role
by reelilive recilalion, so also such raclice vill hel only lo
remember lhe dehnilions and descrilions of nna and rpa.
No exlraordinary insighl vill resull from such raclice.
Il has come lo our knovledge lhal al a vell-knovn medilalion
cenlre, auemls vere made lo go lhrough lhe vhole series
of various slages of knovledge develomenl |usl by follov-
ing lhe slages sle by sle as lhey have learnl from lhe lexls.
Aer reaching lhe slage of sanknarupckkna-na (knovledge
acquired by reecling uon lhe formalions of exislence) dif-
hcully vas encounlered vhen lhey come lo anu|cna and gc-
ira|nu nagga pn|a-na slages. So lhey had lo go back righl
lo lhe beginning. This is an inslance lo shov lhal viassan
Insighl cannol be realized lhrough shorlculs.
y raclising medilalion in accordance vilh lhe Saliallhna
Suua and develoing lhe Middle Ialh or Iighlfold Ialh, one
is bound lo exerience deeer suerior knovledge aer each
recedenl knovledge as slaled in lhe Dhammacakka suua:
Vision arose, knovledge arose.
j
Tnr Krirs4s Arr C~iVrn
The Middle Ialh also leads lo calm, lhe lranquilizalion of
ki|css. In a erson vho develos lhe Iighlfold Ialh, lhe ki|css
remain lranquilized. Vipassan nagga roduces momenlary
calmness vhile lhe ariqa nagga brings aboul a comlele anni-
hilalion of ki|css.
Indulgence in sensuous leasures does nol al all lead lo lhe
cessalion of ki|css. Ralher, il hels lo develo more and more
of lhem. Once il is given in lo lhe lemlalion for en|oymenl of
sensuous leasures, craving for reealed gralihcalion resulls.
Coming inlo ossession of one sense-ob|ecl leads lo desire
lo ossess more and more. One craving develos more and
more craving. There is no end lo il.
You have only lo lake lhe examle of lhe rich eole of lhe de-
veloed counlries. They have everylhing lhey need. Yel lhey
are never salished. There is no end lo lheir desires. Il is quile ob-
vious, lherefore, lhal raclice of sensuous indulgence does nol
romole cessalion of ki|css. Il only causes lheir mullilicalion.
Self-morlihcalion raclices also do nol lend lo lerminale ki|css.
The raclilioners of lhis melhod may hold lhe belief lhal ex-
osure lo exlreme cold, exlreme heal and slricl fasling lend
lo remove lhe ki|css. In facl, il is one's lovered vilalily, as
a resull of exlreme raclices, lhal kees lhe ki|css in check
lemorarily. During serious illness or suering from ainful
diseases, vhen lhe hysical slrenglh is al a lov ebb, ki|css
remain dormanl. ul aer lhe illness, once normal heallh and
6
slrenglh is regained, desires for sensual gralihcalion make
lheir aearance as usual.
Thus, aer coming oul of lhe raclice of self-morlihcalion, or
sloing lhe raclice for some lime, vhen vilalily relurns,
ki|css also relurn as before. Iven vhile self-morlihcalion is
being raclised, allhough gross ki|css remain suressed,
hne, sublle ki|css conlinue lo arise. There vill arise desires
for comforlable living, free from discomforl and ain of lhe
raclice. There is bound lo arise loo ki|css of lhe vrong viev
of self 'I am doing lhe raclice', lhe vrong viev of conceil
'No one can do such raclice' and lhe vrong belief in raclice
'lhal il vill lead lo liberalion'.
WroNc Brirrr IN Tnr Pr~cfrcr Sli~ii~f~i~r4V4s~ Dr))nr
Holding a vrong raclice as a righl raclice is called Si|a|-
|aiaparnsa, vrong belief in lhe raclice. According lo lhe
leaching of lhe uddha, aarl from lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh,
vhich leads lo lhe develomenl of si|a, san!ni and pa, all
olher raclices are vrong raclices and laking lhem as righl
raclices amounls lo vrong belief in lhe raclice.
Nol seeing lhe Trulh,
Keeing aside lhe Ialh,
Hoing for lasling hainess,
T'is vrong belief in raclice.
Iverylhing lhal aears al lhe six doors of lhe senses consli-
lules lhe hve Grous of Grasing, namely, rpa and nna, lhe
Trulh of Suering. Medilaling on rpa and nna is raclising
;
lhe Ialh by vhich lhe Iour Noble Trulhs vill be underslood.
elieving in and raclising any olher melhod vhich kees
aside lhe nagga Ialh and vhich does nol lead lo undersland-
ing lhe Iour Noble Trulhs, is vrong belief in lhe raclice (si|a|-
|aia parnsa !iiini).
There are eole vho are reaching lhal Il is nol necessary
lo raclise medilalion nor lo observe lhe recels (si|a). Il is
sucienl lo lislen lo sermons and learn by hearl lhe nalure
of rpa and nna. Il vill be necessary lo consider vhelher
such vievs amounl lo si|a||aia parnsa. In our oinion, such
reachmenls amounl lo leaching vrong viev in raclice as
lhis melhod excludes lhe lhree discilines of si|a, san!ni and
tipassan insighl.
A scipanna, being vell-eslablished in lhe knovledge of lhe
righl viassan raclice, is nol liable lo hold lhe vrong viev
of si|a||aia parnsas. In fulure exislences, lhere is no danger
of him falling inlo lhis vrong belief. This is calming lhe ki|cs
by virlue of lhe Noble Ialh.
TrVior~rv PuffrNc Aw~v
When a sense ob|ecl under conlemlalion is noled as im-
ermanenl, suering, insubslanlial, lhe dehlemenls of mind
(ki|css) vhich vould accrue by vrongly holding lhem as
ermanenl, leasanl, and subslanlial, vould have no chance
lo arise. This amounls lo lemorary uuing avay of ki|cs,
|usl as lighl disels darkness by virlue of mulually oosing
nalure, as exlained in lhe Visuddhi Magga.
8
This is hov ki|cs, lying dormanl in lhe sense ob|ecl (ran-
nannusaqa) vhich vould have risen if nol noled, is removed
by means of a fraclion of viassan insighl. Wise eole
should onder vell over lhis illuslralion given in lhe Visud-
dhi Magga.
If, as some eole hold, conlemlaling lhe knovledge ac-
quired by mere learning (suia-naqa-na) leads lo viassan,
lhe queslion arises vhich ki|cs lying dormanl in vhich sense
ob|ecls is eradicaled by lhal viassan insighl. Il vould be
dicull lo ansver lhal queslion in lhe absence of a dehnile
ob|ecl of avareness.
Ior lhe yogi vho, folloving lhe Saliallhna melhod, ob-
serves lhe rpa and nna in lhe rocess of lheir formalion,
lhere are dehnile ob|ecls of avareness lo lake nole of. Al lhe
same lime, lhere are also ob|ecls of avareness lhal escae his
nolice. Thus, he can eradicale lhe ki|css lying dormanl in lhe
ob|ecls he has noled, vhile lhose lying dormanl in lhe ob|ecls
he has failed lo nole remain uneradicaled. The ansver is very
simle for him.
Aer eradicaling lemorarily lhe ki|css lying dormanl in lhe
ob|ecls noled by him, lhere remain in lhe yogi lalenl ki|css
vhich are removed only by lhe ariq nagga. Thus lhe hrsl
slream-vinner (scipanna) has reached lhe slage vhere he has
eradicaled ersonalily-belief (sakkqa !iiini), erlexily (ticikic-
cn) and vrong viev in raclice (si|a||aia) and all dehlemenls
vhich are liable lo cause rebirlh in regions of urgalory. In
lhe saga!agni, all lhe coarse forms of lusl and ill-vill are

eradicaled. The anagani becomes free from hner forms of lusl


and ill-vill vhile lhe arahal is fully liberaled from all forms
of dehlemenls.
In lhis vay, tipassan nagga and ariqa nagga are caable of
eilher uuing avay ki|css lemorarily or urooling lhem er-
manenlly. The lessed One had lhis facl in mind vhen he
said lhal lhe Middle Ialh leads lo calm, lranquilily (upasanqa
samtauaii).
ArrsrNc Or Suirr-KNowirncr
The Middle Ialh also leads lo suer-knovledge (a|nina
samtauaii). A|nina is akin lo vision or knovledge bul ils
eecl is more ronounced, hence il is menlioned searalely.
The Iour Noble Trulhs become knovn by virlue of lhis suer-
knovledge in consequence of tipassan nagga and ariq nagga.
The tipassan nagga develoed beforehand enabled lhe tipas-
san na, vhich is develoed laler, lo knov lhe Iour Noble
Trulhs. Aclually, only lhe Trulh of Suering or lhe Grou of
Grasing (up!nakknan!) vhich haens lo be noled in lhe
course of medilalion is concerned here.
Nna and rpa or lhe lrulh of suering is seen as imerma-
nenl, as suering or non-self. Ivery lime lhey are seen lhus,
lhere is no chance for craving and clinging lo make lheir a-
earance. Thus, lhere is liberalion from craving and clinging.
Il is called panna|nisanqa, knoving sanu!qa by abandon-
menl, lhough nol by realizalion.
1oo
Ivery lime rpa and nna become sub|ecled lo his avareness,
lhe medilalor is free from ignorance, atpj, lhal could lead
him lo lhe vrong alh. eing lhus free from atpj, he is free
from lhe ills of sanknra and tina. This is lemorary ces-
salion of ills, ia!anga nirc!na sacc. This lemorary cessalion
of ills is realized by viassan al every inslance of noling,
bul nol as ils ob|ecl of conlemlalion.
Ivery acl of avareness develos tipassan nagga, headed
by sann!iiini. This is called |ntana|nisanaqa, knoving
tipassan nagga sacca by develoing il in oneself. This
knovledge is achieved, lhough nol by conlemlaling al
lhe momenl of noling, bul having il develoed in oneself,
il could be clearly erceived lhrough reeclion. Knoving
lhe Trulh of Suering lhrough noling lhe henomenon
of nna and rpa leads simullaneously lo lhe knovledge
of lhe lhree remaining lrulhs, also. This is knoving lhe
four lrulhs by means of secial tipassan nna. Hence, lhe
Middle Ialh is said lo roduce suer knovledge of lhe
lrulhs, a|ni.
Iurlhermore, il also causes arising of secial ariqa nagga
na. As tipassan na auains full malurily, Nibbna is re-
alized and ariqa naggas develoed. Then lhe four lrulhs
become knovn as lhey should be knovn by means of ariqa
nagga na. Ior lhis reason loo, lhe Middle Ialh is said lo
give rise lo a|ni.
1o1
PrNrfr~frvr INsrcnf
The Middle Ialh also leads lo enelralive Insighl (san|c!nqa
samtauaii). A|ni means suer-knovledge aboul Viassan
Insighl and ariqa nagga na, vhich vas nol reviously devel-
oed. San|c!na refers lo enelralive Insighl. Things hidden
behind big curlains or lhick valls become visible vhen lhese
barriers are shauered asunder or vindovs are oened. Like-
vise lhe Iour Noble Trulhs are kel hidden behind atpj,
vhich lakes nole of lhal vhich is vrong bul covers u lhal
vhich is righl. y develoing lhe Iighlfold Ialh lhrough medi-
lalion exercises, Trulhs vhich vere nol knovn before become
aarenl lhrough Vipassana na and ariqa nagga na. Thus
atpj has been enelraled and Noble Trulhs become knovn
by means of enelralive insighl.
Il is quile obvious lhal knasukna||ika and auaki|anaina rac-
lices can never give rise lo suer-knovledge nor enelralive
insighl (a|ni nor san|c!na).
Rr~irz~froN Or NriiN~
Iinally, lhe Middle Ialh, lhe Iighlfold Noble Ialh, leads lo
lhe realizalion of Nibbna (ni||na samtauaii). Ienelraling lo
lhe Iour Noble Trulhs by means of lhe aranaua nagga na
amounls lo realizalion of Nibbna. ul as Nibbna is lhe hnal
and lhe noblesl goal of lhose vho vork for liberalion from
lhe rounds of suering il vas menlioned again as a searale
auainmenl by lhe lessed One.
1oz
y develoing lhe Iighlfold Noble Ialh, enelralion of lhe
Iour Noble Trulhs vill be auained by means of ariqa nagga,
hnally Nibbna vill be realized lhrough lhe Aranauapna|a.
Having lhus realized Nibbna, lhe lasl conscious momenl of
Iarinibbna vill nol lead lo nev exislence for nev forms of
mind and mauer. Il is lhe cessalion of all suering. In lhis
vay, lhe Iighlfold Ialh leads lo realizalion of Nibbna, cessa-
lion of all suerings.
To summarise lhe benehls lhal vill be derived from raclis-
ing lhe Middle Ialh:
1. Avoid sensual leasures.
z. Avoid self-morlihcalion.
. Avoid bolh exlremes, being vrong alhs.
. The Middle Ialh is lhe righl one.
j. Iolloving lhe righl alh, Insighl vill be develoed
and Nibbna realized.
enehls lhal vill accrue from folloving lhe Middle Ialh have
been exhauslively exounded. They reresenl lhe highesl
goal aimed al by ersons vorking for liberalion from lhe suf-
ferings of lhe rounds of exislence. There is nolhing more lhal
lhey should need.
Il nov remains only lo knov vhal conslilules lhe Middle
Ialh. In order lo exlain lhe Ialh, lhe lessed One slarled
vilh a queslion in accordance vilh lhe lradilional vay of
lhose limes.
Kaian ca s, |nikknat, najjnina paiipa!
Taingaicna a|nisan|u!!n Cakknukarani,
1o
Nnakarani, upasanqa, a|niqa, San|c!nqa,
Ni||n qa Samtauaii `
Whal Middle vay, hikkhus, underslood by lhe Talhgala,
roduces vision, roduces knovledge and leads lo calm,
suer-knovledge, enelralive insighl, Nibbna`
The ansver vas sulied by lhe lessed One Himself:
Aqancta ariqc aiinangikc naggc Scqqa ini!an,
Sann!iiini, Sanmsankappc, Sanntc, Sannkannanic,
Sunnjitc, Sanntqana, Sannsaii, Sannsan!ni.
Only lhis, lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh (lhe lessed One oinled
oul lhe Ialh, as if by oinling a hnger al visible ob|ecls or
holding lhem in lhe alms of his hands) namely:
Sann Diiini Righl Viev
Sann Sankappa Righl Thoughl
Sann Vc Righl Seech
Sann Sannania Righl Aclion
Sann Ajita Righl Livelihood
Sann Vqana Righl Iorl
Sann Saii Righl Mindfulness
Sann San!ni Righl Concenlralion
These conslilule lhe Iighlfold Ialh, lhe Middle Ialh, vhich
vhen fully underslood by lhe Talhgala roduces visions, ro-
duces knovledge and leads lo calm, suer-knovledge, ene-
lralive insighl, Nibbna.
The dehnilion of lhe Middle Ialh has nov been given. Ilabo-
rale exosilion of lhis Iighlfold Ialh vill have lo vail unlil
nexl veek.
1o
y virlue of having given reseclful auenlion lo lhis greal
Discourse on lhe Turning of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, may all
you good eole resenl in lhis audience be able lo avoid lhe
vrong alh, namely, lhe lvo exlremes and follov lhe Noble
Iighlfold Middle Ialh, lhereby gaining vision and higher
knovledge vhich vill lead lo lhe realizalion of Nibbna, lhe
end of all suering.
S!nu! S!nu! S!nu!
1oj
Cn.v+in Tnnii
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni Iiii Moo u.v oi Tn.uiovi+, 1z, inxisi In..
Today is lhe Iull Moon day of Thadingyul, 1z n.i. uddhisl
monks have observed Vassa (lhe rains relreal) for lhree
monlhs since lhe hrsl day aer lhe Iull Moon of Wso. Today
is lhe lasl day of lhe lhree monlhs relreal. During lhe Vassa
eriod of lhree monlhs, monks are en|oined nol lo make over-
nighl |ourneys excel for secial reasons aroved by lhe
uddha. They can leave lheir residence for u lo seven days
for such secial reasons. Al lhe lerminalion of lonighl, slarl-
ing from early davn lomorrov, lhe Vassa eriod of lhree
monlhs comes lo an end. Monks can, henceforlh, move aboul
freely for overnighl |ourneys.
P~v4r~N4
Accordingly, monks vho have business lo auend lo elsevhere
are leaving lhe residence lomorrov. On lhe eve of lheir dear-
lure, lhal is lhis evening, lhey have lo erform lhe Iavran
service. Il is a ceremony in vhich a monk inviles (requesls)
crilicism from his brelhren in resecl of vhal has been seen,
heard or susecled aboul his conducl. There may be lases or
faulls vhich one may nol be avare of oneself bul are noliced
by olhers. If any faull or error has been commiued unvil-
lingly, lhe olher monks of lhe assembly can oinl il oul nov
1o6
and suilable correclive measures can lhus be laken. Making
necessary amends in consequence of crilicisms conslilules ob-
servance of disciline leading lo urihcalion of conducl or si|a
(si|a tisu!!ni). Only vhen urihcalion of si|a is assured, one
slarls raclising medilalion for lhe auainmenl of urihcalion
of mind (ciua tisu!!ni) and urihcalion of viev (!iiini tisu!!ni).
This raclice of inviling crilicisms (Patran) is highly condu-
cive lo mainlenance of urily in lhe uddha's Disensalions
(Bu!!na Ssan) and lo high sirilual auainmenls such jnna
and nagga pna|a. Il is for lhis reason lhal lhe uddha had laid
dovn lhis code of disciline, requiring formal invilalion lo
lhe Sangha for crilicism vhen lhere are hve hikkhus in resi-
dence on lhe Iull Moon day of Thadingyul, or lo one anolher
if lhere are less lhan hve hikkhus. This is a code of disci-
line vhich a hikkhu of good failh should ay greal heed
lo and in conformily vilh il one should earneslly invile crili-
cism concerning one's conducl and behaviour. If any crilicism
is forlhcoming, il should be varmly velcomed in lhe siril in
vhich il is given and necessary alonemenls should be made
accordingly.
Il is |usl like having oinled oul by a friend a smudge or slain
on one's face vhen one is aboul lo leave for a social funclion
or a ublic galhering. The friendly inlimalion is received vilh
arecialion and lhe smudge on lhe face is removed in lime lo
avoid derision and sniggering in ublic. One is lhankful lo lhe
friend for having lhe kindness lo oinl oul lhe slain on one's
face. Likevise, lhe hikkhu should velcome vilh gralilude
any faull of his being oinled oul by lhe brelhren and auend lo
1o;
ils removal. This raclice is essenlial for mainlenance of urily
in lhe uddha's Teaching. Nol |usl folloving lhe lradilion as
a mere formalily bul vilh lhe lruly sincere vish lo eradicale
one's ovn faull and shorl-comings, lhe hikkhu should invile
crilicisms from his brelhrens and velcome lhem. Al lhe same
lime, he should in lurn oer crilicisms lo olher hikkhus if he
haens lo see any faulls in lhem. y lhus oinling oul each
olher's faulls and making sincere eorls lo remove lhem, lhe
holy life can be mainlained in a slale of faullless urily. Thal
vas lhe reason behind lhe uddha's laying dovn of lhis code
of disciline for lhe hikkhus.
Today, hy hikkhus vho have resided logelher during lhe
Vassa eriod have assembled in lhe hall lo make formal re-
quesls lo lhe Sangha for crilicism. Iach Sangha member has
arlicialed in lhis Iavran service vhich has laken nearly
an hour. We have come here slraighl from lhe Sangha Assem-
bly lo conlinue vilh lhe Discourse held lasl veek.
Ei~ior~froN ON Tnr Ercnfroin P~fn
Lasl veek, ve deall vilh only lhe headings of lhe Middle
Ialh, olhervise called lhe Iighlfold Ialh. We shall nov elabo-
rale on lhem.
Sann Diiini Righl Viev
Sann Sankappa Righl Thoughl
Sann Vc Righl Seech
Sann Kannania Righl Aclion
1o8
Sann Ajita Righl Livelihood
Sann Vqana Righl Iorl
Sann Saii Righl Mindfulness
Sann San!ni Righl Concenlralion
The Iighlfold Ialh can be summarised under lhree grous,
namely, si|a, san!ni and pa. Righl Seech, Righl Aclion
and Righl Livelihood form lhe si|a grou or nagga. y rac-
lising Righl Seech, Righl Aclion and Righl Livelihood, si|a
nagga is eslablished. San!ni nagga is made u of Righl Iorl,
Righl Mindfulness and Righl Concenlralion. y raclising
lhem, san!ni nagga is eslablished. Righl Viev and Righl
Thoughl belong lo pa nagga. Develoing Righl Viev and
Righl Thoughl leads one lo tipassan pa (Knovledge of In-
sighl), nagga pa and pna|a pa (Knovledge erlaining
lo Transcendenlal Ialh and Iruilion), lhal is, visdom erlain-
ing lo bolh mundane and sura-mundane levels. We shall de-
scribe each of lhese naggas in delail, emhasising lhe racli-
cal asecls.
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf Sirrcn
Whal, hikkhus, is Righl Seech` Il is avoidance of lelling
lies, avoidance of slandering, avoidance of harsh, abusive lan-
guage, avoidance of frivolous lalk or useless chauer. hikkhus,
avoidance of lhese four evil seeches is called Righl Seech.
In lhis dehnilion given by lhe uddha, abslinence or avoid-
ance conslilules Righl Seech. Thus, il should be noled lhal,
even vhen an occasion arises for one lo uuer false seech,
1o
slander, abuse or useless chauer, if one reslrains oneself from
doing so, one is lhen eslablishing lhe raclice of Righl Seech.
In realily, Righl Seech is sanntc tiraii, one of lhe hy-
lvo kinds of cciasika (menlal concomilanls), a member of lhe
class of Abslinences. Hovever, vhen one refrains from false
seech, elc., one vill be engaged only in lalks vhich are lrulh-
ful, genlle and benehcial, romoling harmony. The essenlial
oinl here is lhal abslinence from false seech, elc., amounls
lo doing good deeds of observing lhe si|as. One vho lakes lhe
vov of refraining from false seech in observance of lhe hve,
eighl or len recels has lo refrain al lhe same lime from lhe
lhree evil vocal acls of slandering, abusing and idle lalk, loo.
In addilion, vhenever one sees, hears, smells, louches or
lhinks, if one realizes by conlemlalion lhe real nalure of im-
ermanence, suering and insubslanlialily concerning lhese
sense-ob|ecls, no dehlemenl vhich vould cause uuerance
of vrong seech can arise. This amounls lo lemorarily ul-
ling avay anusaqa ki|cs (lalenl dehlemenls), including vrong
seech, by means of Viassan.
As lhe knovledge of Insighl, Vipassan-na, gels fully devel-
oed, Nibbna is realized lhrough ariqa nagga na, knov-
ledge erlaining lo lhe Noble Transcendenlal Ialh. When lhal
haens, vrong seech vill have been comlelely ul avay
by virlue of sanntc tiraii of lhe Transcendenlal Ialh. Vi-
suddhi Magga Commenlary, lherefore, slales lhal Scipaui
Magga, lhe Iirsl Ialh, disels false seech, Angni Magga, lhe
Third Ialh, disels slandering and abusive language. Here,
'by seech or language' means volilion (allhough il is ossible
11o
lo uuer harsh language unaccomanied by volilion). Aranaua
nagga, lhe Iourlh Ialh, disels frivolous lalk or useless chal-
ler. (Il should be underslood here, hovever, lhal all kinds of
lying, slandering and abusive language, vhich vould have
caused rebirlhs in realms of misery (apqagananiqa pisu, pnaru,
sanpna) have already been gol rid of by lhe Iirsl Ialh.) The
Ialh of righl seech (sanntc nagga) has, lherefore, lo be fol-
loved unlil all lhe Iour Transcendenlal Ialhs have been com-
lelely eslablished. To summarise:
a. To uuer false seech, slander, abuse and useless
chauer is indulgence in vrong seech.
b. Avoidance of vrong seech is righl seech.
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf AcfroN
Whal, hikkhus, is Righl Aclion` Il is lhe avoidance of kill-
ing, avoidance of slealing, and avoidance of unlavful sexual
inlercourse. hikkhus, avoidance of lhe said lhree evil hysi-
cal deeds is Righl Aclion.
Here loo, in lhe dehnilion of Righl Aclion given by lhe
uddha, avoidance of lhe lhree evil hysical acls conslilules
Righl Aclion. Thus, vhen an occasion arises for one lo commil
killing, slealing, sexual misconducl, if one reslrains oneself
from commiuing lhem, one is eslablishing lhe raclice of
Righl Aclion. Ior examle, |usl scaring avay and nol killing
lhe mosquilo vhich is biling you amounls lo Righl Aclion.
Similarly, il should be underslood vilh regard lo avoidance
of slealing or avoidance of sexual misconducl.
111
An exlanalion is needed here as lo vhal conslilules unlav-
ful sexual inlercourse. There are lvenly kinds of females
vilh vhom no male erson should have sexual inlercourse.
Any male vho has sexual inlercourse vilh such ersons
as are under lhe roleclion of falher, molher, brolhers, sis-
lers, relalives, clan elders, colleagues in medilalion or a mar-
ried voman or a belrolhed girl, commils lhe evil deed of
sexual misconducl. A married voman or a belrolhed girl,
having sexual relalions vilh anolher man, also commils lhis
evil deed. Avoidance of such evil deeds is Righl Aclion. To
summarise:
a. Killing, slealing and sexual misconducl are vrong
aclions.
b. Avoidance of lhese evil deeds is Righl Aclion.
The Ialh of Righl Aclion should be develoed by observance
of lhe moral recels. Il should be develoed loo by rac-
lising Viassan unlil lhe four ariqa naggas (Transcendenlal
Ialhs) have been comlelely eslablished.
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf Lrvrirnoon
Commiuing lhree evil acls by deeds and four evil acls by
vords in order lo earn a living conslilules vrong livelihood.
Avoidance of lhese evil deeds in earning one's livelihood
means folloving lhe Ialh of Righl Livelihood.
Whal, hikkhus, is Righl Livelihood` In lhis Teaching, lhe
noble discile avoids a vrong vay of living, gels his livelihood
by a righl vay of living. This is called Righl Livelihood.
11z
Wrong livelihood is earning one's living lhrough unlavful,
unvholesome means such as killing and slealing. The lhree
evil acls by deeds and four evil acls by vords amounl only
lo vrong aclion (niccn kannania) and vrong seech (niccn
tc) vhen lhey have no conneclion vilh earning one's liveli-
hood. They do nol form vrong livelihood. Thus, for inslance,
killing ies, mosquiloes, insecls, snakes or an enemy lhrough
anger or halred amounls lo an evil acl of deeds, a vrong
aclion, bul nol vrong livelihood. Killing animals such as oul-
lry, igs, goals or hsh for lhe markel or for one's ovn lable
dehnilely conslilules vrong livelihood.
In general, slealing and robbery are molivaled by economic
reasons. These vill, lherefore, be classed as vrong liveli-
hood. When, hovever, lhe reason is nol economic bul revenge
or habil, lhese deeds conslilule merely vrong aclion. Illicil
sexual inlercourse usually has nolhing lo do vilh earning
a livelihood, bul seduclion of vomen and ruining lhem ur-
osely for emloymenl in carnal lrade are, of course, vrong
livelihood.
Lying is |usl vrong seech vhen nol molivaled by economic
reason. Hovever, vhen falsehood is emloyed in commercial
lransaclions or in lav courls lo romole business, il amounls
lo vrong livelihood. Similarly, slandering, devoid of economic
inleresl, is vrong seech, bul novadays false charges or de-
nuncialory remarks are common melhods emloyed lo bring
discredil lo lhe rival arly and as lhey are moslly concerned
vilh business, lhey may be regarded as vrong livelihood.
Harsh seech or abusive language is rarely emloyed in busi-
11
ness lransaclions and is, lherefore, usually |usl vrong seech.
Modern novels, hclions, slories, lays and dramas, cinemas,
may be regarded moslly as means of vrong livelihood. Such
vrong vays of earning livelihood (by means of killing, sleal-
ing and lying) are deeds vhich are bere of moral rinciles
mainlained by urighl eole.
SrrkrNc Wr~ifn Tnroucn UNi~wrui Mr~Ns
Is WroNc Lrvrirnoon
One vho observes lhe hve recels has lo avoid lhe above
seven evil vays of earning a livelihood. In lhe jitaiinanaka
si|a, avoidance of vrong livelihood is included as one of lhe
faclors of lhe eighl recels. Thus, avoiding lhe vrong means
of livelihood and earning one's livelihood in accordance vilh
lhe moral rinciles of urighl eole conslilules Righl
Livelihood.
SrrkrNc Wr~ifn IN CoNsoN~Ncr Wrfn Mor~i L~w
Is Rrcnf Lrvrirnoon
Here again, |usl like sann tc and sann kannania, Righl
Livelihood (sann jita) is also a raclice of avoidance (tiraii
cciasika). Therefore, avoidance of vrong livelihood is lo be re-
garded as Righl Livelihood. Righl Livelihood should be devel-
oed by observance of recels. Il should be develoed loo by
Viassan medilalion unlil lhe tiraii faclor of lhe alh is ful-
hlled. Ior furlher elaboralion on Righl Livelihood, reference
may be made lo our discourse on Sallekha Suua, vol. II.
11
These lhree faclors Righl Seech, Righl Aclion and Righl
Livelihood belong lo lhe si|a grou of lhe Iighlfold Noble
Ialh. We shall nov roceed lo discuss lhe consliluenls of lhe
san!ni grou.
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf Errorf
Whal, hikkhus, is Righl Iorl` Here, in lhis Teaching, a
hikkhu inciles his vill for lhe non-arising of lhe evil, un-
vholesome lhings lhal have nol yel arisen and he makes
eorl, uls forlh his energy, exerls his mind and erseveres.
He inciles his vill lo abandon, overcome lhe evil, unvhole-
some lhings lhal have already arisen and he makes eorl,
uls forlh his energy, exerls his mind and erseveres. He in-
ciles his vill for lhe arising of vholesome, rohlable lhings
lhal have nol yel arisen and he makes eorl, uls forlh his
energy, exerls his mind and erseveres. Iurlher, he inciles his
vill lo mainlain lhe vholesome, rohlable lhings lhal have al-
ready arisen and nol lo lel lhem go oul of his memory bul lo
bring lhem lo grovlh, lo malurily and lo lhe full erfeclion
of develomenl (|ntan) and he makes eorl, uls forlh his
energy, exerls his mind and erseveres. Such endeavour is
called Righl Iorl, as exlained in delail by lhe lessed One
himself. Whal il means is lhis:
1. Iorl lo revenl unarisen unvholesome lhings from
arising. Whenever one nolices, hears or sees evil acls
of killing, slealing, lying being done by olhers, one
musl slrive hard lo ul oneself above lhese unvhole-
some acls. Il is |usl like lrying lo safeguard oneself
11j
againsl conlagious diseases such as inuenza, elc., in
limes of eidemics.
z. Iorl lo disel, lo overcome lhe evil, unvholesome
lhings lhal have already arisen. These unvholesome
lhings are of lvo kinds:
a. tiiakkana akusa|a resonsible for evil deeds or
vords such as killing, slealing or lying, vhich
one may have already commiued and pariqu-
iinna akusa|a, vhich gives rise lo lhoughls of
lusl and sensuous desires.
b. anusaqa akusa|a vhich has nol yel arisen bul
lying dormanl, and vill arise as and vhen an
oorlunily oers.
Of lhese lvo kinds, tiiakkana akusa|a is diselled or ul avay
by si|a lraining. Meliculous observance of si|a aulomalically
uls avay lhe evil deeds and vords arising oul of tiiakkana
akusa|a. Ivil lhoughls of lusls and desires belonging lo pari-
quiinna akusa|a are diselled by sanaina tipassan (concenlra-
lion and insighl medilalion).
Anusaqa akusa|a may be momenlarily ul avay by Viassan
(insighl medilalion). Anusaqa dehlemenls can be enlirely gol
rid of, rooled oul, only vhen ariqa nagga na (knovledge er-
laining lo lhe Noble Ialh) is auained. Il is vilh lhis viev of
comlelely urooling lhis anusaqa dehlemenl lhal Viassan
medilalion should be raclised. This oinl is sublle and dee
and can be fully grased only by lhose vho have raclised
Viassan medilalion eeclively and adequalely.
116
. Iorls lo bring oul vholesome lhings vhich have
nol yel arisen. Dna (alms giving), si|a (observance
of recels), sanaina |natana (raclice of concenlra-
lion medilalion), tipassan |ntan (raclice of insighl
medilalion) are all dierenl forms of merilorious
deeds. One should make one's besl eorl lo erform
any of lhese merilorious deeds vhich one has nol
fulhlled as yel.
Some ersons are dislorling lhe lrue leaching of lhe uddha
by slaling lhal merilorious deeds vill resull in rolonging lhe
samsra (lhe rounds of exislences). According lo lhem, kusa|a
(merilorious deed) is sanknra (volilion aclion) lhal is condi-
lioned by atpj (ignorance). In accordance vilh lhe doclrine of
paiicca-sanupp!a (lav of deendenl originalion) vhich says
'sanknra paccaq tin' (condilioned by sanknra, lhere arises
lhe rebirlh consciousness), kusa|a sanknra (merilorious deeds)
vill cause lhe arising of rebirlh consciousness. Hence, kusa|a
acls musl be abandoned. Such asserlion dehnilely conlradicls
lhe lrue meaning of lhe uddha's leaching and is highly
misleading.
As a mauer of facl, if kusa|a acls vere lo be given u, one
vould be le enlirely vilh akusa|a acls vhich vould nol only
rolong lhe rounds of exislences bul surely vould lead lo lhe
four nelher vorlds. The real cause for ceaseless rounds of re-
birlhs is rooled in dehlemenls of atpj and iann (craving).
And lhese dehlemenls can be removed by kusa|a acls vhich
should, lherefore, be erformed vilh a viev lo eradicaling
lhese dehlemenls. A simle merilorious acl can cause rebirlh
11;
in a good abode (sugaii) vhere Dhamma can be heard and
raclised lo become a noble erson (ariqa), lhus escaing from
lhe suerings of lhe nelher vorlds and rounds of exislences.
The slory of lhe Irog Deily serves lo illuslrale lhis oinl. The
Irog Deily vas a frog in his revious exislences vhen he ha-
ened lo hear a discourse given by lhe lessed One. Wilhoul
underslanding a vord of lhe discourse, lhe frog lislened lo
il vilh reseclful auenlion and comlacence, for vhich good
deed he vas reborn in lhe !cta vorld. As a !cta, he gained
lhe oorlunily of lislening lo lhe uddha's Teaching again,
by virlue of vhich he auained lhe slage of scipanna.
Thus eorl should be made lo bring oul any form of vhole-
some lhings vhich have nol yel arisen, esecially lhe merilo-
rious deeds vhich vould lead lo lhe Ariqa Ialh. Ivery lime
such eorl is made, lhere develos lhe Ialh of Righl Iorl.
. Iorl lo mainlain lhe vholesome lhings lhal have
already arisen and lo develo lhem lo malurily and
full erfeclion. This is lain enough. A yogi noling
everylhing al lhe momenl of seeing, hearing, louch-
ing, knoving, is aclually making eorl lo revenl, lo
deny oorlunily lo evil, unvholesome lhings from
arising. Il also means endeavouring lo remove, lo
eradicale lhe unvholesome lhings lhal have already
arisen. The yogi is al lhe same lime slriving lo
develo lhe higher slage of tipassan kusa|as and
Ariya Ialh, merils vhich have nol yel arisen. He
is also slriving lo mainlain and lo bring lo erfec-
lion lhe tipassan kusa|as vhich have already arisen.
118
Thus, every lime one is noling each henomenon as
a medilalion exercise, one is develoing lhe alh of
lhe Righl Iorl or lhe four sannappa!nnas, vhich
can be summarised as follovs:
1. Iorl lo revenl non-arisen akusa|as from arising.
z. Iorl lo gel rid of akusa|as lhal have already
arisen.
. Iorl lo romole, lo cause lo arise kusa|as vhich
have nol yel arisen.
. Iorl lo mainlain, develo and lo bring lo
erfeclion kusa|as vhich have already arisen.
These are called lhe four sannappa!nnas, lhe four greal
eorls.
Ivery lime one is engaged in lhe good deeds of !na, si|a
and |ntan, one is develoing lhe alh of Righl Iorl or
lhe four greal eorls. Isecially so vhen one erforms lhese
deeds vilh a viev lo escaing from lhe suerings of lhe cycle
of samsra. The merilorious deed of Viassan medilalion is,
needless lo say, arl and arcel vilh lhe alh of Righl Iorl.
Slriving lo do good deeds is Righl Iorl.
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf MrNnruiNrss
Whal, hikkhus, is lhe alh of Righl Mindfulness` In lhis
Teaching, a hikkhu dvells conlemlaling on lhe body (ma-
lerial aggregales), vhich is imermanenl, ainful, unconlrol-
11
lable, ugly, unleasanl, erceiving il merely as imermanenl,
ainful, unconlrollable, ugly, unleasanl cororealily or male-
rial aggregales. To erceive lhus, he dvells inlensely ardenl,
mindful and righlly comrehending, having overcome covel-
ousness and grief (!cnanassa) for lhe vorld of cororealily or
lhe vorld of lhe hve aggregales, such covelousness and grief
for lhem are liable lo arise unless righlly comrehended.
He dvells conlemlaling on lhe feelings merely as feelings,
imermanenl, ainful, unconlrollable, elc. He dvells conlem-
laling on lhe mind, noling il merely as a rocess of lhink-
ing and of consciousness, imermanenl, ainful, unconlrolla-
ble, elc. He dvells conlemlaling on lhe mind-ob|ecls, noling
lhem merely as henomena of seeing, hearing, elc., imerma-
nenl, ainful, unconlrollable, elc. To erceive lhus, he dvells
inlensely ardenl, mindful and righlly comrehending having
overcome covelousness and grief for lhe vorld of feelings,
lhe vorld of mind, lhe vorld of mind-ob|ecls, in olher vords
lhe vorld of lhe hve aggregales. hikkhus, being mindful
lhus so as lo comrehend righlly is called Righl Mindful-
ness. These are lhe uddha's vords elaboraling on lhe alh
of Righl Mindfulness.
Wnrfnrr Tnr Noiir Ercnfroin P~fn W~s Prr~cnrn
IN Drf~ri Or Nof
In lhe Dhammacakka suua, as ve hnd il loday, lhe Iighlfold
Ialh is |usl menlioned in lhe form of a heading. When lhis
Dhammacakka discourse vas hrsl given by lhe uddha, did
1zo
lhe Venerable Kondaa logelher vilh |ranns and !cts
vho auained lo higher knovledge lhen, undersland lhe mere
vords of lhe heading 'righl mindfulness` Thal il meanl 'lhe
four foundalions of mindfulness' by means of vhich lhe
nalure of lhe body, lhe feeling, lhe mind and lhe mind-ob-
|ecls (!nanna) are clearly comrehended` Did lhey also under-
sland lhal 'laking nole of bodily aclions, every feeling, every
menlal henomenon, every lhoughl on mind-ob|ecls' consli-
lules righl mindfulness` And lhal lhis Righl Mindfulness
should be develoed by laking nole of every hysical and
menlal henomenon`
This is a mool oinl vhich needs lo be ondered uon. Ior
unless lhey had a clear comrehension aboul il, lhey vould
nol be able lo develo Righl Mindfulness. And in lhe absence
of Righl Mindfulness, auainmenl lo higher knovledge of lhe
noble alh and fruilion is an imossibilily.
Tvo consideralions are ossible here. The hrsl one is lhal lhe
Venerable Kondaa and lhe |ranns and !cts vho vere al-
ready fully rie vilh uncommon, unique pranis, deslined
for hnal liberalion, on |usl hearing lhe vords 'righl mindful-
ness', al once underslood lhal lhey should lake nole of every
bodily aclion, elc., and develo lhe alh of Righl Mindful-
ness. They accordingly did so and in lhis vay auained lo
higher knovledge.
The second consideralion is lhal vhen lhe discourse vas hrsl
given, for clear underslanding by his audience lhe lessed
One elaboraled on lhe headings of lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh
1z1
and exounded also on lhe four foundalions of mindfulness.
Hovever, al lhe lime of lhe Iirsl Council, lhe Dhammacakka
Suua, lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh as such and as a comonenl
of lhe Iour Noble Trulhs, vas reciled in ils condensed form
i.e. of a heading only, lhere being in exislence searale exo-
silions or exegeses on lhem in olher suuas. Il may be asked
vhelher lhere are similar cases of olher suuas being reciled
in condensed form al lhe Iirsl Council. The ansver is 'yes'.
The Saliallhna Suua in Mla Iannsa is a condensalion of
lhe Mah Saliallhna Suua, only lhe hrsl orlion of vhich
vas reciled al lhe lime of lhe Iirsl Council. ul nov al lhe
roceedings of lhe Sixlh Greal Council, lhe missing orlions
of lhe suuas had been hlled u and recorded allhough lhe
lauer orlions of lhe suua vere nol menlioned in lhe com-
menlary lo Mla Iannsa. Similarly, some long suuas belong-
ing lo some olher Nikayas vere recorded in condensed form
in Khuddaka Nikya.
Thus, il may be laken here lhal exosilions on Righl Mindful-
ness given al lhe lime of lhe discourse vere le oul and lhe
suua reciled comendiously during lhe Iirsl Greal Council.
As such lhe queslion need nol arise as lo hov lhe deeer, de-
lailed meaning of lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh could be knovn
from ils mere lille. Novadays, lhe four foundalions of mind-
fulness vhich I have |usl reciled is vell-knovn by many. And
lhere is lhe Mah Saliallhna Suua ilself vhich sulies elab-
oralion on lhe summarised lille of lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh.
There exisl also many commenlaries on lhis suua. Yel, in sile
of lhem, lhere are only a fev vho knov hov lo develo lhe
alh of Righl Mindfulness. Therefore, ve are ersonally of
1zz
lhe oinion lhal lhe lessed One had aclually exounded lhe
alh in full delail vhen he vas giving lhe hrsl discourse for
lhe benehl of many.
Here, il musl be hrmly noled lhal lhe alh of Righl Mindful-
ness is lhe four foundalions of mindfulness. Hov lhis alh
should be develoed is rovided in lhe Ili lexl |usl quoled.
This Ili lexl is exaclly lhe same as lhe summarised inlroduc-
lory assage lo lhe Mah Saliallhna Suua. Iinding lhis com-
endious accounl nol adequale for full underslanding, one
can have recourse lo dee sludy of lhe Mah Saliallhna
Suua ilself.
According lo lhe Mah Saliallhna Suua, kaqnupassan (con-
lemlalion of lhe body) may be carried oul in lvo vays
eilher by conlemlalion of resiralion, npna, lhal is valch-
ing lhe in-brealh and oul-brealh, or conlemlaling lhe z con-
sliluenl arls of lhe body such as head hair, body hair, elc.
The commenlary slales lhal lhese lvo seclions of lhe Salia-
llhna Suua are medilalion ob|ecls vhich can roduce sanaina
appan jnna (hxed concenlralion or absorlion). The remain-
ing 1 seclions of lhe Saliallhna Suua are medilalion ob|ecls
roducing Access concenlralion (upacra kannainna). y upa-
cra kannainna, is meanl Insighl Medilalion (tipassan kan-
nainna) vhich roduces only access concenlralion.
How To Pronucr Vri~ss~N4 S~fr, INsrcnf MrNnruiNrss
One is only required lo selecl any of lhe medilalion ob|ecls
menlioned in lhe remaining 1 seclions for develoing lhe
1z
alh of Insighl Mindfulness, tipassan sannsaii nagga. In ac-
cordance vilh gaccnanic t gaccnniii pajnii', as menlioned in
lhe seclion on body oslures, vhile valking, lhe body move-
menls involved in lhe acl of valking should be noled. While
slanding, siuing, lying dovn, lhe body movemenls involved
in each aclion should, likevise, be noled. In accordance vilh
yaina qaina ta pana, elc., vhile siuing, for examle, if lhere
are olher minor body oslures involved, lhey should also be
noled carefully. Here, secial auenlion should be aid lo lhe
grammalical lense emloyed in gaccnanic t gaccnniii, elc. Il
refers dehnilely lo noling lhe resenl aclion only. Therefore,
il should be lhoroughly underslood lhal learning by role and
ondering uon lhe lyes of cororealily, as enumeraled, in
lhe Abhidhamma lexls, does nol amounl lo conlemlalion of
lhe body vilh mindfulness, kqnupassan saiipaiinna.
In addilion, as menlioned in lhe seclion on Mindfulness vilh
clear comrehension, sanpajaa alhs, all body movemenls
involved in going forvard or going back, looking slraighl on
or looking askance, bending or slrelching lhe limbs, should
be noled.
Exii~N~froN ON INsrcnf MoVrNf~rv CoNcrNfr~froN
(Vri~ss~N4 Kn~Nrk~ S~V4nnr)
According lo lhe seclion on 'Auenlion given lo Ilemenls' (!na-
iunanasikra pa||a), nole should also be laken of lhe Iour
Greal Irimaries as lhey arise and manifesl. Visuddhi Magga
exlicilly slales lhal vhen lhe hindrances are comlelely over-
come by conlemlaling on lhe Iour Greal Irimaries, access
1z
concenlralion arises. This access concenlralion, as exlained
in lhe Greal Subcommenlary of Visuddhi Magga, is nol in lhe
neighbourhood of any appan san!ni (absorlion concenlra-
lion) and, as such, is nol a lrue Access concenlralion. Never-
lheless, since il is akin lo access concenlralion in ils caacily
in overcoming lhe hindrances and roducing lranquilily, il as-
sumes lhe name of access concenlralion by virlue of idenlily
in caacilies.
Ior uroses of Insighl Medilalion (tipassan), ve have used
lhe lerm tipassan knanika san!ni, Insighl Momenlary con-
cenlralion lo describe lhe said concenlralion. Some eole
hnd il dicull lo undersland lhis usage and crilicize ils use.
They mainlain lhal Insighl Viassan cannol be develoed by
means of momenlary concenlralion. They argue lhal if il vere
ossible, monaslic sludenls sludying lhe scrilures should be
able lo acquire Insighl knovledge. We could accel lhis viev
if lhe sludenls' concenlralion vere slrong enough lo disel
lhe hindrances and if, al lhe same lime, lhey vere conlemlal-
ing on lhe henomenon of rpa and nna al lhe momenl of
lheir arising in accordance vilh lhe Maha Saliallhna Suua.
ul il is quile lain lhal concenlralion involved in recilalion of
and reeclion on lhe scrilures vhich sludenls have learnl by
hearl is nol inlense enough lo overcome lhe hindrances, nor
are lhey laking nole of lhe henomena of nna and rpa al
lhe momenl of lheir arising. Our crilic is, lherefore, obviously
nol conversanl vilh correcl raclices of Viassan.
In Visuddhi Magga, tipassan knanika concenlralion is men-
lioned as knanika ciuakaggai. In ils sub-commenlary, il is re-
1zj
ferred lo as knananauaniiikc san!ni, elc. Thus, based on lhe
aulhorily of lhe Commenlary and lhe sub-commenlary, ve
have emloyed lhe lerm Vipasann Knanika San!ni lo describe
lhe concenlralion vhich is by virlue of idenlily, access concen-
lralion. Once lhese exlanalions are vell underslood, confu-
sion vill surely cease in lhe minds of our crilics.
As slaled above, if conlemlalion of cororealily is accom-
lished by laking nole of lhem as lhey arise, in accordance
vilh lhe seclion on body oslures, clear comrehension and
auenlion lo elemenls (iriqapaina, sanpaja and !naiunana-
sikra), Access concenlralion vhich may be lermed tipassan
knanika concenlralion is develoed. And logelher vilh il, In-
sighl knovledge (Vipassan na), vhich is also knovn as Vi-
passan Sann!iiini, Insighl of Righl Viev, is also develoed.
These are lhen Sann Saii Magga, Sann San!ni Magga and
Sann Diiini Magga, olhervise called lhe Ioundalion of Mind-
fulness vilh regard lo conlemlalion of body, kqnupassan
saiipaunana.
Wilh regard lo lhe above slalemenl lhal 'Auenlion lo Ile-
menls' is an ob|ecl of medilalion for Access Concenlralion, ve
have lhe aulhorily of lhe Visuddhi Magga vhich menlions
lhis medilalion ob|ecl as Caiu!niutataunna. Also, no doubl
should be enlerlained aboul our asserlion lhal conlemlalion
of body oslures and clear comrehension leads lo Access
Concenlralion because lhe commenlary lo lhe Saliallhna
Suua dehnilely conhrms lhem lo be medilalion ob|ecls for
Access Concenlralion.
1z6
In addilion, according lo lhe seclion on Conlemlalion of Ieel-
ings, elc., mindfulness of feelings, mindfulness of lhe mind,
and mindfulness of menlal ob|ecls (!nannas) al lhe momenl
of lheir arising vill lead lo develomenl of access concenlra-
lion and Insighl Knovledge. Therefore, lhe Visuddhi Magga
gives al lhe beginning of lhe chaler on Iurihcalion of Vievs,
a descrilion of hov a erson vho begins raclising bare in-
sighl slraighlavay conlemlales lhe Iour Irimary Ilemenls
folloved by discernmenl of 18 elemenls, 1z bases (aqaianas), j
aggregales and of rpa and nna. This is in accordance vilh
lhe leachings of lhe uddha as rovided in lhe Mah Salia-
llhna Suua, elc.
y nov, having heard lhe above exlanalions and consider-
alions, il should be ossible lo undersland hov lo develo lhe
alh of Righl Mindfulness in conformily vilh lhe suua dis-
courses of lhe lessed One. And having lhus underslood, one
should be able lo delermine vhelher mere recilalion of and
reeclion on vhal one has learnl from lhe scrilures inslead
of mindfully noling lhe body, lhe feeling, lhe mind and lhe
menlal ob|ecls al lhe momenl of lheir arising, leads lo lhe lrue
alh of Righl Mindfulness. Il is lain also lhal in lhe absence
of lhe roer alh of Righl Mindfulness, lhe roer alh of
Viassan Righl Viev (tipassan sann!iiini nagga) can never
be eslablished.
Proirr INsrcnf KNowirncr ONiv Bv MrNnrui NofrNc
In order lo furlher slrenglhen our argumenl, ve vill quole a
assage from lhe Mah Saliallhna commenlary, namely:
1z;
Yasana pana kaqa tc!an ciua-!nanncsu kinci !nannam
ananasiiata |ntan nna naui. Tasan icpi ininta
maggcna sckapari!cta sanaiikknaniaii tc!iia||a.
(Commentary to Sutta Mahv)
There is no such lhing as develomenl of insighl knovledge,
knovledge erlaining lo lhe noble alh, vilhoul conlemla-
lion of any of lhe medilalion ob|ecls, namely, body, feelings,
mind and menlal ob|ecls (!nannas). Therefore, il should be re-
alized lhal lhe minisler Sanlali and Ialasra Ther (vho vere
said lo have auained lhe higher knovledge of lhe noble alh
and fruilion in lhe course of hearing a discourse on dhamma)
had overcome lheir sorrov and lamenlalion lhrough lhe rac-
lice of lhe alh of lhe four foundalions of mindfulness.
No INsrcnf Wrfnouf MrNnruiNrss
The commenlary is very clear on lhis oinl. Il is nol |usl lis-
lening lo lhe leaching bul conlemlalion on any of lhe ob|ecls,
body, feelings, mind and menlal ob|ecls lhal heled lhem lo
auain higher knovledge. Wilhoul conlemlaling on any of
lhem, il is imossible lo develo insighl knovledge or knov-
ledge erlaining lo lhe noble alh and fruilion. Il is very clear,
lherefore, lhal mere learning of lhe dehnilion and classihca-
lions of nna and rpa, and reecling on lhem vilhoul aclu-
ally noling lhem as lhey arise vilhin one's body, one vill
never develo lhe roer alh of Righl Viev, i.e. Insighl knov-
ledge or knovledge erlaining lo lhe noble alh.
1z8
Here, Righl Mindfulness alone vill nol bring aboul lhe de-
sired ob|eclive. Having achieved Righl Mindfulness, il is only
by comrehending lhe lrulh as il really is lhal lhe desired
end is auained. Therefore, in lhe summarised inlroduclion
lo lhe Saliallhna |usl ciled above, il is menlioned 'lo have
ardenl mindfulness vilh clear comrehension'. In lhe exosi-
lion of lhis summarised inlroduclion, such lerms as pajnii'
(lo knov in dierenl vays) or sanu!aqa !nannnupassi (lo
knov lhe cause of arising and ceasing) are emloyed.
We have lhus summarised lhis alh of Righl Mindfulness as
follovs: lo develo Righl Mindfulness, lhere musl be ardenl
mindfulness vilh clear comrehension.
1. Clear comrehension of every body movemenl.
z. Clear comrehension of every aclion of lhe mind.
. Clear comrehension of every feeling good, bad
or indierenl (vhichever becomes manifesl).
. Righl comrehension of every menlal ob|ecl
(!nanna) as il aears.
We have laken considerable lime lo discuss in delail lhe alh
of Righl Mindfulness as il is very imorlanl for lhe under-
slanding of many eole. We shall roceed nov vilh consid-
eralion of lhe alh of Righl Concenlralion. Ior lhal, ve shall
conhne ourselves only lo lhe mosl essenlial oinls of lhe
Teaching concerning lhe alh of Righl Concenlralion. To recile
all lhe exosilions on lhe sub|ecl vould be covering loo vide
a scoe, hard lo be grased by lhose vilh limiled knovledge.
1z
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf CoNcrNfr~froN
Whal, hikkhus, is Righl Concenlralion` Here, in lhis Teach-
ing, lhe hikkhu vho is delached from all desires (greed) and
olher unvholesome lhings, enlers inlo lhe hrsl slage of ab-
sorlion vhich is accomanied by lhoughl-concelion (lhink-
ing), and discursive lhinking (invesligalion), is hlled vilh ra-
lure (piii) and hainess (sukna). orn of delachmenl from evil
lhoughls, he enlers inlo lhe four slages of jnna. The concen-
lralion involved in lhe four slages of jnna is dehned as lhe
alh of Righl Concenlralion.
Here, jnna means nol alloving lhe mind lo vander aboul bul
having il hxed on a single ob|ecl lo remain lranquilized. Ac-
cording lo lhe suuas, lhere are four lyes of jnnas:
1. The hve faclors, namely:
tiiakka direcling lhe mind lovards an ob|ecl, or
lhinking of lhe medilalion ob|ecl, ticra reealed
invesligalion on lhe ob|ecl vhich has manifesled, piii
ralure or lhrilling |oy, sukna hainess or leas-
anl feeling, ckaggai one-oinledness of calm mind
conslilule lhe hrsl jnna.
z. Aer lhe fading avay of tiiakka and ticra, only lhree
faclors remain piii, sukna and ckaggaia lo form lhe
second jnna.
. Then, vilhoul piii, lhe lvo faclors sukna and ckag-
gai conslilule lhe lhird jnna.
1o
. In lhe fourlh jnna, sukna is relaced by upckkn (equa-
nimily) so lhal upckkn and ckaggai form lhe lvo
faclors of lhe fourlh jnna.
These four lyes of jnnas may be higher |ckiqa (mundane)
jnnas also knovn as rupatacara and arupa-tacara jnnas or |c-
kuuar (suramundane) jnna accomanied by lhe noble alh
consciousness. The |ckuuar jnna san!ni is lhe alh of noble
Righl Concenlralion roer, lhe |ckiqa jnna san!ni may be
classed as lhe alh of Righl Concenlralion if il forms lhe basis
for lhe develomenl of Viassan.
AssrrfroN Tn~f Vri~ss~N4 C~NNof Drvrioi Wrfnouf Jn4N~
Hanging on lo lhis slalemenl of ours, some say lhal Viassan
can be develoed only aer achieving urihcalion of mind
lhrough auaining jnnic concenlralion. Wilhoul jnanic concen-
lralion, urihcalion of mind cannol be broughl aboul. Conse-
quenlly, Viassan cannol be develoed. This is a one-sided
dogmalic viev. Thal access concenlralion in lhe neighbour-
hood of jnna, having lhe caacily lo suress lhe hindrances,
can hel auain lhe urihcalion of viev, leading lhus lo lhe
develomenl of Viassan, lhal by so develoing, auainmenl
can be made u lo lhe slages of Aranauapn|a, lhal lhere are
many vho have achieved lhus, are exlicily slaled in lhe Vi-
suddhi Magga, elc. In lhe Suua Ili canons, for inslance, in
lhe Maha Saliallhna Suua, elc., lhere is very clear leaching
lhal Aranauapn|a may be achieved by conlemlalion of such
ob|ecls as body oslures, elc., vhich can cause only access
concenlralion lo come aboul. The Anussalilhna Suua of lhe
11
Anguuara Ili canon slales lhal lhe san!ni vhich develos
oul of recolleclions of virlues of lhe lessed One, elc., is ad-
equale enough lo be used as a basic concenlralion for lhe de-
velomenl of higher knovledge u lo lhe slale of Arahalshi.
The commenlaries vhich exound on lhe seclion on clear
comrehension also dehnilely arm lhal piii can be aroused
by recollecling |usl on lhe virlues of lhe lessed One and lhe
Sangha, and lhal lhe piii so aroused can be medilaled uon
as being erishable, as being imermanenl resulling subse-
quenlly in auainmenl of Aranauapn|a.
These aulhorilies slale furlher lhal lhe innumerable eole by
lakhs, millions and crores vho became liberaled during lhe
course of discourses given by lhe uddha vere nol skilled in
jnnas. Il is mosl robable lhal many of lhem vere unequied
vilh jnna auainmenls. ul lhey musl have achieved urih-
calion of mind, because lheir minds vere lhen described as
resonsive, lender, free from hindrances, exullanl and ure.
Commenlaries clearly menlion lhal il vas al such oorlune
momenls lhal lhe lessed One delivered lhe mosl exalled, sub-
lime discourses on lhe Iour Trulhs vhich only lhe uddha
alone could exound. Commenlaries clearly slale lhal his au-
dience auained higher knovledge as a consequence of lislen-
ing lo such deliverances.
In viev of such consideralion, dehnilions given in lhe leach-
ings on Righl Concenlralion in lerms of lhe four jnnas should
be regarded as a suerlalive melhod of descrilion. The access
concenlralion, allhough described in an inferior vay, may
also be laken as lhe righl concenlralion vhich can accomlish
1z
lhe urihcalion of mind. The said access concenlralion has
lhe same characlerislics of suressing lhe hindrances as lhe
hrsl jnna. They are similar loo in having lhe same hve faclors
of jnna, namely tiiakka, ticra, piii, sukna and ckaggai. Conse-
quenlly ve lake il lhal lhe lessed One had included bolh lhe
roer access concenlralion and lhe nominal access concenlra-
lion under lhe calegory of lhe hrsl jnna as an inferior vay of
dehnilion.
jnna means closely observing an ob|ecl vilh hxed auenlion.
Concenlraled auenlion given lo a selecled ob|ecl of medilalion
such as resiralion for lranquilily concenlralion gives rise lo
sanaina jnna, vhereas noling lhe characlerislic nalure of rpa,
nna and conlemlaling on lheir imermanence, unsalisfaclo-
riness and insubslanlialily brings aboul tipassan jnna. We
have given lhe folloving summarised nole for easy memory:
1. Close observalion vilh hxed auenlion is called jnna.
z. There are lvo lyes of jnna: sanaina jnna and
tipassan jnna.
. Iixed auenlion lo develo only lranquilily is called
sanaina jnna.
. Conlemlaling on lhe lhree characlerislics conslilule
tipassan jnna.
j. There are lhree kinds of san!ni (concenlralion):
momenlary, access and absorlion (or hxed)
concenlralion.
The momenlary concenlralion menlioned above refers lo lhe
fairly calm slale before access concenlralion is auained in lhe
1
course of medilaling uon lranquilily medilalion ob|ecls (sa-
naina kannainna ob|ecls) and also lo lhe tipassan san!ni.
As exlained above, of lhese lvo, lhe tipassan san!ni is also
called access concenlralion because il has lhe same characler-
islic of suressing lhe hindrances as access concenlralion.
When Viassan concenlralion becomes slrongly develoed, il
can kee lhe mind vell-lranquilized |usl like lhe absorlion
concenlralion. This has been clearly borne oul by lhe ersonal
exeriences of lhe yogis raclising Saliallhna medilalion.
Therefore, in lhe Mah Tika, lhe sub-commenlary lo lhe Vi-
suddhi Magga, ve hnd: 'True, knanika ciuckaggaia is (ti!assan)
san!ni vhich lasls for only lhe duralion of lhe momenl of
each arising. When tipassan knanika san!ni occurs uninler-
ruled vilh nna and rpa as ils medilalive ob|ecls, mainlain-
ing lranquilily in a single mode al a slrelch and nol being
overcome by oosing dehlemenls, il hxes lhe mind immov-
ably as if in absorlion jnna.
Accordingly, a erson engaged in Viassan medilalion and
inlenl on develoing himself u lo lhe alh and fruilion slage,
should endeavour, if ossible, lo reach lhe hrsl jnna or lhe
second, lhe lhird, lhe fourlh or all lhe four jnnas. And vhen
having any of lhem, he should lrain himself lo mainlain lhem
and be skillful vilh lhem. Iailing, hovever, lo reach lhe jnanic
slage, he should slrive lo bring aboul lhe access concenlralion
in lhe neighbourhood of lhe jnna.
The tipassan qnika, on lhe olher hand, vho begins vilh
conlemlalion on nna and rpa such as lhe four rimaries,
1
should lry lo become eslablished in tipassan knanika san!ni
vhich is caable of suressing lhe hindrances |usl like lhe
access concenlralion. When fully eslablished lhus, lhe series
of insighl knovledge vill arise beginning vilh lhe analyli-
cal knovledge concerning nna and rpa (nnarpa pariccnc!a
na). Thus tipassan knanika san!ni and access concenlralion
are also lo be regarded as lhe alh of Righl Concenlralion.
We have deall fairly comrehensively vilh lhe alh of Righl
Concenlralion. We shall nov roceed lo elaborale on lhe alh
of knovledge (pa).
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf Vrrw
Whal, hikkhu, is Righl Viev` hikkhus, lhere is such a
lhing as knovledge of lhe Trulh of suering, such a lhing as
knovledge of lhe Trulh of cause of suering, knovledge of
lhe Trulh of exlinclion of suering, knovledge of lhe Trulh of
lhe vay leading lo lhe cessalion of suering. Such knovledge
is called lhe Righl Viev.
In shorl, knoving lhe Iour Trulhs as lhey really are is lhe
alh of Righl Viev. This should be develoed as exlained
above in lhe melhods of develomenl of Righl Mindfulness
and Righl Concenlralion. Iurlher elucidalion vill be rovided
here for clear underslanding.
There are hve lyes of Righl Viev according lo lhe commen-
lary lo lhe Anguuara Nikaya, namely:
1j
1. kannassakaia sann!iiini
z. jnna sann!iiini
. tipassan sann!iiini
. nagga sann!iiini
j. pna|a sann!iiini
Uariannsa menlions also hve lyes similar lo lhe above,
bul inslead of jnna sann!iiini, lhere is paccctcknana sann!i-
iini. Combining lhe lvo lisls, ve have lhe folloving six lyes
of Righl Viev:
1. kannassakaia sann!iiini
z. jnna sann!iiini
. tipassan sann!iiini
. nagga sann!iiini
j. pna|a sann!iiini
6. paccatckknana sann!iiini
In lhe above lisl, pna|a sann!iiini is lhe righl viev lhal ac-
comanies lhe four pna|a slales vhich are lhe resulls of four
Noble Ialhs. Auainmenl of lhe knovledge of lhe four Noble
Ialhs is sonlaneously folloved by knovledge of lhe Irui-
lion. There is nolhing secial lo be done lo auain lhe knov-
ledge of Iruilion. In addilion, paccatckknana sann!iiini is self-
reeclion lhal comes also sonlaneously aer auainmenl of
lhe Ialh and Iruilion. No eorl is needed lo bring il aboul.
One should slrive only for lhe hrsl four lyes vhich ve vill
elaborale accordingly.
16
K~VV~ss~k~f~ S~VV4nr))nr
Kannassakaia sann!iiini means belief in and accelance of
lhe viev lhal lhere is kamma and lhere is resullanl eecl of
lhal kamma. Any aclion is kamma and lhis aclion roduces
good or bad resulls. Ior inslance, doers of evil deeds rea evil
consequences. Criminals have lo face for lheir crimes, unish-
menl, lhe lighlesl of vhich may be condemnalion or reroof
by sociely. Abusive language is bound lo be relied vilh abu-
sive language, a slern look charged vilh ill-vill vill be re-
lurned vilh a slern, forbidding look, vhile a hay smile
begels a hay smile. A friendly greeling is sure lo be re-
varded vilh amiable friendliness.
A vell-behaved child, having acquired good educalion in his
young days, vill grov inlo a roserous, successful adull. Iol-
loving a lucralive lrade or induslry leads lo veallh and ros-
erily, unrohlable endeavours such as gambling surely lead
lo ruin. Such inslances of good or bad relribulion folloving
good or evil aclions are vilhin our daily exeriences.
Throughoul lhe endless cycle of samsra, lhis lav of kamma
revails good aclion leading lo good resulls, evil aclion lead-
ing lo bad consequences. As a resull of evil deeds done in asl
exislences, one has lo suer evil consequences such as shorl
san of life, various ailmenls, ugliness, overly, and lack of
follovers or auendanls in lhe resenl life. Ivil acls such as
killing, lorluring, slealing, robbing, lying, elc., done in lhis
life vill bear fruils in fulure exislences being born in infe-
rior lanes accomanied by similar evil relribulion.
1;
As a resull of good deeds done in revious exislences, good
resulls come lo fruilion in lhe resenl life and one en|oys lon-
gevily, free from ailmenls, endoved vilh beauly, veallh and
auended uon by many follovers. Avoiding evil acls of kill-
ing, lorluring, slealing, robbing and being vell-disosed lo
good deeds of generosily, hel and service lo olhers, one is
reborn in higher exislences, en|oying lhe fruil of lhese good
deeds.
Good resulls from good aclions and bad resulls from evil acls
are evidenl realilies. elief in lhese realilies is kannassakaia
!iiini, vhich means lhe righl viev lhal one's ovn kamma is
one's ovn roerly.
This belief or lhe righl viev is nol broughl aboul by one's ovn
enelralive inluilion like lhe insighl knovledge. Il is mere ac-
celance of lhe viev based on failh in lhe vords of lhe elders
and scrilures aer veighing u lhe evidence of knovn in-
slances and lheir credibilily. This righl viev is included in
lhe lisl of len merilorious deeds and is knovn as merilorious
righl viev, sucariia sann!iiini. The vrong viev vhich denies
exislence of kamma and ils resulls, in sile of lheir realily,
is niccn!iiini, il is classed as one of lhe len demerilorious
deeds and is lermed demerilorious vrong viev, !ucariia nic-
cn!iiini. Reference may be made lo lhe second volume of our
discourse on Sallekha Suua for furlher elucidalion on !ucariia
niccn!iiini.
1. Wrong viev vhich denies lhe realily of kamma and
ils resulls in !ucariia niccn!iiini.
18
z. Righl viev vhich accels lhe realily of kamma and
ils resulls is sucariia sann!iiini.
Sucariia sann!iiini, olhervise called kannassakaia sann!iiini,
forms lhe rool of all good aclions. ased on lhis rool, evil
deeds are avoided and simle good deeds such as !na and
si|a can be erformed. The merilorious deeds of lranquilily
medilalion and insighl medilalion can also be cullivaled. Ior
lhis reason, lhis sann!iiini and si|a are slaled lo be lhe re-
liminaries lo lhe good deeds of san!ni and pa.
hikkhu, since you have asked for a brief leaching on medi-
lalion vhich you vish lo raclise in solilude, I urge you lo
vork hrsl for lhe urihcalion of lhose dhammas vhich form
lhe slarling oinl for develomenl of san!ni and pa. And
vhal are lhese reliminary requiremenls` They are urihed
si|a and slraighl viev.
hikkhu, vhen you have urihed your si|a and mainlained
lhe slraighl viev, lhen leaning on your si|a and slanding on il,
you may go on lo develoing lhe four foundalions of mindful-
ness in lhree modes: conlemlaling on inlernal ob|ecls, con-
lemlaling on exlernal ob|ecls, and lhen conlemlaling on in-
lernal and exlernal ob|ecls.
Irom lhese vords of lhe lessed One, il is obvious lhal kan-
nassakaia sann!iiini and si|a nagga are reliminary founda-
lions vhich have lo be sel u before a yogi slarls raclising
medilalion. Il is clear also lhal for lhe develomenl of Vias-
san, jnna san!ni and upacra san!ni are rerequisiles lo
1
achieving lhe inilial urihcalion of mind. Iurlher, il is evidenl
lhal in order lo eslablish ariqa nagga, tipassan nagga olher-
vise called pu||a|nga nagga, vhich is recursory lo il, musl
be develoed hrsl. We have, lherefore, described lhe full Ialh
in lhree slages:
1. basic n|a nagga
z. pu||a|nga tipassan nagga
. ariqa nagga
Basic, prccurscr, Ariqa Pains,
Dctc|cping incn |ca!s ic Ni||na.
Tnr P~fn IN Tnrrr Sf~crs
Good uddhisls are in lhe habil of vishing for seedy real-
izalion and auainmenl of Nibbna vhenever lhey accomlish
any merilorious deed. The sunnun |cnun vill nol, of course,
be auained immedialely by lheir mere vishing. Il vill be al-
lained only in one of lhe higher lanes vhich lhey vill reach
by virlue of lheir good deed, and lhen only if lhey aclually
raclise develoing lhe Iighlfold Noble Ialh. So, vhy vail
unlil fulure exislence` Why nol slarl nov and vork for libera-
lion in lhis very life` And hov may liberalion be achieved`
Liberalion may be achieved by develoing lhe Iighlfold Noble
Ialh vhich musl be receded by ils recursor, namely, lhe
pu||a|nga tipassan nagga. Hovever, lo develo lhe nagga,
basic requiremenls musl hrsl be fulhlled, lhal is lhe develo-
menl of kannassakaia nagga, lhe lhree si|a nagga and san!ni
nagga.
1o
Ior eole vho lake refuge in lhe uddha's disensalion, kan-
nassakaia sann!iiini has already been eslablished. As lo lhe
si|a nagga, if lhe laily is nol yel already eslablished in il, lhey
may accomlish il by observing lhe recels on lhe eve of
slarling medilalion raclices. If a hikkhu yogi enlerlains
any doubl aboul lhe urily of his si|a, he should, al lhe very
oulsel, slrive for ils urihcalion by undergoing lhe paritarsa
and nanaua unishmenls. If he haens lo ossess imermis-
sible roerlies, he should discard lhem and gain urily by
confession of his oence. Aer lhus ensuring lhe urily of
his si|a, lhe hikkhu should slrive for auainmenl of one, lvo,
lhree or all four jnnas. If unable lo do so, he should vork lo
gain al leasl lhe access concenlralion in lhe neighbourhood of
jnna. If he cannol vork searalely for lhe jnanic concenlralion,
he musl lry lo achieve lhe tipassan knanika san!ni (vhich
has lhe same characlerislics of suressing lhe hindrances as
in access concenlralion) by conlemlalion on lhe four rima-
ries, elc. This does nol involve eslablishmenl of concenlralion
(san!ni) as such, bul by keeing close avareness of lhe lrue
nalure of nna, rpa, Viassan concenlralion aulomalically
arises. ul by having lhe auenlion disersed over many ob-
|ecls or having il hxed on ob|ecls vhich are nol easily discern-
able, concenlralion lakes a long lime lo come aboul. Keeing
lo limiled ob|ecls vhich can be dislinclly noled vill facililale
and haslen lhe develomenl of concenlralion.
Therefore, ve are inslrucling our yogis lo slarl vilh noling
tqc !niu, lhe characlerislics of vhich are sliness, ressure,
11
molion becoming evidenl in lhe region of lhe abdomen. As lhe
abdomen rises, nole 'rising', as il falls, nole 'falling'. egin by
noling |usl lhese lvo molions, rising and falling, bul lhis does
nol comrise all lhal has lo be done. While noling lhe rising
and falling of lhe abdomen, if lhinking arises, nole lhal loo
as 'lhinking' and lhen go back lo noling rising and falling. If
some ainful feeling aears in lhe body, nole lhal loo. When
il subsides or vhen il has been noled for some lime, go back
lo rising and falling. If lhere is bending, slrelching or moving
of lhe limbs, you musl nole 'bending', 'slrelching' or 'moving'.
Whalever bodily movemenl lhere is, you have lo nole il. Then
reverl lo lhe 'rising' and 'falling' of lhe abdomen. When you
see or hear anylhing clearly, nole 'seeing' or 'hearing' for some
momenls and lhen relurn lo 'rising' and 'falling'.
y lhus laking nole of every henomenon auenlively, lhe
mind becomes dislinclly calm and concenlraled. Al every
momenl of avareness, lhe ob|ecl observed (rpa) vill aear
searalely from lhe mind (nna) lhal cognizes il. Il is lhe
beginning of develomenl of secial tipassan na (insighl
knovledge) vhich dislinguishes nna from rpa by virlue
of lhe concenlraled, calm mind. This vas lhe secial insighl
knovledge referred lo by lhe lessed One vhen he said,
cakknu karani na karani,. (vision arose, insighl arose.) elc.
hikkhuni lheras meanl lhe same lhing vhen lhey uuered,
Pu||cnparan tiscsam sajnanii. (receding knovledge is su-
erseded by lhe knovledge folloving il).
1z
How Jn4N~-L4inrs Drvrioi INsrcnf
If lhe yogi slrives hard in lhe manner slaled above unlil
auainmenl of jnna, lhe knovledge lhal accomanies lhe
jnnic concenlralion is jnna sann!iiini, vhich is nol nole-
vorlhy for uroses of Viassan. Whal is nolevorlhy is
jnna concenlralion vhich is useful for urihcalion of mind
and as jnnic basis for Viassan medilalion. Imloying lhe
jnna one has auained as a base, lhe yogi emerges from lhe
jnnic slale and slarls conlemlaling on lhe menlal slales
involved al lhe momenl of jnnic auainmenl, namely, tiia-
kka, ticra, piii, sukna, ckaggai, pnassa, ccian, nanasikra, elc.
These menlal slales become very clear lo him, so also lhe
hysical slales on vhich jnna deends. Iach momenl of
lheir exislence resenls ilself clearly, folloved al once by ils
dissolulion. He knovs easily lhal because of lhe incessanl
assing avay, il is |usl an imermanenl, unsalisfaclory and
ego-less henomenon.
The yogi allernalely goes inlo jnnic slale and emerges from
il lo conlemlale on lhe menlal and hysical henomena in-
volved in il. While he reeals lhis allernale erformance sev-
eral limes, lhe tipassan naggas become slrongly develoed,
soon leading lo lhe realizalion of Nibbna. The ossibilily of
such realizalion is described lhus in lhe jnna suua, Navaka
Niala of Anguuara Ili lexl: hikkhus, in lhis Teaching,
lhe hikkhu enlers and slays in lhe hrsl jnna. When he rises
from lhal slale, he conlemlales on lhe hysical body, feeling,
ercelion, menlal formalions and consciousness lhal exisl
1
during lhe jnnic momenl and he sees lhem as lransilory, ain-
ful and insubslanlial. Seeing lhus he slays vilh lhe Viassan
knovledge so gained and auains lhe Aranaua pna|a slale, lhe
cessalion of all asatas.
This is hov a jnna-||ni auains lhe Ariyan Ialh by Vias-
san medilalion on jnnic mind and menlal concomilanls, and
nna, rpa henomena lhal aclually have arisen and assed
avay in his ovn body-conlinuum. Here, serious consideralion
should be given lo lhe facl lhal il is nol mere reeclion on
vhal one has learnl from books, bul aclually valching and
seeing lhe henomena of arising and erishing avay of rpa
and nna as il aclually haens inside his body-conlinuum.
Therefore, il is obvious lhal |usl as jnna-||nis, aer enlering
inlo and rising from jnnic slales, have lo medilale on lhe aris-
ing and assing avay of menlal slales, elc., lhal have aclually
occurred in lhe immediale receding momenl, so also yogis
nol endoved vilh jnna, or a-jnna-||nis, have lo conlemlale
on lhe arising and assing avay of sensuous desires, elc., as
lhey haen in lhe immediale receding momenls.
Il is indeed very clear. Therefore, a-jnna-||nis should nole
hrmly lhal lrue tipassan na cannol be develoed by mere
reeclion on book knovledge learnl by role, il can be devel-
oed only by valching closely every aclion of louching, lhink-
ing, hearing, seeing, smelling, in one's ovn body-conlinuum
and discerning lhe henomena of lheir arising and assing
avay as il haens in lhe immediale receding momenl.
1
CoNfrVii~frNc ON Mrscrii~Nrous VoirfroN~i Acfrvrfrrs
(P~krNN~k~ S~Nkn4r~ Mrfnon)
There is anolher melhod of medilalion emloyed by jnna-
||nis. He enlers inlo lhe jnnic slales and arising from lhem,
he medilales, as already exlained, on jnnic mind and menlal
slales, and rpa, vhalever becomes easily discernible. He lhen
gives his auenlion lo acls of louching, seeing, hearing, as lhey
occur. This is knovn as conlemlalion on miscellaneous voli-
lional aclivilies, and is lhe same melhod emloyed by su!!a
tipassan qnikas (yogis devoid of jnnic auainmenls). The dif-
ference lies in his ulilizing his jnnic auainmenls as a base
for insighl medilalion and in lhe ease in vhich he can ac-
comlish lhe lask of conlemlaling rpa, nna, vherever lhey
make lheir aearance, by virlue of lhe sound base of his
jnnic concenlralion. These are lhe only dierences belveen
lhe lvo melhods.
When faligue overlakes lhe yogi from conlemlaling on lhe
miscellaneous ob|ecls lhal aear al lhe sense-doors, he re-
verls back lo lhe jnnic slale. Aer gaining recueralion lhere,
he goes on vilh lhe conlemlalion of rpa and nna vherever
lhey aear. In lhis vay, based on his jnna, he develos tipas-
san na unlil il is slrong enough lo lead him lo realizalion
of Nibbna lhrough ariqa nagga na.
This melhod of conlemlalion is described in an exosilion on
Dvedhaviuakka suua in lhe commenlary lo Mula Iannsa as
follovs:
1j
In lhese vords lhe uddha lalked aboul lhe lime vhen lhe
odhisaua develoed insighl medilalion based on jnna. Truly,
vhen bolh san!ni and tipassan of a yogi are nol yel fully
malure, if he sils very long develoing insighl medilalion, fa-
ligue overvhelms him, lhere is burning sensalion in lhe body
as if ames are bursling, sveal oozing oul from lhe armils,
he feels as if hol sleamy gas is rushing forlh from lhe lo
of his head. The lorlured mind lvilches and slruggles. The
yogi reverls lo lhe jnnic slale lo reduce lhe menlal and hysi-
cal slrain lo gel relief from lhem, and lhus refreshing himself,
he relurns lo lhe lask of medilalion. y siuing long al il he
again faligues himself. Then he seeks relief once more by re-
enlry inlo lhe jnnic slale. Indeed, he should do so. Inlering
lhe jnnic slale is greally benehcial lo Viassan medilalion.
This is hov miscellaneous volilional aclivilies are used as ob-
|ecls for medilalion slarling vilh jnna, vhich lhe yogi main-
lains as his base. Yogis, nol endoved vilh jnna, conlemlale
only on lhe miscellaneous volilional aclivilies such as louch-
ing, lhinking, hearing, seeing, elc. When faligue overlakes
lhem vhile doing so, lhey cannol, of course, seek relief by
enlry lo jnnic slale. They reverl lo lhe limiled ob|eclive of
noling lhe rise and fall of lhe abdomen. y limiling lhe ob|ecl
of medilalion, menlal and hysical faligue and slrain are
allevialed.
Thus refreshed, lhey go back lo lhe conlinuous observalion
of lhe miscellaneous volilional aclivilies. In lhis vay, vhen
tipassan san!ni na becomes slrenglhened, lhe yogi can
engage himself in conlinuous medilalion day and nighl vilh-
16
oul hysical or menlal discomforl or dislress. The medila-
lional ob|ecls seem lo arise in lhe mind of lhemselves. Wilh
eorlless mindfulness, lhe rocess of knoving lhe realily as
il is ovs on smoolhly. The lrulh aboul anicca, !ukkna, anaua
davns uon him sonlaneously. As lhis knovledge gains
ace and galhers seed, bolh lhe sense-ob|ecls and lhe knov-
ing mind lunge inlo lhe slale of dissolulion and cessalion.
This is rushing headlong inlo lhe Nibbna by means of lhe
Noble Ialh, ariqa nagga. We have summarised, lherefore, lhal
Basic, prccurscr, Ariqa pains,
Dctc|cping incn |ca!s ic Ni||na.
BrcrNNrNc Or Vri~ss~N4 M~cc~
As has been slaled above, of lhe lhree slages of lhe alh, lhe
basic alh comrising of kannassakaia sann!iiini and si|a has
lo be accomlished before lhe slarl of lhe medilalion raclices.
A sanaina qnika yogi has lo develo sanaina san!ni as his
base hrsl before he slarls on Viassan medilalion, eilher of
lhe lvo basic alhs, access concenlralion or absorlion con-
cenlralion. Su!!na tipassan qnika, on lhe olher hand, accom-
lishes lhis basic san!ni nagga vhile conlemlaling on lhe
four rimaries, elc., by virlue of hxed auenlion being laced
on every sense-ob|ecl under conlemlalion. Then lhe mind
does nol vander lo olher ob|ecls. When solely occuied vilh
lhe lask of conlemlalion, lhe mind gels urihed and aer
lhis urihcalion of mind, every acl of conlemlalion is devel-
omenl of tipassan nagga.
1;
How Vri~ss~N4 S~V4nnr M~cc~s Arr Drvrioirn
Iorl vhich is ul forlh lo lake nole of each henomenon of
rising, falling, siuing, louching, lhinking, knoving, feeling
hol, feeling ainful, conslilules sann tqana nagga. Mind-
fulness laced on bodily aclions, feelings, mind and menlal-
ob|ecls involved in lhe raclice of lhe Iour Ioundalions of
Mindfulness is sann saii nagga. Having lhe mind hxed on
lhe sense-ob|ecl under conlemlalion is sann san!ni, vhich
is also called tipassan knanika san!ni. These lhree alhs,
namely, sann tqana, sann saii and sann san!ni are lhe
lhree consliluenls of san!ni nagga.
How Vri~ss~N4 P~NN~ M~cc~s Arr Drvrioirn
Knoving lhe sense-ob|ecl under conlemlalion according lo
ils lrue nalure is sann !iiini nagga. }usl aer auaining lhe
urily of mind, knoveldge, vhich is caable of dislinguish-
ing lhe sense-ob|ecls from lhe knoving mind, arises. This
clear knovledge of discerning nna and rpa dislinclly as
lhey really are conslilules lhe Iurihcalion of Viev. This is fol-
loved by discernmenl of lhe nalure of cause and eecl vhile
in lhe course of conlemlalion. There is bending because of
lhe desire lo bend, slrelching because of lhe desire lo slrelch,
movemenl because of lhe desire lo move. One sees because
lhere is lhe eye and lhe ob|ecl lo see. One hears because lhere
is lhe ear and lhe sound lo hear. There is veallh because of
good kamma, elc., lhus discerning clearly lhe lav of cause
and eecl as il lruly is.
18
As medilalion conlinues, lhe yogi discerns vilh each noling
lhe originalion as vell as lhe dissolulion of every henom-
enon. This resulls in his realizalion of lhe lrulh of imer-
manence vilh resecl lo bolh lhe sense-ob|ecl and lhe knov-
ing mind. This henomenon of incessanl arising and assing
avay vilhoul any break leads lo lhe conviclion lhal il is all
fearful suering, unleasanl suering, mere insubslanlialily,
nol amenable lo one's vill or conlrol. Such clear conviclion
conslilules lhe alh of righl viev, sann!iiini nagga.
Therefore, lhe uddha had said lhal knovledge of lhe real
lrulh of suering is lhe alh of righl viev. When lhe lrulh of
suering is discerned al every conlemlalion by means of lhe
lhree characlerislics of anicca, !ukkna and anaua, lhe lask of
comrehending lhe remaining lhree lrulhs is accomlished.
Hov lhis is accomlished vill be deall vilh laler in lhe sec-
lion on nagga sacc.
ending lhe mind lo knov lhe lrue nalure of nna and rpa,
lheir originalion and dissolulion by vay of lhe lhree char-
aclerislics of anicca, !ukkna and anaua conslilules sann sa-
nkappa, lhe alh of righl lhoughl. The lvo alhs of righl viev
and righl lhoughl are groued logelher as lhe alh of insighl,
pa nagga.
The lhree alhs of righl concenlralion, exlained before, vhen
added lo lhese lvo alhs of insighl, form lhe hve alhs
vhich are classihed as kraka naggas (lask force naggas). These
naggas are resonsible for accomlishing lhe lask of noling
1
and knoving every henomenon. Hence, lhey are lermed lhe
kraka naggas lask force naggas in lhe commenlary.
The si|a nagga, comrising of righl seech, righl aclion and
righl livelihood, have been eslablished even before medilalion
slarls and lhey remain hrm, geuing urer during lhe course
of medilalion. Wilh lhese lhree naggas, lhe combined lolal of
eighl naggas knovn as lhe pu||a|nga naggas are being devel-
oed vilh each noling of every henomenon.
Tnr P~fn Or Rrcnf Tnoucnf S~VV4 S~Nk~ii~ M~cc~
We have nov deall elaboralely vilh lhe seven calegories of
lhe Ialh. We shall nov roceed vilh consideralion of lhe re-
maining one, lhe Ialh of righl lhoughls, sann sankappa.
Whal, hikkhus, is righl lhoughl` Thoughls on freedom from
sensuous desires, lusls,. nckknana sankappa, lhoughls on non-
killing, on non-desire for killing, lhoughls of vishing vell lo
olhers. a|qp!a sankappa, lhoughls on non-cruelly, on giving
roleclion oul of ily. atinimsa sankappa. These lhree modes
of lhoughls are knovn as righl lhoughl (sann sankappa).
All lhoughls of good deeds such as erformance of merilori-
ous acls, seeking ordinalion (enlering monkhood), lislening
lo discourses on dhamma, and raclising dhamma, are fac-
lors of renuncialion, nckknana sankappa (for delails see our Dis-
course on Sallekha Suua, Vol.z).
1jo
Pa||ajja painanam jnnam, ni||naca tipassan
Sa||cpi kusa| !nann, nckknannanii patuccarc.
According lo lhe above verse, il is clear lhal raclising Vi-
assan medilalion fulhlls lhe nckknanna sankappa faclor of
sann sankappa. Thoughls of non-killing and vishing vell lo
olhers form a|qp!a sankappa. Isecially vhen Mcua |natana
is develoed, lhis faclor of a|qp!a sankappa is being fulhlled.
Thoughls of consideralion and mercy form atinimsa sankappa,
vhich is esecially fulhlled vhile engaged in karuna |ntan.
In lhe course of Viassan medilalion, as no lhoughl of killing
nor cruelly vilh resecl lo lhe sense-ob|ecl under conlemla-
lion gels lhe oorlunily lo arise, il should be considered lhal
lhese lvo faclors of sann sankappa are fulhlled vilh every
acl of noling. ul, lhe lhoughl involved in Viassan medila-
lion is nol inlenlional exercise of deliberale cogilalion or con-
ceiving. Il is |usl slighl bending of lhe mind or giving direc-
lion lo il lovard erceiving lhe lrue realily of rpa and nna,
lhe nalure of lheir originalion and dissolulion and lhe lrulh
concerning anicca, !ukkna and anaua.
We have discoursed fully on lhe n|a nagga as vell as on lhe
Iighlfold tipassan nagga, olhervise called pu||a|nga nagga.
When lhe tipassan nagga is fully develoed, il gels lrans-
formed inlo ariqa nagga leading lo lhe realizalion of Nibbna.
Therefore, pu||a|nga nagga may be called lhe forerunner her-
alding lhe ariqa nagga vhich follovs il. In olher vords, lhey
form lhe hrsl and lasl arls reseclively of lhe same conlinu-
1j1
ous Ialh. To auain lhe ariqa nagga vhich forms lhe lasl arl of
lhe Ialh, lhe inilial orlion of il, namely lhe tipassan nagga,
has lo be accomlished hrsl. In lhis manner, lhe lasl slage of
lhe Ialh, lhe ariqa nagga, vill develo by ilself.
To give an illuslralion, if a erson vanls lo |um across a
slream, he should come running lo il vilh seed and |um.
Once he has laken lhe |um, no more eorl need be exerled
by him. He vill land aulomalically on lhe olher side of lhe
slream. Develoing lhe tipassan nagga may be likened lo lhe
aroach lo lhe slream vilh seed and |uming. Landing on
lhe olher side of lhe slream is comarable lo lhe realizalion of
ariqa nagga in consequence of lhe momenlum gained from lhe
tipassan nagga. Therefore, ve summarise again, by reciling:
Basic, prccurscr, Ariqa pains,
Dctc|cping incn |ca!s ic Ni||na.
and end lhe discourse here loday.
May all you good eole in lhis audience, by virlue of having
given reseclful auenlion lo lhis greal Discourse on lhe Turn-
ing of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, be able lo develo lhe Middle
Ialh, olhervise called lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh and by means
of lhe Ialh and Iruilion according as you vish, auain Nib-
bna, lhe end of all suerings.
S!nu! S!nu! S!nu!
1jz
Cn.v+in Ioin
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni 8+n w.io oi Tn.uiovi+, 1z, inxisi In.
Ior lhe asl eighl veeks, ve have been exounding lhe
Dhammacakka, dealing vilh dehnilions and exlanalions of
lhe lvo exlreme arls (raclices), hov lhe lessed One had
discarded lhese lvo exlreme raclices and come uon lhe
middle Ialh, olhervise called lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh, by
means of vhich vision arose, insighl arose in him. We have
also exlained hov lhe Ialh leads lo lhe calming of lhe dehle-
menls, and lo lhe higher knovledge vhich gives enelralive
insighl inlo lhe four Trulhs and lo realizalion of Nibbna. We
have given, loo, comrehensive exosilion on lhe Iighlfold
Ialh and hov il may be develoed. We shall nov slarl con-
sidering lhe Iour Noble Trulhs vhich lhe lessed One en-
elraled by adoling lhe Middle Ialh, olhervise knovn as lhe
Noble Iighlfold Ialh.
Trufn Or SurrrrrNc Dukkn~ S~cc4
|!m knc pana. Bnikknatc, !ukknam ariqa-saccam: jiipi
!ukkn, jarpi !ukkn tq!ipi !ukknc, narananpi !ukknam,
appiqcni sanpaqcgc !ukknc, piqcni tippaqcgc !ukknc, qam
piccam na |a|naii ianpi !ukknam, sankniucna pacup!-
nakknan! !ukkn.
1j
This Ili assage vhich gives dehnilion and enumeralion of
lhe !ukkna sacc, is quoled from lhe Dhammacakka Suua nov
exlanl. The senlence 'tq!ipi !ukkn' in lhis assage aears
lo be exlraneous, nol being found in lhe Ili dehnilions of
!ukkna sacc rovided in olher suuas. Al lhe same lime, lhe
vords 'scka pari!cta !ukkna !cnanassu-pqas pi' vhich come
aer 'naranam pi !ukknam' in olher suuas are missing in lhe ex-
isling lexl of Dhammacakka Suua. There exisls lhis disagree-
menl belveen Dhammacakka Suua and olher suuas in lhe
dehnilion of !ukkna sacc.
Crrfrc~i Ex~VrN~froN Or Tnr Drsi~rrfv
Srauha Dan, a sub-commenlary on Vinaya, has made
lhe folloving crilical remarks on lhe disarily of lhe suua
lexls menlioned above. The senlence 'tq!ipi !ukkna' does
nol aear in lhe delailed dehnilion of !ukkna sacc given
in lhe Vibhanga of Abhidhamma Iilaka. Accordingly, Visud-
dhi Magga, in giving lhe comrehensive dehnilion of !ukkna
sacc, does nol include lhis senlence vhich exisls only in
lhe Dhammacakkaavauana Suua lexl. A careful invesliga-
lion should be made as lo vhy lhis senlence aears only in
Dhammacakkaavauana Suua and nol in any olher suuas.
Il venl on lo slale: Again, in lhe comrehensive dehnilion
of !ukkna sacc in lhe Vibhanga of Abhidhamma, lhe vords
scka pari!cta !ukkna !cnanassupqasa pi !ukkna come immedi-
alely aer narananpi !ukknam. These vords are missing in lhe
Dhammacakkaavauana Suua. Why il should be so should
also be closely examined.
1j
The aulhor of lhe sub-commenlary did nol seem loo hay
over lhese various dehnilions in lhe lexls. He did nol, lhere-
fore, give any exosilion on lhese vords 'tq!ipi !ukkna' vhich
are nol resenl in olher suuas and on vhich lhe commenlary
remained silenl. We had laken u lhe suggeslion made by
lhe aulhor of lhe sub-commenlary lo conducl an enquiry inlo
lhese dierences and had made lhe folloving hndings as lo
hov lhese dierences had come aboul.
Il cannol be lhal lhe uddha had given consislenl dehnilion
of !ukkna sacc in every discourse on lhe sub|ecl. We have
come lo lhe conclusion lhal lhe Theras, lhe Vinaya-bearers
vho made a secialised sludy of vinaya, nol being equally
vell-versed in mauers erlaining lo suuas and abhidhamma,
had caused lhe inserlion of lhe vords 'tq!ipi !ukkna' and lhe
delelion of lhe vords 'scka pari!cta !ukkna !cnanassupqsapi
!ukkna' in lhe Dhammacakka discourse in lhe Mahavagga
Ili Texl of lhe Vinaya Iilaka. Their version of lhe Dhamma-
cakka lhus aears in lhe Vinaya dierenlly from lhe Suua
and Abhidhamma Ili Canons.
Our conclusion is based on lhe consideralion lhal lhe com-
menlaries on Suua and Abhidhamma, vhich give exosilions
on lhe shorl dehnilion of !ukkna sacc, do nol rovide any ex-
lanalory nole on tq!ipi !ukkna. ul on scka pari!cta !ukkna
!cnanassupqsa pi !ukkna and on lhe facl lhal lhe commenl
arises, lhe sub-commenlaries make no menlion of lhe dier-
ences in lhe Ili lexls.
The aulhor of lhe sub-commenlary, Srauha Dan, vas a
venerable lhera vho lived during lhe reign of King Irakkama
1jj
hu belveen ..u. 11j and and ..u. 1186. Counling back from
n.i. 1z, il vas aboul ;oo or 8oo years ago. The commenla-
lors and lhe sub-commenlalors from lhe Venerable uddhag-
hosa dovn lo lhe Venerable Dhammala lived aboul 1oo
lo 16oo years ago. These ancienl commenlalors and sub-com-
menlalors vho vrole exegeses on lhe Dhammacakka suua of
Sacca Samyuua in lhe Samyuua Mahvagga of lhe Ili Canon,
did nol make any menlion of lhe disarily in lhe lexls. Their
silence vas simly because of lhe facl lhal lhe Dhammacakka
Suua as il exisled lhen vas no dierenl from lhose given in
lhe Ili lexl of olher Suuas and Abhidhamma.
Hovever, by lhe lime lhe aulhor of lhe sub-commenlary, Sral-
lha Dan, came uon lhe scene aboul joo years laler, lhe
disagreemenl had croed u belveen lhe various Ili lexls
vhich he duly discovered. He, lherefore, slrongly urged for
a crilical examinalion and close invesligalion of lhe cause of
variance in lhe lexls.
Are ve lo lake il lhal lhe uddha gave al lhe very hrsl dis-
course a dehnilion of !ukkna sacc vhich is dierenl from
olher versions` If ve do, il vould amounl lo holding lhe viev
lhal lhe uddha slarled o al lhe hrsl discourse vilh one
dehnilion of !ukkna, lhen changed il laler lo a dierenl ver-
sion. This kind of viev vould be highly imroer. A roer
melhod of consideralion vould be lhal lhe uddha, vhose
knovledge of all lhings is unimeded, being blessed vilh
sa||auia na, had given lhe same dehnilion consislenlly
lhroughoul, bul lhal laler on, Vinaya-bearers, oving lo defec-
live inlelligence and memory, had caused lhese discreancies
1j6
lo cree inlo lhe lexls in lhe course of handing lhem dovn
from generalion lo generalion. Inslances of lexlual discre-
ancies are vell knovn in modern limes. The commenlary
and sub-commenlary lexls are found lo vary from counlry lo
counlry. Il is obvious lhal such disagreemenls vere nol res-
enl in lhe original lexls, bul develoed only in laler eriods.
Aer careful scruliny as sel oul above, ve have come lo lhe
conclusion lhal olher lexls are accurale and lhal lhe Dham-
macakka suua, nov exlanl, has in ils seclion on lhe deh-
nilion of dukkha sacc, sulemenlal vords of 'vydhi i
dukkho' vhile lhe vords 'soka aridava dukkha domanas-
saysa i dukkha' are missing. Our conclusion is also based
on lhe consideralion lhal 'vyhi-illness' is comrised in lhe
vord dukkha of lhe larger senlence of 'soka arideva dukkha
domanassuysa i dukkha', vhereas 'soka', elc., are nol em-
braced by lhe lerm 'vydi'.
We, lherefore, believe lhal lhe lexls bearing 'soka arideva
dukkha domanassuysa i dukkha' vilhoul lhe vords
'vydhi i dukkho' are accurale and accord vilh lhe canonical
leachings of lhe uddha. We have engaged in lhe above scru-
liny of lhe varying lexls as ve inlend lo use lhe folloving ver-
sion in our discourse because ve believe il lo be accurale.
Accur~fr P4ir Trxf ON DrrrNrfroN Or Dukkn~ S~cc4
|!am knc pana, Bnikknatc, !ukknam, ariqasaccnam, jiipi
!ukkn, jarpi !ukkn narananpi !uknam, scka pari!cta
!ukkna !cnanassupqsapi !ukkna, appiqcni, sanpaqcg
1j;
!ukknc, piqcni tippaqcgc !ukknc. Yampiccam na |a|naii,
ianpi !ukknani Samkniuc na pacup!nakknan! !ukkn.
hikkhus, vhal I am going lo leach resenlly is lhe Noble
Trulh of Suering or lhe real suering vhich lhe ariyas
should knov. The nev becoming (birlh) is also suering,
geuing old (ageing) is also suering, dealh is also suering,
sorrov, lamenlalion, ain, grief and desair are also suer-
ing, associalion or conneclion vilh unlovable ersons and ob-
|ecls or haleful ersons and ob|ecls is also suering, seara-
lion from lovable erson and ob|ecls is also suering, desiring
lo gel and nol geuing il, lhal desire or craving is also suer-
ing (commenlary on Suua Mahv), or allernalively, desiring
lo gel and nol geuing vhal one does nol vanl is also suer-
ing (Vibhanga sub-commenlary). In shorl, lhe hve aggregales
vhich form lhe ob|ecl of auachmenl or lhe grou of nna-rpa
vhich clings lo lhe nolion of I, mine, ermanence, salisfaclori-
ness (sukna), self, are indeed suering.
Tnr Four Noiir Trufns
Many syslems of religious beliefs exisl in lhe vorld, each ex-
ounding ils ovn viev of vhal il considers lo be lhe essence
of Trulh. The leachings in olher syslems of religions are nol
based on ersonal realizalion of Trulh, bul merely on sec-
ulalive lhinking. Their follovers accel such leachings nol
lhrough ersonal exerience eilher bul only on failh. All such
leachings vhich fall oulside of uddhism are comrised in
sixly-lvo kinds of vrong beliefs enumeraled in lhe rahma-
|la Suua by lhe lessed One.
1j8
Seculalion does nol have a lace in lhe uddha's Teachings.
The Trulh he laughl vas discovered by himself lhrough his
ovn insighl. The Iour Noble Trulhs he laughl vilh lheir def-
inilions had been gained lhrough his suerior enelralive
insighl, develoed by folloving lhe Middle Ialh, olhervise
called lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh vhich, as slaled above, leads
lo higher knovledge roducing enelralive Insighl. These
Iour Noble Trulhs are:
1. Dukkna sacc The Trulh of Suering,
z. Sanu!aqa sacc The Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering,
. Nirc!na sacc The Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering,
. Magga sacc The Trulh of lhe Ialh or lhe Way
leading lo lhe Cessalion of Suering.
Il is mosl essenlial lo knov lhese Iour Trulhs. Only vilh
lhe arehension of lhe Trulh of Suering may suering be
avoided, for vhich lhe cause of suering musl also be knovn.
Again, in order lo achieve cessalion of suering, lhere musl
be knovledge of vhal conslilules real cessalion of suering.
Iinally, lhe exlinclion of suering cannol be broughl aboul
vilhoul knovledge of lhe raclical vay of accomlishing il.
Hence, knovledge of lhe Iour Trulhs is indisensable.
Having come uon lhese four essenlial Trulhs, lhe uddha
enumeraled lhem in lheir sequence. The hrsl Trulh deall vilh
vas lhe Trulh of Suering, vhich he described as:
1. Nev becoming (rebirlh)
z. Geuing old (old age)
. Dealh
1j
. Sorrov
j. Lamenlalion
6. Ihysical ain
;. Grief
8. Desair
. Associalion vilh haleful ones
1o. Searalion from loved ones
11. Nol geuing vhal one vanls
1z. The hve grous of grasing (clinging)
This is lhe lranslalion of lhe Ili assage quoled above.
1. J4fr Dukkn~ SurrrrrNc Or Nrw BrcoVrNc (Rrirrfn)
y nev becoming (rebirlh) is meanl lhe dissolulion of nna,
rpa al lhe lasl momenl in lhe lasl exislence and aer dealh,
lhe hrsl momenl of genesis of nev nna-rpa in lhe nev exis-
lence as condilioned by kamma. The hrsl genesis serving as
a connecling link vilh lhe asl life is lermed paiisan!nc (link-
ing concelion) in lhe inilial formalion of fresh nna and rpa.
If lhis formalion lakes lace in a molher's vomb, ve have
vomb concelion (ga||nascqaka paiisan!nc), vhich may be of
lvo lyes: an!naja paiisan!nc (oviarous) vhen lhe conce-
lion lakes lace in an egg in lhe vomb, and ja|a|uja paiisan!nc
(viviarous) vhen lhe embryo freely develos in lhe vomb
unlil birlh lakes lace.
Womb concelion, according lo uddhisl scrilures, has ils
origin in lhe semen and blood of lhe arenls. Weslern medical
science holds lhe viev lhal concelion resulls from lhe union
16o
of falher's serm and molher's ovum. The lvo vievs may be
reconciled by laking il lhal lhe falher's serm and molher's
blood are involved in concelion. This union of serm and
blood of arenls, leading lo lhe formalion of resullanl nev
nna and rpa, conslilules vhal is knovn as rebirlh, vhich
may lake lace eilher in slales of voe (apqa) or in lhe human
vorld, as condilioned by asl akusa|a kanna or kusa|a kanna
reseclively.
Concelion in moislure-laden media such as moss, elc.
(sansc!aja), reresenls lhe coming inlo exislence of some larvae,
elc. eings nol visible lo human eyes such as deilies, demons,
ghosls and denizens of lhe voeful slales assume sonlaneous
re-birlh or aulogenesis knovn as cpapiika concelion, vilh
knoving mind and hysical body comlelely develoed.
In all lhese four lyes of concelion, lhe hrsl momenl of
conceiving or genesis dehnilely conslilules jii, beginning of
nev exislence. No suering or ain as such exisls al lhe hrsl
momenl of genesis. Since lhis hrsl arising or originalion of
life serves as a basis for laler aearance of hysical ain and
menlal suering lhroughoul lhe vhole of lhe ensuing exis-
lence, jii is lermed 'suering'. Il is like uuing one's signalure
on a documenl as a guaranlor of some queslionable lransac-
lions. There is no lrouble, of course, al lhe lime of signing
lhe inslrumenl of lhe lransaclions, bul as il is cerlain lo give
rise lo laler comlicalions, lhe acl of signing lhe documenl
amounls lo involvemenl in dreadful lrouble or in olher vords
'suering'. Ior furlher elucidalion, suering may be classihed
under seven calegories:
161
1. Dukkna-!ukkna
z. Viparinna !ukkna
. Sanknra !ukkna
These lhree form one grou.
. Paiiccnanna !ukkna
j. Apaiiccnanna !ukkna
These lvo form anolher grou.
6. Pariqqa !ukkna
;. Nippariqqa !ukkna
These lvo form lhe lhird grou.
Of lhese seven lyes, bodily ains, aches and discomforl are
a form of suering |usl as vorry, misery, unhainess and
sadness conslilule anolher form. The lvo forms combine lo
make lhe hrsl lye of suering. !ukkna-!ukkna. Ils nalure
is suering, ils name is suering. Hence, il is !ukkna-!ukkna,
dreaded by every senlienl being.
1. Mnemonic note: unendurable physical and mental suffering is dukkha-dukkha.
Vri~rrN4V~ Dukkn~
Ileasurable hysical sensalions arising from agreeable laclile
imressions are knovn as kqa sukna, |oyful slales of mind
arising from revieving leasanl sense-ob|ecls are knovn as
cciasika sukna. These lvo forms of hay slales lease every-
one, every crealure. All beings go aer lhese lvo hay slales
day and nighl, even lo lhe exlenl of risking lheir lives. When
16z
lhese are auained, lheir hainess knovs no bounds. Nev-
erlheless, vhile lhey are re|oicing vilh blissful conlenlmenl,
if lhe sense-ob|ecls vhich have given lhem much inlense
delighl and en|oymenl disaeared or vas deslroyed, greal
vould be lheir agilalion, folloved by inlense dislress.
When lhe veallh lhey have accumulaled in lhe form of gold,
money or roerly suddenly is losl lhrough one reason or
anolher, vhen dealh or searalion come lo one's beloved
member of lhe family, souse or children, inlense grief and
dislress ensue, vhich may even cause menlal derangemenl.
Thus, lhese lvo forms of hainess, kqa sukna and cciasika
sukna, are also a lye of suering knovn as tiparinna !ukkna
(suering because of change). While lhey lasl, lhey may
aear very en|oyable, only lo be relaced by exlreme grief
and desair vhen lhey vanish. Hence, lhey are !ukkna all lhe
same.
2. Mnemonic note: Happiness arising from physical comfort and mental joy is
called viparinma dukkha.
S~Nkn4r~ Dukkn~
The ordinary everyday scene vhich one sees, hears or comes
inlo conlacl vilh, indierenl sense-ob|ecls, insires neilher a
feeling of leasure or vell-being nor of ain or unleasanlness.
This neulral, medial condilion vhich by ils nalure is neilher
ainful nor leasurable is lermed equanimous feeling (upckkn
tc!an). This neulral equanimily does nol, hovever, exisl er-
manenlly. Il needs conslanl mainlenance of necessary condi-
16
lions for conlinuily of lhis medial slale. This imlies laborious
eorl vhich, of course, is !ukkna. Hence, lhis equanimous feel-
ing, neilher ainful nor leasurable, is lermed sanknra !ukkna.
In addilion lo lhis equanimous feeling, all lhe olher forma-
lions of nna and rpa of lhe mundane shere are also called
sanknra !ukkna as lhey need conslanl condilioning.
3. Mnemonic note: Equanimous feeling and nma, rpa formations of the
mundane sphere are called sankhra dukkha.
Ieeling of hainess also requires conslanl condilioning for
ils mainlenance and as such should be classihed as sanknra
!ukkna, bul lhe commenlalors le il oul of lhis classihcalion as
il had been given a searale name of tiparinna !ukkna. Nev-
erlheless, il should be regarded as sanknra !ukkna loo since
il is very lain lhal considerable alicalion is needed for ils
mainlenance.
The lhree lyes of !ukkna exlained above should be vell un-
derslood as a comlele gras of lhese lyes vill hel in un-
derslanding lhe Trulh of Suering.
P~frccn~NN~ Dukkn~
Ihysical ailmenls such as earache, loolhache, headache, al-
ulence, elc. and menlal aiclions arising oul of unfulhlled
desire, burning rage, disaoinlmenls, miseries and vorries
are called 'concealed suering' (paiiccnanna !ukkna) because
lhey are knovn only lo lhe suering individual and become
knovn lo olhers only vhen inlimaled by lhem. As such, suf-
16
fering is nol oenly evidenl, il is also called 'unevidenl non-
aarenl suering' (apaiaka !ukkna).
Ai~frccn~NN~ Dukkn~
Ihysical aiclion such as from svord culs, sear lhrusls or
bullel vounds is nol hidden bul quile aarenl and oenly ev-
idenl. Il is, lherefore, called 'exosed suering' (apaiiccnanna
!ukkna) or 'evidenl suering' (pakaia !ukkna-!ukkna).
P~rrv~v~ Dukkn~
All formalions of rpa and nna vhich can give rise lo hysi-
cal and menlal aiclions are nol, in essence, suering bul as
lhey are lhe basis of suering of one form or anolher, lhey are
knovn as pariqqa !ukkna, quile dreadful in viev of lhe suer-
ing vhich vill surely arise from lhem. As in lhe examle |usl
given, il is dreadful like giving one's guaranlee lo a lransac-
lion by signing a bond for vhich recomense has lo be made
laler.
Nrii~rrv~v~ Dukkn~
This !ukkna-!ukkna lye of suering is inlrinsic. There is no
bealing aboul lhe bush as lo ils aclion, and il is, lherefore,
knovn as 'direcl suering' (tiparinna !ukkna).
Of lhese seven lyes of !ukkna, jii or laking birlh in a nev
exislence comes under pariqqa !ukkna according lo lhe above
classihcalion. All kinds of suering in hell such as sub|eclion
16j
lo millions of years of incineralion by hell-hres, lorlures by
lhe hell-keeers, arise because of birlh in hell as a conse-
quence of asl akusa|a kanna. All kinds of suering in lhe
realm of pcias such as slarvalion, scorching hres for millions
and millions of years arise because of birlh in lhal realm as a
consequence of akusa|a kanna. Hardshis and lroubles in lhe
animal kingdom suered by animals such as caule, elehanls,
horses, dogs, igs, chickens, birds, goals, shee, insecls, elc.
arise because lhey haen lo lake birlh in animal exislence.
Human misery characlerised by scarcily of essenlials for
living such as food, clolhing, elc. is broughl aboul by lhe facl
of laking birlh in lhe human exislence. Iven vhen vell-ro-
vided for as in lhe case of auenl eole, lhere is no escae
from suering, inicled on lhem in lhe form of hysical and
menlal dislress due lo illness and disease or unfulhlled desire,
fear of oression by lhe enemies, ageing, elc. All lhese miser-
ies come aboul because of jii in lhe human vorld. eing lhus,
lhe foundalion for all lhe suerings lhal ensue lhroughoul
lhe vhole san of life, laking birlh in a arlicular exislence,
jii, is regarded as !ukkna.
Mrsrrv IN A Mofnrr's WoVi
When one lakes concelion in a molher's vomb, one comes
inlo being in lhe disgusling vomb vhich is silualed belveen
lhe slomach, hlled vilh undigesled food, and lhe reclum, lhe
recelacle for excrela, faeces and urine, deending on one's
body subslance on lhe arenls' serm and blood. Very loalh-
166
some indeed! The very lhoughl of having lo slay in lhe hllhy
mass of lhe serm and blood is revolling and nausealing.
And lhere is no knoving vhelher one has descended inlo a
human vomb or lhe vomb of a cov or a dog.
A dhamma-leaching lhera of zo or o years ago used lo recile
a verse 'Dhamma cradle, Imerald cradle' in lhe course of his
sermons. The verse gave a descrilion of various kinds of cra-
dles ranging from emerald-sludded golden cradles for royal
infanls lo lhe miserable vicker baskels of overly-slricken
families. In one slanza of lhe verse vas lhe query 'Ageing is
gradually creeing. Ior vhich cradle are you heading`' This
queslion is quile al since aer ageing hnally comes dealh.
And if craving (iann) slill remains, dealh vill inevilably be
folloved by rebirlh in a nev exislence. Iven if one is reborn
in lhe human lane, one is bound lo slarl life in one cradle
or anolher. The queslion is 'Which kind of cradle`' Imerald
sludded golden cradles avail lhose vilh an abundance of
vholesome kammas, vhile lhose burdened vilh unvhole-
some kammas vill head slraighl for a vicker baskel in a
vrelched home. The verse vas an exhorlalion urging eole
lo do merilorious deeds for assurance of a high class cradle in
lheir nexl exislence.
We vould also urge you nov |usl lo onder a vhile on lhe
queslion of vhich molher's vomb you are deslined. And lo
become mindful of lhe dreadful suering auendanl uon
birlh and vork for cessalion of lhe cycle of rebirlhs. Iven if
one cannol slrive for comlele liberalion yel, al leasl endeav-
our for securily againsl lovly deslinalions.
16;
Whal ve have described nov is hov one is faced vilh dread-
ful suering of rebirlh from lhe momenl of descenl inlo lhe
molher's vomb. Then, during lhe eriod of geslalion for nine
or len monlhs, olher suerings follov. When lhe molher
suddenly moves, sils dovn or slands u, lhe exlreme suf-
fering one undergoes is like a kid being vhirled around by
a drunkard or a snake's young fallen inlo lhe hands of a
snake charmer. The young crealure in lhe vomb of a modern
molher, much given lo alhlelic exercises, is likely lo be sub-
|ecled lo more inlense suerings. When lhe molher haens
lo drink somelhing cold or svallov anylhing hol or acid, his
suering becomes a real lorlure.
SurrrrrNc Af Brrfn
In addilion, il is said lhal obslelric ains of a molher al child-
birlh could be so excrucialing as lo rove even falal, lhe
child's agony could be no less and could rove falal, loo. The
ain lhal arises aer birlh vhen his delicale body is laken
in by rough hands, vashed and rubbed vilh rough clolhes,
is like scraing lhe sore sols of a very lender vound. The
ains described so far relale lo suering gone lhrough from
lhe momenl of concelion lo lhe lime of birlh.
SurrrrrNc Tnroucnouf Tnr Wnoir Or Lrrr
Thereaer, lhere vill of course be dislresses and discomforls
such as sliness, heal, cold, ilch, vhile he is slill loo young
lo alleviale lhem himself by changing of oslures lhrough
168
moving, shaking, siuing or slanding. Innumerable dicullies
are bound lo follov vhen he grovs u and comes face lo face
vilh lhe roblems of earning a living. He vill become sub-
|ecled lo diseases and illnesses, mallrealmenl and oression
by olhers.
One goes lhrough all lhese suerings simly because one ha-
ens lo lake a nev exislence. Accordingly, jii (rebirlh) being
lhe foundalion of all lhe miseries of lhe vhole exislence, is
dehned as !ukkna by lhe uddha. A careful consideralion vill
conhrm lhe accuracy of lhis dehnilion. Rebirlh is really dread-
ful like signing a documenl vhich vill laler give rise lo com-
licalions. Thus, jii is !ukkna because of ils dreadfulness. To
summarise, lhe hysical and menlal aiclions are occasioned
(arise) because of jii in each exislence. Only vhen lhere is no
more rebirlh vill lhere be lolal release from lhese iniclions.
Thus lhe lessed One had laughl lhal lhe very originalion of
nev exislence, jii, is suering.
Mnemonic notes:
1. Dukkha is encountered in every existence.
2. No jti, no dukkha.
3. Therefore, origination of new existence (jti ) is dukkh.
2. J~r4 Dukkn~ SurrrrrNc Brc~usr Or AcrrNc
Ageing means becoming grey-haired, loolhless, vrinkled,
benl, deaf and oor in eyesighl. In olher vords, decay vhich
has sel in, very recognizably, in lhe aggregales of nna and
rpa of a arlicular exislence. Hovever, lhe ageing of lhe nna
comonenls of lhe body is nol so aarenl. Indicalions of il
16
such as failing memory and dolage become noliceable, usu-
ally lo close associales, only vhen one gels very old.
The hysical ageing goes on lhroughoul life quile unmislak-
ably, bul becomes very noliceable only vhen one advances
in age and is no longer youlhful. The under len-year-old age
grou does nol have lhe same body as lhose older. There is
conlinuous change in hysical aearance. The above lven-
lies and lhirlies age grou assumes an aearance quile dif-
ferenl from lhal of younger days. These changes are indica-
lions of lhe ageing lhal is laking lace. Here, by ageing (jar)
ve mean decaying in lhe sense of geuing grey-haired, elc.,
vhich is clearly discernible.
jar (ageing) is concerned vilh |usl lhe slalic momenl (iniii) of
lhe aggregales of nna and rpa and has no essence of ain
or suering as il is. ecause of ageing, lhere occurs failing
of vilal force in lhe vhole syslem of lhe body, imairmenl
of eyesighl and hearing, vearing oul of lhe sense of smell
and lasle, undermining of hysical slrenglh, groving unal-
lracliveness, loss of youlhfulness, loss of memory and inlel-
leclual over, disresecl and conleml on lhe arl of young
eole (being addressed as old fogey, grand sire, granny, elc.),
being lrealed as a drag on sociely. Such disabililies, of course,
give rise lo hysical and menlal suering. Since il forms lhe
source of hysical and menlal suering, lhe uddha had said
lhal jar (ageing) is fearful !ukkna. Ieole are really afraid of
old age. They are forever seeking vays and means of slem-
ming lhe advenl of old age. ul all in vain. Decay sels in in-
exorably vilh grey hair and loss of leelh, elc. Thal ageing is
1;o
such a dreadful !ukkna is so lain lhal ve need make no fur-
lher elaboralion on il.
3. M~r~N4 Dukkn~ Dr~fn As SurrrrrNc
Dealh means lhe exlinclion of jitiia nna, rpa, or lhe life rin-
cile vhich has been in ceaseless oeralion since lhe lime of
concelion as condilioned by individual kamma in a arlic-
ular exislence. Referring lo lhis, lhe uddha had said, 'sa||c
|qaqanii naccunc' all morlals are in conslanl fear of dealh.
Dealh as condilioned by birlh, dealh by violence, dealh by
nalural causes, dealh from lerminalion of lhe life-san, dealh
from exhauslion of vholesome kammic resulls are all synony-
mous lerms describing lhe same henomenon of exlinclion of
lhe life rincile, jitiia nna, rpa.
Dealh means |usl lhe momenl of dissolulion of lhe jitiia nna,
rpa and is nol by ilself ain or dislress. Hovever, vhen
dealh comes, one has lo abandon lhe hysical body and leave
behind one's dear and near ones, relalives and friends, lo-
gelher vilh all of one's ovn roerlies. The lhoughl of leav-
ing lhe resenl exislence is very frighlening and every morlal
is seized vilh fear of dealh. Uncerlainly as lo vhich exislence
one is bound for aer dealh causes greal fear loo. ecause
of ils fearsome, dreadful nalure, lhe uddha had described
dealh as !ukkna.
According lo lhe commenlary, vicked men burdened vilh un-
vholesome asl, see on lheir dealh-bed lhe evil deeds lhey
did or signs of lheir foul deeds or signs of lhe apqa slale
1;1
in vhich lhey are doomed lo lake rebirlh, all of vhich give
lhem inlense menlal anguish. Good men vilh accumulalion
of vholesome kammas suer loo as lhey dvell on aroach-
ing dealh because lhey cannol bear lo arl from all lhal lhey
hold dear, beloved ones and roerly.
As dealh dravs near, all morlal beings are sub|ecled lo severe
auacks of diseases and illnesses vhich rack lhe body vilh un-
bearable ain. Dealh, being lhe basis of all such hysical and
menlal ain, has lhus been named !ukkna by lhe lessed One.
4. Sok~ Dukkn~ Sorrow As SurrrrrNc
Scka, sorrov is lhe vorrying and lhe slale of being alarmed
in one aecled by loss of relalives, elc:
1. When loss of relalives occurs lhrough burglary, rob-
bery, insurgency, eidemics, hre, ood or slorm, lhe
misforlune is lermed aiitqasana,
z. When deslruclion of roerly or ossessions is occa-
sioned by king's aclion (governmenl), lhe or hre
disasler, il is knovn as |ncgatqasanc,
. Delerioralion in heallh and longevily broughl aboul
by ernicious illness or disease is called rcgatqasanc,
. Lases in moralily is si|atqasana, and
j. Devialion from lhe Righl Viev lo lhe Wrong Viev
is !iiinitqasana.
Sorrov vilh inlense vorry and alarm is fell esecially vhen
one is bereaved of loved ones such as husband, vife, sons and
1;z
daughlers, brolhers, sislers, elc., or vhen disaslrous economic
misforlune befalls one. This scka, sorrov is, slriclly seaking,
!cnanassa tc!an (a disleasurable feeling) and as such is in-
lrinsic suering (!ukkna-!ukkna). Overvhelming dislress occa-
sioned by sorrov is liable lo cause yrosis or hearlburn vhich
may conlribule lo remalure ageing and even dealh. eing
a basis for olher hysical ain, loo, scka is fearsome and is,
lherefore, named !ukkna by lhe lessed One.
Iveryone is in fear of sorrov. Cailalizing on lhis fear, many
books have been vriuen on lhe sub|ecl of 'freedom from
sorrov', bul lhe real freedom from sorrov may be achieved
only lhrough lhe raclice of lhe Iour Ioundalions of Mind-
fulness. y develoing lhe Iour Ioundalions of Mindfulness,
comlele freedom from sorrov can be en|oyed as exemlihed
by lhe minisler Sanlali and Ialsra Theri. Al resenl limes,
loo, dislressed ersons, some having losl husbands or olhers
lroubled by business failures, have come lo our medilalion
cenlre lo raclise lhe Iour Ioundalions of Mindfulness. Day
by day, lheir sorrov diminished gradually and hnally com-
lele freedom from sorrov comes lo lhem.
5. P~rrnrv~ Dukkn~ L~VrNf~froN As SurrrrrNc
Lamenlalion is lhe malerial qualily of sound roduced by
vailing on lhe arl of one aecled by loss of relalives or ro-
erly. Absenl-mindedly and hyslerically lhe dislressed one
clamours, roclaiming lhe virlues of lhe dead and lhe qual-
ily of lhe losl roerly or denouncing lhe enemy or agency
resonsible for his disasler.
1;
In lhe abslracl sense, lamenlalion is lhe malerial qualily of
sound and, lherefore, nol suering in essence. Hovever, such
vailing and hyslerical roclamalions roduce hysical dis-
comforl and ain. The uddha had, lherefore, declared pari-
!cta (lamenlalion) as !ukkna. To cry is lo be sub|ecled lo ain
vhich is suering or !ukkna in Ili.
6. Dukkn~ Pnvsrc~i P~rN
Ihysical discomforls in lhe body such as sliness, feeling hol,
aches, liredness, ilch, elc. are suering. These hysical ains
are lrue inlrinsic suering called !ukkna-!ukkna, vhich every-
one knovs and is afraid of. Iven animals such as dogs, igs,
fovls or birds run for safely al lhe slighlesl hinl of geuing
bealen or shol al because lhey loo are afraid of hysical ain.
Thal hysical ain is suering needs no elaboralion. Il is im-
orlanl lo knov lhal tq!ni (sickness or disease) comes under
lhis calegory of !ukkna (hysical ain). Ihysical ain is gener-
ally folloved by menlal dislress, vhich is a cause of menlal
ain loo, and il is named !ukkna (dreadful suering).
If hysical ain is mindfully noled in accordance vilh lhe
Saliallhna melhod, menlal ain is averled. Only hysical
ain is fell lhen. The lessed One soke in raise of lhis rac-
lice by vhich menlal ain is averled and one suers only
hysical ain. Iermiuing menlal suering lo arise by failing
lo make nole of lhe hysical ain is denounced by lhe uddha.
Il is like, he said, auemling lo remove lhe hrsl lhorn vhich
is hurling by ricking il oul vilh anolher lhorn, vhen lhe
1;
second lhorn breaks and remains embedded in lhe esh. One
lhen suers lvo ains, one from lhe hrsl lhorn and lhe addi-
lional ain from lhe second lhorn. This illuslralion deserves
careful consideralion.
7. DoV~N~ss~ Orrrr As SurrrrrNc
Dcnanassa (grief) denoles menlal agony such as disleasure,
solicilude (anxiely), misery, sadness, fear, elc. Dcnanassa is
also inlrinsic suering (!ukkna-!ukkna). All morlal beings are
vell-acquainled vilh il and fear il, vhich lherefore needs
no elaboralion. Dcnanassa nol only oresses lhe mind, bul
may also lorlure lhe body. When one is hercely gried by
grief, one goes aboul de|ecledly vilhoul slee or food for days
on end, vilh lhe consequenl imairmenl of heallh and even
advenl of dealh. Il is lruly a formidable !ukkna from vhich
only anaganis and aranais are exeml. Individuals vho rac-
lise Saliallhna medilalion can overcome grief if lhey make
slrenuous eorl of noling il as il arises. In lhis vay, lhey can
reduce lhe ain or grief lo a considerable exlenl even if lhey
cannol overcome il comlelely.
8. Ui4v4s~ Drsi~rr As SurrrrrNc
Upqsa (desair) is ill-humour or resenlmenl roduced by ex-
cessive menlal agony in one aecled by loss of relalives, elc.
(naiitqsana). Il causes reealed bemoaning over lhe loss resull-
ing in burning of lhe mind and hysical dislress. Upqsa is,
1;j
lherefore, !ukkna, suering because of lhe inlense burning of
lhe mind and hysical ain accomanying il. Ieole, accord-
ingly, recognize lhis slale of desair as a fearsome !ukkna.
The commenlary illuslrales lhe dierences belveen scka
(sorrov), pari!cta (grief) and upqsa (desair) as follovs:
Sorrov is like cooking oil or dye-solulion in a ol
over a slov hre. Lamenlalion is like ils boiling over
vhen cooking over a quick hre. Desair is like vhal
remains in lhe ol aer il has boiled over and is
unable lo do so anymore, going on cooking in lhe
ol lill il dries u.
9. SurrrrrNc FroV Assocr~froN Wrfn Tnr H~frrui
Associalion vilh lhe haleful is meeling vilh disagreeable
beings and sankhra formalions. Such meeling is nol ilself
unbearable, bul vhen one meels vilh disagreeable beings or
undesirable ob|ecls, reaclion sels in al once in lhe form of
menlal dislurbance and hysical discomosure. As il serves
as a cause of menlal and hysical dislress, associalion vilh
lhe haleful is designaled by lhe uddha as !ukkna (dreadful
suering). The vorld in general also recognizes such encoun-
lers as undesirable suering. Some eole may go lo lhe
exlenl of making a vish (raying) nol lo have lhe misforlune
of encounlering undesirable ersons or lhings in lheir succes-
sion of exislences. Hovever, in a vorld vhere leasanlness
and unleasanlness co-exisl, one has lo face bolh according
1;6
lo circumslances. One's vish may be fulhlled, if al all, only
arlially by having less occasions lo face unleasanl eole
and ob|ecls.
The imorlanl lhing is lo endeavour lo meel unleasanl silua-
lions vilh correcl menlal auilude. The besl course of aclion is
lo reverl lo lhe raclice of Saliallhna, lhal is, noling inces-
sanlly so lhal lhe menlal rocess slands al lhe slage of |usl
'hearing', 'seeing', elc. When unleasurable sensalions are fell
in lhe body, menlal dislress musl be averled by conlinuous
noling of 'louching', 'knoving', 'ain', elc.
10. SurrrrrNc FroV Sri~r~froN FroV Tnr Briovrn
Searalion from lhe loved is lo be arled from agreeable
beings and sankhra formalions. Such searalion is nol ilself a
ainful feeling. Hovever, vhen searalion from beloved ones
(husbands, vives, children) lakes lace, by dealh or vhile
slill alive, or vhen arled from one's lreasured ossessions,
menlal agony sels in al once. Il may even develo inlo sorrov,
lamenlalion and desair. One is bound lo be overvhelmed
vilh grief under such circumslances. As il romoles such var-
ious menlal aiclions, lhe lessed One had called lhe seara-
lion from lhe loved ones and desirable ob|ecls !ukkna (dread-
ful suering). The vorld also recognizes such searalion as
ainful suering. Some even make lhe vish lo be alvays lo-
gelher vilh lheir loved ones lhroughoul lhe succession of ex-
islences. Such vishes may be fulhlled vhen lhere is sucienl
good kamma.
1;;
The family of lhe millionaire, Mendaka, comrising his vife,
his son and daughler-in-lav logelher vilh lheir servanl girl,
once made such a vish lo be alvays logelher in fulure exis-
lences by oering food lo a Iaccekabuddha. As a resull of
lhis good kamma, lheir vish became fulhlled and lhey vere
born logelher forming lhe same grou of hve al lhe lime of
our uddha. Hovever, such kind of vish lends lo romole
clinging feuers and is very inaroriale for lhe individual
vilh lhe hrm resolve of comlele release from lhe suerings
of sansara.
11. SurrrrrNc FroV Nof OrffrNc Wn~f ONr W~Nfs
This suering for nol geuing vhal one vanls or suering
lhal arises oul of desire for some unoblainable ob|ecl. Wilh-
oul raclising and develoing lhe Iighlfold Ialh, lhe desire
comes lo lhe beings, 'Oh, lhal ve vere nol sub|ecled lo be-
coming (birlh), ageing, disease and dealh. Oh, lhal ve vere
nol sub|ecled lo sorrov and lamenlalion, elc.' These desires,
of course, vill nol come aboul by mere vishing, and nol gel-
ling vhal one vanls causes menlal anguish. Therefore, lhe
uddha had described such desires as !ukkna (dreadful suer-
ing). Here, lhe ob|ecl of one's desire is nol limiled lo Nibbna
only, vhich is free from birlh, ageing, elc., bul is meanl lo in-
clude also lhe vorldly doings and veallh vhich cannol be al-
lained |usl by mere desiring. Nol geuing lhem as desired is
also !ukkna.
1;8
12. SurrrrrNc FroV Tnr Frvr Orouis Or Or~sirNc
The eleven lyes of suering slarling from suering of birlh
(jii) lo suering of nol geuing vhal one vanls (iccniia||na
!ukkna) arise only because lhere are lhe hve grous of grasing
(up!nakknan!), lhey arise deendenl on lhese hve grous.
In shorl, lherefore, lhese hve grous of grasing are lhe lrulh
of suering.
The aggregales of malerial and menlal formalions vhich form
lhe ob|ecls of clinging or grasing are called up!nakknan!,
grous of grasing. These hve grous of grasing are made
u of:
1. The grou of malerial forms
z. The grou of feeling
. The grou of ercelion
. The grou of menlal concomilanls
j. The grou of consciousness
All senlienl beings exisl as such only vilh lhese hve grous
forming lheir subslanlive mass. They cling lo lheir body
vhich is merely an aggregale of malerial forms, regarding il
as 'I', 'my body', 'ermanenl', elc. Hence, lhe grou of malerial
form is called lhe grou of grasing.
The menlal slales, made u of consciousness and menlal con-
comilanls (cciasikas), are also grased al, laking lhem lo be 'I',
'my mind', 'il is I vho lhink', 'ermanenl', elc. So lhe menlal
slales (nna) are also knovn as grous of grasing. This is
hov auachmenl occurs in lhe grous of rpa and nna as a
vhole.
1;
Tnr Ui4n4N~kkn~Nn4s Af Tnr MoVrNf Or SrrrNc
To consider each searale henomenon in delail, lhe up-
!nakknan! is consicuous every lime one sees an ob|ecl.
Likevise, lhe up!nakknan! is rominenl on every occasion
of hearing, smelling, lasling, louching, imagining (lhinking).
Al lhe momenl of seeing, lhe seeing eyes, lhe ob|ecl of sighl
and consciousness of seeing are quile consicuous. In lhis
consciousness of seeing are comrised leasanl or unleasanl
feeling of seeing, ercelion or recognilion of lhe ob|ecl seen,
making eorl and bending lhe mind lo accomlish lhe acl of
seeing and lhe knovledge lhal an ob|ecl is |usl seen.
Ieole vho cannol raclise insighl medilalion or lhose raclis-
ing insighl medilalion vho have nol yel advanced lo lhe slage
of arecialing lhe nalure of anicca, !ukkna, anaua, remain al-
lached lo lhe eye, ob|ecl of sighl, elc. They regard lhe clear
eyesighl as 'I', as 'my eye' and 'ermanenl'. When lhey see
lhe body and limbs, lhe auachmenl arises, 'I see my ovn
body, lhis is my hand, il exisls ermanenlly.' Seeing olher
eole, lhey aear as a erson, a crealure, enduring, lasling.
ecause of such arousal of auachmenl lo lhem malerial forms
of eye and ob|ecl of sighl are lermed rpa-up!nakknan!.
In addilion lo leasanl feeling or unleasanl feeling in seeing
an ob|ecl, lhere is also neulral feeling vhich is nol elaboraled
searalely here due lo sace conslrainl. Whal is concerned
vilh vholesome neulral feeling is included in leasanl feel-
ing, vhal is concerned vilh unvholesome neulral feeling is
included in unleasanl feeling. olh leasanl and unleasanl
18o
feelings give rise lo auachmenl: 'Il is I', 'Il is my feeling', il is
everlasling', 'I feel vell', 'I feel lerrible'. Causing auachmenl in
lhis vay, leasanl or unleasanl feeling on seeing an ob|ecl,
is called tc!an-up!nakknan!na.
On erceiving an ob|ecl, auachmenl arises in lhis vay loo:
'I recognize il', 'I don'l forgel il'. So il is lermed lhe grasing
grou of ercelion (saa-up!nakknan!).
Ixercising lhe vill lo see an ob|ecl is called ccian (volilion).
In lhe vocabulary of lhe lexl, il is lermed incilemenl, exhor-
lalion, or urging, bul vill or volilion exresses ils meaning
quile clearly. Manasikra, vhich goes along vilh ccian, is on-
dering or bending lhe mind lovards an ob|ecl. Then lhere
is pnassa (conlacl) vhich comes inlo lay loo, bul as ccian
and nanasikra are lhe redominaling faclors, ve vill men-
lion only lhese lvo. There is also auachmenl lovards lhem
as 'I' or 'enduring'. Hence, lhese lvo menlal concomilanls of
villing and bending lhe mind involved in an acl of seeing are
named sanknara-up!nakknan!na. y sanknara is meanl condi-
lioning. In lhe case of seeing, il means bringing aboul condi-
lions lo accomlish lhe acl of seeing.
}usl knoving lhal an ob|ecl is seen is eye-consciousness,
vhich is also auached lo 'as I see, I knov', lhe seeing 'I' is
everlasling. ecause of lhe ossibilily of such auachmenl, con-
sciousness is called tina-up!nakknan!.
To recailulale:
1. Al lhe momenl of seeing, lhe eye and ob|ecl of sighl
are rpa-up!nakknan!.
181
z. Ieeling leasanl or unleasanl is tc!an-
up!nakknan!.
. Recognizing or remembering lhe ob|ecl is saa-
up!nakknan!.
. Ixercising lhe vill lo see and lurning lhe auenlion
on lhe ob|ecl is sanknara-up!nakknan!.
j. }usl knoving lhal an ob|ecl is seen is tiana-
up!nakknan!.
To nole seeing as 'seeing' every lime an ob|ecl is seen is lo
enable one lo see lhe said hve grous of rpa and nna as lhey
really are, and having seen lhem, lo remain al lhe slage of
|usl seeing and nol lo become auached lo lhem as 'I', 'mine',
'ermanenl', 'leasanl', 'good', elc.
To undersland lhe urose of noling every henomenon, ve
have rovided lhe folloving ahorism.
Iundamenlal rinciles of viassan medilalion raclice:
1. y conlemlaling vhal, is viassan medilalion
develoed`
Bq nciing inc tc aggrcgaics, unicn naq causc auacnncni,
as incq rca||q arc.
z. When and for vhal urose should lhey be noled`
Tncq sncu|! |c ncic! ai inc ncncni cj arising ic cui c[
auacnncni.
. Iailing lo nole lhem al lhe momenl of arising oens
lhe vay lo auachmenl lo lhem as 'ermanenl', 'leas-
anl' or 'self'.
18z
. Noling lhe hve aggregales every lime lhey arise
disels auachmenl. Thus, clear insighl as lo lheir
imermanence, unsalisfacloriness or suering is
develoed.
In () above, 'al lhe momenl of arising' means al lhe momenl
of seeing, hearing, elc. In () above, 'every lime lhey arise' con-
noles every acl of seeing, hearing, elc., as il haens.
Frvr Orouis Or Or~sirNc Af Tnr MoVrNf Or Hr~rrNc
Al lhe momenl of hearing, obviously lhere is lhe ear vhich
can hear easily, lhere is also sound vhich is quile audible
and consciousness vhich knovs lhal a sound has been heard.
In lhis consciousness of hearing is comrised leasanl or un-
leasanl feeling of hearing, ercelion of lhe sound, villing,
exerlion and lurning lhe mind lovards lhe ob|ecl of sound lo
accomlish lhe acl of hearing and |usl knoving lhal a sound
has been heard.
Ieole vho have nol lhe oorlunily lo raclise mindful-
ness and, lherefore, have no knovledge of realily as il lruly
is, become auached lo all henomena (!nannas) rominenl
al lhe momenl of hearing as 'I', 'mine', elc. ecause of lhe li-
abilily of such auachmenls, lhe ear and lhe malerial body of
sound are knovn as rpa-up!nakknan!. The leasanl or un-
leasanl feeling of hearing is tc!an-up!nakknan!. The er-
celion of sound is sa-up!nakknan!. Ixercising lhe vill
lo see an ob|ecl and lurning lhe mind lovards il is sanknara-
18
up!nakknan!. }usl knoving lhal a sound has been heard is
tina-up!nakknan!. To recailulale:
1. Al lhe momenl of hearing, lhe ear and lhe sound are
rpa-up!nakknan!.
z. The leasanl or unleasanl feeling of hearing is
tc!an-up!nakknan!.
. Recognizing or remembering lhe sound is sa-
up!nakknan!.
. To vill hearing lhe sound and lurning lhe auenlion
lovards il is sanknara-up!nakknan!.
j. }usl knoving lhal a sound has been heard is tina-
up!nakknan!.
To nole hearing as 'hearing' every lime a sound is heard is
lo enable one lo see lhe said hve grous of rpa and nna as
lhey really are and having heard lhe sound, lo remain al lhe
slage of |usl hearing and nol become auached lo il as 'I', 'mine',
'ermanenl', 'leasanl', 'good', elc.
Frvr Orouis Or Or~sirNc Af Tnr MoVrNf Or SVriirNc
Al lhe momenl of smelling, lhere is clearly lhe malerial body
of lhe nose, lhere is also lhe smell and lhe consciousness
vhich knovs lhe smell. In lhis consciousness of smelling is
comrised lhe leasanl or unleasanl feeling of smelling, rec-
ognilion of lhe smell, exercising lhe vill lo smell and lo lurn
lhe auenlion lovards lhe ob|ecl of smelling, and knoving of
lhe smell.
18
Iailure lo nole smelling as 'smelling' and lo see lhe henom-
enon of smelling as il lruly is resulls in auachmenl lo il as 'I',
'mine', elc. ecause of lhe ossibilily of such auachmenl, lhe
nose, lhe smell and lhe consciousness of smell are knovn as
up!nakknan!nas. To recailulale:
1. Al lhe momenl of smelling, lhe nose and lhe smell
are rpa-up!nakknan!na.
z. The leasanl or unleasanl feeling of smelling is
tc!an-up!nakknan!na.
. Recognizing and remembering lhe smell is sa-
up!nakknan!.
. Ixercising lhe vill lo smell and lurning lhe
mind lovards lhe smelling ob|ecl is sanknara-
up!nakknan!na.
j. }usl knoving of lhe smell is tina-up!nakknan!na.
To nole smelling as 'smelling' every lime a smell is smell is
lo see lhe said hve grous of rpa and nna as lhey really
are, and having smell lhe smell, lo remain al lhe slage of |usl
smelling and nol lo become auached lo il as 'I', 'mine', 'leas-
anl', 'unleasanl', 'good', elc.
Frvr Orouis Or Or~sirNc Af Tnr MoVrNf Or E~frNc
Al lhe momenl of knoving lhe lasle lhrough ealing, lhere
is clearly lhe longue, lhe lasle and lhe consciousness of lhe
lasle. In lhis consciousness of lhe lasle is comrised lhe leas-
anl or unleasanl feeling of lhe lasle, recognilion or remem-
18j
bering lhe lasle, exercising lhe vill and lurning lhe auenlion
lovards lhe ob|ecl lo accomlish lhe lask of ealing and |usl
knoving of lhe lasle.
Iailure lo nole ealing as 'ealing' al lhe momenl of ealing and
lo see lhe henomenon of ealing as il lruly is, resulls in auach-
menl lo il as 'I', 'mine', elc. ecause of lhe ossibilily of such al-
lachmenl, lhe longue, lhe lasle, and lhe consciousness of lasle
are knovn as up!nakknan!nas.
To recailulale:
1. Al lhe momenl of ealing, lhe longue and lhe lasle are
rpa-up!nakknan!na.
z. The leasanl or unleasanl feeling of lasle is tc!an-
up!nakknan!na.
. Recognizing or remembering lhe lasle us saa-
up!nakknan!na.
. Ixercising lhe vill lo lasle and lurning lhe
auenlion lovards lhe ob|ecl of lasle is sanknara-
up!nakknan!na.
j. }usl knoving of lhe lasle is tina-up!nakknan!na.
While ealing lhe food, rearing a morsel of lhe food in lhe
hand, bringing il u and uuing il in lhe moulh, and chev-
ing il, all lhese aclions are concerned vilh knoving lhe sensa-
lion of louch, knoving lhe lasle on lhe longue vhile cheving
lhe food, hovever, is consciousness of lhe lasle. Thus, noling
lhe lasle on every occasion of ealing lhe food has lo be car-
ried oul lo see as lhey really are, lhe hve grous of nna and
186
rpa, vhich manifesl lhemselves al lhe lime of lasling and lo
remain al lhe slage of |usl lasling so lhal no auachmenl lo il
as 'I', 'mine', 'ermanenl', 'leasanl', 'good', elc. can arise.
Frvr Orouis Or Or~sirNc Af Tnr MoVrNf Or ToucnrNc
The sense of louch encomasses a vide held. Throughoul
lhe vhole body of a erson, vherever esh and blood are in
good condilion, is diused kqapas!a-rpa, lhe senlienl sur-
face vhich gives lhe sense of louch. olh inside lhe body
(in lhe esh, in lhe blood, in lhe muscles, in lhe bones, elc.)
and oulside lhe body (on lhe skin) lhis sensilive rincile lies
sread oul nol leaving an area lhe size of a in-oinl.
Wherever lhis sensilive rincile exisls, lhe sense of louch
may be fell. Al lhe momenl of louching, lhe senlilive rinci-
le vhich has lhe abilily lo seize lhe malerial laclile body is
rominenl. Il becomes evidenl as lhe sile of imacl bul nol as
any form or shae. Likevise, lhe sensilive arls of lhe ears,
nose and longue become evidenl as siles of imacl vhere
sense of hearing, smell and lasle are develoed.
Also rominenl al lhe momenl of imacl is lhe malerial lac-
lile body vhich may be any of lhe lhree elemenls: painati, icjc
or taqc. The hardness, roughness, smoolhness and soness
one feels is painati, lhe heal fell or lhe varmlh or cold is icjc,
sliness, ressure or molion is taqc. Such sensalions of louch
18;
may arise as a resull of friclion belveen dierenl elemenls
in lhe body, or lhrough conlacl, oulside lhe body, vilh clolh-
ing, bedding, seals, earlh, valer, vind, hre or heal of lhe sun.
Such imacls roduce very vivid sensalions of louch. The con-
sciousness of louch comrises of leasanl or unleasanl feel-
ing, ercelion of lhe imacl, exercise of lhe vill and bend-
ing of lhe mind lo accomlish lhe acl of louching and |usl
knoving lhal a conlacl has been eslablished. The feeling of
leasure or unleasanlness is esecially vivid. Ihysical ain
is lhe feeling of suering (!ukknatc!an) vhich arises lhrough
disagreeable conlacls.
Iailure lo be mindful al lhe momenl of louch and lo see lhe re-
alily as il lruly is, resulls in lhe develomenl of auachmenl as 'I',
'mine', elc., lovards all lhose ob|ecls vhich become rominenl
al lhe lime of louching. Accordingly, lhe sile of louch, lhe sen-
lienl surface (sensilive rincile), lhe feeling of louch and knov-
ing lhal a conlacl has been made, are called up!nakknan!nas.
Mnemonic note:
1. At the moment of touching, the sentient surface and the impact of the
touch are rpa-updnakkhandhas.
2. The pleasant or unpleasant feeling of touch is vedana-
updnakkhandha.
3. Recognizing or remembering the touch is sa[[-updnakkhandha.
4. Exercising the will and turning the attention to accomplish the act of
touching is sankhara-updnakkhandha.
5. Just knowing that a contact has been made is vina-
updnakkhandha.
188
Iraclice of noling lhe bodily oslures such as going, sland-
ing, siuing, sleeing, bending, slrelching, moving, rising and
falling, elc. is made |usl lo be mindful of lhese Grous of
Grasing. When noling lhese body oslures, lhe secially er-
celible elemenl of tqc vhich causes sliness, ressure and
molion, is seen as il lruly is, |usl a malerial body (rpa) vilh-
oul any over of cognilion. The knoving mind vhich lakes
nole of lhe body oslures is also seen as il lruly is, conscious-
ness (nna) vhich cognizes an ob|ecl. Thus al every occasion
of noling, lhere is alvays a air: rpa (lhe ob|ecl) vhich is
laken nole of and nna (lhe knoving mind vhich lakes nole
of il). Aer erceiving his facl exaclly and clearly, lhere fol-
lovs lhe knovledge of cause and eecl. There is lhe 'going
oslure' because of lhe desire lo go. Then, erceiving clearly
lhal rpa (lhe ob|ecl noled) and nna (lhe knoving mind) arise
and vanish, arise afresh and vanish again al lhe very momenl
of noling, realizalion comes lo lhe yogi lhal lhese henomena
are lransienl, ainful, dislressing and are haening accord-
ing lo lheir ovn nalure and are, lherefore, nol conlrollable
(anaua). ecause of lhis realizalion or conviclion, lhere is no
longer any auachmenl on going, slanding, siuing, elc., as 'I',
or 'mine'.
This is hov auachmenl is cul o in accordance vilh lhe Maha
Saliallhna Suua vhich says: There is no more auachmenl
lo anylhing of lhe vorld, namely, lhe malerial body or lhe hve
aggregales. To be lhus free from auachmenl, mindfulness on
lhe body, lhe feeling, lhe mind and lhe menlal ob|ecls has lo
be develoed.
18
Iainful feelings such as sliness, feeling hol, aching, ilching,
elc., become evidenl al lhe localion of imacl. Iailure lo nole
lhe dislress as il occurs and lo see ils lrue nalure resulls in al-
lachmenls: I feel sli, I feel hol, I feel ainful, I am dislressed.
Il is lo avoid such auachmenls lhal mindful noling of lhe dis-
lressful feeling has lo be made lo realize ils lrue nalure. Con-
linuous and close valching of lhe ainful feelings vill reveal
clearly hov ainful feelings of sliness, holness, aches aear
lo come u afresh in lhe body one aer anolher in succession.
Then ersonal conviclion vill come lhal lhese ainful feel-
ings exisl for a momenl only and lhen vanish and lhal lhey
are, lherefore, of imermanenl nalure. They are no longer
grased al as I, mine, ermanenl. One becomes free from al-
lachmenls. Hence, lhis need for mindful nole laking.
Frvr Orouis Or Or~sirNc Af Tnr MoVrNf Or TnrNkrNc
Menlal aclivilies such as lhinking, imagining are very exlen-
sive in scoe and of frequenl occurrence. In vaking momenls,
lhe mind is almosl conslanlly aclive. Iven in lhe absence of
any auraclive, leasanl ob|ecls in one's surroundings, imagi-
nalion creales lhem lo aear as if in real exislence. The hin-
drances, namely, sensual desires, ill-vill, slolh and loror, resl-
lessness and vorry, skelical doubls are concerned vilh such
menlal aclivilies. So are lhe lhoughls or reeclions on lusl, ill-
vill and cruelly (kna tiiakka, tqp!a tiiakka and tinimsa ti-
iakka). Unless lhese menlal aclivilies are mindfully noled as
lhey occur, lhey are liable lo be idenlihed as self (aua), a living
1o
enlily. Hence, il is very imorlanl lo nole each menlal aclivily
as il occurs.
When carefully analysed, menlal aclivilies are also hve ag-
gregales of grasing (up!nakknan!nas). Thinking may be ac-
comanied by a hay feeling (scnanassa) or an unleasanl
feeling (!cnanassa), or lhinking may arise accomanied by
neilher leasanl or unleasanl feeling, bul a neulral feeling
(upckkn tc!an). When lhere is no mindfulness on lhese lhree
lyes of feelings as lhey occur, lhey are liable lo be grased
al as 'I feel leasanl, I feel hne, I feel miserable, I feel bad. I
feel neilher leasanl nor unleasanl'. Ior lhis liabilily of caus-
ing such auachmenls, lhese lhree lyes of feelings are knovn
as tc!an-up!nakknan!na.
Then, lhere is also evidenl sa (sense-ercelion) vhich re-
cognizes lhe ob|ecl on vhich lhe mind is dvelling. This sa
is esecially ronounced vhen lrying lo remember facls lo
seak aboul or vhen engaged in making calculalions in check-
ing accounls. Concerning lhis sa, vrong nolions may arise
'I remember. I have good memory'. Hence, il is called sa-
up!nakknan!na.
Al lhe momenl of lhinking or exercising imaginalion, lhere
comes inlo noliceable aclion, pnassa (clear avareness of lhe res-
ence of lhe ob|ecl), tiiakka (menlal inclinalion lovards lhe ob|ecl),
nanasikra (hxing lhe auenlion on lhe ob|ecl), ccian vhich in-
ciles and urges, 'Lel il be lhis vise, lel il be lhal vise'. The role
of ccian is esecially ronounced vhen, for inslance, an imor-
lanl mauer haens lo come u in lhe mind in lhe dead of nighl
11
and il cannol be auended lo. The driving urge of cciana 'go nov
and lell him' is very rominenl. Thal immoral lhoughls are
accomanied by |c|na, !csa, elc., and moral lhoughls by a|c|na,
a!csa, ancna, sa!!n, saii, elc., is clearly discerned.
The menlal concomilanls pnassa, ccian and nanasikra are in-
ciling agenls resonsible for arising of lhoughls (ideas, imag-
inalion, concels) one aer anolher in succession. They are
also al lhe back of every acl of seaking and body movemenls
such as going, slanding, siuing, sleeing, bending, slrelch-
ing, elc. The incilemenl, lhe urge concerned vilh each menlal,
vocal or hysical aclivily is sanknra vhich condilions an acl
by romling, inducing, direcling, elc. This condilioning role
of sanknra may resull in ils being idenlihed as a erson or
a living enlily and vrongly cleaved lo as 'I'. The nolion 'I
lhink, I seak, I go, I do' is vrong auachmenl lo lhis con-
dilioning sanknra. Such auachmenl is knovn as clinging lo
krakaua (auachmenl lo erforming-self). Therefore, lhe sa-
nknras, namely, pnassa, ccian, nanasikra, elc., are called sa-
nknra-up!nakknan!na.
Then al lhe momenl of lhinking, lhere is also evidenl con-
sciousness of lhe acl of lhinking. urmese eole regard con-
sciousness and menlal concomilanls logelher as |usl mind
(ciua). This consciousness of lhe acl of lhinking is very com-
monly vieved as soul, ego (aua) for vhich reason conscious-
ness is also knovn as tina-up!nakknan!na.
In addilion, al lhe momenl of lhinking, lhe malerial body
vhich rovides lhe base for lhinking is also so evidenl lhal
1z
lhe uninformed eole believe il is lhe malerial body vhich
is lhinking. Ior lhis reason, lhe malerial body vhich rovides
lhe base for lhinking is knovn as rpa-up!nakknan!na.
The ob|ecl of lhoughl may be malerial (rpa), menlal (nna),
or name, idea, nolion, concel (paii). These also serve as
ob|ecls of auachmenl. The malerial ob|ecl belongs lo rpa-up-
!nakknan!na. The menlal ob|ecl is classihed under lhe four
calegories of lhe nna-up!nakknan!na. Paii may be in-
cluded in lhe malerial or menlal grou of grasing, vhichever
il corresonds vilh. Ior inslance, in 'qam piccnam na |a|naii,
iampi !ukknam' (nol geuing vhal one vanls is suering), nol
geuing vhal one vanls is neilher malerial nor menlal, |usl pa-
ii. The commenlarial nole in Mula Tika on lhis oinl says
lhal lhe desire for lhe unauainable should be laken as !ukkna.
We have made a comlele analysis of lhe hve grous of gras-
ing vhich become evidenl al lhe momenl of lhinking. To reca-
ilulale:
1. The malerial body vhich forms lhe basis of lhinking
al lhe momenl of lhinking is rpa-up!nakknan!na.
z. The leasanl or unleasanl feeling of lhinking is
tc!an-up!nakknan!na.
. Recognizing or remembering lhe ob|ecl of lhoughl is
sa-up!nakknan!na.
. Menlal urging and inclinalion lo accomlish lhe
acl of lhinking, saying or doing is sanknara-
up!nakknan!na.
1
j. }usl being conscious of lhinking is tina-
up!nakknan!na.
Il is very imorlanl lo realize lhe lrue nalure of lhoughl by
being mindful of il every lime lhinking occurs. Iailing lo lake
nole of il and lhus failing lo recognize ils real nalure vill lead
lo auachmenl lo il as 'I', 'mine', 'ermanenl', 'leasanl', 'good',
elc. The ma|orily of eole in lhese days are almosl conslanlly
clinging lo lhese menlal ob|ecls. Such auachmenls give rise
lo aclive rocesses for becoming, in accordance vilh upa!an-
apaccaqc |natc of lhe Lav of Deendenl Originalion, Paiicca
Sanupp!a. And in every slale of nev becoming, lhere avails
old age, disease, dealh, folloved by suerings of sorrov, lam-
enlalion, ain, grief and desair.
If, hovever, mindfulness is develoed on each occurrence of
a lhoughl, ils real nalure of imermanence, ainfulness and
insubslanlialily (anicca, !ukkna, anaua) vill become evidenl.
Having lhus knovn ils lrue nalure, no auachmenl lo il arises.
Hence, no aclive rocesses for nev becoming lake lace. And
vhen lhere is no nev becoming, lhe mass of suering rere-
senled by old age, disease, dealh, sorrov, lamenlalion, elc., is
comlelely eliminaled. This cessalion of suering as a resull
of mindfulness on each lhoughl as il occurs is momenlary.
ul, if lhe raclice of noling every lhoughl is conlinued, gain-
ing lemorary cessalion on each noling, by lhe lime lhe ariqa
nagga becomes fully develoed lhe mass of suering vill
have been comlelely eradicaled. Thus, vhile being occuied
vilh lhe exercise of noling 'rising', 'falling', 'siuing', 'louching',
1
if any lhoughl or idea inlervenes, il should be noled as 'lhink-
ing' or 'idealing'.
The delailed analysis ve have made above vill demonslrale
clearly lhal vhal becomes rominenl al lhe six momenls
of seeing, hearing, smelling, lasling and louching and lhink-
ing are merely hve grous of grasing. To common eole
vho cannol raclise lhis exercise of noling, al lhe momenl
of seeing, lhe sub|ecl vhich sees is obviously some subslan-
lial body, lhe exlernal ob|ecl vhich is seen is also obviously
a voman, a man, a subslanlial body. Likevise, vilh lhe he-
nomena of hearing, elc. In realily, hovever, lhere is no such
subslance or mass lo form a hysical body. Only lhe hve
grous of grasing. Nolhing exisls excel al lhe six momenls
of seeing, hearing, elc. They become evidenl only al lhe six
momenls and vhal become evidenl lhen are also |usl lhe hve
grous of grasing.
SurrrrrNc Brc~usr Or Tnr Frvr Orouis Or Or~sirNc
Dreadful suerings of nev becoming, old age, dealh, sorrov,
grief, elc. arise because of lhe hve grous of grasing. So long
as lhese hve grous of grasing exisl, dreadful suerings
of becoming, geuing old, dealh, elc. vill ersisl. Therefore,
lhe hve grous of grasing are lhemselves dreadful suering.
In shorl, because lhere is hysical body (rpa), hysical and
menlal suerings deendenl uon rpa arise. ecause lhere
is lhe knoving mind (nna), hysical and menlal suerings
1j
based on il arise. Therefore, rpa and nna, consliluling lhe
hve grous of grasing, are dreadful suerings.
In olher vords, lhe unbearable hysical and menlal dislresses
are dreadful inlrinsic suerings knovn as !ukkna-!ukkna.
Iveryone fears lhem. Thus, !ukkna tc!an (feeling of ain),
olhervise up!nakknan!na, is lhe real Trulh of Suering.
Ileasanl sensalions in lhe body and mind are agreeable, de-
lighlful, en|oyable vhile lhey lasl, bul vhen lhey vanish, lhey
are relaced by discomforl, dissalisfaclion vhich, of course, is
suering. This kind of suering, knovn as tiparinna !ukkna,
comes aboul lhrough change or conversion from a leasanl
slale or condilion lo somelhing dierenl and is lerrible. To lhe
Ariyas, lhe Noble Ones, leasanl sensalions are like lhe ogress
vho bevilched eole vilh her beauly and lurned lhem mad.
Ior lhem, leasanl sensalions are dreadful up!nakknan!nas
all lhe same and conslilule lhe real Trulh of Suering. Al lhe
same lime, leasanl sensalions are lransilory and require con-
slanl condilioning eorl lo mainlain lhe slalus quo. This, of
course, is irksome and is, lherefore, lo lhe vise real !ukkna.
The remaining upckkn tc!an, lhe neulral feeling and lhe up-
!nakknan!nas of sa, sanknra, tina and rpa are alvays
in a slale of ux, lransilory and, lherefore, lo lhe Noble
Ones also dreadful. As dealh avails conslanlly, having lo rely
on lhe imermanenl up!nakknan!nas for hysical subslance
(mass or suorl) is dreadful, like living in a building vhich
shovs signs of collasing al any momenl.
16
The lransilory nalure of lhe up!nakknan!na requires con-
slanl eorl al condilioning for lhe mainlenance of lhe slalus
quo. This sanknara !ukkna, lhe lroublesome lask of condilion-
ing, is also dreadful. Therefore, lo lhe Noble Ones, nol only
lhe leasanl or unleasanl feelings, bul lhe remaining up-
!nakknan!nas are also dreadful lrulhs of suering.
As all lhe hve grous of grasing are regarded by lhe Noble
Ones as really lerrible suering, lhe lessed One had said in
conclusion of lhe dehnilion of lhe Trulh of Suering: In shorl,
lhe hve grous of grasing, olhervise called nna and rpa
vhich could cause such auachmenls as 'I', 'mine', 'ermanenl',
'blissful', 'self', 'ego' are |usl dreadful suerings.
Ui4n4N~ ANn Ui4n4N~kkn~Nnn~
Nov ve vill describe lhe dierence belveen up!na and up-
!nakknan!na. Up!na means lenaciously clinging or gras-
ing of vhich lhere are four lyes:
1. Knup!na:
grasing of sense-desires Il is lhe auachmenl born
of craving for sensual desires.
z. Diiinup!na:
grasing of false vievs Il is lhe auachmenl lo lhe
viev lhal lhere is no kamma and lhe resull lhereof,
lhere is no aer-life, no Sureme uddha, no Arahal.
All olher vrong vievs, aarl from au!iiini and si|a|-
|aia, parnsa !iiini, are knovn as !iiinup!na.
1;
. Si|a||aiup!na:
grasing of mere riles and ceremonies, rilualism Il
is lhe raclice of cerlain riluals or ceremonies vhich
have nolhing lo do vilh underslanding of lhe Iour
Noble Trulhs nor develomenl of lhe Iighlfold Ialh,
vilh lhe belief lhal lhey vill lead lo release from
suering of samsra, and lo ermanenl eace, free
from old age, disease and dealh. Il is a brand of
niccn!iiini, holding vhal is vrong as righl.
. Auat!up!na:
grasing of lhe lheory of soul Il is lhe auachmenl
lo lhe belief in soul, ego, a living enlily. Il is lhe same
as lhe vrong viev of ersonalily belief (sakkqa!iiini)
and self (aua!iiini).
Of lhe four lyes of grasing, knup!na is clinging lo sen-
sual desires, craving for lhem. The remaining are all various
kinds of vrong vievs. Therefore, ve can summarise (1) lvo
kinds of grasing (up!na): vrong viev and craving for sense
desires.
There are lhus lvo kinds of auachmenls (up!nas) one aris-
ing oul of desire for leasurable senses and lhe olher because
of vrong vievs. The ob|ecls of such auachmenls (up!nas)
consisl of lhe aggregales of rpa and lhe aggregales of nna
and are knovn as up!nakknan!na. Summarising, ve have
(z) ob|ecls vhich can cause auachmenls as 'I', 'mine', are up-
!nakknan!na (grous of grasing).
The auachmenl as 'I' is aua!iiini, lhe vrong viev of self, vhich
oens lhe vay lo lhe remaining lvo vrong vievs. When al-
18
lachmenl arises oul of desire, lhe ob|ecls of desire vhich may
nol even belong lo one, are grased al as if lhey are one's ovn.
The Ili lexls describe hov lhis desire leads lo lhe ossessive
grasing in lhese vords: '|iam nana. This is mine.' We have
summarized in mnemonics (z) above lhis Ili lexl descrilion
of ossessive grasing.
The aggregales of nna, rpa vhich can cause auachmenl
lhrough vrong belief as self, living enlily or ossessive cling-
ing as 'mine' are called aggregales of grasing (up!nakknan!-
nas). The menlal aggregales vhich cannol give rise lo clinging
lhrough desire or vrong viev are called |usl knan!nas (ag-
gregales) and nol up!nakknan!nas (aggregales of grasing).
Such menlal aggregales are lhe sura-mundane tc!an, sa,
sanknra and tina of lhe four Ialhs and lhe four Iruilions.
They conslilule merely aggregales of feeling, aggregales of
ercelion, aggregales of formalions and aggregales of con-
sciousness and are nol classed as aggregales of grasing (up-
!nakknan!nas).
The mundane lyes of malerial body, tc!an, sa, sanknra
and tina ve have reealedly menlioned above are lhe
aggregales vhich incile auachmenl and are, lherefore, called
aggregales of grasing, namely, () rpa, tc!an, sa, sanknra
and tina.
The mundane aggregales of rpa, nna are lhe malerial bodies
and rupatacara ciua and cciasikas vhich become manifesl al
lhe six doors of senses lo a erson of no jnnic auainmenls
1
every lime he sees, hears, smells, lasles, louches or lhinks.
To a erson of |hanic auainmenls, rpatacara and arupatacara
jnna ciuas also become manifesl al lhe mind's door in addi-
lion lo lhe above aggregales. All lhese hve grous of gras-
ing are lhe Trulhs of suering vhich form suilable ob|ecls for
Viassan medilalion. The lessed One laler described lhem
as dhammas vhich should be underslood exaclly and righlly
lhrough Viassan Insighl, lhrough knovledge of lhe Ialh.
In lhe lhird arl of our discourse, ve had dehned sann!i-
iini Ialh as lhe knovledge of Trulh of Suering, i.e. lhe knov-
ledge vhich accrues from conlemlalion on lhese hve grous
of grasing.
Here, il musl be slressed lhal lhese rpa, nna grous of gras-
ing should be ersonally realized as lhe real lrulh of suer-
ing by clearly erceiving lheir nalure of arising, vanishing,
imermanence, unsalisfacloriness, insubslanlialily by observ-
ing mindfully rpa-up!nakknan!na (eye and sighl, ear and
sound, elc.) and nna-up!nakknan!nas (eye consciousness,
ear consciousness, elc.) vhen lhey manifesl lhemselves al lhe
six doors of senses on every occasion of seeing, hearing, smell-
ing, lasling, louching and lhinking.
Il is a mauer of gralihcalion lhal some yogis of lhis cenlre
have seen realily as il is by lhe raclice of mindfulness in ac-
cordance vilh Saliallhna melhod, i.e. laking nole of every
manifeslalion as il occurs al each of lhe six doors of senses.
They should congralulale lhemselves lhal lhey have come lo
knov lhe Dhamma as laughl by lhe lessed One: 'In shorl,
zoo
lhe hve grous of grasing are suering' and slrive all lhe
more slrenuously lo auain more comlele knovledge. To re-
cailulale, ve shall go over again lhe mnemonics of lhe 1z
lyes of lhe Trulh of Suering.
1. Nev becoming is also suering.
z. Ageing is also suering.
. Dealh is also suering.
. Sorrov is also suering.
j. Lamenlalion is also suering.
6. Ihysical ain is also suering.
;. Grief is also suering.
8. Desair is also suering.
. Associalion vilh haleful ones is also suering.
1o. Searalion from loved ones is also suering.
11. Il is fulile lo vish for freedom from ageing, disease
and dealh and all kinds of suering vilhoul devel-
oing lhe Iighlfold Ialh, lhal vish vill never be
fulhlled. Thus vishing lo gel somelhing vhich is
unauainable is also suering. In lhe mundane vorld,
loo, lo hanker aer vhal is nol auainable is also
suering.
1z. To summarise, lhe 11 lyes of suering described
above, lhe hve aggregales vhich can incile auach-
menl as 'I', 'mine', are really lhe Trulh of Suering.
We have fairly fully deall vilh lhe dehnilion and enumera-
lion of lhe Trulh of Suering and have laken some lime over
il. We shall end lhe discourse here for loday.
zo1
May all you good eole in lhis audience, by virlue of having
given reseclful auenlion lo lhis greal Discourse on lhe Turn-
ing of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, be able lo develo lhe Middle
Ialh, olhervise called lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh, by conlem-
laling on lhe hve grous of grasing, lhe Trulh of Suering
vhich should be clearly and comlelely underslood, and by
means of lhe Ialh and Iruilion according lo your vish, auain
and realize soon Nibbna, lhe end of all suerings.
S!nu! S!nu! S!nu!
zoz
Cn.v+in Iivi
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni Niw Moo u.v oi Tn.uiovi+, 1z, inxisi In..
Lasl veek on lhe 8lh vaning day of Thadingyul vhen ve
gave lhe discourse on lhe fourlh arl of lhe Suua, ve had
deall vilh lhe exosilion on lhe Trulh of Suering. Today, ve
vill go on vilh lhe exosilion of lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of
Suering. Iirsl, ve shall go over again lhe headings of lhe
Iour Trulhs:
1. Dukkna sacc lhe Trulh of Suering
z. Sanu!aqa sacc lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering
. Nirc!na sacc lhe Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering
. Magga sacc lhe Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo lhe
Cessalion of Suering
As exlained in lhe fourlh arl of lhe discourse, aer dehning
lhe Trulh of Suering vhich he had ersonally discovered by
enelralive insighl, lhe lessed One venl on lo give lhe deh-
nilion of lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering.
S~Vun~v~ S~cc~
|!am knc pana, Bnikknatc, !ukkna-sanu!aqc ariqa saccam:
Yaqam iann pcnc|natik nan!irgasanagai iaira iair|ni-
nan!ini. scqaini!am, knaiann, |nataiann, ti|nataiann.
zo
hikkhus, vhal I vill resenlly leach is lhe Noble Trulh con-
cerning lhe origin of suering or lhe Trulh vhich Noble Ones
should knov. There is lhis hunger, lhis craving vhich gives
rise lo fresh rebirlh and is bound u vilh leasure and auach-
menl (or has lhe nalure of leasure and auachmenl), seeks
delighl, hnds gralihcalion nov here, nov lhere, everyvhere.
Whal is lhis iann (craving)` Il is lhe lhree kinds, namely, k-
naiann (sensual craving, desire for en|oymenl of sensuous
leasures), |nataiann (craving for elernal exislence, holding
lhe elernily belief), ti|nataiann (craving for non-exislence
(self-annihilalion)), believing lhal lhere is nolhing aer dealh.
These lhree kinds of craving are lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of
Suering.
The Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering, i.e. craving, is lhe
causal agency resonsible for all kinds of suering, already
exlained, slarling from lhe suering of fresh becoming lo
suering of lhe hve aggregales of grasing. To eliminale suf-
fering, il is essenlial lo knov lhe cause of suering. Il is like
making a diagnosis lo knov lhe cause of an ailmenl so lhal
il may be cured. The lessed One had ersonally enelraled
lo lhis lrulh of lhe cause of suering and had consequenlly
enlirely eradicaled suering by removing ils cause. The sanu-
!aqa sacc is nolhing bul iann, craving for hunger. Il is like
feeling lhirsly or hungry. Tann is lhirsl or hunger for sense
ob|ecls.
The craving for sense ob|ecls gives rise lo fresh becoming
(pcnc|natik). So long as one remains in lhe gri of lhis iann,
conlinuous rebirlhs vill lake lace. We shall discuss hov
zo
fresh rebirlhs lake lace laler in lhe discourse. This iann
hnds leasure in sense ob|ecls and clings lo lhem. Like oil
or dye solulion lhal remains absorbed on any surface il ha-
ens lo come inlo conlacl vilh, iann is delighled vilh seem-
ingly leasanl sense ob|ecls and holds onlo lhem lenaciously.
This iann hnds gralihcalion here, lhere, everyvhere. There is
never any boredom or monolony in lhe ursuil of leasure.
Any seemingly leasurable sense ob|ecl, vherever il resenls
ilself gives delighl.
In lhe human vorld, life in lhe lover slrala of sociely may be
anylhing bul auraclive or leasanl lo eole of higher slalion.
Unforlunalely, lhere are eole (vho are born inlo oor cir-
cumslances) slill en|oying lheir lives vherever lhey may be.
Likevise, lo lhe human mind, animal life is unleasurable, re-
ulsive, horrible. To assume lhe hysical body of a snake or
an insecl is an abominable lhoughl for a human being. Yel,
if rebirlh lakes lace in an animal vorld, a being is quile
leased vilh his hysical body and hnds delighl in ils life.
Il is because of lhe nalure of iann vhich hnds gralihcalion
in every exislence, in every sense ob|ecl, vherever il may be.
The lessed One had, lherefore, described iann as hnding
leasure here, lhere, in every exislence, in every sense ob|ecl.
This is vell-illuslraled by lhe slories of Sameya Naga king
and _een Uari.
Tnr Sforv Or S~Virv~ N~c~ KrNc
In one exislence, lhe odhisaua vas born inlo a oor family
in lhe vicinily of lhe river Sama. Invious of lhe life of lea-
zoj
sure en|oyed by lhe Sameya Naga king, lhe odhisaua en-
gaged himself in lhe good deeds of giving alms and observ-
ing lhe recels. As a resull, vhen he assed avay he vas
reborn sonlaneously in lhe realm of lhe Nagas and found
himself sealed on lhe lhrone of lhe Sameya Naga king in lhe
full shae and form of a Naga being. The Naga is a secies
of snake. To be reborn as a snake from lhe human exislence
is really frighlful and abominable. The odhisaua, looking al
his reulsive, horrible nev form, reecled lhus: 'As a resull of
my good deeds of charily and observance of moralily, I could
have been reborn in any of lhe six realms of lhe devas, bul
because I had vished for lhe leasures of lhe Naga king, I am
reborn inlo lhis vorld of reliles. Oh! To die vould be beuer
lhan lo live lhe life of a snake'. He even layed vilh lhe idea
of commiuing suicide.
Meanvhile, a young Naga female by lhe name of Sumana
gave a signal lo olher young Naga females lo commence enler-
laining lheir nev king. The young Naga females, assuming
lhe aearance of beauliful devis and goddesses, slarled sing-
ing and dancing and laying various musical inslrumenls.
Seeing lhe beauliful goddesses enlerlaining him vilh song,
dance and music, lhe Sameya Naga king imagined his Naga
abode lo be lhe alace of lhe kind of lhe gods and fell very
leased. He also look on lhe aearance of a god himself and
|oined lhe female Nagas in lheir revelry vilh much delighl.
Hovever, being a odhisaua, he easily regained lhe sense of
realily and resolved lo be born again as a human being so
lhal he could furlher romole his pranis, lhe virluous quali-
zo6
lies of alms-giving, keeing recels, elc. In ursuance of lhis
resolulion, lhe Sameya king laler came lo lhe human vorld
and soughl solilude in a foresl, and kel observance of lhe
moral recels.
The oinl ve vish lo make in lhis slory of lhe Sameya Naga
king is lhal from lhe human oinl of viev, lhe body of a re-
lile is horrible, reulsive. Al lhe inilial slage of lhe Naga life,
lhe odhisaua also vieved his nev life vilh horror and re-
vulsion, bul lhe sighl of lhe auraclive female Nagas broughl
aboul a change in his oullook, vhich kel him revelling and
delighling in lhe Naga exislence as if il vere lhe home of gods.
Il is iann vhich seeks delighl here, lhere, everyvhere rebirlh
lakes lace lhal made lhe odhisaua en|oy his Naga life aer
lhe inilial revulsion. There vas also lhe vish he had made,
vhile he vas a oor man in lhe human vorld, for lhe leasur-
able life of a Naga king. This vish or craving vas also iann
vhich landed him in lhe realm of lhe Nagas, in accordance
vilh lhe vords of lhe lessed One: 'Pcnc|natik. gives rise
lo nev birlh'.
Tnr Sforv Or QurrN Ui~rr
_een Uari vas lhe chief queen of King Assaka, vho once
ruled over lhe counlry of Kasi al ils cailal Ialali. She vas said
lo be of greal beauly. Ancienl kings used lo selecl lhe mosl
auraclive maidens of lheir kingdom lo become lheir queens.
Consequenlly, all lheir queens vere noled for lheir charm
and loveliness. _een Uari vas oulslanding amongsl lhem
zo;
because of her raving beauly and enchanlmenl. evilched by
her alluring comeliness, King Assaka had losl his hearl lo her.
Much adored by lhe monarch and vhile slill in lhe rime of
her beauly and charm, _een Uari venl lo lhe gods' abode.
Nov, 'lo go lo lhe abode of lhe celeslial beings' is a urmese
cullural usage lo denole lhe dealh of a royal ersonage. Like-
vise, 'ying back' means lhe assing avay of a uddhisl
monk, a mere cullural usage. A dead erson hnds rebirlh in
an exislence as condilioned by kanna, lhe revious volilional
aclivilies. As il haened, _een Uari, in sile of lhe saying
according lo lhe cullural usage lhal 'she had gone lo lhe gods'
abode', aclually made her rebirlh in lhe abode of lhe lovly
beelles.
Wilh lhe assing avay of his adored queen, King Assaka vas
consumed by hercely burning hres of sorrov and lamenla-
lion. He caused lhe corse of lhe queen embalmed in oil, lo
be laced in a glass con and kel undernealh his bedslead.
Overvhelmed by grief, lhe king lay on lhe bed vilhoul food
or slee, vailing, moaning over lhe loss of his beloved queen.
The royal relalives and his vise minislers lried lo console him
and give him solace by reminding him of lhe nalure of imer-
manence and condilionalily of exislence, all lo no avail. The
corse in lhe con, being embalmed in oil, vould remain
vell-reserved |usl like being lrealed vilh chemical reserva-
lives of modern limes. The queen vould lherefore aear lo
lhe king as if she vas lying, sleeing in lhe con. The sighl
of lhe corse acled like fuel lo his burning sorrovs and lam-
enlalions vhich conlinued lo consume him for seven days.
zo8
Al lhal lime, lhe odhisaua vas a hermil, endoved vilh a|-
ni (suernormal jnnic overs) living in lhe foresl of lhe
Himalayas. He haened lo scan lhe vhole vorld using his
a|ni and sav King Assaka in lhe lhroes of inlense sorrov.
He knev also lhal no one bul himself could save lhe king
from his misery. He lhen made his vay lo lhe royal garden of
King Assaka by means of his jnnic overs.
There a young rahmin came lo meel lhe hermil vho asked
him aboul King Assaka. The young man lold him hov lhe
king vas being overvhelmed by grief and requesled him lo
save lhe king. We do nol knov lhe king, bul if he came and
asked us, ve could lell him aboul his vife's resence exis-
lence, relied lhe hermil. Thereuon, lhe young man venl
lo lhe king and said, Greal Sir, a hermil endoved vilh celes-
lial eye and celeslial ear has arrived in lhe royal garden. He
claims he could shov lhe resenl exislence of lhe dearled
queen. Il vould be vorlhvhile lo go and see him.
Uon hearing lhis, lhe king immedialely look o for lhe royal
garden in a carriage. On arrival, lhe king aid reseclful
homage lo lhe hermil and addressed him, Reverend Sir, is
il lrue lhal you claim lo knov lhe resenl exislence of lhe
queen Uari` When lhe hermil admiued his claim, lhe king
vanled lo knov vhere she vas reborn.
Oh, greal King, _een Uari look delighl in her beauleous a-
earance and vas very vain aboul il. She had senl her lime
engaged only in beaulifying herself lo make herself more al-
luringly auraclive, forgeuing all lhe vhile lo erform merilo-
zo
rious deeds, lo give alms and observe moral recels. As a
resull, she has assed over lo a lovly exislence. She is res-
enlly reborn as a female cov dung beelle in lhis very garden,
lhe hermil lold lhe vhole slory very frankly.
Iersons favoured by forlune en|oying rivileges of veallh,
family, educalion, rank, hysical beauly, elc., are rone lo ex-
hibil haughliness in lheir dealings vilh olhers. Shrouded in
lheir ovn vanily and self-esleem, lhey become negleclful in
lheir erformance of merilorious deeds. Humilily lays no
arl in lheir make-u. The lessed One had laughl in lhe Cu-
lakammavibhanga Suua lhal such vain, glorious, haughly er-
sons are liable lo land u in lovly inferior rebirlhs. On lhe
olher hand, unrelenlious ersons vho shov humilily and
ay reverenlial resecls lo lhose deserving of homage vill be
reborn in noble families.
_een Uari of our slory vas exlremely beauliful and, being
lhe chief queen of lhe ruling monarch, vas of very high slalus
in life. She had her head lurned by lhese re-eminenl qual-
ilies and looked dovn vilh conleml on lhose she should
have shovn resecl. Ior such unvholesome auiludes and ac-
lions, il may be resumed she vas reborn a lovly, female
cov dung beelle. On hearing lhis accounl of lhe rebirlh of his
beloved queen, King Assaka romlly re|ecled il, saying I
don'l believe il.
The hermil relied, I can shov you lhe female beelle and
make her lalk, loo. The king relied, All righl. Ilease do
and make her lalk, loo. The hermil, using his suernalural
z1o
overs of a|ni made a vov for bolh lhe male and female
beelles lo make lheir aearance before lhe king.
When lhe male and female beelles emerged from lhe hea of
cov dung inlo lhe resence of lhe king, lhe hermil said, Oh
King, lhe female beelle vhich is folloving from behind vas
your chief queen Uari devi. Having abandoned you, she is
nov lrailing lhe male cov dung beelle vherever il goes. Oh
King, have a good look al lhe female beelle vho vas lalely
your chief queen Uari.
The king refused lo believe lhe hermil. I can'l believe lhal
such an inlelligenl being as my queen Uari vas reborn as
lhis female beelle, said lhe king.
True, for lhose vho do nol quile believe in lhe lavs of kanna
and ils resullanl eecl, vho do nol undersland lhe rinciles
of condilionalily or causal relalionshi as exlained in Ialicca
Samuda, il vould be dicull lo accel lhal a being of lhe
human vorld should have gone dovn so lov as lo become a
mere beelle. Iven in lhese days of sasan vhen lhe uddha's
leachings are videly revalenl, lhere are some eole hold-
ing lhe viev lhal 'vhen man dies, he cannol descend inlo an
exislence inferior lo lhal of a human being'. So il is nol sur-
rising lhal during lhe dark ages vhen lhe uddha's disen-
salion vas yel unheard of, such slories of reincarnalion vere
received vilh scelicism.
Neverlheless, according lo lhe leachings of lhe uddha, for so
long as one has nol yel auained lhe slalus of an ariqa, one can
descend from lhe human vorld or lhe celeslial realm inlo lhe
z11
four lover slales of exislence. Condilioned by bad kanna and
lhe menlal reex |usl before dealh, rebirlh may lake lace in
lhe lover order of beings. On lhe olher hand, condilioned by
good kanna and vholesome menlal auilude on lhe lhreshold
of dealh, ascenl may be made from an inferior shere of exis-
lence inlo lhe higher realm of human and celeslial beings.
There is lhe slory of a hikkhu named Reverend Tissa vho
develoed auachmenl lo his saron robes vhen he vas aboul
lo die. As a consequence, he vas reborn a body louse making
his home on lhose very robes. There is anolher slory of a
frog vho mel ils dealh vhile lislening lo a discourse by lhe
uddha. He became a celeslial being in Tavalimsa celeslial
abode. These are examles vhich serve as evidence of vari-
ous lransformalions al lhe lime of rebirlhs.
Hovever, King Assaka, nol having heard of such discourses,
could nol accel lhal his queen had become a female beelle.
Accordingly, he refused lo believe il. The hermil, lherefore,
roosed lhal he vould make lhe female beelle lalk. The king
acceled lhe roosal. Thereuon, lhe hermil made lhe vov
using his suernalural overs lo have lhe conversalion be-
lveen him and lhe female beelle, comrehensible lo lhe king
and his audience.
Who vere you in your asl life` lhe hermil asked.
I vas lhe chief queen Uari of King Assaka, relied lhe
female beelle.
Whal nov, female beelle, do you slill love King Assaka or do
you love only lhis cov dung beelle`
z1z
To vhich lhe female beelle gave lhe rely: True, King Assaka
vas my husband in my asl life. Al lhal lime, I used lo roam
aboul in lhis garden in lhe comany of King Assaka, en|oy-
ing lhe hve sense-leasures of sighl, sound, smell, lasle and
louch. ul, nov lhal I am in lhe nev exislence, I have nolhing
lo do vilh King Assaka.
The commenlarial version of lhe female beelle's rely is as
follovs: 'In my resenl exislence, I could relish killing King
Assaka and vilh lhe blood from his lhroal, vash lhe feel of
lhe cov dung beelle vho is my resenl beloved husband.
This commenlarial exosilion makes lhe beelle's rely sound
very harsh and unfeeling, bul as she vas lalking in lhe res-
ence of her dear husband, lhe male beelle, il is nalural lhal
she vanled lo lease him. We can easily see in everyday life
many consicuous examles of eslrangemenl belveen ex-hus-
bands and vives, vho gel searaled nol lhrough dealh bul in
lhis very life on grounds of incomalibilily, and examles of
loving lenderness heaed on lheir nev arlners in life. The
remarks in lhe commenlary aears, lherefore, lo be quile in
order.
The }laka Ili lexls describe lhe female beelle's rely lhus:
'Reverend Sir, I vho had loved King Assaka had roamed aboul
in lhis garden many a lime logelher vilh King Assaka vho
had loved me and vho vas my beloved husband lhen, en|oy-
ing each olher's comany. ul nov, lhe |oys and lroubles of
lhe resenl nev life have obscured, covered u lhe |oys and
lroubles of lhe old life. The nev |oys and lroubles have lran-
z1
scended lhe old |oys and lroubles. I love my resenl husband,
lhe male cov dung beelle, more lhan I did King Assaka.
The commenlary exosilion of lhe vords 'love more lhan'
makes inleresling reading. Il says 'love more lhan' means
'love hundred limes more, love one lhousand limes more', in-
dicaling lhe inlensily of love in favour of lhe nev husband.
King Assaka vas greally dislressed lo hear lhe harsh, unfeel-
ing vords of eslrangemenl from lhe lis of lhe female beelle.
He lhoughl lo himself: 'I had loved and adored her so much.
I could nol belake myself lo lhrov avay her dead body. Yel
she had become so anlialhelic and nasly lo me.'
He fell so disgusled vilh his old queen Uari lhal he ordered,
even vhile siuing lhere, Go and have lhal voman's body re-
moved. Then, having balhed and vashed himself, lhe king
venl back lo lhe alace. He made anolher courl lady his chief
queen and carried on ruling over his counlry visely. The
hermil, odhisaua, aer giving good advice lo lhe king, venl
back lo lhe Himalayan sancluary.
The moral from lhis slory is lhal queen Uari, vhile in lhe
human vorld, had laken delighl in being a human erson,
and a queen al lhal. She vould never have even dreaml of
being reborn a female beelle. ul in accordance vilh her asl
kanna, vhen she vas reborn a female beelle, she al once look
lo lhe life and delighl in lhe hysical body of a beelle. She es-
leemed and adored lhe hysical body of lhe male beelle a hun-
dred limes, a lhousand limes more lhan lhal of King Assaka.
z1
Thal she fell quile al home in her lovly exislence as a cov
dung beelle is due lo iann (craving) vhich hnds delighl
everyvhere. Thal is vhy lhe uddha had said, Taira iair-
|ninan!ini iann has lhe lendency lo delighl vherever il
hnds rebirlh.
Reborn as a dog, il lakes delighl in a dog's exislence, reborn as
a ig, as a fovl, lhere is alvays delighl in each exislence. Iven
having been born as children of auenl arenls of uer
social class, lhere are cases of lhem sinking dovn lo overly-
slricken exislences and yel en|oying lheir lives lherein. Some
of lhem even resisled lhe eorls of lheir arenls lo lake lhem
back inlo lhe fold of lhe family since lhey found lheir nev life
quile en|oyable. Il is iann again vhich gives lhem leasure
vherever lhey are, delighling in vhalever sense ob|ecl res-
enls ilself.
How Frrsn Rrirrfn T~krs Pi~cr
We shall nov deal vilh pcnc|natik (lendency lo give rise lo
nev birlhs) vhich ve had earlier osloned.
Since iann has lhe nalure of delighling and clinging, a being
hnds delighl in vhalever exislence il is born inlo and en|oys
any sense-ob|ecl lhal resenls ilself. ecause il hnds ils exis-
lence so delighlful and leasurable, lhere comes lhe vish for
lhis exislence lo remain everlasling, slable and for leasurable
ob|ecls lo be endurable and lasling. In endeavouring lo main-
lain lhem as one vishes, volilional aclivilies come inlo lay.
z1j
These kannas or volilional aclivilies, vhich may be vholesome
or unvholesome, are lhe cause of rebirlhs in nev exislences.
Thus, vhen a erson is aboul lo die, one or lhe olher of lhese
merilorious or demerilorious kannas may resenl ilself before
his mind's eye. Or, il may be a kanna-niniua, a symbol of
lhe kanna (vhich is any sighl, sound, smell, lasle, louch or
idea vhich had oblained al lhe lime of lhe commission of lhal
kanna). Or, gaii-niniua, a sign of desliny, lhal is a sign of lhe
nexl exislence vhere he is deslined lo oen his nev life in con-
sequence of lhe said kanna. The kanna, kanna-niniua or gaii-
niniua vhich resenls ilself lo lhe dying erson is lenaciously
grased al because of iann and cannol be diselled from his
mind. }usl like lhe shadov of a mounlain lhrovn by lhe eve-
ning sun falls on lhe surface of lhe land and covers il, so
also lhese sense-ob|ecls of kanna, kanna-niniua or gaii-nini-
ua vhich resenl lhemselves al lhe sense-doors comlelely
occuy his mind. These sense-ob|ecls are lenaciously held by
lhe naranasa-jatana, olhervise called a|nisanknra tina.
(Note on page 273 of the original Burmese book)
In accordance vilh lhe Teaching, kannam kncuan, tinan
|pan, iann sincnc' of Angulara Ili Canon, Tika Nila, for
lhe aearance of paiisan!ni tina (birlh-consciousness) of
nev becoming, merilorious or demerilorious kanna serves as
a held in vhich il may grov. A|nisanknra tina serves as
lhe seed for lhe grovlh of lhe paiisan!ni tina, and iann,
vhich delighls in every sense-ob|ecl in every exislence, may
be likened lo lhe moislure or valer elemenl (vhich romoles
ils grovlh). Here, a|nisanknra tina (lhal condilions nev
z16
becoming) is, according lo lhe commenlary, consciousness ac-
comanying lhe volilional kanna, cciana. In lhe same vay il
arises logelher vilh lhe hrsl volilional kanna, so also il ac-
comanies lhe laler kanna aclivilies and as such, conscious-
ness vhich aears laler should also be designaled a|nisa-
nknra tina. Iarlicularly, naranasa jatana consciousness
vhich lakes as ils ob|ecl kanna, kanna-niniua and gaii-niniua
should be called lhe a|nisanknra tina because il is from
lhis naranasa jatana consciousness lhal paiisan!ni tina
arises. In addilion, in lhe same vay a seed germinales only
vhen il comes inlo conlacl vilh valer elemenl, moislure, lhe
seed of consciousness receiving suorl and encouragemenl
by iann vhich accomanies or recedes il in close roximily,
lenaciously holds onlo kanna, kanna-niniua or gaii-niniua as
ils ob|ecl and gives rise lo paiisan!ni tina.
Then, immedialely aer lhe dissolulion of lhe dealh-momenl,
aggregales of rpa, nna, paiisan!ni ciua, lhe birlh conscious-
ness, holding onlo lhe kanna, kanna-niniua or gaii-niniua as
ils ob|ecl, arises al a nev sile in a nev exislence comlele
vilh ils hysical base uon vhich il deends. Wilh each con-
sciousness arises also ils menlal concomilanls, cciasikas. The
paiisan!ni tina, lhe re-linking consciousness is folloved
by |natanga consciousness, lhe life-conlinuum, vhich goes
on conlinuously lhroughoul life as rescribed by one's ovn
kammic energy. The arising of nev exislence is broughl aboul
by lvo faclors: one's ovn kanna and iann. Wilhoul iann,
hovever, kanna by ilself cannol bring aboul nev becoming.
(Note on page 275 of the original Burmese book)
z1;
Ior an Arahal, his asl merilorious deeds vill come lo
good fruilion before his dealh, parini||na. Mullifarious gis
gained by Venerable Sivali, erfecl heallh en|oyed by Ven-
erable akula, are examles of good fruilion. His demerilo-
rious deeds vill, hovever, bear bad fruils as, for inslance,
lack of alms-food for Venerable Losakalissa, or lhe fale mel
by lhe Venerable Moggalana vho vas cudgelled lo dealh by
felons. These kannas, hovever, do nol have any more olenli-
alilies for causing fresh rebirlhs as lhey are devoid of iann.
Lacking lhe suorl and encouragemenl of iann al lhe lime of
naranasa, lhe a|nisanknra tina cannol arise and, hence,
no rebirlh. Ior lhis reason, only iann is auribuled lo be lhe
cause of fresh exislence. pcnc|natik.
Therefore, iann forms lhe rool cause of fresh becoming. Ior
lhis reason, lhe lessed One had inoinled iann lo be lhe
cause of nev exislence. pcnc|natik. These are lhe vords
vhich lhe lessed One had used in lhe very hrsl discourse lo
leach lhe exislence of aer-life. In sile of lhis clear leaching,
lhere is a grou of eole vho mainlain lhal 'lhe lessed One
laughl only aboul lhe resenl exislence. He did nol louch on
fulure life.' We could nol be sure vhelher lhese eole vere al-
lemling lo associale lhe uddha's leaching vilh uccnc!a ta!a,
lhe lheory of annihilalion, a very misguided eorl ve musl
say! In realily, hovever, so long as iann endures, lhrough fail-
ure lo develo lhe Iighlfold Ialh, or even if develoing, nol
being fully advanced in accomlishmenl, so long lhis iann
vill conlinue lo serve as lhe cause for fresh exislence.
z18
When lhe Iighlfold Ialh has been fully accomlished and
aranaua alh and fruilion auained, iann vill be comlelely
eradicaled and lhere vill be no more rebirlh. Thus, vhen ex-
ercising relroseclion on auainmenl of enlighlenmenl as a
uddha or an Arahal, lhe lhoughl alvays occurs lo lhe Noble
Ones: ' Aqam aniina jii, nauni !ani pcna|natcii. This is lhe lasl
exislence. There is no more rebirlh.' This reeclion is also in-
cluded in lhe laler seclion of lhe Dhammacakka Suua. Such
reeclions make il obvious lhal unless iann is comlelely
rooled oul, conlinuous fresh exislences, nev becomings are
inevilable.
Hov lhis iann brings on reealed rebirlhs vill nov be illus-
lraled by a fev slories. There are lhousands of slories illuslral-
ing lhis facl, bul il vill suce lo lake lhree slories from lhe
Ili commenlaries and four or hve from lhe modern eriod.
IN Br~nV~ L~Nn Hr SnrNrs Brrcnf;
IN Prc's PrN, Too, Hr FrNns Drircnf
Al one lime, lhe lessed One venl inlo R|agiri for almsround.
On seeing a young female ig, lhe lessed One smiled. No-
licing lhe vhile radialion vhich shone forlh from lhe leelh
of lhe uddha, lhe Venerable Anand knev lhal lhe uddha
vas smiling. Accordingly, he asked: Whal has caused Sire lo
smile`
The lessed One oinled oul lhe young female ig lo Anand
and said, See lhal young female ig` She vas a young
z1
voman in human exislence during lhe disensalion of Kaku-
sanda uddha. When she died, she vas reborn a hen in lhe
neighbourhood of a monaslic feeding hall. The small hen fell
viclim lo an eagle. ul earlier she haened lo have heard lhe
recilalion by a yogi uddhisl monk of a medilalion sub|ecl
vhich aroused in her vholesome lhoughls. y virlue of lhese
merils, lhe small hen vas reborn as a rincess named Ubbari
in a royal family. The rincess Ubbari laler le lhe household
life and became a vandering mendicanl. Residing in lhe men-
dicanls' residence she haened one day lo gaze al lhe mag-
gols in lhe lalrine. The vorms served as an ob|ecl for medi-
lalion (conlemlalion of ugliness of vorm-infesled corse or
conlemlalion of a vhile ob|ecl) by vhich she auained lhe
hrsl jnna. When she assed avay, she vas reborn a rahma
in lhe hrsl jnnic rahma vorld. On exiry from lhe rahma
vorld, she became lhe daughler of a rich man in lhe human
vorld vhich she le again only lo be born a ig nov. I sav all
lhese evenls vhich made me smile.
On hearing lhis slory of reealed birlhs in various exislences,
Venerable Anand and olher monks became greally alarmed
and agilaled vilh religious emolion. The lessed One sloed
going on alms-round and vhile slill slanding on lhe roadvay,
slarled leaching lhe dhamma in six verses, lhe hrsl one of
vhich slaled:
Yainpi n|c anupa!!ctc !a|nc,
cninncpi ruknc punarcta rnaii
ctampi iann nusaqc anunaic
ni||auaii !ukknani!am punappunam
zzo
'If lhe main rools of a lree remain undamaged and in
good condilion, even vhen lhe uer branches are cul
o lhal lree vill grov again develoing nev buds and
shools. Likevise, if lhere remain dehlemenls (lying dor-
manl) vhich are nol yel eradicaled by ariqa nagga, lhis
suering of rebirlh vill arise lime and again successively.'
Whal is conveyed by lhis verse is lhis: 'During her exislence
as rincess Ubbari, she renounced lhe vorld lo become a van-
derer. y raclising medilalion, she auained lhe hrsl jnna
vhich could disel or ul avay by tikknan|nana panna (elim-
inalion by discarding) only lhe dehlemenls of pariquunana
class, i.e. craving for sensual leasure vhich aears as sensu-
ous lhoughls al lhe mind's door. y means of tikknan|nana
panna, jnna can ul avay lhe dehlemenls only lo a cerlain
dislance for a cerlain eriod of lime. Thus, she vas able lo
disel lhe craving for sensual leasure vhen she auained lhe
hrsl jnna and laler in lhe rahma vorld. ul vhen she vas
born again in lhe human vorld as lhe daughler of a veallhy
man, lhe craving for sensual leasure reaeared because il
had nol been rooled oul by lhe ariqa nagga. The |nata iann
(craving for exislence), of course, ersisled even vhen she had
auained lhe jnna. ecause lhe lalenl dehlemenls had nol been
comlelely urooled, she had lo descend from lhe rahma
vorld, lhrough lhe human vorld, inlo a ig's exislence. So
long as lhe craving ersisls, reealed rebirlhs vill lake lace
in lhis vay in various exislences.'
In reference lo lhis slory of descenl from lhe rahma vorld
lo a ig's exislence, ancienl Sayadavs had le an ahorism,
zz1
'In rahma land, she shines brighl, in ig's en, loo, she hnds
delighl'. ul il is nol ossible lo be reborn as a ig slraighl
from lhe rahma vorld, nor as any olher animal nor in lhe
realms of pcias (slarving ghosls) nor in lhe slales of misery.
y virlue of lhe upacra |ntan, lhe access medilalion, roxi-
male lo lhe jnna reviously auained, rebirlh can lake lace
only as a human being or in lhe celeslial abode. The young
female ig of lhe above slory also assed lhrough human life
vhere she vas born as lhe daughler of a veallhy man. Il is
quile ossible lhal she landed in a ig's exislence aer being
lhe daughler of a veallhy man because of lhe bad kanna she
had commiued lhen, in being haughly and insolenl lo lhose
she should have shovn resecl.
When lhe young female ig died, she vas reborn in a royal
family of Suvannabhumi, vhich is generally laken lo be lhe
counlry of Thalon. Some scholars, hovever, lake Suvannab-
humi lo be lhe Sumalra island, relying on lhe bronze inscri-
lions made by lhe King Devaala aboul 1joo uddhisl Ira.
Irom being a rincess of Suvannabhumi, she assed over lo
Varanasi, India, as a voman. She lhen became a voman in
Varnasi, soulh-easl of ombay. Irom lhere, she vas reborn
lhe daughler of a horse-merchanl in lhe seaorl lovn of Su-
araka, norlh-vesl of ombay. Nexl, she became lhe daugh-
ler of a shiovner al lhe orl of Kavira in lhe soulh-easlern-
mosl arl of lhe Indian eninsular. This is lhe coaslal dislricl
inhabiled by lhe Tamil eole, formerly called Damila. Aer
lhal life, she vas reborn in lhe family of a governmenl ocial
zzz
al Anuradha or resenl day Sri Lanka. Her nexl life vas as
a daughler of a rich man named Sumana, from hokkanla, a
village soulh of Anuradha. She look lhe same name as her
falher, Sumana. Laler her falher le lhal village and seuled
dovn in lhe Mahmuni village of lhe Dighavai Dislricl. One
day, a minisler of lhe king Dullhagmini, named Lakundala
Alimbara, haened lo visil lhe Mahamuni village on cerlain
business. Uon seeing lhe young lady Sumana, he fell madly
in love vilh her. He married her vilh greal om and cer-
emony and carried her o lo his village, Mahunna.
The Venerable Mah Anuruddha, vho resided al lhe mon-
aslery of Taungsun, haened lo visil her village for alms-
round. While vailing for oerings of almsfood al lhe gale of
Sumana's house, he sav Sumana and said lo his monk follov-
ers: hikkhus, hov vonderful, vhal a marvel! The young
female ig of lhe lessed One's lime is nov lhe vife of lhe
minisler Lakundaka Alimbara.
On hearing lhis exclamalion, Sumana, lhe vife of lhe minisler,
develoed jaiissara na (knovledge of revious exislences).
Wilh lhe hel of lhis facully, she recalled lo her mind lhe re-
vious exislences she had assed lhrough. In consequence, she
became agilaled vilh fear al lhe rosecl of reealed birlhs
in lhe cycle of exislences. Asking ermission from her minis-
ler husband, she venl lo a bhikkhuni monaslery and gol her-
self ordained. Aer ordinalion, she lislened lo lhe discourse
on Saliallhna Suua al Tissa Mah Vihra monaslery. Iraclis-
ing mindfulness medilalion in accordance vilh lhe suua, she
zz
became a sciapanna, vell-eslablished as a slream-vinner in
lhe hrsl slage of lhe Ialh and Iruilion. Then, vhen king Dul-
lhagamini came lo lhe lhrone, she venl back lo her nalive vil-
lage, hokkanla, vhere al lhe Kalla Mah Vihra monaslery
she heard lhe discourse on Asivisoana Suua vhich enabled
her lo auain lhe fourlh slage of lhe Iruilion and became an
Arahal, comlelely free from inuxes, assions.
Going over lhe lhirleen exislences of Sumana lhoughlfully
and mindfully, one could gel aroused vilh religious emolion.
When lhe young voman al lhe lime of lhe Kakusanda uddha
died, she le behind her family, ossessions and her ovn hys-
ical body. The bere family and friends vould have grieved
over her dealh. She became a hen. Whal a frighlful lhoughl,
a human being lo be reborn a hen! Thal hen vould have a
family and friends, loo. She mel vilh a lerrible dealh, from
decailalion, vhen an eagle seized her and slruck her hercely
vilh ils beak. There is consolalion, hovever, lhal she vas
reborn a rincess for lhe meril accrued from having heard a
discourse on medilalion. The hen vould nol, of course, knov
anylhing of lhe dhamma, bul as she had given devoul auen-
lion lo lhe discourse, cerlain meril vould have accrued lo her
for vhich she vas reborn a rincess. Lislening lo a dhamma
discourse is lhus very benehcial and fruilful.
Il is a mauer of gralihcalion lhal she became a rahma aer
being a rincess by virlue of her jnnic auainmenls. Il is grali-
fying loo lhal from lhe rahma vorld she vas reborn in lhe
human vorld inlo a veallhy family. ul il is very dislressing
zz
lo knov lhal she le behind her family, friends and osses-
sions reluclanlly lo be reborn a female ig. Il is really frighl-
ful lo lhink of descending lo human lane from lhe rahma
vorld and lo sink furlher slill inlo lhe animal kingdom as
a ig. This should be enough lo excile alarm and religious
emolion because so long as lhe noble ariqa nagga has nol
been eslablished, anyone is liable lo hnd himself landed in
lovly slales of exislence. Il vas vilh lhe inlenlion of arous-
ing religious emolions and exhorling lhe bhikkhus lo lake
lo dhamma in all earneslness lhal lhe lessed One had lold
lhem lhe accounl of lhe female hen's succession of exislences.
Hov lhe young female ig mel her dealh vas nol menlioned
in lhe lexls, bul il could be resumed lhal she vas slaugh-
lered by her breeder as in modern limes. The young female
ig musl have had a family and friends vhich she le behind,
causing grief lo lhem. Il vas comforling lhal she vas reborn
aervards as a human being in six laces from Suvannab-
hmi lo Anurdha. ul in each of lhese exislences, every lime
she dearled from one life lhere musl have been considerable
suering from sorrov, lamenlalion and grief for her and her
dear ones. Thal she hnally became hikkhuni Sumana Theri
is lhe mosl hearlening arl of lhe slory.
The cause of lhe succession of her exislences, dearling from
one life lo be reborn in anolher is iann or sanu!aqa sacc,
lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering. Olher eole vho are
nol yel rid of iann vill likevise go lhrough lhe cycle of re-
birlhs, dying from one life lo be reborn in anolher. Il is ex-
zzj
lremely imorlanl, lherefore, lo gel eslablished in lhe raclice
of lhe Noble Ariyan Ialh in order lo eradicale iann, olher-
vise called lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering. Sumana
Ther hrsl heard lhe discourse on Saliallhna Suua. Then
she raclised mindfulness in accordance vilh lhe Saliall-
hna melhod vhich heled her auain lhe slalus of sciapanna
(lhe slream-vinner). Then, hearing lhe Asivisoana Suua, she
devoled herself more ardenlly lo lhe raclice and auained
Arahaua Iruilion lo become a female Arahal. Tann, olher-
vise sanu!aqa, vas comlelely eradicaled from her. Therefore,
lhere vould be no more rebirlh for her and she vould be en-
|oying eace aer her parini||ana.
Sumana Theri, lherefore, declared lo her colleagues lhal she
vould fully ass avay (parini||nuic) aer lhe aqusanknra,
lhe vilal rincile for her resenl exislence had become ex-
hausled. Thereuon, her colleagues, bhikkhus and bhikkhu-
nis requesled of her lhe slory of her exislences. I vas a
human voman al lhe lime of lhe Kakusanda uddha. When
I died from lhere, I became a hen. I vas killed by an eagle
vhich broke o my head and devoured me. Then I became a
rincess in lhe human vorld. she conlinued lo recounl her
asl exislences unlil lhe lime of her hnal exislence al hok-
kanla village. She concluded, Thus have I assed lhrough
lhirleen exislences encounlering lhe us and dovns, vicissi-
ludes of life in each exislence. In lhis lasl exislence, being vea-
ried of lhe cycle of rebirlhs, I have become an ordained bhik-
khuni and hnally auained Arahalshi. I urge all of you, my
righleous |nikknus and |nikknunis, lo ul forlh your endeavour
zz6
mindfully lo become fully accomlished in si|a, san!ni and
pa. Then she assed avay, causing religious agilalion in
lhe minds of her audience, consisling of men, vomen, |nik-
knus and |nikknunis. This slory of lhe young female ig is fully
described in lhe commenlary lo lhe Dhammaada.
Tnr Sforv Or S~V~N~ Drv~
Iven if one vere engaged in medilalion raclice lo disel
iann, sanu!aqa sacc unlil one became fully develoed in lhe
knovledge of lhe alh, iann could slill give rise lo rebirlh.
This facl is borne oul by lhe slory of a deva named Samana.
During lhe lifelime of lhe uddha, a cerlain young man,
having eslablished failh in lhe disensalion of lhe uddha, gol
himself ordained and slayed vilh his recelor for hve tassa
eriods. He erformed all lhe ma|or and minor incumbenl
dulies for his upajjnqa and learnl lhoroughly lhe lvo codes,
!tc naiik of Ilimokkha disciline for lhe bhikkhus. He also
maslered lhe rocedure for urifying himself from serious as
vell as lriing oences. Then, laking a medilalion ob|ecl of
his choice, he dearled lo a solilary abode in lhe foresl and de-
voled himself incessanlly lo lhe raclice of medilalion.
His eorls al medilalion vere very slrenuous. Iven al mid-
nighl, vhich lhe lessed One had alloved as lhe lime for resl
and slee, he conlinued vilh lhe raclice. Thus slriving day
and nighl and geuing enervaled by lack of sucienl nourish-
ing food, he vas suddenly seized vilh a cuuing ain, a ara-
zz;
lylic slroke vhich rulured lhe sinal nerve causing him in-
slanl dealh. He vas medilaling vhile valking and lhus said
lo have assed avay in lhe course of erforming lhe dulies of
a bhikkhu.
According lo lhe commenlary, if any bhikkhu asses avay
vhile engaged in valking u and dovn lhe cloisler valk or
slanding leaning againsl lhe leaning osl, or siuing or lying
dovn al lhe head of lhe cloisler valk vilh lhe double robe
on his head, he is said lo 'die in harness'. A bhikkhu is also
said lo 'die in harness' if he asses avay in lhe course of
reaching a sermon, arlicularly on liberalion from lhe chain
of exislences.
As lhe bhikkhu of our slory vas engaged in medilaling vhile
valking u and dovn lhe cloisler valk, ve could lake il lhal
he assed avay vhile he vas conlemlaling lhe nna, rpa
of lhe body oslures in accordance vilh lhe leaching in lhe
Saliallhna Suua. Allhough he had ul in a greal deal of
eorl in lhe raclice of medilalion, he assed avay vilhoul
auaining lhe aranaua nagga because he vas nol yel fully en-
doved vilh suorling acls of erfeclions (prnis) necessary
for such auainmenls.
Comlele eradicalion of iann is nol ossible unless aranaua
nagga has been auained. Thal lhis bhikkhu had nol yel devel-
oed even u lo lhe slage of lhe slream-vinner vill become
clear laler. Therefore, because of iann vhich can cause rebirlh
(pcnc|natik) he vas reborn in lhe celeslial abode of Tvalims.
zz8
A magnihcenl celeslial alace availed him in consequence of
lhe meril he had acquired in lhe raclice of medilalion. y
sonlaneous rebirlh, he aeared, as if |usl avakened from
slee, al lhe enlrance of lhe alace, a celeslial being reslen-
denl in full celeslial auire.
Al lhal momenl, aboul one lhousand celeslial rincesses vho
had been availing lhe arrival of lhe masler of lhe alace said,
Our Lord has arrived. Lel us enlerlain him. They galhered
around him, holding musical inslrumenls in lheir hands lo
velcome him |oyously. The deva lord of lhe alace, hovever,
did nol even realize lhal he had laken a nev exislence in a
nev vorld. He vas under lhe imression lhal he vas slill
a bhikkhu of lhe human vorld. On lhe sighl of lhe celeslial
damsels, he look lhem lo be female visilors lo his monaslery.
He covered u his bare le shoulder vilh lhe uer garmenl
and remained sealed, his eyes lovered, assuming a very dig-
nihed and reserved ose.
Realizing al once lhal lhe nev being musl have been a bhik-
khu in his revious exislence, lhe celeslial ladies addressed
him, My lord, lhis is lhe abode of lhe celeslial beings. Il is nol
lhe lime lo be observing lhe code of bhikkhu disciline. Il is
lhe occasion for en|oymenl of celeslial leasures. ul he con-
linued mainlaining solemn reserve and dignily. This !cta
has nol realized lhal he has become a celeslial being in lhe
realm of lhe devas. Lel us drive home lhis facl lo him by our
velcoming revelries. So saying, lhe celeslial damsels slarled
laying lhe musical inslrumenls accomanied by songs. The
deva all lhe more lighlened his reliring disosilion, mainlain-
zz
ing his dignihed solemnily, lhinking lhal lhe female visilors
had come lo his foresl abode lo abandon lhemselves lo frivo-
lous merrimenl.
Whereuon lhe celeslial ladies broughl oul a body-lenglh
mirror and laced il in fronl of lhe !cta. On seeing his re-
eclion in lhe mirror, he hnally realized lhal he had le lhe
bhikkhu's exislence and laken rebirlh in lhe celeslial land.
The Samana deva vas greally erlurbed lhen. He reecled:
'I did nol lake u medilalion lo be reborn in lhis celeslial
land. My ob|ecl vas lo auain lhe mosl rohlable goal of Ara-
haua fruilion, bul I am nov like a boxer vho enlered lhe
boxing comelilion aiming al lhe chamionshi gold medal
bul vas avarded only a bundle of lurnis.' Ixlremely agi-
laled in mind, he lhoughl: 'The celeslial leasures are easily
auainable. The lifelime of an Inlighlened One is a rare occa-
sion. To hear lhe leaching of lhe uddha and lo auain lhe
ariqa nagga is of ulmosl imorlance. y valloving in lhe ce-
leslial leasures, lhere is lhe danger of losing lhe oorlunily
of meeling lhe uddha.' So vilhoul laking lhe lrouble of en-
lering lhe alalial building, he reaired haslily lo lhe res-
ence of lhe uddha vhile lhe reslraining si|a he had observed
as a bhikkhu slill remained inlacl. His celeslial damsels also
accomanied him as lhey vere anxious nol lo lose sighl of
him. On reaching lhe resence of lhe uddha, he addressed
him: Mosl Venerable lessed One. In vhal manner vill il
be ossible lo avoid and roceed along asl lhe Nandavana
garden olhervise knovn as lhe Mohana garden, lhe grove of
sluidily because il serves lo encourage foolish behaviour in
lhe celeslial beings vho visil il, vhere lhousands of female ce-
zo
leslial beings indulge in singing and yodelling, vhere numer-
ous demons, goblins and sirils haunl.
Here lhe deva referred lo lhe celeslial females as demons and
goblins and lo lhe Nandavana garden as lhe grove of sluid-
ily because he vas slill in a reulsive mood lovards sensual
leasures as a consequence of his inlense eorls al Viassan
medilalion. The commenlary exlanalion of lhe deva's query
as lo 'hov lo roceed' vas lhal he vas requesling lhe lessed
One for guidance on viassana vhich rovides access lo lhe
aranaua pna|a.
The uddha reecled on all lhe circumslances concerning
lhe deva and laughl him lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh in lhree
verses:
1. Ujukc nna sc nagga
a|naqa nna sa !is
rainc akujanc nna
!nannacakkcni samquic.
Oh deva, vho is anxious lo ee, lhe slraighl alh for a quick
escae is lhe Iighlfold Ialh of Viassan you had already
lrod vhile a bhikkhu.
Here, ve have given, for lhe benehl of lhe resenl audience,
lhe exlanalory meaning of lhe hrsl line in lhe verse vhich
|usl says 'lhe slraighl alh is lhal alh'. Thal bare lranslalion
vould have been quile incomrehensible lo lhis audience, bul
lo lhe !cta vho looked as if he had come slraighl from lhe
monaslery, vhere he had devoled himself lo medilalion, lhe
meaning vas quile clear.
z1
The commenlary exosilion is as follovs: On giving medila-
lion lraining lo someone nol yel eslablished in si|a, elc., lhe
lessed One alvays advised him, Iurify your si|a (moral con-
ducl), develo mindfulness and concenlralion, slraighlen oul
your vievs on kanna and ils resullanl eecls, and direcled
lhe yogi lo gel hrmly eslablished in lhese fundamenlal rac-
lices inilially. To one already engaged in medilalion, he in-
slrucled him only in viassan, lhe roximale lo lhe aranaua
nagga. The deva vas already raclising medilalion exercises
and his si|a remained unimaired. Il vas only lhe ariqa nagga
lhal he needed lo accomlish, having already develoed ils
recursor pu||a nagga tipassan Ialh. Thus, in order lo in-
slrucl him in viassan, lhe lessed One laughl him lhe lhree
verses.
In lhis commenlary exosilion, lhe facl of his si|a remaining
unimaired even aer he had assed over from a bhikkhu's
exislence lo lhal of a celeslial being, should be vell-noled. Il
means lhal having nol breached any of lhe recels such as
killing, slealing, sexual relalionshis, elc., he slill conlinued
lo mainlain his si|a. Il should be underslood, lherefore, lhal
even vilhoul lhe formal vov of keeing lhe recels, si|a re-
mains unimaired if one abslains from evil deeds vhich one
should nol commil. Il should also be noled lhal lhese verses
laughl viassan.
As ve had exlained above, 'lhe besl and slraighlesl vay
of quick escae from lhe Nandavana garden of lhe celeslial
vorld vilh ils celeslial females is lhe viassan alh vhich
he had lrod vhile he vas a hikkhu'.
zz
Regarding lhe nexl query on lhe danger-free lace of refuge, lhe
uddha said, The danger-free lace of refuge is lhal sancluary,
namely, Nibbna, vhich you had asired lo as a bhikkhu. This
means lhal he had lo slrive on unlil he auained Nibbna.
As lo vhal lye of vehicle should be emloyed lo make lhe
assage, lhe lessed One said, Ior a silenl escae vilh no
one becoming avare of il, you need a silenl carriage vhich is
lhe Viassan lvo-vheeler hued vilh lvo vheels of hysical
exerlion and menlal exerlion.
The menlal eorl involved in noling every hysical aclivily
is knovn as cciasika tiriqa (menlal exerlion). When noling lhe
bodily aclions of going, slanding, siuing, lhe hysical eorl
required lo mainlain lhe body in reseclive oslures is called
kqika tiriqa (hysical exerlion). Medilalion vhile lying dovn
involves only menlal exerlion, nol hysical exerlion. Here, as
lhe use of a lvo-vheeler vilh vheels of menlal exerlion and
hysical exerlion vas advised, il musl be laken lo mean lhe vi-
assan medilalion vhich requires heedful noling of valking,
slanding and siuing. Thus, lo ride on lhe grand carriage of
lhe tipassan nagga hued vilh lvo vheels of hysical exerlion
and menlal exerlion, ve musl be engaged in mindful noling
vhile occasionally valking u and dovn. Thal is lo say, ve
musl nole 'valking', 'raising', 'sleing forvard', 'droing' as
rescribed in lhe discourse on Saliallhna Suua, namely, gac-
cnanic t gaccnniii pajnii.
While slriving lhus, as lhe concenlralion gels slrenglhened,
lhe yogi vill come lo dislinguish vilh each noling, lhe rpa
z
vhich causes sliness and moves, from nna, lhe menlal acl
of noling il. As lhe concenlralion gels slill furlher slrenglh-
ened, lhe yogi vill come lo dislinguish lhe cause from lhe
eecl. He knovs: 'ecause of lhe inlenlion lo go, lhere a-
ears lhe hysical rocess of going, because lhere is lhe ob|ecl
lo knov, lhere is knoving. Wilh furlher rogress, lhe arising
of such a henomenon for a momenl. lhe inlenlion lo go,
lhe hysical rocess of going, lhe noling mind. folloved by
ils dissolulion is clearly erceived as if il is grased in one's
ovn hand. Il is realized lainly lhen lhal vhal arises momen-
larily only lo vanish soon is nol ermanenl, lhal vhal arises
and vanishes incessanlly is fearsome suering. The yogi vill
also comrehend clearly lhal lhe henomena are occurring
of lheir ovn accord, folloving nobody's vill and, lherefore,
anaua, nol sub|ecled lo anyone's conlrol. Then lhe heedful
noling should conlinue vhile slanding or siuing occasionally.
The silenl carriage menlioned here is a reference lo lhe horse-
dravn vehicles of ancienl days. Some carriages are by lhem-
selves noiseless, bul vhen burdened vilh many assengers
or heavy loads, are liable lo roduce creaky sounds. Hovever,
lhe 'nagga vehicle' is able lo carry an unlimiled number of
assengers vilhoul roducing any sound. Somelimes, vhile
lislening lo lhe leachings of lhe uddha, assengers number-
ing eighly-four lhousand rode on lhis 'nagga vehicle', iloled
by 'tipassan nagga' vhich lransorled lhem noiselessly lo
lheir hnal deslinalion, Nibbna. Thus lhis carriage vas ad-
mired as a noiseless vehicle. Inlimalion vas in lhis vay given
by lhe uddha lo lhe deva lhal il vould be ossible lo make
z
his silenl escae, vilhoul leuing lhe celeslial females knov,
by means of lhis lransorl.
z. Hiri iassa apa|an|c, saiqassa paritaranam,
!nannanam sarainim |quni, sann!iiini purc jatam.
Hiri, sense of shame and horror of commiuing evil deeds,
serves as lhe leaning board of seals on lhe carriage vilhoul
vhich assengers are liable lo fall backvards vhen lhe car-
riage moves. The 'nagga vehicle' has excellenl leaning boards
of niri and cuappa.
The medilaling yogi feels reulsed and horrihed al lhe ossi-
ble arising of unvholesome lhoughls concerning some ob|ecls
vhich he may have missed in his heedful noling. Il is like
lhe revulsion one feels lovards coming inlo conlacl vilh hllh
aer having a nice, clean balh. The conscienlious concern (so-
licilude) for non-arising of unvholesome lhoughls and revul-
sion lovards lhem is lermed niri or olhervise sense of shame.
There is also fear of unvholesome lhoughls leading lo evil
aclions vhich vill yield unvholesome resullanl eecls, and
hinder escae from samsra (lhe cycle of exislences). This fear
of evil deeds and ils unvholesome consequences is lermed
cuappa.
ecause of lhis sense of shame (niri) and fear of evil deeds
(cuappa), lhe yogi devoles himself in a reverenlial auilude lo lhe
lask of noling every hysical and menlal henomenon vilhoul
missing any. In lhis vay, nagga alh is kel develoing vilh
each assing momenl. This is like lhe manner in vhich lhe
leaning boards of lhe carriage revenl lhe assengers from fall-
zj
ing backvards, mainlaining lhem in lheir osilions. Thal is lhe
reason vhy lhe lessed One had lermed niri and cuappa as lhe
leaning boards of lhe tipassan nagga vehicle.
Then lhe lessed One venl on lo exlain hov mindfulness
is like lhe covering draery or lhe avning of lhe nagga vehi-
cle. In lhe same vay, lhe shielding avning hued lo a carriage
guards againsl lhe danger of slones or slicks being lhrovn in.
Mindfulness of every menlal and hysical henomenon, as il
arises, kees oneself secure from lhe danger of demerilorious
deeds. Therefore, lhe four foundalions of mindfulness such
as lhe conlemlalion of lhe body, elc., are lermed lhe covering
draery of lhe nagga vehicle.
The lessed One conlinued: I call lhe righl viev erlaining
lo ariqa nagga 'ariqa nagga sann!iiini', receded by tipassan
sann!iiini (lhe righl viev erlaining lo viassan) lhe driver
of lhe carriage.
Of lhe six kinds of righl vievs, namely, kannasakaia sann!i-
iini, jnna sann!iiini, tipassan sann!iiini, nagga sann!i-
iini, pna|a sann!iiini and paccatckknan sann!iiini, lhe righl
viev concerning lhe Iruilion (pna|a sann!iiini) is lhe resul-
lanl eecl of lhe nagga. Similarly, paccatckknan sann!iiini
(lhe righl viev concerning recollecledness) is lhe reeclive
knovledge vhich aears aer auainmenl of lhe Ialh and
Iruilion. Therefore, il needs no arlicular eorl lo develo il.
Kannassakaia sann!iiini (lhe righl viev concerning kanna
and ils eecl) has lo be eslablished even before one slarls lhe
raclice of medilalion. The righl viev concerning jnna is re-
z6
laled lo lhe urihcalion of mind vhich is lhe base for tipas-
san. Thus, lhe roximale knovledge vhich has lo be devel-
oed for lhe romolion of righl viev concerning lhe ariqa
nagga is lhe righl viev concerning tipassan. When lhe tipas-
san knovledge is fully develoed, knovledge of ariqa nagga,
olhervise called lhe righl viev concerning lhe nagga, arises
sonlaneously. Il is |usl like a royal rocession coming along
aer lhe roads have been cleared by lhe olice and mililary es-
corls. Therefore, il is said lhal tipassan sann!iiini roceeds,
folloved by ariqa sann!iiini. While engaged in Viassan
medilalion, tipassan na leads lhe vay for lhe develomenl
of olher maggas. Al lhe momenl of auainmenl of ariqa nagga,
nagga na gives lhe lead lo olher maggas. Ior lhis reason, lhe
uddha had called lhe tipassan sann!iiini and ariqa nagga
sann!iiini, lhe drivers of lhe carriage.
The lasl verse runs as follovs:
. Yassa cia!isanqanam, |uniqa purisassa t,
sa tc cicna, qancna ni||nasscta saniikc.
'Any voman or man ossessing lhis eighlfold nagga
vehicle can gel lo lhe resence of Nibbna by means
of lhe vehicle.'
In accordance vilh lhis lasl verse, lhe ovner of lhe eighlfold
nagga vehicle, irreseclive of sex, is dehnilely bound lo 'reach'
Nibbna. So il is very clear lhal anyone desirous of reaching
Nibbna musl develo ariqa nagga based on lhe tipassan
nagga.
z;
Il is common knovledge lhal in lhis mundane vorld, lhe
ovner of some form of lransorl is able lo reach lhe required
deslinalion by using il. Hovever, |usl having lhe knovledge
of lhe mechanism of lhe lransorl vilhoul aclually ossess-
ing il vill nol gel anyone anyvhere. Likevise, by |usl knov-
ing hov lo enumerale lhe various lyes of rpas and nnas,
or lhe dierenl kinds of naggas, no one can reach Nibbna. Il
musl be dehnilely noled lhal only by coming inlo ossession
of lhe tipassan nagga vehicle lhrough conlemlalion of lhe
aclual arising and dissolulion of nna and rpa and riding on
lhe carriage of lhe Iighlfold Ialh, can one reach Nibbna. The
lhree verses exlained above are summarised as follovs:
1. The slraighl alh is nagga, lhe deslinalion is Nibbna,
free from danger.
z. Iiued vilh lvo vheels of energelic eorls, lhe nagga
carriage is silenl.
. Hiri and cuappa serve as lhe leaning board vhile
mindfulness forms lhe draery and avnings of lhe
carriage.
. Magga na receded by tipassan na is lhe driver
of lhe carriage.
j. Ovners of such a carriage may be eilher men or
vomen.
6. One may ride comforlably in il lo reach Nibbna.
Aer leaching lhe lhree verses, lhe uddha also gave lhe dis-
course on lhe Iour Noble Trulhs vhich ve shall discuss again
vhen ve come lo lhe seclion on lhe Trulh of lhe alh, nagga
sacc.
z8
The deva Sumana, vhile lislening lo lhe discourse, reecled
on lhe medilalion raclices of his former exislence. Allhough
he had nol been able lo auain lo higher knovledge as a bhik-
khu in sile of slrenuous eorls al medilalion, in lhe exis-
lence of a deva vhose hysical body vas free from imurilies,
in no lime he vas able lo develo successive tipassan nas
sle by sle unlil he auained lhe Ialh and Iruilion of lhe
hrsl slage and realized Nibbna, lhus becoming a sciapanna
(slream-vinner).
The main oinl vhich lhis slory of Sumana deva has broughl
home is lhal allhough lhe bhikkhu had been engaged ar-
denlly in viassana medilalion, as ariqa nagga, vhich could
cul o lhe iann had nol yel been auained, lhis iann, olher-
vise called sanu!aqa sacc, had aer dealh caused rebirlh in
lhe nev exislence of a celeslial being. The slory also oinled
oul hov ariqa nagga could be develoed and hov as a deva
higher knovledge could be auained vilh ease.
Anolher oinl broughl oul in lhe slory is lhal if auachmenl
lingers on in an individual or an ob|ecl, |nata iann (craving
for exislence) is likely lo cause rebirlh in lhe vicinily of such
a erson or ob|ecl. Hov auachmenl lo an ob|ecl vill lead lo
reneved exislence in close roximily lo il is borne oul by lhe
vell-knovn slory of hikkhu Tissa vho died vilh greal crav-
ing for his robes and consequenlly vas reborn in lhe form of
a body louse on lhose very robes.
Nov ve shall deal vilh lhe accounl of hov auachmenl lo
one's vife had caused rebirlh as a snake, a dog and a cov.
z
Aff~cnVrNf To Wrrr Lr~ns To Rrirrfns
As A SN~kr, A Doc, Or A Cow
There lived in a village in Sri Lanka, a man vho vas mis-
behaving vilh lhe vife of his elder brolher. The voman
vas more assionalely auached lo her aramour lhan lo her
lavful husband. She, lherefore, insligaled her lover lo gel rid
of his elder brolher. The man remonslraled, Woman! Don'l
ever lalk like lhal, bul aer she had reealed her evil sugges-
lions for lhree limes, lhe lover asked, Hov vould I go aboul
il` She relied, You go vilh an axe and vail for him al lhe
riverside near lhe big caer lree. I'll send him lhere. There-
uon, lhe man roceeded lhere and lay in vail for his elder
brolher, hiding amongsl lhe branches of lhe lree.
When lhe husband came back from vork in lhe foresl, lhe
vife made a shov of loving aeclion for him and fondly
brushing his hair said, Your hair needs cleaning, il is loo
dirly. Why nol go and shamoo il al lhe riverside near lhe big
caer lree` Hay vilh lhe lhoughl 'my vife is very lender
vilh her aeclions for me', he venl accordingly lo lhe balh-
ing lace al lhe riverside. He vas rearing lo vash his hair,
bending his head dovn, vhen his younger brolher came oul
from lhe hiding lace and cruelly choed his head o vilh
lhe axe.
ecause of lhe clinging auachmenl lo his vife, he vas reborn
a green snake (a ral snake, according lo Sri Lankan scholars).
Slill auached lo his vife, lhe snake look lo droing himself
dovn from lhe roof of lhe house uon lhe voman. Realizing
zo
lhal lhe snake musl have been her former husband, she caused
il lo be killed and removed. Iven aer assing avay from lhe
snake's exislence, his auachmenl for his former vife slill re-
mained slrong and he vas reborn a dog in his old house. As
a dog he vas slill clinging lo his former vife, folloving her
everyvhere even vhen she venl lo lhe foresl. Ieole made
derisive remarks, 'The hunler voman vilh lhe dog is going
oul. Wonder vhere she is headed for`' The voman asked her
lover again lo kill lhe dog.
His auachmenl slill inlense and ersisling, lhe dog vas reborn
a calf in lhe same house. The young calf also folloved her
everyvhere, draving laughler and ridicule from lhe eole
again, 'Look, lhe covherd has come oul. Wonder vhich as-
lure her caule are going lo graze in` Again lhe voman asked
her man lo kill lhe young calf, bul his lenacious auachmenl
lo his vife caused rebirlh again, lhis lime in her vomb.
In lhe human vorld vhich he regained, he vas born endoved
vilh jiissara na (facully of recalling revious exislences). Ix-
ercising lhis facully, he venl over lhe asl four exislences and
vas greally dislressed vhen he came lo knov lhal lhey vere
all lerminaled al lhe insislence of his former vife. Whal an
irony lo have laken rebirlh in lhe vomb of such an enemy,
he lamenled.
He vould nol lel his molher, lhe enemy, louch him. When-
ever lhe molher lried lo hold him, lhe baby cried vociferously.
So lhe grandfalher had lo lake over lhe lask of bringing u
z1
lhe child. When lhe child reached lhe age vhen he could
seak, lhe grandfalher asked him, My dear child, vhy do
you cry vhen your molher lries lo hold you` This voman
is no molher lo me. She is my enemy vho killed me in four
successive exislences. So saying, he recounled lo his grand-
falher lhe slory of his revious lives. On hearing lhis sad
lale, lhe old man vel embracing lhe child and said, Come,
my oor grandchild, lel us gel avay. I see no gain in slaying
here. They venl avay and slayed in a monaslery vhere bolh
of lhem received ordinalion and in lime, lhrough raclice of
medilalion, vere able lo auain aranaua alh and fruilion and
gained Arahalshi.
The moral lo be dravn from lhis eisode is lhal auachmenl
gives rise lo reealed nev exislence al lhe very localion of lhal
auachmenl. This slory clearly bears oul lhe lrulh of lhe leach-
ing, pcnc|natik, 'auachmenl brings aboul fresh exislences'.
Aer lhe exislences of a snake, a dog, a calf, and meeling vio-
lenl dealh in each, in lhe lasl life of a human being vhen he
auained Arahalshi, lhe iann vas comlelely exlinguished.
There vould be no more rebirlh for him and he vould be free
from all forms of suering.
Il vould be vell lo lake lo hearl lhe moral of lhis slory and
slrive for freedom from all suering lhrough lhe raclice of
viassana medilalion. There vould be no end of quoling simi-
lar slories from lhe Ili lexls and commenlaries. Lel us nov
come lo lhe exeriences and eisodes mel vilh in modern
limes.
zz
A Dn~VV~-Tr~cnrNc S~v~n~w
Irom 1z1 lo 1o1 n.i. ve vere residenl al Taikvine monaslery
of Moulmein. Al lhal lime lhere vas a dhamma-reaching
Saydav of greal reule. Al lhe lradilional feeding ceremony,
a veek aer lhe dealh of a lavyer donor of his, he gave lhe fol-
loving sermon al lhe meril-sharing service for lhe dearled
one.
This life of mine is lransilory, bul my dealh is lruly erma-
nenl. I musl die inevilably. My life vill end only in dealh. Life
alone is imermanenl, dealh, on lhe olher hand, is dehnilely
slable, ermanenl.
This conlemlalion on dealh vas used as lhe lheme of his
sermon. We vere resenl on lhe occasion of lhal ceremony
and had heard his sermon ersonally. Wilhin a fev days
aer lhis evenl, ve heard lhe sad nevs of lhe demise of lhe
dhamma-reaching Saydav. We had lhoughl lhen lhal he
vould have assed avay conlemlaling on dealh as he had
reached only a fev days ago. We heard lhal lhe Saydav
had mel a violenl dealh al lhe hands of assassins vho had
slabbed him vilh a dagger.
Aboul lhree years laler, a cerlain young boy from Mergui
came lo Moulmein accomanied by his arenls. He had been
vorrying his arenls, asking lhem lo lake him lo Moulmein.
On arriving al lhe monaslery of lhe former Saydav, lhe boy
informed his arenls lhal in his revious exislence he vas
lhe residing Saydav of lhal monaslery. He could lell every
lhing aboul lhe monaslery and vhalever he said vas found
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lo be lrue. He remembered all lhe leading monks from lhe
nearby monasleries and addressed lhem by names he had
used lo call lhem reviously.
When lhe name of a cerlain man, a close discile of lhe lale
Saydav, vas menlioned, lhe boy relied, Afraid, afraid.
When queslioned vhal he vas afraid of, he recounled hov
lhal man in associalion vilh some ersons had slabbed him
lo dealh, hov he had run avay from lhem, and coming lo lhe
river bank and hnding a boal, he made his escae riding on
lhe boal. Laler, arriving al lhe village on lhe Mergui coasl, he
said he enlered lhe house of his resenl arenls.
The visions he sav of hov he had ed from his assassins, hov
he found a boal on lhe river bank, hov he look a ride on il
and came lo lhe house of his arenls, vere all gaii niniuas
(signs of desliny) vhich had aeared lo him al lhe aroach
of dealh. This is also a nolable incidenl vhich conhrms lhe
facl lhal auachmenl brings forlh nev exislence.
BorN A Burr~io For Tnr SuV Or Forfv Kv~fs?
In a cerlain lovn in Monyva dislricl, lhere lived a man vho
vas engaged in lhe business of money-lending during lhe
rilish regime. He asked for lhe relurn of a loan from a cer-
lain farmer vho relied he had already reaid lhe money he
had borroved. The moneylender reealedly insisled lhal lhe
farmer had nol yel reaid lhe loan. Iinally, he declared, May
I become a bualo in your house if I had really asked for a
double aymenl of lhe forly kyals vhich you said you had
z
already relurned. Wilh lhis oalh, he ressed again for lhe
relurn of his loan. The oor farmer vas lhus forced lo make
knovingly a double seulemenl of lhe loan he had laken.
Soon aer, lhe moneylender assed avay. And lhere vas born
in lhe house of lhe farmer, vho had made a double aymenl
of his loan, a young bualo. Guessing lhal lhe moneylender
had made a rebirlh in his house as a bualo, lhe oor farmer
called oul lo lhe young bualo, Say, Say, lease come,' in
lhe same vay he used lo address lhe old moneylender. The
young bualo ansvered his call and came lo him. elieving
nov lhal lhe old moneylender had really become a bualo
in his house according lo his oalh, lhe farmer slarled lo lalk
aboul lhis incidenl. Thereuon, lhe daughler of lhe dearled
moneylender venl lo courl suing lhe oor farmer for defam-
ing her falher.
The |udge vho heard lhe case senl for lhe aellanl, lhe defen-
danl and lhe young bualo logelher vilh vilnesses for bolh
sides. In lhe courl, lhe farmer called oul 'Saya, Saya, lease
come' lo lhe bualo in lhe same vay he used lo address lhe
moneylender. The bualo resonded lo his call by coming lo
him. The moneylender's daughler used lo address her falher
as 'Shi, Shi'. In lhe courl vhen she said 'Shi, Shi', lhe bualo
venl lo her. The |udge came lo lhe conclusion lhal lhe oor
farmer vas making an honesl slalemenl (vilhoul any inlen-
lion of defamalion) and accordingly discharged lhe case.
Irom lhis slory il is nol hard lo believe lhal a human being
may be reborn a bualo. Il is lain, lherefore, lhal iann vill
zj
cause rebirlh. Il should be observed also lhal svearing a false
oalh is liable lo land one in dire calamily.
Nc~ Nvo's SV~ii Mr~surr Or Rrcr
There vas a village of aboul oo houses called Chaungyo, len
miles norlh-vesl of Taungdvingyi. Tvo young men of lhe vil-
lage, Nga Nyo and a Saing, vho vere friends, earned lheir
living by going around villages selling belel leaves. Coming
back one day from lhe rounds, a Saing vas shorl of rice. He
borroved a small measure of rice from Nga Nyo lo cook his
dinner. Aer dinner, vhile lhey made lheir vay back lo lhe
village leisurely in lhe moonlil nighl, oor a Saing vas biuen
by a oisonous snake and mel inslanl dealh. Il vas somelime
belveen 1z;o and 1z8o n.i. vhen lhe lvo friends vere aboul
lhe age of lvenly or so.
Irobably because he clung lo lhe lhoughl of lhe loan of lhe
small measure of rice, al lhe lime of his dealh, he vas born
a cockerel in Nga Nyo's house. Nga Nyo lrained il lo become
a hghling cock and enlered il in hghling comelilions. The
hrsl lhree comelilions vere von by Nga Nyo's cock, vhich
unforlunalely losl lhe fourlh hghl because ils oonenl ha-
ened lo be older and slronger lhan ilself. Nga Nyo exressed
his disaoinlmenl and anger by holding his cock by ils leg
and lhrashing il againsl lhe ground. ringing lhe half-dead
cock home, he lhrev il dovn near lhe valer-ol vhere Nga
Nyo's cov came and louched il vilh her lis (as if exressing
her symalhy).
z6
The oor cock died aervards and look concelion in lhe
vomb of lhe cov. When lhe calf had grovn u considerably,
il vas boughl for four kyals by his friends for a feasl vhich
Nga Nyo vould also |oin. While lhey vere bulchering lhe
calf and cuuing u lhe meal in rearalion for lheir feasl, a
coule from Taungdvingyi, a clerk and his vife, haened lo
arrive on lhe scene. Ixressing her symalhy for lhe calf, lhe
clerk's vife said, If il vere my calf, I vouldn'l have lrealed il
so cruelly. Iven if il had died a nalural dealh, I vouldn'l have
lhe hearl lo eal ils esh. I vould |usl bury il.
Somelime aervards, a son vas born lo lhe clerk's vife. The
child remained vilhoul seech lill he vas seven vhen, one
day his falher lold him, Son, do uuer some vords and lalk lo
us. Today is ayday. I'll buy and bring back some nice clolhes
for you. Keeing his romise, lhe falher came back in lhe eve-
ning vilh some reuy garmenls for his son. He said, Here,
Son, lhese beauliful clolhes are for you. Do seak lo us nov.
The boy lhen uuered, Nga Nyo's measure of rice.
The falher said, Son, |usl lalk lo us. Nol only a measure, bul a
vhole bag of rice ve vill ay back lhe loan for you. There-
uon lhe boy said, If so, ul lhe bag of rice on lhe carl. We
vill go nov lo seule my debl. Aer uuing a bag of rice on
lhe carl, lhey sel o on lheir |ourney. The falher asked lhe
son, Nov, vhere lo` The child direcled his falher lo drive
lovards lhe norlh of Taungdvingyi. Ivenlually lhey came lo
Chaungyo village vhen lhe son said, Thal's il. Thal's lhe vil-
lage, and kel direcling his falher lhrough lhe village lanes
z;
unlil lhey came lo Nga Nyo's house. Uon enquiring vhelher
il vas indeed U Nyo's house, U Nyo himself conhrmed il by
coming oul from lhe house. As he aroached lhe carl, lhe
child hailed him, Hey Nga Nyo, do you slill remember me`
The elderly man vas oended lo be rudely addressed as 'Nga
Nyo' by a mere child, lhe age of his son, bul became acihed
vhen lhe clerk exlained, saying, Ilease do nol be oended,
U Nyo. This child is under some slrange circumslances.
When lhey gol inlo lhe house, lhe boy began, So, Nga Nyo,
you don'l remember me` We vere once logelher going round
lhe villages selling belel leaves. I borroved a small measure
of rice from you. Then I vas biuen by a oisonous snake and
died before I could relurn lhe loan. I lhen became a cockerel
in your house. Aer vinning lhree hghls for you, I losl lhe
fourlh hghl because my oonenl vas much slronger lhan
I vas. Ior losing lhal hghl, you beal me lo dealh in anger.
Half dead, you lhrev me dovn near lhe valer ol and a cov
came and kissed me. I look concelion in her vomb and vas
reborn a cov. When I became a heifer, you all killed me lo
eal. Al lhal lime a clerk and his vife, vho are nov my falher
and molher, came nearby and had exressed symalhy for
me. Aer my dealh as a cov, I vas born as a son lo my res-
enl falher and molher. I have nov come lo reay my debl of
lhe measure of rice.
All lhal lhe child recounled vas found lo be lrue by U Nyo
vho vel, feeling reenlanl for all lhe ill-lrealmenl he had
meled oul lo his former friend.
z8
Wilh lhis slory ve vanl lo slress again lhal unless iann has
been rooled oul, reealed rebirlhs in nev exislences are un-
avoidable.
Trrrriir Lrrr Now As A DrVoN, Now As A Cow
Aboul 1oo n.i., lhere vas residenl in lhe Iaygyi monaslery of
Mandalay a sludenl bhikkhu called U An Seinna. He vas of
good build, clear comlexion and full of failh in lhe dhamma.
He vas a good sludenl, loo, devoling himself vholehearledly
lo lhe sludy of Iilaka lileralure. One day, vhile vashing lhe
almsbovl he addressed his colleagues, I urge you lo lake
care, Revered sirs, lo be of good behaviour vhile you are
living on lhe almsfood of lhe donors. I am living a heedful
life, having had lhe ersonal exeriences of lhree exislences.
One of his colleagues vas curious and asked him aboul
his revious lives. He recounled lhus, I assed avay from
human life lo become a female demon. I suered lerribly in
lhal life, having scarcely anylhing lo eal, no decenl lace lo
live in, roaming here and lhere lo look for a resling lace.
Irom a female demon, I became a draughl cov. I vas herded
inlo lhe same en vilh a leam male, vhose noslrils vere run-
ning vilh ulrid nasal uid. As ils nasal smell vas becom-
ing unbearable, I goaded il lo kee il avay from me and lhe
ovner beal me u lhinking I vas bullying lhe olher caule,
domineering over il. When I assed avay from lhal exislence,
I regained human life and becoming agilaled vilh religious
emolion, have nov laken lo lhe life of a bhikkhu.
z
This slory also serves lo emhasise lhe facl lhal as long as
iann ersisls, rebirlh is inevilable. Il also shovs vhal a hor-
rible life is lhal of demon and hov, handicaed by lhe in-
abilily lo communicale, a cov is liable lo be misunderslood
by man and could be sub|ecled lo mallrealmenl consequenlly.
These accounls should serve lo cause lerror and incile reli-
gious emolions in us.
Rrc~rNrNc HuV~N Lrrr Arfrr BrrNc A Cow ANn A Doc
Aboul 11o n.i. lhe head Saydav of a village monaslery in
Monyv dislricl vas shol lo dealh by a rebel leader vho ac-
cused lhe Sayadav of 'ill-lrealing' his underling. The Saydav
is nov in human exislence, a bhikkhu again. We hear lhal he
had even assed some of lhe scrilural examinalions. This
bhikkhu recounled, I became a cov aer being shol lo dealh,
lhen a dog and nov a human being again. To go dovn from
lhe level of a bhikkhu in human life lo lhal of a cov, a dog, is
very degrading, If iann remains uneradicaled, il is ossible lo
go dovn lhe ladder of exislence furlher slill. There is lhe in-
slance of hikkhu Tissa vho became a body louse in lhe lime
of lhe uddha. Thus realizing lhal anyone vilh iann remain-
ing uneradicaled (!iiini and ticikiccn also slill inlacl) is liable
lo be sub|ecled lo rebirlhs, il is essenlial lo slrive for comlele
eradicalion of iann or in lhe very leasl, lo vork for elimina-
lion of !iiini and ticikiccn.
zjo
EvrN Rrirrfn As A CrowrNc Lrz~rn Is Possriir
In aboul 1z n.i. lhere aeared in Iha Aung We village near
Daik-u, a slrange young child vho said lhal he vas revi-
ously lhe residing monk of lhe Yv Waing village aboul lvo
miles avay. The child vas inlelligenl vilh a good relenlive
memory. When laken lo lhe monaslery vhich he said he vas
residenl in, he aeared lo knov all lhe arlicles in lhe build-
ing and vas able lo idenlify each ob|ecl by recalling lhe name
of ils donor. Whal he said vas found lo be all lrue. He said
he had become a croving lizard in lhe monaslery vhen he
died as lhe residing monk. As lhe croving lizard, he mel
his dealh vhen he leal across from lhe monaslery lo a alm
lree nearby. He missed lhe lree and fell lo lhe ground break-
ing his lhigh. The in|ury caused him dealh. When he died, he
rode along on lhe carl of a farmer from Iha Aung village vho
had his held near his monaslery and slayed in lhe house of
lhe farmer. Whal he said aboul riding on lhe carl vas lhe a-
earance of gaii niniua, sign of desliny as dealh aroached.
This slory should also cause lhe realizalion lhal vilh iann
slill lingering, fresh exislence could arise and laking frighl
from lhis realizalion, one should develo ariqa nagga lo rid
oneself of iann. The reason vhy ve bring oul lhese eviden-
lial slories of modern limes is because lhere are some eole
vho mainlain lhal lhere is no such lhing as aerlife. Some are
undecided and erlexed, nol being able lo conclude vhelher
lhere is aerlife or nol. In sile of clear accounls of reneved
exislences in lhe scrilural lileralure, many are scelical of
zj1
vhal vas vriuen of ancienl limes. In order lo rovoke failh
in kanna and ils resullanl eecls and belief in aerlife and
lo remain sleady vilh such conviclion, ve have broughl oul
lhese slories. Similar slories abound, vhich ve can roduce,
bul enough has been said lo accomlish our aim.
As slaled above, because iann can cause rebirlhs, lhe lessed
One had laughl, This hunger, lhis lhirsl, lhe craving gives
rise lo fresh rebirlh and bound u vilh leasure and lusl,
hnds ever fresh delighl nov here, nov lhere. He also gave
lhe enuncialion of lhis iann. Whal is lhis craving` Iirslly,
lhere is lhis lhirsling desire for sensual leasures. Secondly,
lhere is auachmenl lo lhe belief of elernalily. Thirdly, lhere is
holding onlo lhe viev lhal lhere is nolhing aer life. These
lhree lyes of craving are lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering.
K4V~ T~Nn4
Of lhese lhree lyes, kna iann is craving for leasurable
sense-ob|ecls, vhelher one's ovn or belonging lo olher er-
sons. Craving vhich arises on seeing a beauliful ob|ecl of
sighl is kna iann. Here, ob|ecl of sighl relales nol only lo a-
earance, colour, elc., bul lo lhe vhole form or body of man
or voman vhich serves as lhe basis of lhe sighl, lhe clolhes
vorn and olher ob|ecls erlaining lo him or her. Likevise,
leasurable sound and sound ob|ecls, delighlful smell and ils
source, delicious lasle and food roducing lhe lasle, men and
vomen vho reare and serve lhe delicious food, laclile sen-
salions of ralure and ob|ecls roducing such sensalions all
zjz
lhese conslilule ob|ecls of leasure, and craving for lhem is
lermed kna iann. In shorl:
1. !csirc cr crating jcr anq p|casura||c scnsc c|jcci is kna
iann.
Wishing lo be born a human being, a celeslial being, vishing
lo be born a man or a voman, longing lo en|oy lhe sensual
leasures as a human being, as a celeslial being, as a man or a
voman all lhese cravings are also kna iann. Therefore, ve
say lhal laking delighl in any leasurable lhoughl or ob|ecl is
kna iann.
On seeing, hearing, smelling, lasling, or louching a sense
ob|ecl, if one considers il lo be leasanl, a liking is al once
develoed for il. Thinking il lo be leasanl amounls lo atpj,
vhich covers u lhe lrue nalure of lhe sense ob|ecl and gives
rise lo false vievs aboul il. Atpj lakes vhal is lransilory lo be
ermanenl, vhal is suering because of incessanl arising and
vanishing, lo be leasanl, lakes mere hysical and menlal he-
nomena vhich are nol soul nor living enlily as soul or living
enlily, considers one's ovn hysical body or olher eole's
bodies vhich are reulsive and disgusling as beauleous and
leasing.
Thus lhinking vhal is unleasanl lo be leasanl, liking is de-
veloed for il, and liking il and desiring il lead lo craving
vhich drives one inlo aclivilies for lhe fulhlmenl of lhal crav-
ing. Such volilional aclivilies are lhe kannas and sanknras
vhich are resonsible for formalion of nev aggregales of
nna and rpa of lhe nev exislence. As such, each inslance of
zj
liking or desiring a sense ob|ecl amounls lo venluring inlo a
nev round of becoming.
Inuenced by lhe iann, a|nisanknra consciousness, olhervise
called narana sa jatana lenaciously holds onlo lhe kanna,
kanna niniua or gaii niniua, lhe lhree signs vhich aear as
dealh aroaches. ecause of lhis lenacious clinging lo lhe
ob|ecls seen al dealh's door, lhe momenl aer dealh conscious-
ness vanishes, paii san!nc (relinking consciousness) arises hold-
ing onlo lhe lasl seen ob|ecls lo give rise lo nev birlh. Hence,
lhis iann is described as pcnc|natik. liable lo give rise lo
nev birlh.
Bn~v~ T~Nn4
According lo lhe Commenlary, |nata iann is lhe iann lhal is
accomanied by sassaia !iiini (vrong viev of elernalism). Here,
|nata means becoming or being. Hence, |nata iann is craving
based on lhe belief in lhe ermanence and slabilily of exis-
lence. Sassaia !iiini is holding lo lhe vrong viev lhal lhe soul
or lhe living enlily does nol die or dissolve avay allhough
lhe coarse hysical body erishes, lhe soul, lhe living enlily
is nol sub|ecled lo dissolulion. Il enlers inlo a nev body and
remains lhere. Iven if lhe vorld crumbles and breaks u, il
remains elernally ermanenl and never erishes.
Religious failhs oulside of lhe leachings of lhe uddha moslly
hold lhis viev of elernalism. Some of lhem believe lhal, aer
dealh, man remains ermanenlly in heaven or suers elernal
damnalion in hell according lo God's vish. Olhers lake lhe
zj
viev lhal a being migrales from one exislence lo anolher ac-
cording lo kanna and exisls ermanenlly. And again, olhers
believe lhal a being exisls elernally changing from one life lo
anolher on a rescribed sel course.
In shorl, any belief lhal holds lhe viev lhal 'soul or living
enlily moves on vilhoul dissolulion lo nev exislences' is sas-
saia !iiini, vrong belief of elernalism. Ior inslance, a bird on a
lree ies avay lo anolher lree vhen lhe hrsl lree falls. When
lhe second lree falls, il ies lo a lhird lree. Likevise, lhe soul
or living enlily, on lhe dissolulion of a gross body or form on
vhich il is deendenl, moves on lo anolher coarse body, ilself
remaining everlasling, cannol be deslroyed.
Tann accomanied by lhe vrong viev of elernalism is lermed
|nata iann (craving for exislence). This iann lakes delighl in
lhe viev lhal lhe soul or living enlily is ermanenl, enduring.
This 'I', vhich has been in ermanenl exislence since elernily,
feels lhe sensalions and vill conlinue feeling lhem. elieving
lhus, il lakes delighl in every ob|ecl seen, heard, louched or
knovn and also in lhe ob|ecls vhich one hoes lo come lo
en|oy in lhe fulure. Il vishes lo en|oy a roserous hay life
nov and in lhe fulure, lo be born in good, hay exislences,
vanls lo en|oy in lhe coming exislences lhe rich life of human
or celeslial beings. Some vish lo be born alvays a man, some
a voman. All lhese are |nata iann.
Ivery lime craving arises for sense ob|ecls vhich are res-
enlly available or for lhe exislence one is in nov, or in look-
ing forvard lo lhe exislence one vishes lo be in, because of
zjj
lhis iann, a condilioning inuence or olenlial over is being
buill u for lhe arising of a nev life. Thal is vhy lhe uddha
laughl pcnc|natik. liable lo give rise lo nev birlh. We have
summarised lhus:
z. Crating jcr cxisicncc uiin inc nciicn inai ii is cicrna| is
|nata iann.
Vrin~v~ T~Nn4
In lhe lerm ti|nata iann, ti|nata means non-becoming, non-
being, annihilalion of exislence. Craving for lhe viev 'lhal
lhere is exislence only vhile alive, lhal lhere is nolhing aer
dealh', is lermed ti|nata iann. This is lhe iann vhich is ac-
comanied by lhe vrong viev of non-exislence (uccnc!a !iiini)
vhich holds lhal 'nolhing remains aer dealh, lhere is com-
lele annihilalion'. Il is lhe doclrine reached by A|ila, lhe
leader of a secl during lhe uddha's lime. His leaching runs
lhus:
An individual is made u of lhe four Greal Irimary elemenls.
When he dies, lhe earlh elemenl of his body goes inlo lhe
mass of lhe earlh elemenl lhal exisls in lhe inanimale exler-
nal bodies. (Whal lhis means is: The elemenl of earlh vhich
had manifesled ilself as hardness or coarseness vhile in lhe
living body, merges ilself vilh lhe inanimale exlernal earlh
elemenl, lhe earlh elemenl of lhe dead body. In lime, il lurns
inlo malerial earlh (painati rpa) vhich is again converled inlo
lhe earlh elemenl of lrees and lanls, elc.)
zj6
The valer elemenl of lhe living body ovs inlo lhe inanimale
mass of valer (lhal is lo say lhe velness or uidily of lhe
dead becomes lhe moislure or uidily of lhe mass of valer).
The hre elemenl of lhe living body merges vilh lhe mass of in-
animale exlernal heal and lhe living air elemenl ovs inlo lhe
mass of inanimale exlernal air. All knoving facullies (organs
of senses: eyes, ears, nose, longue, elc.) move over inlo sace
(Nihilisls holding lhe uccnc!a viev do nol recognise searale
exislence of eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, elc. They
hold lhe viev lhal lhe malerial forms of lhe eye, ear, elc., lhem-
selves see, hear, lasle, louch, elc. Mana, olhervise called lhe
in!riqa, ilself lhinks. They exlain lhe cessalion of conscious-
ness in lerms of lhe six facullies of sense vhich, according lo
lhem, merge vilh sace or disaear inlo sace.)
e he a fool or a vise man, vhen he dies he comlelely disa-
ears. Nolhing is le aer dealh. The fool does nol suer in
a nev exislence for his asl misdeeds. The vise man does nol
gel a nev exislence in vhich he en|oys lhe fruils of his good
kannas. Aer dealh everylhing disaears.
These, lhen, are some of lhe leachings of A|ila, vho holds
lhe viev of nihilism. This ideology may be readily acceled
by lhose vho are reluclanl lo avoid evil or lo do good. As
il is oslulaled by lhis ideology lhal lhere is no life, nolhing
exisls aer dealh, il amounls lo lhe admission lhal lhere is
life before dealh. This queslion may arise lhen: Whal is lhal
lhal exisls before dealh` The ansver according lo lheir line of
reasoning could only be lhal il is lhe living self (aua) or being
zj;
(saua). Thus, allhough A|ila mainlained lhal an individual is
made u of lhe four greal rimaries, il musl be said lhal for
him, aua or saua exisls. ecause of lhis auachmenl lo self, hold-
ers of lhis viev argue lhal inslead of vasling lime in doing
good deeds for lhe forlhcoming exislences, full oorlunily
should be laken of lhe resenl momenl for lhe en|oymenl of
leasures. The craving accomanied by lhis nihilislic viev
lhal nolhing remains aer dealh, everylhing is deslroyed, is
lermed ti|nata iann. To summarise:
. Crating unicn ariscs acccnpanic! |q nini|isiic ticu is
ti|nata iann.
This ti|nata iann likes lhe idea lhal aer dealh, exislence
is annihilaled vilhoul any secial eorl. The reason is lhal
one vho holds lhis viev shrinks from lhe raclice of meri-
lorious deeds and does nol abslain from doing evil deeds.
The evil deeds commiued are also innumerable. If nev life
occurs aer dealh, lhese evil deeds vill bear unvholesome
fruils vhich, of course, lhey cannol relish. Only if nolhing
haens aer dealh and lhere is no nev exislence, lheir mis-
deeds vill be exunged, lhey vill have lo bear no resonsi-
bilily for lhem and escae scol free from all consequences of
lheir evil aclions. Hence, lhis greal aeal for lhis nihilislic
ideology.
Al lhe same lime, holding lhal lhe lime for en|oying is nov,
lhe resenl life before dealh, lhey are loo eager lo go aer any
desirable ob|ecls of leasure. Consequenlly, lhey go all oul
in lhe ursuil of vhal lhey consider lo be leasurable. This
zj8
ardenl ursuil of leasure leads lo commission of kannas and
sanknras, every acl of vhich conlribules lo lhe formalion of
nev life.
And every lime lhere is delighl in, and en|oymenl of leasures
of lhe resenl life, imulse of lhis iann is imarled lo lhe
slream of consciousness, life-conlinuum. Consequenlly, jatana
consciousness, roximale lo dealh, olhervise called lhe a|nisa-
nknra tina, holds on lo lhe dealh signs, namely, kanna,
kanna niniua and gaii niniua. While holding on lo lhese ob-
|ecls, vhen dealh comes vilh dealh consciousness, rebirlh con-
sciousness arises for a nev exislence condilioned by any of
lhe lhree signs. Thus, lhe man aicled vilh uccnc!a !iiini is
reborn, vhelher he likes il or nol, in a nev exislence, because
of his iann, craving for leasurable ob|ecls. And his nev ex-
islence is very likely lo be in inferior and miserable slales be-
cause he had develoed nolhing bul evil deeds reviously.
The uddha had laughl, lherefore, lhal lhis lye of iann,
namely, ti|nata iann, also gives rise lo nev exislence, pcnc|-
natik. Thus all lhe lhree lyes of craving, kna iann, |nata
iann and ti|nata iann lead lo nev life and suering. There-
fore, ve have summarised:
. Truc causc cj su[cring |ics in inc inrcc ianns.
The abovemenlioned lhree ianns are lhe origin of suerings
slarling from jii (birlh) lo up!nakknan!n (lhe grous of
grasing) and are, lherefore, lermed sanu!aqa sacc, lhe Trulh
of lhe Origin of Suering.
zj
As lo vhere lhese ianns arise and lake rool, lhe Maha Saliall-
hna Suua slales: 'Wherever in lhe vorld, lhere are delighlful
and leasurable lhings, lhere lhis iann (craving) arises and
lakes rool.'
Here, 'craving arises' means aclual arising of lhe craving be-
cause of delighlful and leasurable lhings. This is knovn as
pariquiinna ki|csa. y 'laking rool' is meanl lhal, failing lo
conlemlale on lhe imermanenl nalure of leasurable lhings,
craving for lhem lies dormanl, laking rool, lo arise vhen fa-
vourable circumslances ermil. This lalenl craving, lying dor-
manl in sense-ob|ecls vhich escae being conlemlaled on, is
knovn as rannananusaqa. Viassan medilalion eradicales
lhis dehlemenl.
The delighlful and leasurable lhings from vhich craving
arises are described elaboralely in lhe Maha Saliallhna
Suua and may be summarised as:
1. Iye, ear, nose, longue, body and mind. lhe six
doors of senses.
z. Visual ob|ecls, sound, smell, lasle, bodily imres-
sions and mind ob|ecls. lhe six ob|ecls of senses.
. Iye consciousness, ear consciousness, elc.. six lyes
of consciousness.
. Six lyes of sense imressions, conlacls. six pnassas.
j. Six lyes of feeling born of sense imressions, elc.
These delighlful and leasurable lhings should be conlem-
laled on in lhe raclice of medilalion. Iailing lo recognize
lhem as imermanenl, unsalisfaclory, elc. lhrough heedful
z6o
noling vill resull in lheir becoming lhe breeding grounds for
craving. These lvo lyes of craving, namely, anusaqa iann
(lhe dormanl craving) for lhe leasurable ob|ecls vhich have
escaed being noled as lhey really are al lhe lime of seeing,
hearing, elc., and pariquiinna iann, vhich has arisen from
lhe leasurable lhings, conslilule lhe noble Trulh of origin of
suering such as birlh, elc. This facl should be lhoroughly un-
derslood and remembered.
We have exlained lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering su-
cienlly. We musl end our discourse on il here.
May all you good eole resenl in lhis audience, by virlue
of having given reseclful auenlion lo lhis Greal Discourse on
lhe Turning of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, be able lo disel lem-
orarily or eradicale comlelely lhe craving, olhervise called
lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering, by incessanl conlemla-
lion and lhrough vhalever alh and fruilion you have chosen,
achieve seedy realisalion of Nibbna, lhe end of all suerings.
S!nu! S!nu! S!nu!
z61
Cn.v+in Six
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni Iiii Moo u.v oi T.z.ioxo, 1z, inxisi In..
Today is lhe full moon of Tazaungmon. Il used lo be a greal
holy day marked vilh feslivilies in cenlral India al lhe lime of
lhe uddha, being lhe end of lhe monlhs of lhe rainy season
and lhe end of lhe year according lo lhe lradilion of lhal lime.
In urma, ve celebrale lhe day vilh lhe feslival of lighls and
by aying homage lo lhe lessed One.
We shall discuss loday Nirc!na Sacc, lhe Trulh of lhe Cessa-
lion of Suering, and nagga sacc, lhe Trulh of lhe Ialh lead-
ing lo lhe cessalion of suering as laughl in lhe Dhamma-
cakka Suua. We shall recile nov lhe lilles of lhe four Noble
Trulhs:
1. Dukkna sacc lhe Trulh of Suering
z. Sanu!aqa sacc lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering
. Nirc!na sacc lhe Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering
. Magga sacc lhe Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo lhe
Cessalion of Suering
Nrronn~ S~cc4
|!am knc pana, Bnikknatc, !ukkna nirc!nc ariqa saccam. Yc
iass qcta iannqa ascsatirganirc!nc cgc painissaggc nuui
an|aqc.
z6z
hikkhus, vhal I am going lo leach nov is lhe Noble
Trulh of exlinclion of suering, lhe real lrulh vhich
Nobles Ones should knov. Il is lhe comlele fading avay
and cessalion of lhal hunger, lhal craving vilhoul remain-
der, ils forsaking and giving u, relinquishing, leuing go,
release and abandoning of lhe same craving.
The lrulh of exlinclion of suering is lhe cessalion of crav-
ing (sanu!aqa sacc) olhervise called lhe Trulh of lhe Origin
of Suering. y virlue of tipassan na and ariqa nagga na,
lhal craving gels no oorlunily lo arise and vanish. Il is like
darkness being diselled by sunlighl. When aranaua nagga
na aears, lhe craving has no chance lo arise and gels
exlinguished enlirely. Wilh lhe cessalion of iann, lhe aggre-
gales of nna, rpa for nev life cannol make lheir aear-
ance and comlelely cease lo exisl. This non-arising or cessa-
lion of iann is lermed lhe Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering.
Cessalion of iann by virlue of aranaua nagga na is comlele,
lolal exlinclion of iann and lhe noblesl and highesl form of
exlinclion.
There are inferior forms of cessalion. Ior inslance, cessalion
by virlue of lhe angni nagga vhich comlelely exlinguishes
only kna iann (lhe craving for sensuous leasures), ces-
salion by lhe saga!agni nagga vhich eliminales only lhe
grosser forms of kna iann, cessalion by virlue of scipaui
nagga vhich removes lhe kna iann lhal vill give rise lo re-
birlh in lhe nelher vorlds. These cessalions are concerned
vilh only arlial exlinclion of iann and may be regarded as
inferior lyes of nirc!na sacc. Then, lhere is anolher form
z6
of cessalion vhich comes aboul lhrough medilaling on lhe
nalure of imermanence, unsalisfacloriness and insubslanli-
alily. During lhe eriod of conlemlalion on lhem, iann gels
no oorlunily lo arise and, hence, lhere occurs lemorary
cessalion of iann. Il may be regarded as cessalion by half
measures of iann by means of arlial develomenl of tipas-
san na. Ivery lime one is engaged in Viassan medila-
lion, il may be said lhal one is realizing lhe lemorary cessa-
lion of iann.
The Ili lexls rovide lhe folloving exosilions of lhe lrulh
of cessalion of craving by ansvering lhe queslion 'vhere may
lhis craving be discarded, vhere may il be exlinguished`'
Wherever in lhe vorld lhere are delighlful and leasurable
lhings, lhere lhis craving may be discarded, lhere il may be
exlinguished.
Here, delighlful and leasurable lhings mean, as exlained
reviously, lhe six doors of eye, ear, nose, longue, body and
mind, six sense ob|ecls of visual sighl, sound, smell, lasle,
bodily imression and mind, six tinas of eye-conscious-
ness, ear-consciousness, elc. Ior furlher delails, reference may
be made lo lhe lexl and lranslalion of lhe Mah Saliallhna
Suua.
Discarding and exlinguishing are somevhal alike in meaning.
Similarly, cgc (abandoning, giving u), paiinissaggc (giving u,
forsaking, re|eclion), nuui (release, freedom, emancialion),
ana|aqc (aversion, doing avay vilh). all connole lhe same
meaning as nirc!na (cessalion, annihilalion).
z6
How Crss~froN Or Cr~vrNc Is Broucnf Aiouf
When lhe yogi by noling 'seeing' al lhe momenl of sighl be-
comes convinced of lhe lrue nalure of imermanence, suer-
ing and anaua (non-self), he vill nol be blinded by lhe delu-
sion of ermanence, hainess and self in lhe sense doors
and sense ob|ecls such as eye, visual ob|ecl, eye-conscious-
ness, elc., He is momenlarily free from atpj (ignorance or
delusion). Having seen realily as il is and being free from
delusion, no leasurable feeling arises lovards lhese ob|ecls.
This is lhen lhe lemorary cessalion or fading avay of crav-
ing. Through lhe fading avay of craving, up!na clinging,
kna and sanknra vhich come lrailing aer il cannol arise.
Consequenlly, tina, nna rpa, sa|qaiana, pnassa and tc!an,
lhe unvholesome resullanls of kanna and sanknra, cannol
aear. This is hov craving logelher vilh suering are mo-
menlarily exlinguished, lhal is called momenlary cessalion or
momenlary Nibbna.
In a similar manner, lhe yogi, by noling 'hearing', 'smelling',
'ear-consciousness', 'nose-consciousness', elc., al lhe momenl of
hearing, smelling, elc., becomes convinced of lhe lrue nalure
of imermanence, suering and non-self vilh resecl lo ear,
sound, nose, lasle, elc. He vill be free from delusion of er-
manence, hainess or self in conneclion vilh lhese ob|ecls.
Thus, lhere vill be momenlary cessalion of craving and suf-
fering, olhervise called momenlary Nibbna.
Through tipassan vhich romoles lemorary cessalion as
higher knovledge is develoed, Nibbna is realized by means
z6j
of scipanna na. Scipanna na exlinguishes kna iann
vhich can give rise lo rebirlh in lhe slales of voe. Therefore,
lhe yogi becomes fully liberaled from miseries of apqa, lhe
nelher vorld and suerings of more lhan seven exislences in
good slales of lhe sensuous shere (knasugaii). This is lhen
exlinclion of suering as a resull of exlinclion of craving, bul
il musl nol be regarded lhal scipanna nagga pna|a lakes lhe
cessalion of craving as ils ob|ecl of conlemlalion. Il dvells
merely on cessalion as a resull of comlele exlinclion of suf-
fering inherenl in lhe aggregales of nna, rpa.
When Nibbna is realized by means of saga!gani na, grosser
forms of sensuous craving logelher vilh suerings of more
lhan lvo exislences in lhe sensuous lanes are exlinguished.
When Nibbna is realized lhrough angni na, sublle forms
of sensuous cravings and suerings of more lhan one exis-
lence in rpa |cka (hne malerial shere) or in arpa |cka (non-
malerial shere) are exlinguished. These are also exlinclion
of suering as a resull of exlinclion of craving. In lhese alhs
also, lhe mind dvells merely on cessalion consequenl uon
lhe comlele exlinclion of suerings inherenl in lhe aggre-
gales of nna, rpa.
When Nibbna is realized lhrough aranaua nagga na, all
forms of craving and all kinds of suering are comlelely
eradicaled. This is also exlinclion of suering as a resull of
exlinclion of craving. We can summarise:
1. Wncn crating is cra!icaic!, su[cring is cxiinguisnc!.
z66
Only vhen craving is comlelely eradicaled, is lrue libera-
lion from suering achieved. Iscae from suering oblained
lhrough olher means is nol lrue liberalion, bul |usl lemorary
relief, because in due course lhere is recurrence of suering.
Ior examle, lake slrelching lhe limbs lo relieve sliness due
lo bending. The ache is lemorarily removed lhrough slrelch-
ing, only lo relurn as liredness. Likevise, sliness due lo
rolonged siuing may be relieved by slanding u or valking
aboul only lo be relaced soon by faligue. When one is as-
sailed by hunger, lhe suering may be relieved by arlaking
of some food, bul lhe lrouble vill slarl again aer a lase of a
fev hours. Illness or disease may be cured vilh suilable medi-
cal lrealmenl, bul olher ailmenls are bound lo arise sooner or
laler lo slarl giving lrouble again.
Dicull circumslances of living may be solved by engaging
in suilable emloymenl or business vhich may rove so suc-
cessful and roserous lhal one may come lo occuy a very
high osilion in one's rofession or become a very rich man.
Yel vilh lhe vissiciludes of life, one may fall dovn from lhe
high osilion or become overly-slricken. Iven if lhe vhole
of life has been smoolh and |usl lain sailing, one inevilably
faces suering al lhe lime of dealh. As a resull of merilorious
deeds such as giving alms, observing moral recels, one
may be reborn a human being in hay roserous circum-
slances or one may be born as a overful celeslial king. Yel
vhen lhe vholesome eecls of revious good deeds become
exhausled, a relurn lo miserable exislences is inevilable. If
one slrives for a hay and long exislence by means of lhe
z6;
rpa jnna and arpa jnna of lhe concenlralion medilalions,
one may indeed auain lhe rpa |rnna vorld and arpa |rnna
vorld vhere one may live haily for many vorld cycles. The
vholesome merils of lhe jnnas vill become exhausled vhen
lhe lime comes. Then one faces lhe ossibilily of descending
once again inlo miserable lover exislences, as for inslance, lhe
exerience of lhe young female ig menlioned in lhe chaler
on sanu!aqa sacc.
Thus, unless craving is comlelely eradicaled, no form of lib-
eralion is a guaranleed, lrue liberalion. Comlele and er-
manenl liberalion from all kinds of suering is achieved
only vhen craving has been enlirely exlinguished. Thus lhe
uddha laughl 'iassaqcta iannqa ascsa tirga nirc!n', lhal eradi-
calion, exlinclion of iann is lhe lrulh of cessalion of suering.
This is in accordance vilh lhe doclrine of deendenl origina-
lion vhich slales lhal vhen lhe causalive condilions such as
ignorance, elc., cease, lheir resullanl eecls, sanknras, elc., also
cease. Thus in lhe Anguuara Ili lexl, il is laughl: Whal, hik-
khus, is lhe noble lrulh of cessalion of suering` Through
lhe lolal fading avay and exlinclion of ignorance (vhich has
been deall vilh in conneclion vilh sanu!aqa sacc) sanknras
kanna (formalions) are exlinguished, lhrough lhe exlinclion
of sanknras kanna, lhe resullanl tina for nev exislence is
exlinguished, lhrough lhe exlinclion of tina, lhe menlal
and hysical exislences are exlinguished, lhrough lhe exlinc-
lion of menlal and hysical exislences, sa|qaiana (lhe six
organs of senses) are exlinguished, lhrough lhe exlinclion
z68
of six organs, pnassa (sensorial imressions due lo conlacl
belveen sense organs and sense ob|ecls) are exlinguished,
lhrough exlinclion of sensorial imressions, tc!an (feeling
of sensalions) is exlinguished, lhrough exlinclion of feeling,
craving is exlinguished, lhrough exlinclion of craving, cling-
ing (auachmenl) is exlinguished, lhrough lhe exlinclion of
clinging, rocess of becoming is exlinguished, lhrough exlinc-
lion of rocess of becoming, rebirlh is exlinguished, lhrough
exlinclion of rebirlh, dealh and decay, sorrov, lamenlalion,
ain, grief and desair are exlinguished. Thus lakes lace lhe
exlinclion of lhis vhole mass of mere suering, vhich is nei-
lher soul enlily nor does il have any conneclion vilh sukna
(hainess). This, bhikkhus, is called lhe noble lrulh of exlinc-
lion of lhis mass of mere suering.
In lhe above lexl, lhe sequence of cessalion, for examle,
lhrough exlinclion of ignorance, kanna formalions are exlin-
guished, is given in a serial order lo demonslrale lhe correla-
lion of each cause vilh ils eecl. ul lhe imorlanl oinl lo
nole is lhal once lhe ignorance fades avay, vanishes, all ils re-
sullanl eecls such as sanknra, elc., become exlinguished.
The Ili vords nirc!na or nirc!nc in lhe lexls connole cessa-
lion only, nol lhe lace of cessalion nor lhe condilion of ces-
salion. Allhough commenlaries menlion nirc!na hguralively
as a lace of cessalion or condilion of cessalion, il musl be
carefully observed lhal ils lrue meaning is non-arising of in-
ler-relaled condilions of cause and eecl such as atpj, sank-
nra, tina, elc., lheir lolal cessalion, annihilalion, cuuing
z6
o, in olher vords lhe Noble Trulh of cessalion of suering
or Nibbna.
We have sucienlly deall vilh lhe lrulh of cessalion of suer-
ing. Ior furlher delails, reference may be made lo lhe book
'Concerning Nibbna'. We shall nov go on lo exosilion of lhe
Noble Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo lhe Cessalion of Suering.
M~cc~ S~cc~ Tnr Trufn Or Tnr P~fn
|!am kna pana, Bnikknatc, !ukknanirc!nagnini paiipa!
ariqam saccam. Aqamcta ariqc aiiningikcnaggc. Scqaini!am
sann !iiini, sann sankappc, sann tca, sann kannanic,
sann jitc, sann tqanc, sann saii, sann sna!ni.
hikkhus, vhal I am going lo leach nov is lhe Noble
Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo lhe cessalion of suering.
And, vhal is lhis Ialh` Il is lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh,
namely: Righl Viev (Underslanding), Righl Thoughl,
Righl Seech, Righl Aclion, Righl Livelihood, Righl Iorl,
Righl Mindfulness, and Righl Concenlralion.
We have deall vilh nagga sacc, lhe lrulh of lhe Ialh, fairly
fully before. We roose nov lo go over some of lhose vhich
need emhasising. Of lhe eighl calegories of lhe Ialh, sann
!iiini and sann sankappa conslilule lhe pa (visdom) grou,
sann tca, sann kannania and sann ajita lhe si|a (elhical
conducl) grou, sann tqana, sann saii and sann san!ni,
lhe san!ni (menlal disciline) grou.
z;o
We need nol elaborale again on lhe alh of si|a (elhical con-
ducl or moralily) nor on lhe alh of san!ni (concenlralion).
Of lhe visdom grou, lhe alh of sann !iiini (lhe Righl
Viev) needs no furlher exosilion. Accordingly, ve quole lhe
folloving exosilion on lhe Righl Viev given by lhe lessed
One.
ExiosrfroN ON Tnr Rrcnf Vrrw (S~VV4 Dr))nr)
Whal, hikkhus, is lhe Righl Viev` hikkhus, lo under-
sland suering or lhe Trulh of Suering, lo undersland
lhe origin of suering or lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suf-
fering, lo undersland lhe cessalion of suering or lhe
Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering, lo undersland lhe
alh leading lo lhe cessalion of suering or lhe Trulh
of lhe Ialh leading lo lhe Cessalion of Suering, lhis is
called Righl Viev.
This, lhen, is lhe dehnilion of lhe Righl Viev given by lhe
lessed One. riey, il is knoving according lo realily lhe
four Trulhs and underslanding lhem righlly as lhey should
be underslood. The commenlary version of ils exosilion is
as follovs:
Mrnrf~froN ON Tnr Four Trufns
'Medilalion on lhe four Trulhs vas laughl, refaced by lhe
vords underslanding of lhe four Trulhs.' Of lhese four Trulhs,
lhe hrsl lvo, namely, lhe Trulh of Suering and lhe Trulh
z;1
of lhe Origin of Suering are concerned vilh taiia (evolulion
or lhe round of exislence). The lasl lvo, namely, lhe Trulh of
Cessalion of Suering and lhe Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo
lhe Cessalion of Suering, are concerned vilh titaiia (devolu-
lion or going oul of lhe round of exislence). The yogi bhikkhu
emloys only lhe hrsl lvo Trulhs, lhe taiia sacc as ob|ecls of
medilalion and nol lhe lasl lvo lrulhs of titaiia sacc.
(Il means lhal lhe yogi bhikkhu conlemlales on lhe
hrsl lvo mundane lrulhs in his Viassan medilalion,
he does nol dvell on lhe lasl lvo sura-mundane lrulhs
vhich are nol suilable sub|ecls for medilalion. Indeed, il
is nol ossible lo medilale on lhem. Why so` The sub-
commenlary slales lhal lhese sura-mundane lrulhs are
beyond lhe ken of lhe ordinary common vorldlings.)
Indeed il is lrue lhal ordinary common vorldlings cannol
have for lheir ob|ecls of medilalion, nagga and pna|a (lhe alh
and fruilion) nor is Nibbna vilhin lheir range of vision and
knovledge before lhey auain lhe slage of gcira|n in medi-
lalion. Gcira|n consciousness arises only aer anu|cna na
vhen tipassan na becomes fully develoed, immedialely
aer gcira|n comes lhe realisalion of lhe Ialh and Iruilion.
Therefore, il is obvious lhal a common vorldling is nol in a
osilion lo lake for his ob|ecl of medilalion lhe lrue Nibbna
nor lhe alh and ils fruilion. Thus, il musl be carefully noled
lhal any inslruclion or leaching lo slarl o vilh medilalion
on Nibbna is lolally vrong.
z;z
The queslion can arise vhelher Nibbna may nol be laken
as an ob|ecl for medilalion on lranquilily (upasan nupassan).
Conlemlalion on lhe auribulive qualilies of Nibbna such as
tirga (being devoid of lusl) may be adoled as concenlralion
medilalion lo gain concenlralion or lranquilily. ul lhis exer-
cise is laken solely for lhe urose of achieving one-oinled-
ness of mind, il is nol lo immedialely realize lhe noble alh
and fruilion. In any case, lhis medilalion exercise is mosl a-
roriale only for lhose Noble Ones vho have already real-
ized Nibbna and nol for lhe ordinary common vorldlings.
Thus il is dehnilely a mislaken raclice lo lry lo achieve lhe
alh and fruilion by dvelling on Nibbna from lhe very slarl.
The yogi bhikkhu learns from his leacher briey lhal lhe
hve aggregales are lhe Trulh of Suering and craving is lhe
Trulh of Origin of Suering. Or, he may learn more comre-
hensively lhal lhe hve aggregales consisl of rupakknan!n, tc-
!anakknan!n, saakknan!n, sanknrakknan!n, tiakknan!n.
And rupakknan!n means lhe four rimary elemenls and up-
!rpas, lheir derivalives, elc. Thus, learning aboul lhe hrsl
lvo lrulhs briey or comrehensively from his leacher, he re-
ciles lhem reealedly and conlemlales on lhem in his medi-
lalion. Wilh regard lo lhe lasl lvo lrulhs, lhe bhikkhu |usl
hears from his leacher lhal lhe Trulh of cessalion of suering
and lhe Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo lhe Cessalion of Suer-
ing are desirable and laudable (lhis means lhal il is sucienl
|usl lo hear aboul lhese lvo sura-mundane lrulhs and bend
lhe mind lovards lhem).
z;
Thal bhikkhu, acling in lhe vay described above, enelrales
lhrough lo lhe four Trulhs simullaneously and comrehends
lhem. He fully grass of lhe four Trulhs simullaneously
lhrough insighl. y paiitc!a (enelralive knovledge) he com-
rehends lhal suering is lo be righlly and vell-underslood,
lhal craving is lo be abandoned, eradicaled, lhal nirc!na (ces-
salion) is lo be realized and lhal lhe alh is lo be develoed.
y a|nisanaqa (insighl) he fully grass lhal suering is lo be
righlly and vell-underslood, lhal craving is lo be abandoned,
eradicaled, lhal nirc!na (cessalion) is lo be realized and lhal
lhe alh is lo be develoed.
As described above, before he auains lhe alh, lhe bhikkhu
yogi's knovledge of lhe lvo lrulhs, namely, lhe Trulh of Suf-
fering and lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering, comes aboul
by learning, and hearing from his leacher, by queslioning and
reealed recilalion and by maslering il lhrough enelralive
reeclion (lhe hrsl four rocesses of acquiring lhis knovledge
conslilule merely sludying lhe scrilures, grasing lhrough
enelralive reeclion only amounls lo insighl by Viassan
medilalion). The knovledge concerning lhe Trulh of lhe Ces-
salion of Suering and lhe Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo lhe
Cessalion of Suering is acquired only by hearing aboul lhem.
Aer viassan medilalion, al lhe momenl of realizalion of
lhe Ariya alh, lhe hrsl lhree lrulhs are fully grased by
having accomlished lhe lask of knoving righlly and vell
lhe Trulh of Suering, lhe lask of abandoning lhe origin of
suering and lhe lask of develoing lhe alh leading lo lhe
cessalion of suering. The Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering
is fully grased by aclual realizalion.
z;
Thus, in accordance vilh lhe commenlary, inilially il is su-
cienl lo knov only from hearing lhal lhe Trulh of lhe Cessa-
lion of Suering and Trulh of lhe Ialh leading lo Cessalion
of Suering are desirable and laudable, and lo bend lhe mind
lovards lhem. Il is clear, lherefore, lhal no eorl is needed
lo conlemlale arlicularly on lhese lvo lrulhs. Knovledge
aboul lhe hrsl lvo lrulhs should, hovever, be acquired bolh
by hearing aboul lhem as vell as by develoing insighl on
lhem lhrough medilalion.
How Mucn Suf~V~v~ (KNowirncr Tnroucn Hr~rrNc)?
As slaled in lhe commenlary ve are quoling, il is sucienl
lo knov only lhal lhe hve aggregales are lhe Trulh of Suf-
fering, lhal craving is lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering.
Here, lhe hve aggregales are lhe hve aggregales of clinging
(up!nakknan!n) menlioned in lhis suua. We have fully ex-
lained above lhal lhey are lhe ob|ecls vhich resenl lhem-
selves al lhe lime of seeing, hearing, elc. We have also deall
comrehensively vilh lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering
in lhe seclion concerned. Knoving lhese lvo lrulhs lhrough
hearing amounls lo knoving lhe lav of deendenl origina-
lion in a brief manner. In lhe greal sub-commenlary on Vi-
suddhimagga, il is dehnilely slaled lhal vhal lhe Venerable
Assa|i laughl, namely, qc !nanna nciuppa|nat. The erfecl
one has lold lo cause, of causally arisen lhings. conslilules
in brief lhe vhole lav of deendenl originalion.
The commenlary on Vinaya Mahvagga arms also lhal by
lhe vords 'qc !nanna nciuppa|nat', lhe Venerable Assa|i vas
z;j
leaching lhe hve aggregales, olhervise called lhe Trulh of Suf-
fering. And by lhe vords 'icsam ncium iaingaia ana', he vas
leaching lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering. Thus, il is clear
lhal having learnl briey by hearing aboul lhe !ukkna sacc
and sanu!aqa sacc, one has also learnl in a brief manner lhe
Lav of Deendenl Originalion. Those vho are reaching lhal
Viassan medilalion is nol feasible unless one has maslered
lhe lav of deendenl originalion suorled by lables and
circular diagrams are, lherefore, going againsl lhese vords
of lhe commenlary and sub-commenlary and causing greal
harm lo paiipauissan.
In lhe Cula Tanhsankhya Suua of lhe Mla Iannsa Ili
Canon, ve hnd lhe folloving regarding lhe brief knovledge
lo be acquired by learning (suia): Oh, king of lhe devas, in
lhis leaching, lhe bhikkhu has heard lhal il is nol hl nor
roer lo hold lhe viev lhal all dhammas are ermanenl,
leasanl and self.
Il means lhal if lhe bhikkhu has ever heard of lhe facl lhal
lhe hve knan!nas of lhe nna, rpa vhich resenl lhemselves
al lhe six doors of lhe senses every lime lhere is seeing, hear-
ing, elc., are nol roer lo be regarded as ermanenl, leas-
anl, self, lhal lhey are lransilory, sub|ecl lo suering and nol
self, lhen he has sucienl brief knovledge, suia naqa na, lo
roceed lo engage himself in medilalion.
Thus lhe uddha conlinued: Then lhal bhikkhu, vho has
learnl lhal much by hearsay, knovs by conlemlalion and
aclual exerience all dhammas. Then lhe lessed One laughl
z;6
hov lo auain by medilalion lhe knovledge of dierenlialion
belveen nna and rpa, lhe nnarupapariccnc!a na, elc. We
have summarised lhe above lhus:
1. All dhammas are lransienl, sub|ecl lo suering and
non-self.
z. Thal much is sucienl knovledge acquired by hear-
ing (suia).
. Inough lo enable, lhrough medilalion, lo dierenli-
ale lhe nna from rpa of lhe aggregales.
. And lo recognise lheir nalure of imermanence and
unsalisfacloriness.
1 and z above indicale suciency of brief knovledge of suia
naqa na (lo roceed lo lhe raclice of medilalion). shovs
hov by noling every aclion of seeing, hearing, elc., al lhe
momenl of occurrence, knovledge is gained vhich enables
one lo dislinguish belveen nna and rpa, nnarpapariccnc!a
na and lo knov lhe cause of henomena of seeing, hearing,
elc., paccaqapariggana na. These lvo kinds of knovledge are
called a|ni pa, being lhe iapari of lhe lhree pari-
s. y is meanl full knovledge of all lhe dhammas and
insighl inlo lheir nalure of imermanence, suering and non-
self, in accordance vilh 'sa||am !nannam a|niqa, sa||am
!nannam parpnii'. This conslilules lhe rofound knovledge
of iirana pari and panna pari.
The main oinl ve vish lo emhasise here is lhal having |usl
learnl lhrough hearing lhal all dhammas are imermanenl,
suering and non-self, one has enough suia naqa na lo ro-
z;;
ceed lo endeavour for auainmenl of aranaua nagga pna|a. Thus
lhe asserlion lhal, vilhoul a comrehensive knovledge of lhe
lav of deendenl originalion, medilalion should nol be rac-
lised, goes againsl lhis Ili lexl of Culalanhsankhaya Suua,
causes demoralisalion in lhose benl on lhe raclice of medila-
lion and is delrimenlal lo lhe roserily of paiipaui ssan.
If, according lo lheir roosilion, medilalion could be rac-
lised only aer lhoroughly maslering lhe lav of deendenl
originalion logelher vilh ils exlanalory circular diagrams,
elc., some eole vho have no lime nor chance lo sludy lhe
lav of deendenl originalion or are slov in learning il com-
rehensively, are liable lo lose lhe oorlunily of gaining lhe
alh or fruilion even if lhey are endoved vilh paranis (su-
cienl condilions and qualihcalions) lo auain lhem. To cile an
examle, during lhe lime of lhe lessed One, one bhikkhu
by lhe name of Culaanlaka found il dicull lo memorise a
verse of only j leuers allhough he lried il for four veeks. To
learn lhe vhole lav of lhe deendenl originalion exlensively
vould lhus have been an imossible lask for him. Yel lhe
same bhikkhu auained Arahalshi, accomlished in jnna a|-
ni, suernormal knovledge, and vision by raclising for
one morning only lhe medilalion exercise rescribed by lhe
uddha.
We vould like lo lake lhis oorlunily, vhile giving lhe dis-
course on lhe Turning of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, of caulion-
ing lhose good, learned ersons lo refrain from making asser-
lions vhich may discourage and demoralise lhose engaged in
or benl uon lhe raclice of medilalion.
z;8
If one needs lo slrive all alone in lhe raclice of medilalion,
no doubl one needs lo have learnl exlensively all aboul lhe
aggregales, lhe bases, lhe elemenls, lhe Trulhs, lhe facullies,
and lhe Lav of Deendenl Originalion. ul if one is going
lo vork under lhe guidance of a good, virluous, learned and
vise leacher, all lhal one needs lo knov is lhal all !nannas
are imermanenl, sub|ecl lo suering, insubslanlial and non-
self. Il is also sucienl if he has learnl lhrough hearing lhal
a vorldling individual is governed by lvo mundane lrulhs
of causal relalions (cause and eecl) namely, lhe hve aggre-
gales, vhich is lhe Trulh of Suering, and craving, vhich is
lhe Trulh of Origin of Suering.
The ma|orily of lhe uddhisls of urma can be laken lo be al-
ready equied vilh lhis much knovledge, even if nol, lhey
can ick lhis u |usl before slarling medilalion or during lhe
course of medilalion by lislening lo lhe sermons of his medi-
lalion leacher. There should be no vavering or uncerlainly on
lhis score of suia naqa na. All lhal is required is lo slarl rac-
lising medilalion in accordance vilh lhe inslruclions given
by lhe reliable, virluous, learned and vise leacher.
As lo hov lo launch inlo lhe raclice of insighl medilalion, il
has been described in our lhird discourse. To recailulale, lhe
raclice consisls of develoing lhe alh in lhree slages: basic,
recursor, Ariqan Ialh. Develoing lhem leads lo Nibbna.
M|a nagga, lhe basic alh, is made u of kannassakaia sann
!iiini, si|a and upacra san!ni or lhe appan san!ni vhich
ve have already deall vilh fully before. As lo lhe hrsl faclor,
z;
kannassakaia sann!iiini, lhe ma|orily of lhe urmese ud-
dhisls have already been eslablished in lhis failh since child-
hood. Wilh regard lo si|a nagga, if lhe lay yogi is nol eslab-
lished in il yel, he can accomlish il by observing si|a |usl
before laking u lhe raclice of medilalion. The hikkhu yogi
should urify his si|a by confessional rocesses if he enler-
lains any doubl aboul lhe urily of his si|a. As for accomlish-
menl of san!ni, lhe yogi should lake u a sanaina exercise
such as npana and raclise on il unlil auainmenl of jnna
or upacra san!ni. If lime or oorlunily do nol ermil, lhe
yogi can begin conlemlaling on lhe four rimary elemenls
by means of vhich tipassan knanika san!ni, vhich is akin lo
upacra san!ni, may be auained. This san!ni disels lhe hin-
drances so lhal urihcalion of mind may be achieved. This is
a brief descrilion of hov n|a nagga is eslablished.
DrvrioiVrNf Or Puii~in4c~ M~cc~, Ofnrrwrsr
C~iirn Vri~ss~N4 M~cc~
Aer develoing lhe n|a nagga as described above, lhe yogi
slarls observing lhe realily of lhe Trulh of Suering, olher-
vise called up!nakknan!n, by laking conlinuous nole of lhe
henomena of seeing, hearing, smelling, lasling, louching,
lhinking, al lhe lime each henomenon occurs. Iull accounls
on up!nakknan!n, logelher vilh hov failure lo nole lhem
and see lhem as lhey really are leads lo clinging lo lhem
as nicca, sukna and aua and hov on seeing lheir lrue nalure
lhrough heedfulness, auachmenl lo lhem is exlinguished,
have already been roounded in Iarl Three as vell as in
Iarl Iour of lhese discourses.
z8o
When san!ni becomes fully eslablished, one becomes avare
vilh every noling of lhe arising and vanishing of nna and
rpa and lheir lrue nalure of imermanence, suering and
egolessness. Hov such avareness is develoed may be ex-
lained lhus: While noling each aclion of rising, falling, sil-
ling, louching, bending, slrelching, liing, sleing forvard,
moving, resling, lhe yogi begins lo recognize lhe knoving
mind as dislincl from lhe malerial body. This discernmenl
is nnarpapariccnc!a na, knovledge of dislinguishing nna
from rpa, lhe inilial basis for lhe develoing of tipassan na.
The lessed One had described hov lhis knovledge may be
develoed by giving lhe examle of a ruby in Smaahala
Suua of Dgha Nikya and Mahsakuludyi Suua of Ma||hima
Iannsa.
N4V~ As DrsfrNcf FroV Rui~, Ex~Viir OrvrN
Bv Tnr Bunnn~
A recious gem named Veluriya, vhich has a lhread of eilher
brovn, yellov, red, vhile or lighl yellov colour laced in
il, is laken in lhe alm of lhe hand for observalion. A man
vilh good eyesighl is able lo dislinguish lhe gem from lhe
lhread, he can see clearly lhe coloured lhread embedded in
lhe body of lhe gem. Likevise, lhe yogi is able lo dierenli-
ale lhe knoving mind from lhe ob|ecl lo be knovn, he knovs
also lhe knoving mind (consciousness) rushing oul lovards
lhe ob|ecl lo be knovn. In lhis simile, lhe malerial ob|ecl is
like lhe recious gem, lhe knoving mind is like lhe lhread.
z81
And like lhe lhread embedded in lhe gem, lhe knoving mind
lunges lovards lhe ob|ecl. Thus lhe dierenlialion belveen
nna and rpa is illuslraled by lhe simile. Il should be care-
fully observed lhal in lhe simile lhere is no menlion of knov-
ing as lo hov many lyes of rpa, hov many lyes of mind
and menlal concomilanls, elc. are involved. Il menlions only
dislinguishing lhe knoving mind from lhe malerial ob|ecls
knovn.
Again in Visuddhimagga, ve hnd lhe folloving descrilion
of hov nna becomes evidenl lo lhe observing yogi. 'Ior lhe
yogi having discerned by such and such a melhod, lhe nalure
of rpa, lhen in roorlion as rpa becomes quile dislincl, dis-
enlangled and clear lo him so lhe non-rpas, lhe nnas lhal
have rpas as lheir ob|ecl, becomes lain and evidenl of lhem-
selves, loo.' Iurlher, ve hnd in Visuddhimagga: 'Il is vhen
suorled by nna lhal rpa arises, il is vhen suorled by
rpa lhal nna arises. When nna has lhe desire lo eal, lo
drink, lo seak and lo adol a oslure, il is rpa lhal eals,
drinks, seaks and adols a oslure.' In lhese assages from
Visuddhimagga, menlion vas made regarding enumeralion
of dierenl calegories of nna and rpa, only vhal vill be
aclually exerienced is described. Il is lain, lherefore, lhal
mere reeclion on dierenl calegories of nna and rpa vill
nol resull in lrue nnarpapariccnc!ana. True nnarpaparic-
cnc!a na is develoed only vhen lhe knoving mind and lhe
malerial ob|ecl lo be knovn could be searalely recognised
vhile observing lhe henomenon of arising and vanishing of
nna and rpa as il occurs.
z8z
Abilily lo dislinguish nna, lhe knover from rpa, lhe knovn,
conslilules sann !iiini, lhe Righl Viev. Allhough il may have
been learnl from books lhal nna, lhe knoving mind, is sea-
rale from lhe malerial body, rior lo laking u of lhe medila-
lion raclice and al lhe inilial slage of lhe raclice, lhe yogi
cannol dislinguish lhe knoving mind and lhe malerial body
lhrough aclual exerience. Only al lhe slage vhen lhe nnar-
papariccnc!a na is develoed lhal lhe dislinclion belveen
lhese lvo comes forlh sonlaneously. When noling lhe he-
nomenon of lhinking or ainful feeling as il occurs, lhe yogi
discerns searalely lhe lhinking mind and lhe malerial ob|ecl
or ainful feeling and localion of ain on lhe body. This dis-
cernmenl of nna as dislincl from rpa is knoving realily
as il lruly is, lhal is lhe Righl Viev. The yogi becomes con-
vinced lhen lhal lhere is only malerial body and lhe knoving
mind, aarl from lhem, lhere is no such lhing as lhe living
subslance or enlily. This is also knoving realily as il lruly is,
lhe Righl Viev.
As lhe over of concenlralion becomes furlher develoed,
vhile noling rising, falling, siuing, louching elc., he comes lo
realize lhal he louches because lhere is lhe malerial body lo
louch, he sees because of eye and sighl ob|ecl, hears because
of ear and sound, bends because of desire lo bend. He real-
izes also lhal he does nol knov lhe realily because he fails lo
lake nole of lhe henomenon as il occurs, he develos liking
because he does nol knov lhe lrue nalure, he develos auach-
menl because he likes. He lhen knovs lhal vhen he has de-
veloed auachmenl, he becomes engaged in aclivilies such
z8
as doing or lalking. These aclivilies of doing and lalking ro-
duce resullanl eecls, good resullanls vhen lhe aclion has
been vholesome, bad resullanls vhen lhe aclion has been un-
vholesome. In lhis vay he gains lhe knovledge of cause and
eecl lo lhe exlenl of his revious prani auainmenls. This
again is knoving lhe realily as il is, lhe Righl Viev.
As his concenlralion becomes furlher slrenglhened during
lhe course of noling rising, falling, siuing, louching, seeing,
hearing, lhinking, feeling, sli, feeling hol, feeling ainful, he
discerns clearly lhe originalion of lhe ob|ecl as vell as ils dis-
solulion, lhe beginning and end of each henomenon. He be-
comes convinced lhrough ersonal exerience lhal every he-
nomenon is imermanenl, il arises inlo being only lo vanish
avay inslanlly. He realizes also lhal incessanl arising and
ceasing conslilule fearful !ukkna and lhal vhal is nol sub-
|ecled lo anyone's conlrol, anyone's vill is nol self. This knov-
ledge is also lhe Righl Viev of knoving vhal realily is.
As lhe over of concenlralion gels slill more develoed, al-
lhough lhe yogi is noling lhe acls of rising, falling, siuing,
bending, slrelching, liing, moving forvard, droing, he is
no longer avare of lhe ob|ecls in lheir various shaes and
forms such as lhe body, slomach, lhe limbs, elc. He nolices
only lhe raid succession of henomena of dissolulion. He
erceives lhe svi assing avay of lhe ob|ecl of avareness
as vell as lhe noling mind and comes lo vivid realizalion of
lhe real nalure of imermanence, fearful suering and insub-
slanlialily, non-self. The ob|ecl of avareness asses avay lhe
z8
inslanl il makes ils aearance and lhere is no aua lo faslen
one's auachmenl onlo. The knoving mind also dissolves avay
so fasl lhal lhere is no aua, nolhing lo hold on lo. Thus, vilh
every noling lhere is develoed lhe knovledge of lhe lrue
nalure of imermanence, unsalisfacloriness and insubslanli-
alily. All lhese conslilule lhe Righl Viev.
Irom lhe lime lhe knovledge, regarding lhe dislinclion be-
lveen nna and rpa, is develoed lo lhe slage of lhe devel-
omenl of lhe tipassan Righl Viev (sann !iiini), lhere has
been bending of lhe mind lovard erceiving lhe realily as
il is. This conslilules Righl Thoughl. There is involved, loo,
Righl Concenlralion lo kee lhe mind hxed on lhe righl ob|ecl
and Righl Mindfulness lo be avare of il. All lhe vhile, lhe
yogi is engaged in one of lhe four foundalions of mindfulness:
conlemlalion of lhe body oslures, lhe feelings, lhe mind
and menlal ob|ecls. He does lhe conlemlalion vilh an eorl
vhich is, lherefore, lhe Righl Iorl.
Thus, vhenever a yogi is engaged in medilalion, lhere are in-
volved hve alhs, lhree from lhe san!ni grou: sann tqana,
sann san!ni, sann saii, and lvo from lhe pa grou:
sann !iiini and sann sankappa. These hve alhs are connecl-
edly involved in each acl of heedful noling, knoving. The
commenlary has named lhem lhe kraka naggas, lhe vorking
naggas, so lo say. In addilion, lhere are also involved lhe lhree
naggas of lhe si|a grou: sann tca, sann kannania, sann
jita, by vay of reserving lhe recels inlacl and by vay of
fulhlling lhe abslenlions.
z8j
And lhis is hov such involvemenl lakes lace: lhe Viassan
yogi slarls observing lhe recels even before he slarls medi-
lalion and kees lhem ure. During lhe course of medilalion,
si|a remains unolluled, ils urily is mainlained. If anylhing
lhen, il may be said lhal si|a gels more and more ure.
Thus, vilh lhree si|a naggas added lo lhe hve in lhe revious
grous, a yogi is develoing allogelher eighl naggas al each
inslance of noling and knoving lhe henomenon. Mah Sa-
lyalanika Suua of Uari Iannsa Ili lexl gives lhe folloving
descrilion of hov lhe eighl naggas are develoed: hikkhus,
vhen lhe eye is seen as il lruly is (al lhe inslanl of noling),
vhen visual ob|ecls, eye consciousness, visual conlacl and
feeling lhal arises due lo eye conlacl, are seen as lhey lruly
are, lhen no liking is develoed for lhe eye, visual ob|ecls,
eye consciousness, elc. Seeing lhe eye, visual ob|ecls, elc., as
lhey lruly are and nol develoing liking and auachmenl for
lhem bul seeing only revulsion in lhem, lhe up!nakknan!ns
(vhich may have arisen lhrough failure lo nole) gel no oor-
lunily lo malerialize and craving for lhese ob|ecls also ceases,
gels annihilaled.
The viev of such a erson is lhe Righl Viev, his lhoughls
are Righl Thoughls, his eorls are Righl Iorls, his mindful-
ness is Righl Mindfulness, his concenlralion is Righl Concen-
lralion. Iven before he slarls medilalion, lhe yogi is vell-es-
lablished in Righl Seech, Righl Aclion and Righl Livelihood.
Il is in lhis vay lhal lhe yogi becomes eslablished in lhe Iighl-
fold Noble Ialh.
z86
This is a brief accounl in lhe uddha's vords of hov lhe Iighl-
fold Noble Ialh is develoed vhen lhe yogi discerns vhal
should be knovn al lhe momenl of seeing, lhe lrue nalure
of lhe hve dhammas involved, namely, lhe eye, visual ob|ecls,
elc. Ior a delailed descrilion, reference may be made lo lhe
original Mah Salyalanika Suua of lhe Uari Iannsa Ili
lexl.
The commenlary slales lhal lhe Iighlfold Noble Ialh becomes
eslablished al lhe momenl of achieving lhe ariqa nagga. This
may be laken as a suerior form of inlerrelalion. We vould
like, hovever, lo lake lhe viev lhal lhe lexl meanl here tipas-
san nagga inslead of lhe ariqa nagga, vhich is lhe goal lo be
achieved by accomlishmenl of lhe tipassan nagga. This in-
lerrelalion of ours vill be found lo be in accord vilh lhe
facl lhal knovledge as lo lhe lrue nalure of lhe eye, visual
ob|ecl, eye consciousness, visual conlacl and feeling, is come
by only lhrough Viassan medilalion. Ariqa nagga, on lhe
olher hand, does nol lake lhe eye, visual ob|ecl elc., as ils
ob|ecl, il accomlishes only lhe funclion of knoving.
In a similar manner, by laking nole of lhe henomena of
hearing, smelling, lasling, louching, lhinking, lhe hve dham-
mas vhich become rominenl al lhe reseclive momenl of
occurrence could be knovn, and lhe Iighlfold Ialh devel-
oed accordingly.
Whal has been exlained so far relales lo involvemenl of lhe
si|a nagga by vay of mainlaining il unolluled al lhe momenl
of Viassan medilalion.
z8;
AisfrNfroNs DurrNc Vri~ss~N4 Mrnrf~froN
There is no oorlunily lo commil vrong seech such as
lying vilh regard lo lhe nna rpa ob|ecls vhose realily is
being seen al lhe momenl of noling lhem. }usl consider for
a momenl. Whal is lhe necessily of lelling a lie aboul an
ob|ecl vhich one does nol like nor dislike, having seen ils
lrue nalure of imermanence and cessalion aer dissolulion`
Similarly, no occasion arises lo slander, lo lalk frivolously,
in shorl, lo commil vrong seech in conneclion vilh lhal
ob|ecl. Likevise, lhere is no queslion of commiuing vrong
acls such as killing, slealing, sexual misconducl nor engag-
ing in vrong livelihood. Thus, every lime realily is seen
vhile noling, sann tca vhich is abslinence from niccn taca,
sanna kannania vhich is abslinence from niccn kannania,
and sann jita vhich is abslinence from niccn jita are ac-
comlished vilh reference lo lhe ob|ecl under reviev. Il is in
lhis vay of abslinence lhal lhe si|a nagga, namely, lhe sann
tca, sann kannania and sann jita are involved in lhe de-
velomenl of lhe alh of Righl Viev.
Thus, on each occasion of noling rising, falling, siuing, louch-
ing, lhinking, feeling of sliness, feeling hol, feeling ainful,
hearing, seeing, elc., lhe righl viev is being develoed lo-
gelher vilh lhe Iighlfold Ialh. Of lhe four Trulhs, lhe Trulh of
Suering is lhal vhich should be righlly and vell underslood.
And lhe Trulh of Suering is lhe hve aggregales of grasing,
vhich become rominenl al lhe six doors of senses al each
inslanl of seeing, hearing, louching, knoving, elc. Therefore,
z88
lhe Trulh of Suering vould be righlly and vell underslood
by laking nole of each henomenon al lhe six doors. Ivery
lime lhe Trulh of Suering is develoed by laking nole of
seeing, hearing, elc., lhe Iighlfold Ialh, vhich is lhe !nanna
lo be develoed, becomes develoed.
Thus, conlemlalion on lhe Trulh of Suering by laking nole
of seeing, hearing, elc., develos lhe Iighlfold Ialh. In order
lo develo lhe Iighlfold Ialh, lhe Trulh of Suering musl be
conlemlaled on by laking nole of seeing, hearing, elc. The
Trulh of Suering, vhich becomes evidenl by laking nole of
seeing, hearing, elc., during lhe course of viassana medila-
lion, pu||a|nga nagga is rannana, lhe ob|ecl vhich musl be
righlly and vell underslood. Magga sacc, lhe Trulh of lhe
alh, vhich musl be develoed lo undersland lhe Trulh of
Suering, is rannanika, vhich musl be vell-develoed.
Il musl be carefully underslood lhal only by conlemlaling on
!ukkna sacc is lhe Iighlfold Ialh develoed. And only vhen
tipassan nagga is accomlished is Nibbna realized.
We have lo reilerale lhal !ukkna sacc is rannana, lhe ob|ecl
and lhe knoving alh is lhe rannanika. Such reileralion is
necessary because asserlions are being made conlrary lo lhe
leachings of lhe uddha and delrimenlal lo lhe roserily
of ssana lhal 'conlemlalion on ob|ecls of suering such as
rpa, nna, sanknra vill resull in erceiving only suering,
Nibbna should be conlemlaled on for achievemenl of eace,
hainess'.
z8
KNowirncr Or Tnr Four Trufns
Tnroucn Vri~ss~N4 N4N~
y laking nole of all henomena lhal occur al lhe six doors and
knoving lhem lo be merely of lhe nalure of imermanence,
unsalisfacloriness and insubslanlialily, is underslanding lhe
Trulh of Suering. Thus, vilh every inslance of laking nole,
pannapaiitc!a (lhe lask of gaining enelralive insighl as lo lhe
underslanding of lhe Trulh of Suering) is accomlished.
Having seen lhe lrue nalure of imermanence, elc., of each
henomenon by laking nole of lhem, no oorlunily arises
for liking or craving for lhese rpa nna ob|ecls. This is mo-
menlary eradicalion of craving, lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of
Suering. Thus, vilh every inslance of laking nole, pannapa-
iitc!a (lhe lask of gaining insighl as lo lhe eradicalion of lhe
cause of suering) is accomlished. Here, insighl is gained
nol by observing lhe ob|ecl, il is |usl knoving lhe facl of eradi-
calion, abandoning.
Wilh lhe cessalion of craving, up!na, kanna, sanknra, ti-
na and nna rpa, olhervise called ki|cs taiia, kanna taiia
and tipka taiia vhich vill follov in ils lrail, gel no oorlu-
nily lo arise. Temorarily lhey are inhibiled. This momenlary
Nibbna, olhervise called nirc!na, is achieved by means of ti-
passan. Thus tipassan na is develoed by lhe momenlary
cessalion, nirc!na, similar lo realizalion by lhe ariqa nagga. ul
lhe achievemenl comes aboul nol by direcl observalion of lhe
ob|ecl, il is |usl an accomlishmenl of lemorary cessalion
al each inslance of laking nole. This is called saccnikiriqa pa-
zo
iitc!a, gaining enelralive insighl as lo cessalion by realizing
il, knoving aboul il lhrough tipassan.
Wilh every acl of observing, lhe Iighlfold Ialh headed by
tipassan Righl Viev is develoed inside oneself. This is
|ntanpaiitc!a, gaining insighl as lo develomenl. This knov-
ledge, hovever, does nol come aboul by direcl observalion,
as il is exerienced ersonally, reeclive consideralion vill
reveal lhal develomenl has laken lace vilhin oneself.
Thus, as exlained above, al each inslanl of noling and knov-
ing, !ukkna sacc is righlly and vell-underslood, lhis is lrue
parina paiitc!a. Sanu!aqa sacc is momenlarily inhibiled,
lhis is panna paiitc!a (accomlishmenl of insighl lhrough
abandonmenl). Momenlary nirc!na is realized lhrough cessa-
lion, lhis is saccnikiriqa paiitc!a. And tipassan alh is devel-
oed, lhis is |ntan paiitc!a (insighl lhrough develomenl).
Thus lhe four Trulhs are comrehended al every inslance
of noling: lhe Trulh of Suering by observing lhe ob|ecl,
sanu!aqa, nirc!na and nagga are accomlished by abandoning,
realizing and develoing.
In lhis vay, lhe tipassan nagga comrehends lhe four Trulhs
as lhey should be comrehended and vhen lhey become fully
accomlished and malure, lhe ariqa nagga aears and Nib-
bna is realized. Al lhal momenl of alh aearance, lhe ariqa
nagga, headed by Righl Viev, is fully eslablished. The ariqa
nagga makes ils aearance only once. y lhis single aear-
ance, il accomlishes lhe lasks of eradicaling lhe ki|csas (dehle-
menls) vhich should be eliminaled sanu!aqa sacc, of under-
z1
slanding righlly and comrehensively lhe Trulh of Suering
!ukkna sacc, and also lhal of develoing lhe nagga sacc. In
lhis vay, il is said lhal lhe Righl Viev of ariqa nagga comre-
hends lhe four Trulhs all al once.
How Tnr Four Trufns Arr CoVirrnrNnrn
Tnroucn Arrv~ M~cc~ Aii Af Tnr S~Vr TrVr
This is hov il comes aboul. When nirc!na sacc (olhervise
called Nibbnic eace) is comrehended lhrough aclual real-
izalion, lhe lask of comrehending lhe Trulh of Suering is ac-
comlished by recognising lhal lhe mundane rpa, nna and
sanknra vhich arise and erish incessanlly are indeed ain-
ful, suering. Having recognised lhem as mere embodimenl
of suering, lhere can be no liking, craving or auachmenl for
lhem.
Abandonmenl of iann lakes lace in four slages. y virlue
of auaining lhe hrsl alh, iann lhal vould lead lo slales
of misery and iann lhal vould cause rebirlh for more lhan
seven limes in sugaii (lhe sensuous hay lane) cannol arise.
y virlue of lhe second alh, grosser forms of sensuous crav-
ing and iann lhal vill cause rebirlh for more lhan lvice in
kna sugaii are removed. The lhird alh eradicales lhe sub-
ller forms of craving. y virlue of lhe fourlh alh, rpa rga
and arpa rga, olhervise called craving for exislences, cannol
arise. Il musl be noled lhal lhe craving for exislence lhal slill
ersisls in lhe ersons of angni slalus is nol accomanied
by sassaia !iiini, lhe vrong viev of elernalism.
zz
Such non-arising of craving amounls lo accomlishmenl
of comrehension by vay of abandoning. Wilh regard lo
lhe ariqa naggas, as lhey are exerienced in lhe erson of
oneself, comrehension is accomlished by vay of develo-
menl. Therefore, lhe commenlary says: 'Concerning lhe lhree
lrulhs of !ukkna, sanu!aqa and nagga, comrehension is ac-
comlished by vay of full and righl underslanding (paria),
by vay of abandoning (panna), and by vay of develoing
(|ntan).'
As exlained above, ariqa nagga na, lhrough knoving
nirc!na sacc by realizing il, accomlishes lhe lask of com-
rehending lhe lhree remaining lrulhs. Likevise, tipassan
na, by conlemlaling on and knoving !ukkna sacc, accom-
lishes lhe lask of comrehending lhe lhree remaining saccs
as vell.
We have summarised lhese in lhe folloving mnemonics:
1. Wncn magga sccs cnc cj inc jcur iruins.
z. |i acccnp|isncs ccnprcncnsicn cj a|| jcur.
(Ienelralive insighl for all four eslablished.)
When tipassan nagga, vhich is develoed lo conlemlale on
and knov lhe Trulh of Suering, becomes fully slrenglhened,
eighlfold ariqa nagga becomes eslablished and rushes inlo
Nibbnic !niu, vhere all suerings connecled vilh hysical
and menlal sanknra ob|ecls as vell as all suerings in connec-
lion vilh lhe sanknra of lhe knoving mind, cease.
z
1. Wiin ccssaiicn cj crating ccncs inc ccssaiicn cj
su[cring.
z. Truc pain rca|izcs inis ccssaiicn.
Cessalion of craving is accomanied by cessalion of all suer-
ings of lhe aggregales. Therefore, al lhe momenl of eslablish-
menl of lhe ariqa nagga, lhe ob|ecl of conlemlalion is nol |usl
lhe cessalion of craving bul lhe cessalion of all suerings of
lhe aggregales. Whal is laughl in lhe leaching 'aboul cessa-
lion of craving' musl be underslood lo include 'cessalion of
all suerings of lhe sanknras' because only 'cessalion of all
suerings of lhe sanknras' conslilules real Nibbna, lhe Trulh
of lhe Cessalion of Suering. Therefore, Nibbna has been de-
hned as lhe cessalion of all sanknras. Thus, eslablishmenl of
lhe ariqa nagga is evidenl only in lhe sense of having arrived
al lhe slage vhere all nna, rpa and sanknras cease lo exisl,
become void.
Vri~ss~N4 Is Aiso A CoNsfrfurNf Or
Tnr Nrronn~c4VrNr P~fri~n4
ecause il leads lo lhe cessalion of all sanknra suering, lhe
ariqa nagga has been given lhe full lille of '!ukkna nirc!n
gnini paiipa! ariqa sacc, lhe noble lrulh of lhe alh leading
lo lhe cessalion of suering. ul vilhoul tipassan nagga, by
ilself il cannol auain Nibbna, vhere all suerings cease. In
accordance vilh one's revious pranis (auainmenls of er-
feclion), only aer one has raclised tipassan (insighl medi-
lalion) many limes, many hours, many days, many monlhs,
vilh lhe momenlum derived from tipassan, lhe ariqa nagga
z
aears as if il has emerged oul of lhe tipassan nagga ilself.
Il is for lhis reason lhal lhe tipassan nagga is called lhe pu|-
|a|nga nagga, recursor lo lhe ariqa nagga vhich should be
regarded as lhe ullimale goal. Allhough lhe alh is vieved
lhen as consisling of lvo seclions, lhe forerunner and lhe ul-
limale goal, ils develomenl is broughl aboul as one conlinu-
ous rocess of endeavour. Hence, Sammohavinidani commen-
lary slales lhal tipassan nagga should be regarded as a basic
consliluenl arl of lhe nirc!nagnini paiipa!: 'The said eighl
naggas are lhe suramundane ariqa nagga vilh eighl conslil-
uenl arls. This ariqa nagga logelher vilh lhe mundane ti-
passan nagga should be enumeraled as (conslilule) lhe !uk-
knanirc!na gnini paiipa!.'
Whal is meanl here is: Allhough nagga sacc of lhe Iour Noble
Trulhs is a sura-mundane nagga, il cannol arise by ilself
vilhoul tipassan nagga, olhervise called pu||a|nga nagga.
Only aer develoing lhe tipassan nagga and vhen tipas-
san na is fully accomlished does lhe ariqa nagga aear.
Therefore, lhe ariqa nagga logelher vilh ils recursor tipas-
san nagga, vhich has lo be develoed as an inilial sle, is
called !ukkna nirc!nagnini paiipa!.
We have summarised lhus:
1. Mla, ubba, ariya inrcc nc||c pains.
z. Dctc|cping incn |ca!s siraigni ic Ni||na.
We have adequalely deall vilh lhe lrulh of lhe alh. We shall
accordingly lerminale lhe discourse here.
zj
May all you good eole in lhis audience, by virlue of having
given reseclful auenlion lo lhis greal discourse on lhe Turn-
ing of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, be able lo develo lhe tipassan
nagga, olhervise called lhe pu||a|nga nagga logelher vilh
lhe ariqa nagga, olhervise called lhe nagga sacc, and as a con-
sequence auain soon lhe nirc!na sacc, olhervise called Nib-
bna, lhe end of all suering.
S!nu! S!nu! S!nu!
z6
Cn.v+in Sivi
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni Iiii Moo u.v oi T.n.io, 1z, inxisi In..
The series of our discourse on lhe Dhammacakka Suua vas
disruled aer lhe lasl leclure given on lhe full moon day of
Tazaungmon as ve had been visiling olher cenlres. On lhe
full moon day of Tabaung, ve shall resume our discourses on
lhe Dhammacakka Suua. In Iarl Six, ve had deall vilh nagga
sacc. Today, ve shall go on considering sacc na (lhe knov-
ledge lhal il is lhe Trulh), kicca na (lhe knovledge lhal a cer-
lain funclion vilh regard lo lhis lrulh has lo be erformed),
and kaia na (lhe knovledge lhal lhal funclion vilh regard
lo lhe Trulh has been erformed).
S~cc4 N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To Dukkn~ S~cc4
|!am !ukknam ariqasaccanii nc, Bnikknatc, pu||c nanussuicsu
!nanncsu, cakknum u!ap!i, nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i,
tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This is lhe ariqa Trulh of Suering, or lhis is lhe Trulh
of Suering vhich ariqas should erceive. Thus, Oh hik-
khus, concerning lhings unheard of before (by me), lhere
arose in me vision, knovledge, visdom, lhere arose in
me enelralive insighl and lighl.
z;
This is hov knovledge lhal il is lhe lrulh arises vilh regard
lo lhe Trulh of Suering. We have enuncialed in lhe earlier
discourses lhe Trulh of Suering as birlh is suering, elc. We
shall reilerale a liule lo make il clearer. The vord 'This' in
'This is lhe Trulh of Suering' refers lo various calegories
of suering slarling vilh |ali (birlh), and ending vilh up-
!nakknan!nas (lhe grous of grasing). Here, lhe essenlial
ilem is up!nakknan!nas, vhich is moslly underslood as learnl
from books. Iev are lhose vho undersland il as a ersonal
exerience, vhich of course is lhe main lhing. We shall go
over lhis again lo oinl oul hov upa!!anakknan!na could be
underslood as a ersonal exerience.
Whalever becomes rominenl al every inslanl of siuing,
hearing, smelling, lasling, louching, lhinking conslilules up-
!nakknan!na. The Ariqas see in lhese ob|ecls only fearsome
ain and suering, ordinary common eole viev lhem olher-
vise. They do nol consider lhem as embodimenls of lrouble
and suering, bul as leasanl and vholesome. They lhink il
leasanl lo see beauliful sighls, lo hear vhal lhey vanl lo
hear and lo lislen lo sveel, sonorous voices. Likevise, il is
leasanl for lhem lo smell sveel fragrances, lo samle deli-
cious food and lo en|oy a delighlful sensalion of louch as lhe
mosl delighlful. eings of lhe sensuous lane consider lhe
sensalion of louch as lhe mosl delighlful. Il is a delighl, loo,
lo indulge in fanlasies and daydreams. Il vould be lerrible for
lhem, a greal loss, if everylhing including lheir daydreams
vere lo vanish all al once. As a mauer of facl, all lhal is seen,
heard, elc., are up!nakknan!nas, lhe Trulh of Suering. Vias-
san medilalion is raclised in order lo bring home lhis Trulh
z8
of Suering, by realizing lhe lrue, fearsome nalure of imer-
manence, elc., due lo incessanl arising and erishing.
As for lhe lessed One, having fully accomlished lhe tipas-
san nagga, he had seen lhe besl, lhe noblesl bliss of all, lhe
Nibbna, by virlue of auaining lhe aranaua nagga na. And
having seen lhe foremosl and lhe noblesl bliss of lhe Nibbna,
he sav in lhe up!nakknan!nas only fearsome ain and suf-
fering. This ercelion came lo him, nol aer hearing aboul
il from olhers, nol from lhe raclices he had learnl from lhe
ascelics Alra and Udaka. This came aboul by direcl ersonal
knovledge aer he had develoed lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh.
Thal is lhe reason vhy he declared: Concerning lhings un-
heard of before, lhere arose in me vision, elc.
Wilh lhese vords he rofessed also lhal he had indeed become
a sann san|u!!na, lhe mosl enlighlened one vho had soughl
and found lhe lrulh by virlue of ersonal realizalion and
direcl knovledge, unaided by inslruclions or guidance from
any source. Such an oen rofession vas indeed necessary. In
lhose days, self-morlihcalion such as abslaining from laking
food, elc., raclised by Nigandas, vas greally esleemed as a
holy, noble raclice. The grou of hve bhikkhus lhemselves
vere earlier under lhe imression lhal il vas so. Thus only
vhen lhe lessed One oenly declared lhal 'he had come
uon lhe raclice and knovledge, nol lhrough hearing from
olhers, nor lhrough seculalion, raliocinalion, bul by his ovn
realizalion, by ersonal exerience and direcl knovledge',
lhal his audience became convinced of his having gained su-
reme enlighlenmenl, having become a lrue uddha.
z
To gain direcl inluilive knovledge vilhoul oulside assislance
is lhe exclusive domain of Inlighlened uddhas and Iacceka
uddhas only. The disciles of lhe lessed One had reached
such a slage of realizalion and knovledge only by lislening
lo lhe leachings of lhe uddha and cullivaling lhem lhrough
raclice. Novadays, loo, such knovledge, if desired, may be
acquired by develoing il lhrough raclice in accordance vilh
lhe leachings enshrined in suuas such as lhe Mah Saliall-
hna Suua, elc. Thus, by raclising as laughl in lhese suuas,
lhe up!nakknan!nas vill be seen as lhey lruly are, namely,
mere suering and ain. The uddha's roclamalion vas in-
lended also lo rovoke lhe grou of hve bhikkhus lo make
lhe eorl lo see lhe lrue nalure of lhe up!nakknan!nas.
In lhe uddha's rofession menlioned above, lhe develomenl
of exlraordinary knovledge vas described as 'vision arose,
knovledge arose, visdom arose, enelralive insighl arose,
lighl arose', hve descrilions given for a single form of knov-
ledge. The Samyuua commenlary slales: vision, knovledge,
elc., are synonyms, meaning lhe same lhing, knovledge. e-
cause of lhe facully of seeing, knovledge is lermed vision, be-
cause of lhe facully of knoving, il is lermed knovledge, be-
cause of lhe facully of knoving analylically in several vays,
il is lermed visdom, because of knoving enelralively, il is
lermed enelralive insighl, because of facully of shedding
lighl, il is lermed lighl.
The Ialisambhid Magga Ili canon exlains lhese lerms sim-
ilarly. The Ili vord cakknu conveys lhe idea of seeing, hence
oo
vision. Various Ili vords are emloyed for lhe urose of
conveying lhe desired meaning or concel lo dierenl audi-
ences, lhe commenlary exlains. Thus, lo describe lhe knov-
ledge vhich sees clearly as vilh lhe hysical eye, il is lermed
vision. To give an illuslralion, a man vho has been blind for
several years regains his eyesighl lhrough lhe alicalion of
lhe righl medicine or an oeralion by an eye secialisl. He
did nol see anylhing before lrealmenl, nov he sees every-
lhing clearly. Likevise, before lhe yogi has develoed tipas-
san na or ariqa nagga na, he has been under lhe delusion
lhal lhe hve grous of grasing, vhich reresenl suering,
are vholesome and leasanl, bul vhen by conslanl noling,
al lhe momenl of seeing, hearing, tipassan na becoming
slrenglhened, lhe yogi realizes clearly lhal lhe henomena of
seeing, hearing, olhervise called up!nakknan!nas, are really
avesome suering because of lheir nalure of incessanl aris-
ing and erishing. Il is like gaining eyesighl aer being blind.
Wilh develomenl of ariqa nagga na, his realizalion of lhe
lrue nalure of suering vill be even sharer. Thus, because il
sees clearly as if by lhe eye, lhis knovledge is lermed vision.
Wilh regard lo 'nan u!ap!i, knovledge arose', na is a
Ili lerm connoling knoving, hence knovledge. As lo 'pa
u!ap!i, visdom arose', Ialisambhid Magga slales lhal pa
is a Ili lerm connoling knoving analylically in various vays.
In conneclion vilh tipassan raclice, vhile laking nole of
rising, falling, elc., rpa and nna are knovn searalely as sli
movemenl and knoving mind. Uninilialed ersons cannol ex-
erience lhis dislinclion in lheir erson.
o1
The yogi also can dierenliale lhe cause from eecl. He
knovs every fresh arising dislincl from ils vanishing. He
knovs lhal because of incessanl arising and erishing, lhe ag-
gregales are imermanenl, avesome suering, and lhey rise
and erish of lheir ovn accord, nol sub|ecled lo anyone's con-
lrol. He knovs clearly lhus lhal lhey are nol self bul mere
insubslanlialily. His is nol a vague, indislincl, blurry knov-
ledge, |usl a glimmering, bul a dislincl, clear, dehnile comre-
hension as if observed in lhe alm of lhe hand. Such knov-
ledge is described as knoving analylically in various vays,
hence, visdom.
In 'tpj u!ap!i', tpj is a Ili vord meaning enelralion. Il
should nol be confused vilh lhe vord 'tpja!nara', a erson ac-
comlished in manlras, vho is described in books as having
lhe over of ying lhrough sace. Here, tpj denoles nol a
erson bul enelralive facully, hence, enelralive insighl.
Ienelralive insighl is a sublle slale, hard of underslanding. Here,
ve musl relale an incidenl vhich haened aboul lhe year 1oo
n.i. During a discussion ve had vilh a residing Saydav of
our village, ve haened lo inform him lhal pa arose vhile
laking nole of lhe henomenon of arising and erishing al
lhe momenl of ils occurrence. The Saydav could nol accel
lhis kind of cognilion as pa. He mainlained lhal pa is
lhal vhich is enelralive, only knoving enelralingly is pa.
When asked hov should one bring aboul 'knoving enelral-
ingly', he hesilaled for some momenls and lhen ronounced,
Well, knoving enelralingly is knoving enelralingly.
oz
'Knoving enelralingly' is derived from lhe Ili vord pa-
iitc!a, enelraling lhrough. Il is akin lo 'san|c!nqa, in order
lo knov enelralingly' as exlained in Iarl Tvo of our dis-
course. Hidden by a screen or a vall, ob|ecls cannol be seen.
ul vhen a hole is made in lhe screen or a vindov in lhe
vall is oened, ob|ecls become visible lhrough lhese oen-
ings. Likevise, lhis knovledge enelrales lhrough lhe veil of
ncna (delusion). Al hrsl, under cover of delusion, vhal is seen,
heard, elc., is nol seen nor knovn as imermanenl, suering,
egoless, il is believed lo be nicca, sukna and aua being veiled
by atpj, ncna, ignorance and delusion. When tipassan na
becomes slrenglhened, clear knovledge arises as if lhe veil of
delusion has been ierced lhrough. Such cognilion is lermed
knoving enelralingly. The lessed One had declared lhal
such enelralive insighl had arisen in him.
According lo Ialisambhid Magga Ili lexl, in 'a|ckc u!ap!i,
lighl arose'. A|ckc (lighl) is |usl a lerm used lo denole lighling
u, lo make brighl, lo illumine. Here, lighl does nol mean
|usl ordinary lighl or luminosily seen by lhe human eye. Il
refers lo lhe knovledge vhich discerns all henomena clearly,
dislinclly. Ireviously, lhe lrue nalure of anicca, !ukkna, anaua
are nol seen nor knovn, as if lhey are shrouded in darkness.
When tipassan na and ariqa nagga na have been devel-
oed, lheir lrue nalure becomes aarenl. Such cognilion is,
lherefore, melahorically described as 'lighl arose'.
This single form of exlraordinary knovledge vas described
in hve vays: vision, knovledge, visdom, enelralive insighl,
lighl in order lo facililale clear underslanding on lhe arl of
o
various lyes of audience. This leaching is designed lo meel
lhe requiremenls of lhe lisleners. Il is |usl like our emloying
lvo or lhree synonyms in lace of a single vord so lhal our
audience may calch lhe meaning of vhal ve say lhrough one
allernalive vord or lhe olher.
The Ili vords and lheir meanings ve have exlained above
are all concerned vilh sacc na. We have sucienlly deall
vilh sacc na nov. We shall go on lo kicca na, lhe funclion
or aclion vhich should be accomlished vilh regard lo lhe
Trulh of Suering.
Krcc~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To Dukkn~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!an !ukkam ariqa saccam parincqanii nc,
Bnikknatc, pu||c annusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknum u!ap!i,
nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This ariqa Trulh of Suering is lo be righlly and vell under-
slood. Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning lhings unheard of
before by me, lhere arose in me vision, knovledge, visdom,
lhere arose in me enelralive insighl and lighl.
This is hov knovledge had arisen as lo vhal should be done
vilh regard lo lhe Ariqan Trulh of Suering. Il should be care-
fully noled lhal lhe funclion lo be erformed vilh regard lo
lhis lrulh is lo comrehend il righlly and vell, lo undersland
il comlelely. Ior lhe yogi vho asires lo auainmenl of ariqa
alh and fruilion, Nibbna, il is incumbenl uon him lo slrive
lo gras lhe Trulh of Suering righlly and vell, lhal is, he
o
should undersland each of lhe searale consliluenls of lhis
lrulh fully, slarling from jii lo up!nakknan!na.
In lhe consliluenl arls of lhis Trulh of Suering such as
jii, elc., lhe essenlial faclor is lhe hve grous of grasing.
y knoving lhese hve grous of grasing as lhey really are,
lhe lask of comrehending lhe Trulh of Suering righlly,
fully and vell is accomlished. Therefore, Mahvagga Sacc
Samyuua Ili lexl slales: 'Whal, hikkhu, is lhe Trulh of Suf-
fering` Il should be ansvered lhal lhe hve grous of grasing
conslilule lhe Trulh of Suering.'
We have given a delailed exosilion on lhe hve grous of
grasing in lhe fourlh seclion of our discourse. Whalever
aears al lhe six doors of senses, al lhe lime of seeing, hear-
ing, elc., conslilules lhe hve grous of grasing. These should
become ersonal exerience by laking nole of every henom-
enon al lhe six doors as lhey occur. Through such eorls lhe
nalure of coarseness, roughness, smoolhness, soness and
painati !niu should be ersonally exerienced, so also lhe
cohesiveness, lhe uidily and moislness of lhe pc!niu, lhe
holness, coldness and varmlh of lhe icjc!niu and sliness,
ressure and molion of lhe tqc!niu should be ersonally ex-
erienced. All lhese should be searalely and exaclly under-
slood lhrough ersonal exerience. Hov lhis is lo be eecled
has been fully exlained before. riey, il consisls of giving
concenlraled auenlion lo lhe sensalion of louch lhal becomes
aarenl al any sol on one's body. One of lhe four rimary
elemenls vill announce ils exislence lhen lhrough ils inlrin-
sic nalural characlerislics.
oj
Aer knoving lhe four greal rimary elemenls, vhen laking
nole of seeing, hearing, elc., lhe hysical base on vhich seeing,
hearing, elc., deends, lhe malerial ob|ecls of sighl and sound,
lhe menlal aggregales of consciousness logelher vilh lheir
concomilanls become aarenl. Al each noling of lhe he-
nomenon of 'rising, falling, siuing, louching, knoving, feel-
ing sli, feeling hol, feeling ainful, hearing, seeing', lhe yogi
ersonally erceives lhe fresh arising folloved by inslanl er-
ishing of bolh lhe ob|ecls of avareness as vell as lhe noling
mind. Thus, lhe yogi knovs dehnilely lhal (nuit a|ntaic
anicc) il is imermanenl because il erishes aer each aris-
ing, he knovs lhal (u!aqa||naqa paiipi|anaiincna !ukkn) il is
avesome suering because il oresses by incessanl arising
and assing avay, he knovs lhal (atasa tauanaiincna anau) il
is nol aua (self), amenable lo conlrol because il haens on ils
ovn accord, nol sub|ecled lo one's vill. Iersonal knovledge
gained in lhis vay by keeing valch of lhe henomena of
arising and vanishing and noling lhe characlerislics of anicca,
!ukkna and anaua is knoving lhe Trulh of Suering comre-
hensively, righlly and vell (paricqqa).
The lessed One came lo lhe realizalion, vilhoul having
heard from anybody lhal lhe Trulh of Suering, olhervise
called lhe up!nakknan!na, vhich is aclually arising and van-
ishing, should be comrehensively, righlly and vell under-
slood. Hence, lhe slalemenl 'pu||c ananusu !nanncsu cakknum
u!ap!i', elc.. concerning lhings unheard of before by me,
vision arose, elc.! As for lhe disciles like Venerable Kondaa,
elc., realizalion came only aer hearing lhe dhamma from
o6
lhe lessed One or from lhe olher disciles of lhe uddha. In
sile of lhe dehnile slalemenl in lhe Dhammacakka Suua lhal
lhe Trulh of Suering should be comrehensively, righlly and
vell arehended (paricqqa), some eole consider il unnec-
essary lo realize lhe Trulh of Suering or up!nakknan!na
by laking nole of lhe henomenon of rising and vanishing,
vhich is aclually haening. They lake il lhal |usl learning
from hearsay aboul rpa and nna and aboul anicca, !ukkna
and anaua vill serve lhe urose. We can only exress our
sorrov and symalhy for such eole.
Kicca na is lhen lhe realizalion lhal lhe Trulh of Suering,
olhervise lhe up!nakknan!na, should be fully, righlly and
vell underslood lhrough ersonal observalion. Il is knoving
vhal funclion should be erformed concerning lhe Trulh of
Suering. This realizalion comes before lhe auainmenl of lhe
ariqa nagga. Iven before a yogi slarls lhe raclice of medila-
lion, he musl realize lhal he has lo knov comrehensively
lhe nalure of anicca, !ukkna and anaua by laking nole vhen
seeing, by laking nole vhen hearing, smelling, lasling, louch-
ing, lhinking. He musl be avare of lhis lask, loo, vhile rac-
lising viassan. Only lhen can he devole full auenlion lo
lhe arising and dissolulion of up!nakknan!na and develo
tipassan na comlelely. Our disciles, Saliallhna yogis,
have accomlished lhis funclion required by kicca na since
lhe lime of laking inslruclions from us on medilalion ro-
cedures, having learnl lhen lhal vhalever aears al lhe in-
slance of seeing, hearing, elc., should be carefully noled. Also
vhile laking nole, even if lhe yogi does nol knov al hrsl vhal
should be noled, he soon comes lo knov vhal is lo be ob-
o;
served. This discernmenl is lhe kicca na, knoving lhe func-
lion lo be erformed.
We have given much lime lo lhis kicca na because il is really
very imorlanl lo knov ils signihcance. Nov, enough having
been said aboul il, ve shall roceed lo lhe kaia na.
K~f~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To Dukkn~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!am !ukknam ariqa saccam pariaianii nc,
Bnikknatc, pu||c ananussu icsu !nanncsu cakknum u!ap!i,
nan u!ap!i, pana u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This ariqa Trulh of Suering has been fully, righlly
and vell underslood. Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning
lhings unheard of before (by me), lhere arose in me
vision, knovledge, visdom, lhere arose in me enelralive
insighl and lighl.
eing avare of lhe Trulh of Suering, olhervise lhe up-
!nakknan!na by laking nole of seeing, hearing, elc., and con-
slanlly knoving anicca, !ukkna and anaua conslilules tipassan
na. y tipassan na alone, hovever, lhe funclion of paria,
lhal is, lhe lask of fully and righlly comrehending is nol yel
comlelely accomlished. Iercelion as nicca, sukna and aua is
slill ossible concerning lhose ob|ecls vhich fail lo be noled.
Il is only vhen tipassan na is fully accomlished and ariqa
nagga na becomes develoed lhal Nibbanic eace is exeri-
enced. And only vhen ariqa nagga na becomes develoed
and Nibbanic eace is exerienced can il be said lhal knov-
ledge of anicca, !ukkna and anaua is comlele and lasling. This
o8
is lhe accomlishmenl of lhe lask of fully, righlly comrehend-
ing lhe Trulh of Suering.
Iven lhen lhe sciapaui na is nol yel adequale lo fully ac-
comlish lhis lask. Only by realizing lhe aranaua nagga na,
can il be said lhal lhe Trulh of Suering has been righlly
and comlelely underslood, a full hundred er cenl. Ior lhe
lessed One, lhe lask had been fully accomlished since lhe
lime of gaining aranaua alh and Iruilion and auainmenl of
Inlighlenmenl. Hence, he roclaimed lhal lhe lask of fully
underslanding lhe Trulh of Suering had been comleled.
Vision, elc., arose, lhal lask had been comleled and nolhing
remained lo be done.
The yogis resenlly engaged in lhe raclice of medilalion also
have lhis urose in viev: lo fully and righlly undersland
lhe Trulh of Suering and ullimalely lo comlele lhe lask of
fully underslanding by auaining lhe aranaua nagga and pna|a.
Aer auaining lhe aranaua nagga and pna|a al lasl, lhe realiza-
lion vill come lo lhem, lhrough relroseclion, lhal lhe lask
has been fully accomlished.
We have nov deall vilh all lhe lhree nas: sacc, kicca and
kaia na vilh regard lo lhe Trulh of Suering. Concisely:
1. Discerning al lhe momenl of seeing, hearing, elc.,
all lhe henomena of originalion and dissolulion
is real suering, lhe Trulh of Suering, conslilules
sacc na.
z. Discerning lhal lhis Trulh of Suering should be
righlly and fully underslood by heedful noling
conslilules kicca na.
o
. Knoving lhrough relroseclion lhal lhe Trulh of
Suering has been righlly and fully underslood
conslilules kaia na.
Of lhe lhree nas, sacc na aears vhile being engaged in
viassan medilalion vhen lhe yogi realizes lhal lhe henom-
ena of originalion and dissolulion are mere suering. This
lakes lace rior lo lhe advenl of ariqa nagga. Al lhe momenl
of ariqa nagga (seeing lhe eace of Nibbna) loo, lhis na
arises by realizing lhe Trulh of Suering in all lhe henom-
ena of arising and dissolulion. Iven aer lhe advenl of ariqa
nagga, lhis na is evolved by relroseclion. Thus, sacc na
is lhe knovledge of lhe Iour Trulhs lhal arises before, aer
and al lhe momenl of ariqa nagga. Aclually vhal is realized
al lhe momenl of ariqa nagga is only nirc!na sacc, lhe Trulh
of lhe Cessalion of Suering. The remaining lhree lrulhs are
said lo have been realized by having accomlished paiitc!a
(made u of paria, panna and |ntan), lhe lask of knoving
by enelralive insighl.
Wilh regard lo lhe Trulh of Suering, lhe momenl realizalion
davns on lhe Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering, lhe funclion
of knoving lhal unceasing rpa and nna are suering is
accomlished. Accordingly, lhe ariqas (esecially lhe arahals)
vho have auained lhe ariqa alh and Iruilion, knov by reecl-
ion lhal lhe ceaseless rpa and nna are all suering. Therefore,
il is said lhal lhe lask of enelralive insighl (paiitc!a), knoving
lhe nalure of suering fully and righlly, is accomlished al lhe
momenl of lhe alh. While raclising lhe viassan, lhis knov-
ledge aboul suering arises by aclually noling lhe henomena
1o
of originalion and dissolulion. This is knoving lhe !ukkna sacc
righlly and vell, olhervise called paria paiitc!a.
As for kicca na, lhal is, realizalion lhal lhe Trulh of Suer-
ing should be comrehended righlly and vell, il musl be
achieved in advance of lhe auainmenl of ariqa nagga. Only
by having rior knovledge of vhal funclions are lo be er-
formed can lhese funclions be erformed for auainmenl of
ariqa nagga.
In lhe case of lhe Trulh of Suering, il musl be vell under-
slood al an early slage lhal il is necessary lo erceive dislinclly
lhe nalure of anicca by laking nole of lhe henomena of origin-
alion and dissolulion vhich are aarenl in lhe aggregales al
lhe lime of each occurrence. Only vilh lhis rior undersland-
ing vill lhe necessary lask of observing lhe henomena be
erformed, and lhe ariqa nagga develoed aer auaining lhe
full malurily of viassan. Wilh regard lo sanu!aqa, nirc!na
and nagga sacc, such rior knovledge as lo lhe funclions
lo be erformed vilh regard lo each lrulh is indisensable.
Then only can lhe ariqa nagga be develoed.
Thus, long before auainmenl of nagga, lhere musl be realiza-
lion lhal lhe Trulh of Suering should be fully arehended
righlly and vell, lhal sanu!aqa should be abandoned, lhal lhe
Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering should be realized and
lhal lhe Trulh of lhe alh leading lo lhe cessalion of suering
should be develoed. Knovledge as lo vhich funclion is lo
be erformed vilh regard lo each lrulh musl, lherefore, re-
cede by far lhe advenl of lhe nagga.
11
The knovledge lhal lhese funclions have been erformed
comes only aer lhe auainmenl of aranaua alh and Iruilion
lhrough reeclion lhal lhe holy life has been lived (tusiiam
|rannacriqam), vhal has lo be done has been done (kaiam ka-
raniqam). Kaia na is lhal knovledge vhich knovs lhal vhal
has lo be done has been done.
Through realizalion of nirc!na, lhe aranaua nagga has er-
formed lhree olher lasks also, namely, fully and righlly un-
derslanding lhe Trulh of Suering, abandoning sanu!aqa and
develoing lhe alh. Il is kaia na lhal knovs lhal all lhese
four funclions have been erformed.
The above concise slalemenls aboul sacc na, kicca na and
kaia na have been made in accordance vilh Mulalika sub-
commenlary on Kalhavauhu. We have adequalely deall vilh
lhe lhree nas vilh regard lo lhe Trulh of Suering. We shall
go on lo lhe lhree nas vilh regard lo lhe Trulh of lhe Origin
of Suering.
S~cc4 N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To S~Vun~v~ S~cc4
|!am !ukknasanu!aqc ariqa saccam ii nc, Bnikknatc, pu||c
ananusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknum u!ap!i, nam u!ap!i,
pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This is lhe noble Trulh of origin of suering, lhis is lhe
Trulh aboul origin of suering vhich ariqas should knov.
Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning lhings unheard of before
(by me), lhere arose in me vision, knovledge, visdom,
lhere arose in me enelralive insighl and lighl.
1z
In lhe assage above 'This' refers lo kna iann, |nata iann
and ti|nata iann vhich have already been exlained. Hov
suering originales from lhem is as follovs: Kna iann hnds
delighl in ob|ecls of sensual leasures vhich have lo be
searched and vorked for. Some eole undergo inlense suer-
ings, even lo lhe exlenl of losing lheir lives, vhile in ursuil
of lhe ob|ecls of lheir desires. Any aueml lo curb lhe crav-
ing vhich has arisen also resulls in suering and unhai-
ness. To look and vork for lhings vhich are nol easily auain-
able is also suering. The lask of looking aer lhe acquired
veallh and roerly is very onerous. Smokers and belel leaf
ealers suer dicully vhen lhey run shorl of lheir ob|ecls of
desire. Ieole addicled lo drinking and oium smoking vill
feel much vorse under similar circumslances.
Man is born alone. While young, he leads a single life ha-
ily free from encumbrances. When he grovs u, he feels lhe
need for a comanion. Insligaled by kna iann, he begins lo
look for one. When he aims for lhe unauainable he ends u in
misery. If al lasl his vish is fulhlled by geuing lhe comanion
he needs, lhe lrouble soon slarls vhen lhey hnd lhemselves
incomalible. Iven vhen lhere is concord and harmony in lhe
marriage, lrouble aears vhen one of lhe arlners haens
lo be slruck by a serious illness. Auending lo a sick erson
is a dicull lask. In lime, dealh comes lo one of lhe arlners,
leaving lhe olher in lhe lhroes of lamenlalion and suering.
Il is lain lhal all lhese suerings are rooled in iann.
ul lhe ma|orily of beings are under lhe delusion lhal lhis
iann is lhe source of hainess. They consider il a bliss lo
1
en|oy lhe leasures of various sensual ob|ecls. When iann
is nol aroused in lhe absence of any leasurable ob|ecls or
sensalions, life becomes dull and monolonous for lhem. To
ay visils lo monasleries or lemles is irksome, lo lislen lo ser-
mons on Viassan medilalion is uuerly boring. On lhe olher
hand, enlerlainmenl shovs such as cinemas and shovs ro-
vide |oy, delighl and merrimenl. Thus lhis iann is carefully
nurlured by hunling for all available ob|ecls of desire. These
franlic ursuils aer leasure are made in lhe belief lhal lhey
lead lo |oy and hainess. Ieole believe in lhis vay for no
olher reason lhan lhe ignorance vhich misguides lhem.
Hovever, vhal aear lo be leasanl and delighlful are, in re-
alily, avesome and horrifying because of lheir nalure of inces-
sanl arising and erishing. There is never any surfeil of sense
leasures since iann is insaliable. Iven aer days, monlhs
and years of en|oying lhe leasure, iann remains unsalished.
Hence, lheir conslanl and anxious ursuils aer leasure
so lhal lheir en|oymenl may nol be disruled. When al lasl,
lhe slock of leasurable ob|ecls and sensalions becomes ex-
hausled, greal dissalisfaclion is endured. This is a shorl ac-
counl of hov iann gives rise lo lrouble and suering in lhe
resenl life.
ul lhe real cause of suering lies in lhe facl lhal lhis iann
is resonsible for reealed rounds of rebirlhs. Ileasurable
sighls and sounds excile delighl and craving and lhis craving
gives rise lo auachmenl. ecause of auachmenl, eorl has lo
be ul forlh for ils fulhlmenl. This conslilules sanknra, kna
|nata. ecause of such aclivilies in fulhlmenl of desires and
1
because lhe jatana consciousness of lhe dealh momenl, olher-
vise called lhe a|nisanknra tinnana, vhich gels ils imelus
from iann, holds on lo lhe ob|ecl vhich aears lhen, rebirlh
consciousness arises immedialely aer lhe dealh conscious-
ness. Irom lhe momenl of rebirlh consciousness in lhe nev
exislence, il may be said lhal all lhe lroubles and lribulalions
vilh regard lo nev life have begun. All lhese lroubles from
lhe momenl of rebirlh consciousness have lheir rools in iann.
As for Arahals in vhom iann has been eradicaled, lhey do nol
encounler anymore suerings of nev exislence. Thus, kna
iann is lhe real cause of suerings such as birlh, elc., lhe
sanu!aqa sacc.
Inlhusiasls vho asire for rpa|nata and arpa|nata slrive
for auainmenl or rpatacara jnna and arpatacara jnna resec-
lively. y virlue of such jnnic auainmenls, lhey are reborn
in lhe realms of rpa Brannas and arpa Brannas. As Brannas,
lhey are free from suerings of hysical ains as vell as
menlal aiclions. Their life san is also measured in lerms
of vorld cycles. Irom lhe vorldly oinl of viev, lheir life may
be deemed as one of hainess. ul vhen lheir life san is
lerminaled, lhey face dealh and suer lhe agonies of dealh,
narana !ukkna. They suer menlal dislress, loo, for nol having
lhe vish of immorlalily fulhlled. Aer dealh, loo, lroubles
and lribulalions avail lhem in kna exislence lo vhich lhey
are deslined. Thus, |nata iann, craving for exislence in lhe
rahma vorld is also really lhe Trulh of Suering.
Craving for non-exislence aer dealh is also cause of suer-
ing because il encourages evil deeds in lhis life. Inslead of
1j
shrinking from evil aclions lhe nihilisls go lo any lenglh in
ursuil of lhem vherever available and lake delighl in lhem.
ecause of such akusa|a kannas, lhey are reborn in lhe four
nelher vorlds for many exislences and undergo lhe voes and
miseries of lhese exislences. Il is very lain, lherefore, lhal
lhis ti|nata iann (craving for non-exislence) arising oul of lhe
nihilisl viev of life is dehnilely lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suf-
fering (sanu!aqa sacc).
The uddha, vho had realized lhal lhese lhree ianns are lhe
rool cause of suering, declared hov he had seen lhem: The
vision, vhich sav lhal lhis is lhe Noble Trulh of lhe Origin of
Suering, had arisen in me. Knoving lhis is lhe Noble Trulh
of lhe Origin of Suering is sacc na. The sacc na vhich
knovs lhis lrulh arises bolh before and aer lhe advenl of
ariqa nagga. Al lhe momenl of lhe Ialh, lhe funclion of knov-
ing lhe lrulh is accomlished, loo, by vay of relinquishing
or abandoning (panna paiitc!a). To summarise, lhal vhich
knovs lhe four Trulhs before, aer, and al lhe momenl of
nagga is sacc na.
Krcc~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To S~Vun~v~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!am !ukknasanu!aqc ariqasaccam pania||ani
nc, Bnikknatc, pu||c ananusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknun u!ap!i,
nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This ariqa Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering should
be abandoned. Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning lhings
unheard of before, lhere arose in me vision, knovledge,
visdom, lhere arose in me enelralive insighl and lighl.
16
If freedom from suering is desired, lhe origin of suering
musl be eliminaled. Ior examle, in order lo eecl cure of a
disease, lhe rool cause of lhe malaise musl be eradicaled by
adminislralion of suilable medicine. urmese hysicians diag-
nose lhe cause of a disease in lerms of disorders in lhe blood,
vind, bile and hlegm, climale, food, elc. Weslern hysicians
lrace lhe cause lo various disease carrying germs. When such
causes of disease have been duly diagnosed and lhen eradi-
caled lhrough roer medical lrealmenl, comlele cure of lhe
disease is eecled. Likevise, samsric suering of reealed re-
birlhs in lhe rounds of exislence may be avoided by removing
ils rool cause, vhich is iann, lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of Suer-
ing. Therefore, lhis lrulh is regarded as lhal vhich should be
given u, pania||a !nanna.
Hov is abandonmenl lo be eecled` Il is mosl essenlial lo
knov il. 'Lel iann nol aear, lel il nol arise, I shall kee
my mind as il is, free from iann. I shall have only iann-free
mind.' Will il be ossible lo mainlain such a slale of mind`
Ieole believing in lhe ossibilily of doing so should aclu-
ally lry lo auain lhis slale of mind and see hov long lhey
can mainlain il. Will nol lhe married man be harassed by
lhoughls of love and lenderness for his vife and erolic emo-
lion lhal demand fulhlmenl` Will lhere nol arise craving for
a smoke or a chev of lhe belel leaves, or for relishing a good
meal` And hov aboul lhe yearning for ossession of veallh
and roerly` These queslions cannol be easily disosed of
by brushing lhem aside, arguing lhal lhey are concerned vilh
mere lries, |usl nalural and rouline aairs of no imorlance.
1;
We have lo suer lhe arising of such ianns only because ve
cannol subdue lhem. ul lhe facl remains, and lhis should be
seriously borne in mind, lhal iann being a pania||a !nanna
should be eradicaled vhen ossible.
Aclually, lhere are lhree kinds of iann vhich need eliminalion:
1. Craving lhal molivales hysical and vocal aclions.
z. Craving lhal exciles lhe mind lo revel in imagined
delighls and fanlasies.
. Craving vhich is lying dormanl availing an
oorlune momenl lo manifesl ilself.
Of lhe lhree, lhe craving lhal molivales hysical and vocal
deeds is classihed as tiiikknana ki|cs (lhe dehlemenls vhich
can be eradicaled by si|a). A erson vho is reserving lhe
recels meliculously does nol sleal anylhing belonging lo
olhers, even if he feels he vanls il, does nol commil sexual
misconducl (one vho observes lhe |rann cariq recel does
nol indulge in any sexual raclice), does nol lie and abslains
from inloxicaling drinks or drugs. In lhis vay, he kees him-
self from tiiakkana ki|cs. This is hov craving is eliminaled by
means of si|a.
Craving vhich manifesls ilself in imaginalive delighls and
leasures is classihed as pariquiinana ki|cs (lhe dehlemenls
vhich can be eradicaled by sana!ni, lhe concenlraled mind).
If one is conslanlly engaged in lhe raclice of one of lhe medi-
lalion sub|ecls such as npna, one kees oneself free from
lhoughls of desire for and imaginings aboul sensuous ob|ecls.
Unless lhus absorbed in one of lhe medilalion exercises, if lhe
18
mind vere le free, on ils ovn, il vould engage ilself in lhink-
ing aboul desirable sense-ob|ecls, yearning moslly for sensual
leasure. If someone believes lhal he could kee his mind |usl
as il is free from craving for sensual leasures, he does nol
knov his ovn mind.
As a mauer of facl, even vhile occuied incessanlly vilh med-
ilalion, before lhe over of concenlralion gels slrenglhened,
kna tiiakka (lhoughls of sensuous leasures) kee on coming
u. Only vhen jnnic concenlralion is auained lhrough rac-
lice of concenlralion medilalion are lhoughls of grosser lyes
of sensual leasures broughl lo cessalion, bul even lhen, only
for lhe duralion of jnnic absorlion. This is hov san!ni
removes lhe craving for sensual leasures by tikknan|nana
panna, uuing il avay al a dislance.
Bnata iann (craving for exislence) and ti|nata iann (craving
for non-exislence) ersisl even in lhe erson of jnnic auain-
menls. They remain vilh some of lhe brahmas, loo. Therefore,
|nata iann and ti|nata iann cannol be eradicaled by sanaina
concenlralion. Il goes vilhoul saying lhen lhal ordinary er-
sons uninilialed in concenlralion and medilalion are nol free
from lhe craving for lheir ovn life and exislence. Hovever,
such uninslrucled eole are nol avare lhal lheir delighl in
life and exislence is iann (craving) or ki|cs (dehlemenl). They
even leach lhe exlreme vrong viev lhal 'mind can be kel
as il is free from dehlmenls. And mind free from ki|cs is
Nibbna.' This is dehnilely going againsl lhe leaching of lhe
uddha.
1
The craving vhich has nol aclually arisen yel, bul vill aear
vhen righl condilions revail is called anusaqa ki|cs (lalenl
dehlemenl). This is of lvo kinds:
1. rannana nusaqa lhe olenlial dehlemenl vhich
lies lalenl in lhe sense ob|ecls,
z. sanina nusaqa lhe olenlial dehlemenl lying dor-
manl in oneself (in lhe conlinuum of lhe aggregales).
There may be ob|ecls vhich manifesl lhemselves al lhe
momenl of seeing or hearing bul are nol noled lhen as im-
ermanenl, elc. On relroseclion, hovever, ki|cs can arise
in conneclion vilh lhem. Such ki|cs is knovn as rannana
nusaqa. Arannana nusaqa ki|cs can be ul avay by tipassan
na, bul tipassan can remove only lhe ki|cs lhal may arise
in lhe ob|ecls vhich are being conlemlaled on. The olenlial
dehlemenls remain unaecled in lhe ob|ecls vhich escae
conlemlalion.
The ki|cs vhich has nol yel been eradicaled by ariqa nagga
and is availing an oorlune momenl lo arise in lhe conlin-
uum of aggregales of a erson is knovn as sanina nusaqa.
This dehlemenl can be removed only by means of lhe ariqa
nagga na. Il is lo facililale eliminalion of lhe sanina nusaqa
by ariqa nagga lhal tipassan |ntan has lo be develoed.
ANus~v~ Krirs~ Acfu~iiv Exrsfs
In sile of dehnile slalemenls in lhe suua and abhidhamma
lexls regarding lhe exislence of anusaqa ki|cs, some eole
zo
are going round making asserlions lhal lhere is no such lhing
as anusaqa ki|cs, il is only lhrough menlal relenliveness lhal
ki|css arise. This is uuer irreverence shovn lovards lhe leach-
ings of lhe uddha.
}usl consider for a momenl. In re-adolescenl children, crav-
ing for sensual leasure in lhe form of laking delighl in lhe o-
osile sex has nol yel manifesled ilself. Il is nol because lhey
are devoid of ki|cs, bul because lhe momenl is nol yel oor-
lune for lhis ki|cs lo arise. Il is lying dormanl in lhem, vail-
ing lo come u vhen righl condilions revail. Il is common
knovledge lhal on reaching adolescence, lhe mere sighl and
sound of lhe oosile sex al once arouse sexual desires in
lhem. Il |usl haens inslanlaneously and nol because lhey
have reviously seen or heard aboul ils occurrence and kel
il in mind. Aclually, il haens because lhere is anusaqa ki|cs
lying dormanl in lhese youlhs and il nov hnds an oorlu-
nily lo arise.
Again, lel us lake lhe case of some eole vho have had
imlicil failh in lhe Trile Gem, namely, lhe uddha, lhe
Dhamma and lhe Sangha. ul vhen inuenced by leachers
of olher religions, lhey begin lo enlerlain doubls (ticikiccn)
aboul lhe uddha, lhe Dhamma and lhe Sangha. Some even
change lheir failh lo embrace vrong vievs (niccn!iiini).
Doubls and vrong vievs arise in lhem nol because of menlal
relenliveness bul because lhey have been lying dormanl in
lhem all lhe lime, lhey have nol been removed yel by lhe ariqa
nagga.
z1
The Ariqas of lhe uddha's lime had lheir doubls and vrong
vievs eliminaled by scipanna nagga so lhal no leacher, nol
even Sakka or Mara could inuence lhem lo embrace vrong
vievs, lo enlerlain doubls aboul lhe Trile Gem. Il vas be-
cause lhe dormanl dehlemenls in lhem, sanina nusaqa, had
been removed by lhe ariqa nagga.
The good eole vho have lhis oorlunily of hearing lhe dis-
course on lhe Dhammacakka should dehnilely bear in mind
lhal lhere lie lurking in lhem dehlemenls |usl vailing for an
oorlune momenl lo arise and lhal lhis craving, vhich is lhe
real cause of suering, should be eliminaled by ariqa nagga
lhrough develoing tipassan |ntan.
Knoving lhal lhis is lhe dhamma vhich should be eradi-
caled is kicca na vilh regard lo lhe Trulh of lhe Origin of
Suering. This kicca na vhich knovs vhal should be done
vilh resecl lo sanu!aqa sacc should be develoed rior lo
lhe advenl of lhe ariqa nagga. Thus, kicca na is advanced
knovledge of vhal should be knovn, vhal should be aban-
doned, vhal should be realized and vhal should be devel-
oed. To lhe lessed One, lhis kicca na had aeared vilh-
oul him having heard il. Therefore, he admiued: This is lhe
Noble Trulh of lhe origin of suering vhich should be aban-
doned. Thus, Oh, hikkhus, concerning lhings unheard of
before, lhere arose in me vision, knovledge, visdom, lhere
arose in me enelralive insighl and lighl. Then lhe lessed
One conlinued lo exlain hov he had accomlished lhe lask
of abandoning.
zz
K~f~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To S~Vun~v~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!am !ukknasanu!aqc ariqa saccam paninanii nc,
Bnikknatc, pu||c ananusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknun u!ap!i,
nan u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This Noble Trulh of lhe Origin of Suering has
been abandoned. Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning lhings
unheard of before, lhere arose in me vision, knovledge,
visdom, lhere arose in me enelralive insighl and lighl.
This is an accounl of hov relroseclion on lhe comlelion of
lhe lask of abandonmenl look lace aer he had abandoned
vhal should be abandoned, lhe craving olhervise called sanu-
!aqa sacc. This knovledge of comlelion of lhe lask lhal
should be erformed is knovn as lhe kaia na.
Whal is secially nolevorlhy in resecl of sanu!aqa sacc is
lhal four ariqa naggas cognize Nibbna by realizing il. Al lhe
hrsl inslance of such cognilion, craving vhich vill lead lo lhe
slales of voe and misery becomes eliminaled, al lhe second
inslance, grosser forms of craving for sensuous leasure (kna
iann) gel abolished. On lhe lhird occasion, lhe subller forms
of lhis kna iann disaear. All lhe remaining ianns are com-
lelely eradicaled vhen Nibbna is cognized for lhe fourlh
lime. Such eradicalion of iann is lermed knoving sanu!aqa
sacc by lhe four ariqa naggas or panna paiitc!a (enelralive
insighl by virlue of abandoning). The acl of abandoning or
eradicaling conslilules knoving vhal should be knovn by
lhe ariqa nagga. Thus, sanu!aqa sacc is lhal vhich should be
abandoned. This abandonmenl is panna paiitc!a.
z
This kaia na is also quile imorlanl. The goal of raclising
medilalion is really lhe removal of dehlemenls logelher vilh
lhis iann. Auainmenl of higher knovledge, accomlishmenl
of vhal should be done, is comlele and assured only vhen
lhis iann and dehlemenls are eradicaled. Il is essenlial lo scru-
linize oneself lo see vhelher one is really free of lhis iann
and dehlemenls. Iven if lhe lovesl slage of auainmenl (sci-
panna) is claimed, craving vhich romls akusa|a kanna lhal
leads lo lhe nelher vorlds should have been removed, one
should be free also of craving vhich may insligale infringe-
menl of lhe hve recels. The delighl and leasure accoma-
nied by craving for lhe vrong viev lhal lhere is a living enlily,
a self, should have been discarded. Only vhen one is fully lib-
eraled of all lhese cravings, lhe claim of scipanna auainmenl
may be suslained, olhervise il should be observed lhal no
claim for any auainmenl is admissible.
We have fully deall vilh lhe lhree nas, sacc, kicca and kaia,
vilh regard lo lhe sanu!aqa sacc. We shall go on considering
lhe lhree nas concerning lhe nirc!na sacc.
S~cc4 N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To Nrronn~ S~cc4
|!am !ukknanirc!nc ariqasaccanii nc, Bnikknatc, pu||c
ananusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknum u!ap!ni, nan u!ap!i,
pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This is lhe Noble Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering.
Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning lhings unheard of before,
lhere arose in me vision, knovledge, visdom, lhere arose
in me enelralive insighl and lighl.
z
'This' in lhe above assage of lhe lexl refers lo 'lhe comlele
cessalion of iann, olhervise called sanu!aqa sacc', vhich had
already been exlained. When iann is abolished, all suer-
ings of lhe nna, rpa, sanknras cease. The uddha said lhal
lhe sacc na, vhich knovs lhal lhis cessalion (nirc!na sacc)
is lhe Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering, had arisen in him.
lhis sacc na arises before and aer ariqa nagga and is real-
ized al lhe momenl of lhe alh.
As lo hov lhis knovledge arises before lhe alh, lhe disci-
les acquire lhis na lhrough learning from olhers, lhal is,
on hearsay. The lessed One, hovever, had gained lhis knov-
ledge by his ovn inluilion even rior lo auainmenl of scipaui
nagga. Thus, he said: Concerning lhings unheard of before,
lhere arose in me vision, elc. Al lhe momenl of ariqa nagga,
lhis sacc na is lhe same as ariqa nagga na vhich cognizes
Nibbna by realizalion.
Krcc~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To Nrronn~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!am !ukknanirc!nc ariqa saccam saccikaia||anii
nc, Bnikknatc, pu||c ananusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknum
u!ap!i, nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc
u!ap!i.
This is lhe Noble Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering
vhich should be realized. Thus, Oh hikkhus, con-
cerning lhings unheard of before, lhere arose in me
vision, knovledge, visdom, lhere arose in me enelralive
insighl and lighl.
zj
This na (knovledge) vhich knovs lhal nirc!na sacc, namely
lhe ni||nan, lhe cessalion of iann, is lhal vhich should be
realized. Il is knovn as kicca na since il is lhe knovledge
lhal knovs vhal funclion is lo be erformed vilh resecl lo
nirc!na sacc.
And lhis is hov realizalion lakes lace: al lhe momenl of full
and hrm eslablishmenl of sanknrupckkna na, vhile observ-
ing one of lhe henomena of originalion and dissolulion, lhe
ace of cognilion gels fasler and fasler unlil lhe sanknra ob-
|ecls under conlemlalion as vell as lhe knoving conscious-
ness lunge inlo a slale of cessalion vhere all sanknra suer-
ings come lo an end. Al lhe lime of realizing lhe cessalion of
all condilioned lhings, ianns also come lo a cessalion. Thus,
cessalion of iann is lermed nirc!na sacc, vhich is cognized
by ariqa nagga lhrough realizalion. Such cognilion is knovn
as saccnikiriqa paiitc!a (enelralive insighl by realizalion).
Nirc!na sacc is lhe lrulh lo be realized. Such realizalion is
knovn as saccnikiriqa paiitc!a.
The urose of laking nole of every inslance of seeing, hear-
ing, louching, knoving is lo accomlish lhe lask of saccnikiriqa
paiitc!a lhrough realising nirc!na sacc. The uddha had ac-
comlished lhe funclion of saccnikiriqa paiitc!a by realizalion
of Nibbna lhrough aranaua nagga pna|a on lhe 'unconquered
lhrone' al lhe fool of lhe o lree. He conlinued lo recounl
hov he had develoed lhe kaia na vhich relrosecled on
lhe comlelion of lhe lask, as follovs.
z6
K~f~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To Nrronn~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!am !ukknanirc!nc ariqa saccam saccnikaianii nc,
Bnikknatc, pu||c ananusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknum u!ap!i,
nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This is lhe Noble Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering vhich
has been realized. Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning lhings
unheard of before, lhere arose in me vision, knovledge,
visdom, lhere arose in me enelralive insighl and lighl.
This is an accounl of hov relroseclion on lhe comlelion
of lhe lask look lace aer he had realized nirc!na sacc by
means of aranaua nagga pna|a na. We shall deal nexl vilh
lhe lhree nas in resecl of nagga na.
S~cc4 N4N~ Wrfn Rrsircf To M~cc~ S~cc4
|!am !ukknanirc!naganini paiipc!a ariqasaccanii nc,
Bnikknatc, pu||c ananusuicsu !nanncsu, cakknum u!ap!i,
nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This is lhe Noble Trulh of lhe raclice lhal reaches lhe
cessalion of suering or lhal leads lo lhe cessalion of suf-
fering. Thus, Oh hikkhus, concerning lhings unheard
of before, lhere arose in me vision, knovledge, visdom,
lhere arose in me enelralive insighl and lighl.
This sacc has a long name bul lhe commenlaries shorlen il as
|usl nagga sacc, lhe Trulh of lhe Ialh. We shall use lhe shorl
lille in our discourse.
z;
Knoving lhal lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh is lhe raclice, lhe
Noble Trulh of lhe Ialh lhal leads lo lhe Cessalion of Suer-
ing, eace of Nibbna, is called sacc na. This sacc na
arises before, aer and al lhe momenl of ariqa nagga.
The disciles of lhe uddha, vho had nol yel auained lhe
ariqa nagga, learnl of lhis nagga sacc only from hearing aboul
il. Common vorldlings have nol yel realized, as ersonal ex-
erience, lhe ariqa nagga sacc. The commenlaries say: 'Magga
sacc is a dhamma lo be desired, lo be asired aer and lo
be arecialed'. Learning lhus lhrough hearing, lhe mind
should be benl lovards il. The reliminary lask vilh resecl
lo nagga sacc is accomlished |usl by bending lhe mind lo-
vards il. Likevise, vilh regard lo nirc!na sacc, olhervise
called Nibban vhich common vorldlings cannol erceive,
lhe commenlaries say lhal il requires only lo bend lhe mind
lovards il as dhamma lo be desired, lo asire aer, lo be a-
recialed, by vhich acl lhe reliminary funclion lo be er-
formed for nirc!na sacc is accomlished.
Il musl, lherefore, be remembered lhal ariqa nagga sacc need
nol be lhoughl of and conlemlaled on, likevise Nibbna
needs no rior conlemlalion nor lhinking aboul. As for lhe
uddha, |usl as he had reviously arrived al lhe knovledge
of lhe nirc!na sacc lhrough inluilive insighl, he also gained
knovledge of lhis nagga sacc lhrough inluilion. Thal is vhy
he said in admission lhal 'concerning lhings unheard of before,
lhere arose in me vision, elc.'
z8
Al lhe momenl of ariqa nagga, only nirc!na sacc, olhervise
eace of Nibbna, is erceived by realizalion. Magga !nannas
realized in lhis vay aclually aear in lhe erson and as such
lhe lask of develoing lhem in lhe erson is accomlished.
This is knovn as |ntan paiitc!a (knovledge by develo-
menl). Thus nagga sacc should be develoed in lhe erson
and lhis develomenl is |ntan paiitc!a.
Whal is meanl here is lhal vhen ariqa nagga aears in lhe
erson, il amounls lo seeing lhe ariqa nagga, il also means
lhe lask of knoving il is accomlished al lhe same lime. As
lhe ariqa nagga has been develoed in lhe erson, relrosec-
lion vill reveal il very clearly. Hovever, il is nol ossible lo
develo lhe ariqa nagga slraighl avay. One musl begin by
develoing lhe pu||a|nga nagga as lhe hrsl sle. Ior lhis
reason, tipassan also is lo be regarded as a correcl raclice
lhal leads lo nirc!na (cessalion). We have already menlioned
above in Iarl VI hov Sammonavinodani commenlary also
recommends lhal viassan should be regarded as such.
Krcc~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To M~cc~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!am !ukknanirc!nagnini paiipa! ariqa saccam
|ntcia||anii nc, Bnikknatc, pu||c ananussuicsu !nanncsu,
cakknum u!ap!i, nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i, tpj u!ap!i
a|ckc u!ap!i.
This is lhe Noble Trulh of lhe alh lhal leads lo cessalion
of suering and lhis has lo be develoed. Thus, Oh hik-
khus, concerning lhings unheard of before, lhere arose in
z
me vision, knovledge, visdom, lhere arose in me enelra-
live insighl and lighl.
Knoving lhal nagga sacc is a dhamma lhal should be devel-
oed vilhin oneself is called kicca na, il is lhe knovledge
lhal knovs vhal should be done vilh resecl lo nagga sacc.
Whal should be done vilh resecl lo !ukkna sacc` Il should
be fully and righlly comrehended. Whal should be done
vilh resecl lo nagga sacc` Il should be develoed vilhin
one's ovn self. This musl dehnilely be remembered.
Thal nagga sacc is lhe dhamma lhal should be develoed
vas laughl for lhe hrsl lime by lhe uddha in lhis Dhamma-
cakka Suua. Thus lo develo nagga is lo raclise for lhe auain-
menl of Nibbna in accordance vilh lhe vishes of lhe lessed
One. Hovever, lhe raclice cannol be slarled vilh develo-
menl of nagga sacc slraighl avay. One musl slarl vilh pu||a-
|nga nagga, olhervise called tipassan nagga. In order lo de-
velo ariya nagga sacc lhen, one musl begin vilh develoing
tipassan nagga.
In order lo develo lhis pu||a|nga or tipassan nagga, !ukkna
sacc musl be conlemlaled on. Dukkna sacc means up-
!nakknan!na vhich has been exlensively exlained in Iarl
IV. Conlemlaling on lhe aggregales lhal aear al every in-
slanl of lheir arising, lhere is develoed hrsl lhe knovledge
of dislinclion belveen lhe ob|ecl of avareness and lhe knov-
ing mind. This is folloved by underslanding lhe lav of cause
and eecl. As one roceeds, one comes lo knov lhe nalure
of ux, lhe conslanl arising and assing avay of nna and
o
rpa. Since il arises only lo erish in lhe nexl momenl, il is un-
slable, imermanenl, ure suering, nol self, because il arises
and vanishes on ils ovn accord. Iersonal realizalion of lhese
realilies is sann!iiini. Il has been exlained before lhal vhen
sann!iiini is develoed, sannsankappa and olher naggas are
also develoed. Hov lo develo lhese naggas has also been
described before.
riey, il consisls hrsl in noling any of lhe sensalions of louch
one exeriences. In order lo simlify lhe raclice, ve have
recommended slarling vilh conlemlalion of lhe henome-
non of rising and falling of lhe abdomen. While in lhe ro-
cess of observing lhe rising and falling of lhe abdomen, lhe
yogi may haen lo slarl lhinking aboul somelhing else. He
should make a nole of such lhoughls, loo, as lhey arise. He
should also nole lhe ainful sensalions such as sliness, feel-
ing hol, feeling ainful, ilching, elc., as lhey arise. Changing
of bodily movemenls should also be noled as lhey occur. Al-
lenlion should be also be given lo any exlraordinary lhing,
seen or heard. Thus, vhile observing every henomenon, al
every inslanl of noling, knovledge of realily as il is, sann!i-
iini and tipassan naggas vill be develoed. When viassan
becomes fully eslablished, lhe Iighlfold ariqa nagga is evolved.
Thus, conlemlaling on lhe aclual henomenon of lhe aggre-
gales (lhe !ukkna sacc), amounls lo develomenl of lhe Iighl-
fold Noble Ialh. To recailulale:
1. Only by develoing lhe pu||a|nga, olhervise called
tipassan, may ariqa nagga be auained.
1
z. To develo tipassan nagga, lhe henomena of seeing,
hearing (!ukkna sacc) should be carefully observed.
. Al every inslance of noling lhe henomenon of
seeing, hearing (!ukkna sacc), lhe Iighlfold Noble
Ialh is develoed.
Therefore, ve have comosed lhe mnemonics:
Basic, prccurscr, ariqa pains,
Dctc|cping incn |ca!s ic Ni||ana.
Some eole had been under lhe vrong imression lhal lhe
urose is served by acquiring a book-knovledge of lhe he-
nomena of lhe aggregales and lhe nalure of anicca, !ukkna,
anaua, elc. Only vhen lhey have raclised medilalion in ac-
cordance vilh Saliallhna medilalion and gained exlraordi-
nary exeriences, do lhey begin lo see lheir mislakes. They
oenly slale lheir realizalion lhen, lhal unless lhey engage
lhemselves in lhe aclual raclice of valching lhe henomena
of seeing, hearing, elc., al lhe inslanl of lheir occurrence, lhe
paria kicc (lhe funclion of fully and righlly underslanding
lhe !ukkna sacc) remains unaccomlished, lhe lask of devel-
oing lhe Iighlfold nagga also remains uncomleled. These
are lhe admissions made by learned eole vell-versed in lhe
scrilures. They have, by ersonal exerience, come lo under-
sland lhe righl vay for higher auainmenls.
The uddha's leaching embodied in lhis Dhammacakka Suua
'lhal Iighlfold Ialh is lhe dhamma vhich has lo be develoed
by conlemlaling on lhe henomena of nna and rpa al lhe
z
momenl of lheir occurrence', should be noled vilh all serious-
ness. Il should be carefully and sleadfaslly remembered loo
lhal knoving lhe funclion concerning lhe nagga sacc is kicca
na, lhal lhis na should be acquired from learning by hear-
ing rior lo lhe advenl of ariqa nagga, lhal only lhen can tipas-
san nagga be develoed by observing lhe aclual henomena
of up!nakknan!na or !ukkna sacc al lhe lime of lheir occur-
rences, lhal only by develoing lhe tipassan nagga, lhe ariqa
nagga (olhervise called |ntcia||a nagga sacc) can be devel-
oed and Nibbna realized.
K~f~ N4N~ Wrfn Rrc~rn To M~cc~ S~cc4
Tam knc pani!am !ukknanirc!nagnini paiipa! ariqa saccam
|natiianii nc, Bnikknatc, pu||c ananusuicsu !nanncsu,
cakknum u!ap!i, nan u!ap!i, pa u!ap!i, tpj
u!ap!i, a|ckc u!ap!i.
This is lhe Noble Trulh of lhe Ialh lhal leads lo lhe Cessa-
lion of Suering and lhis has been develoed. Thus, Oh,
hikkhus, concerning lhings unheard of before, lhere
arose in me vision, knovledge, visdom, lhere arose in
me enelralive insighl and lighl.
This is lhe admission by lhe lessed One of hov kaia na
had arisen lhrough relroseclion of having accomlished lhe
develomenl of nagga sacca unlil auainmenl of aranaua nagga.
The lhree nas, namely, sacc, kicca and kaia vilh resecl
lo lhe four Trulhs have nov been comlelely exlained in
lvelve vays, lhal is fourfold of lhree nas.

To recailulale lhese lvelve vays:


1. Knoving lhe four Trulhs before, aer and al lhe
momenl of nagga is sacc na.
Knoving lhal lhis is lhe Trulh of Suering, lhis is lhe Trulh
of lhe Origin of Suering, lhis is lhe Trulh of cessalion, lhis
is lhe Trulh of lhe alh leading lo lhe cessalion of suering,
is sacc na. This na aears also in advance of lhe nagga.
Ior lhe disciles, sacc nan in resecl of nirc!na sacc and
nagga sacc is acquired before nagga, only by suianaqa, hear-
say. Nirc!na sacc is erceived also lhrough realizalion al lhe
momenl of nagga. The remaining lhree naggas are erceived
al lhe momenl of nagga by accomlishing lhe lasks of fully
and righlly underslanding, giving u and develoing, lhal is,
by accomlishing lhe lhree funclions (iisu kiccaic), as lhe com-
menlaries say. Hov lhese are erceived aer lhe auainmenl
of nagga is very clear and needs no elaboralion.
z. Irior knovledge of vhal should be knovn, vhal
should be abandoned, vhal should be realized and
vhal should be develoed is kicca na.
'Thal !ukkna should be fully and righlly comrehended, sanu-
!aqa should be abandoned, nirc!na should be realized and
nagga should be develoed vilhin oneself. Knoving lhem
conslilules kicca na vhich knovs vhal should be done in
resecl of lhe four Trulhs. This na arises before viassan
medilalion slarls as vell as during lhe lime of viassan rac-
lice rior lo lhe advenl of ariqa nagga.

. Knoving lhal lhe necessary funclion has been


accomlished is kaia na.
In mundane aairs, lhere is knovledge of comlelion vhen
lhe lask lo be done has been done. Likevise, vhen lhe four
funclions of righlly comrehending, giving u, realizing and
develoing have been erformed, lhis facl is knovn lhrough
relroseclion. This is knovn as kaia na, knovledge of com-
lelion of vhal has lo be done.
Whal ve have described are lhe lvelve kinds of nas made
u of four kinds of sacc nas, four kinds of kicca nas and
four kinds of kaia nas. Of lhese lvelve, il is of ulmosl imor-
lance lo knov clearly hov sacc na arises and lhe four func-
lions lo be erformed. We shall briey go over lhem again:
1. Dukkna sacc should be righlly and fully comre-
hended, such comrehension is knovn as paria
paiitc!a.
z. Sanu!aqa sacc should be abandoned, such abandon-
menl is knovn as panna paiitc!a.
. Nirc!na sacc should be realized, such realizalion is
knovn as saccnikiriqa paiitc!a.
. Magga sacc should be develoed in oneself, such
develomenl is knovn as |ntan paiitc!a.
Al lhe momenl of nagga, only nirc!na sacc is erceived
lhrough realizalion. The remaining lhree lrulhs are erceived
lhrough comlelion of lhe required lasks by paria paiitc!a,
j
panna paiitc!a, and |ntan paiitc!a reseclively. Therefore,
lhe commenlary says: 'The lhree lrulhs are knovn by lhe
comlelion of lhe lasks and nirc!na by realizalion.'
j. When nagga sees one of lhe four lrulhs.
6. All lhe four paiitc!as are accomlished.
}usl as vilh lhe ariqa nagga, al lhe momenl of raclising ti-
passan loo, by observing !ukkna sacc alone as lhe ob|ecl, lhe
lask of knoving lhe remaining lhree saccs is also done. Il
haens in lhis manner: The sense ob|ecl vhich is being er-
ceived lhrough medilalion as embodimenl of anicca, !ukkna,
anaua cannol arouse iann vhich vould lake delighl in il
under lhe delusion of anicca, sukna, aua. This is ia!anga panna
paiitc!a, lhe lemorary abandonmenl of iann. The atpj (delu-
sion) vhich vould misarehend lhe observed ob|ecl as nicca,
sukna and aua, as vell as lhe sanknra, tinnana, elc., gels no o-
orlunily lo arise and ceases consequenlly. This is realizalion
lhrough lemorary cessalion, ia!anga nirc!na. Vipassan nagga
vhich erceives everylhing as anicca, !ukkna, anaua is being
develoed al every inslanl of avareness. This is |ntan pa-
iitc!a. Thus, vhile raclising viassan medilalion by knov-
ing !ukkna sacc lhrough conlemlalion, lhe remaining lhree
lrulhs are erceived by comlelion of lhe lasks of panna, sac-
cnikiriqa and |ntan paiitc!as. Thus, il may be said lhal all
four lrulhs are erceived al lhe same lime.
We have come lo lhe conclusion of lhe consideralion of lvelve
vays of erceiving lhe four lrulhs in four folds of lhree nas.
We shall slo here loday.
6
May all you good eole resenl in lhis audience, by virlue
of having given reseclful auenlion lo lhis greal discourse on
lhe lurning of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, be able lo fully and
righlly undersland lhe Trulh of Suering (!ukkna sacc), elc.,
by conlemlaling on lhe henomena of hearing, seeing, elc.,
and, lhrough vhalever alh and fruilion you have chosen,
achieve seedy realizalion of Nibbna, lhe end of suerings.
S!nu! S!nu! S!nu!
;
Cn.v+in Iion+
Tni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Wniii oi Dn.xx.
Diiiviniu o +ni Iiii Moo u.v oi Nn.io T.oi, 1z, inxisi In..
Our series of leclures on Dhammacakka given al lhis Hall
of Glass vas disruled during our visils lo Myilkyina and
hamo. In our lasl leclure on lhe full-moon day of Tabaung,
ve had deall vilh lvelve kinds of na, sacc, kicca and kaia,
lhree each for lhe four Trulhs. Today, ve vill give an accounl
of vhen lhe uddha did nol admil lo as vell as vhen he did
admil auainmenl of Inlighlenmenl.
WnrN Tnr Bunnn~ Drn Nof AnVrf fo ENircnfrNVrNf
Ytakitaca nc, Bnikknatc, incsu caiusu ariqasacccsu ctam
iiparitaiiam !t!askaram qainnnuiam na!assanam na suti-
su!!nam ancsi, ncta iatnam, Bnikknatc, sa!ctakc |ckc sanrakc
sa|rnanakc sassanana|rannaniq pajqa, sa!ctananussqa
anuuaram sannsan|nc!im a|nisan|u!ncii paccasin.
As long, Oh hikkhus, as my knovledge of realily and
insighl regarding lhe four Noble Trulhs in lhree asecls
and lvelve vays vas nol fully clear lo me, so long did
I nol admil lo lhe vorld vilh ils devas, maras and brah-
mas, lo lhe mass of beings vilh ils recluses, brahmins,
kings and eole, lhal I had underslood, auained and
realized righlly by myself lhe incomarable, lhe mosl
8
excellenl erfecl enlighlenmenl, in olher vords, lhe er-
feclly enlighlened sureme uddhahood.
Sannsan|c!ni is lhe aranaua nagga na vhich is auained
only by lhe uddhas. The uddhas gain lhis aranaua nagga
na inluilively by lheir ovn eorls vilhoul any inslruclion
from olhers. y lhis na, lhey righlly and erfeclly knov
everylhing because vilh il arises simullaneously lhe sa||a-
uia na vhich knovs everylhing. Therefore, lhis exclusive
aranaianagga na of lhe uddhas is knovn as sannsan|c!ni,
sann being righlly, san is by oneself and |c!ni means knov-
ledge, knovledge righlly knovn by self. Ior Iacceka uddhas,
lheir aranauanagga na is knovn only as sam|c!ni, self-knovn
knovledge vilhoul lhe qualifying sann (righlly). The aranai-
ianagga na of lhe disciles is simly knovn as |c!ni, knov-
ledge, enlighlenmenl vilhoul lhe qualifying sann and san.
The aranauanagga na lhal had arisen lo lhe uddhas vas
knovn by lhemselves and righlly. Hence, il is called san-
nsan|c!ni. Wilh lhis na arises simullaneously sa||anuia
na, vhich knovs all dhammas. Aer having acquired lhis
facully of knoving everylhing, uddhahood vhich knovs all
dhammas vas auained. Therefore, lhis sannsan|c!ni na is
regarded as lhe knovledge resonsible for auainmenl of ud-
dhahood. Thus, in lhe above assage, lhe uddha said lhal
he had nol yel admiued auainmenl of sannsan|c!ni na
vhich vould give rise lo uddhahood.
Ior hov long did he vilhhold lhis admission of uddhahood`
Il vas slaled lhal he vilhheld il for as long as his knovledge

of lhe four Trulhs in lhree asecls of sacca, kicca and kaia na


for each lrulh, as exlained earlier, vas nol fully clear lo him.
To hx a dehnile lime limil, il meanl lhal lhe admission vas
vilhheld lill early davn of lhe day aer lhe full-moon day of
Kason, |usl before he auained lhe aranauanagga.
y lhe ronouncemenl of non-admission unlil lhen, he made
il clear lhal il vas oul of lhe queslion for him lo make lhe
claim of uddhahood during lhe earlier eriod vhen he vas
engaged in exlreme auslerilies.
In lhe above assage, lhree asecls mean sacca, kicca and kaia
na for each of lhe four Trulhs. y lvelve vays is meanl lhe
lolal number of nas evolved for all lhe four Trulhs, fourfold
of lhese lhree nas. Aranauanagga na logelher vilh lhese
lvelve nas vhich aeared before and aer il is qain|nuia
na, knovledge of seeing realily as il is. Ior as long as lhis
qaina|nuia na vas nol fully clear lo him, for so long lhe
lessed One vilhheld admission of having auained uddha-
hood, erfecl enlighlenmenl, sannsan|c!ni.
To lhe query 'Amidsl vhom vas lhis admission vilhheld`', il
may be ansvered. 'In lhis vorld.' In lhis vorld, lhere are ov-
erful devas of shar inlellecl, lhere are also naras vho are an-
lagonislic lo lhe leaching, as vell as |rannas, more overful
and more inlelligenl lhan lhe !ctas and naras. Had auainmenl
of uddhahood been claimed before his knovledge of lhe four
Trulhs vas fully clear lo him, il vould have been dicull for
him lo give salisfaclory relies and ansvers lo queslions, inqui-
o
ries, disulalions lhal vould be raised by lhese !ctas, naras and
|rannas. Keeing aside lhese !ctas, naras and |rannas vho vere
nol in close associalion vilh lhe human beings, lhere vere in
lhe human vorld, on lhe surface of lhe earlh, recluses and ascel-
ics knovn as sananas and |rannanas. There vere also kings o-
ularly designaled as !ctas, and lhe common eole. Il vould
have been dicull, loo, lo rely lo lhe invesligalive enquiries
and queries lhey mighl haen lo make. There vere living in
lhose days leaders of religious secls, such as Iurana Kassaa,
vho claimed lo knov all aboul lhe asl, lhe resenl and lhe
fulure. When learned eole, recluses and laymen began lo
scrulinize lheir claims, lhese religious leaders had been found
lo fall far shorl of lheir claims. Had uddha ronounced his
uddhahood before aclual auainmenl of sannsan|c!ni na,
he could also have faced a similar redicamenl.
Al one lime, even uddha vas confronled by King Iasenad
Kosala vho, laking advanlage of his kingly osilion, sub-
|ecled lhe uddha lo a searching examinalion. Oh Golama,
do you also claim lo undersland, achieve, realize lhe incom-
arable, erfecl Inlighlenmenl, olhervise lhe uddhahood`
In lhose days, lhe leaders such as Iurana Kassaa, elc., used
lo make bold claims of uddhahood lo lhe common eole,
bul vhen examined by King Iasenad Kosala, lhey fallered in
lheir claims. When even elderly leaders of religious secls hesi-
lale lo claim uddhahood, you, Oh Golama, vho are much
younger in age and less exerienced in religious life, do you
really admil lhal you have become a uddha` lhe king er-
sisled in his enquiries by reealing lhe queslion.
1
The uddha being, as he vas, a lrue uddha, vas able lo
give salisfaclory ansvers lo lhe king. Iully convinced of lhe
uddha's sureme auainmenls, King Iasenad Kosala look
refuge in lhe uddha, lhe Dhamma and lhe Sangha and
became a discile of lhe uddha from lhal lime. Having in
mind such eole vho mighl examine and invesligale him,
he said, I did nol declare yel lo lhe vorld vilh ils !ctas, naras
and |rannas and lo lhe mass of beings vilh recluses and |ran-
nanas, kings and eole lhal I had auained uddhahood.
Wilh lhese vords lhe uddha lel il be knovn lhal for so long
as he had nol become a lrue uddha, he should nol have
claimed lo. Accordingly, he did nol. ul vhen lhe lime came
lo ronounce his uddhahood, he did ronounce il. And lhis
is hov he made his declaralion.
AckNowirncrVrNf Or Bunnn~noon
Yaic ca knc, Bnikknatc, |ncsu caisu ariqasacccsu ctam
iiparitaiiam !t!askram qain|nuiam na!assanam
sutisu!!nam ancsi, ainanam, Bnikknatc, sa!ctakc |ckc san-
rakc sa|rnnakc sassanana|rannaniqa pajqa sa!ctananussqa
anuuaram sannsan|c!nim a|nisan|u!!ncii paccasim.
ul vhen, hikkhus, my knovledge of realily and
insighl regarding lhe Iour Noble Trulhs in lhree resecls
and lvelve vays became fully clear lo me, I declared lo
lhe vorld vilh ils !ctas, naras and |rannas, lo lhe mass of
z
beings vilh ils recluses, |rannanas, kings and eole lhal
I had underslood, auained and realized righlly by myself
lhe incomarable, lhe mosl excellenl erfecl enlighlen-
menl, in olher vords, lhe erfeclly enlighlened sureme
uddhahood.
Whal he declared in lhe above assage vas lhal only vhen
his qain|nuia na, knovledge of seeing realily as il lruly is,
vas fully clear in lvelve vays derived from lhree nas of
sacc, kicca and kaia vilh resecl lo each of lhe four Trulhs, did
he admil lo auainmenl and realizalion of lhe incomarable,
lhe mosl excellenl erfecl Inlighlenmenl, lhe erfeclly en-
lighlened sureme uddhahood. This declaralion vas made
nol |usl lo lhal region, lhal arl of lhe vorld, bul lo lhe vhole
universe vilh ils overful !ctas of shar inlellecl, vilh ils
naras hoslile lo lhe lrue Teaching, and vilh ils more overful
and more inlelligenl |rannas. Il vas meanl also for lhe vhole
of lhe human vorld vilh ils learned recluses and brahmanas,
vilh ils kings and eoles.
This declaralion vas an oen invilalion lo any doubling !ctas,
nras or |rnnas or lo any doubling recluses, |rannanas, kings
or vise lay ersons lo invesligale, scrulinize his claim, and a
guaranlee lo give salisfaclory ansvers lo all lheir searching
enquiries. This is indeed a very bold, solemn declaralion nol
made imeluously or imulsively vilhoul due verihcalion,
bul only aer he had scrulinized and reassured himself by
relroseclion lhal he had really auained uddhahood.

CoNciunrNc Sf~frVrNf
naanca pana nc !assanam u!ap!i akupp nc tinuui,
aqananiin jii, nauni !ni puna||natc ii.
Indeed, knovledge and vision arose in me, unshakeable
is my deliverance, my liberalion from dehlemenls is
achieved by means of aranauanagga and pna|a, nol |usl
tikknan|nana, uuing avay ki|csa lo a dislance as by rpa
jnna or arpa jnna. Il is remainderless, roolless eradica-
lion of ki|csa, a liberalion vhich causes comlele calm
again. (He knev, lherefore, by reeclion lhal lhe deliver-
ance vas unshakeable, indeslruclible.) This is lhe lasl
exislence, nov lhere is no more rebirlh for me. Oh hik-
khus, such knovledge and vision had arisen in me, he
concluded.
In lhis concluding slalemenl, lhe vords 'unshakeable is my
deliverance' means lhal his deliverance is nol like lhal ob-
lained by virlue of rpa jnna and arpa jnna vhich may be
deslroyed again. The individual vho has oblained lhe slage
of rpa jnna and arpa jnna is free from ki|csas such as k-
naccnan!a (sensual desire), tqp!a (ill-vill), elc. These ki|csas
remain calm, suressed in him, bul vhen his jnnic auain-
menls deleriorale, sensual desires, ill-vill, elc., make lheir a-
earance again. These jnnas only ul avay lhe ki|csas lo a
dislance (tikknan|nana). The deliverance von by lhe uddha
vas of lhe sanuccnc!a tinuui lye, vhich comlelely eradi-
caled ki|csas vilhoul remainder, and of lhe paiipassa!i tinuui
lye, vhich again calmed dovn and lranquilized lhe olency

of lhese dehlemenls. Sanuccnc!a tinuui is deliverance by ara-


naua nagga na, vhich eradicales vilhoul remainder all ki|csas,
vhereas paiipassa!i tinuui is deliverance by means of aranaua
pna|a na, vhich calms dovn again lhe olency of all ki|csas.
These deliverances remain sleadfasl and indeslruclible. Hence,
lhe lessed One reecled, 'Unshakeable is my deliverance.'
Moreover, having eradicaled iann, olhervise called sanu!aqa
sacc, by means of aranaua nagga, lhe lessed One vas free
from iann vhich could cause nev becoming. Ior beings slill
saddled vilh iann, aer assing avay from one exislence,
lhey are reborn in lhe nexl, holding onlo, as ob|ecls, one of
lhe signs, kanna, kanna niniua, gaii niniua, vhich aears lo
lhem as dealh aroaches. There is alvays rebirlh, a nev ex-
islence, for beings nol yel devoid of iann.
The odhisaua had also assed lhrough many rounds of re-
birlhs in successive exislences. Thus, al lhe beginning of ud-
dhahood, lhe lessed One had reecled: 'Seeking in vain for
lhe house-builder Tanh had reealedly framed and buill lhis
house of fresh exislences, knan!na, because I vas nol equied
vilh good vision of aranaua nagga na (ancka jii samsram
san!ntissam) I had haslened lhrough many rounds of re-
birlhs, cycles of exislences. Nov, vilh lhe auainmenl of sa|-
|auia na logelher vilh aranaua na, I have found you.
Oh builder, Tann, never again shall you build lhis house, my
knan!na.'
In lhis manner, lhe lessed One had given an accounl of his
relroseclion. Allhough fresh exislence vas no more ossible
j
for lhe lessed One in lhe absence of iann, he slill had lo live
lhe resenl life vhich had been broughl forlh by iann before
ils eradicalion. Wilh relroseclion insighl, he said, 'This is my
lasl exislence. Nov lhere is no more rebirlh for me.' These are
lhe concluding vords of lhe Dhammacakka Suua.
M~ffrr For CoNsrnrr~froN
Careful sludy of lhe Dhammacakka Suua, beginning vilh
lhe vords '!tc nc, Bnikknatc, ania pa||ajiicna na sctiia||a' and
ending vilh lhe vords 'aqananii n jii, nauni !ni puna||natcii',
reveals lhal il deals vilh lhe alh lrodden by lhe lessed
One, lhe dhammas he had discovered and hov he had dis-
covered lhem. As lo lhe raclical delails of lhe alh, lhere
vas liule menlion of lhem in a direcl vay, only lhe oening
lines 'should nol indulge in lhe lvo exlremes' convey some
sorl of raclical inslruclions lo follov. Il is, lherefore, a mauer
for consideralion hov lhe early disciles auained lhe higher
knovledge of lhe alh and fruilion, by vhal raclical melh-
ods and in vhich manner lhey auained lheir goals. We shall
exlain lhis mauer nov.
Hrcnrr KNowirncr For Tnr LrsfrNrrs To Tnr Tr~cnrNc
In lhe discourses laughl by lhe uddha, allhough lhere vere
no recise inslruclions, such as 'raclise in lhis vay, bear in
mind in lhis manner', il musl be regarded lhal lhey conlain
exhorlalions and guidance as lo vhal should be folloved and
6
vhal should be avoided. According lo lhe ancienl maslers,
'every vord of lhe uddha carries an in|unclion'. To illuslrale:
Asctan ca ||nam, pan!iianaca sctan.
Puj ca pujaniqnam, ciam nanga|anuuanam.
This verse in lhe Mangala Suua gives only lhe enuncialion of
lhe lhree blessings, namely, 'Nol lo associale vilh lhe ignoranl,
lo associale vilh lhe vise, lo honour lhose vho are vorlhy
of honour, lhis is lhe noblesl blessing'. In lhis verse, lhere is
no direcl exhorlalion regarding vilh vhom one should dis-
sociale, associale or honour. Neverlheless, il should be laken
as an exhorlalion. Likevise, ve do nol hnd any direcl exhor-
lalion or in|unclion in lhe Dhammacakka Suua. The lessed
One simly said, 'Avoiding lhe lvo exlreme raclices, I have
discovered enelralingly lhe Middle Way.' This should be
regarded as meaning, 'Like me, you musl avoid lhe lvo ex-
lremes and follov lhe raclice of lhe Middle Ialh.'
In slaling 'The Middle Ialh leads lo vision, elc.', il should be
laken lo imly, 'If you develo lhe Middle Ialh, vision vill
arise in you, loo, higher knovledge vill come lo you, you vill
gain benehls unlil realizalion of Nibbna'. In giving lhe enun-
cialion of lhe Iighlfold Ialh, il should be laken as giving in-
slruclions for romoling si|a, san!ni and nagga alhs.
Then, lhe dehnilion of !ukkna sacc musl be regarded as in-
slruclions lo make an eorl lo undersland !ukkna sacc com-
rehensively. Likevise, il musl be underslood lhal vhal vas
laughl as sanu!aqa sacc vas an inslruclion lo remove il, as
;
are nirc!na sacc and nagga sacc inslruclions lo develo lhe
nagga sacc in oneself and realize lhe nirc!na sacc.
Aervards, lhe leaching of lhe four sacc na musl be re-
garded as an exhorlalion lo slrive lo auain lhe four sacc
nas vilh regard lo lhe four Trulhs, vhen he laughl aboul
four kicca nas, il vas inslruclion lo undersland lhe Trulh of
Suering by conlemlaling on lhe henomenon of anicca, elc.
This is indeed very obvious. When he described il as dhamma
vhich should be righlly and fully comrehended, il is very
clearly meanl lhal eorl should be made lo achieve comlele
and righlful underslanding of !ukkna sacc. Dukkna sacc has
already been exlained reviously lo consisl of jii, elc., u lo
up!nakknan!nas vhich manifesl lhemselves in oneself vhen
seeing, hearing, elc. Thus, il is underslandable lhal il means
conlemlalion of lhe nalure of anicca by noling every inslance
of seeing, hearing, elc.
'Magga sacc is lhe alh lo be develoed' means develomenl
by noling each henomenon of seeing, hearing, elc. Similarly,
'sanu!aqa should be eliminaled' means craving should be ul
avay by conlemlaling on lhe Trulh of Suering. 'Nirc!na sacc
should be realized' means lhal aer fully underslanding lhe
Trulh of Suering, lhrough conlemlalion and develoing lhe
tipassan nagga, ullimalely nirc!na sacc vill be realized.
When lhe uddha lold lhem hov he came lo knov vhal
should be knovn by develoing lhe Middle Ialh, also called
lhe Iighlfold Ialh, his audience could undersland lhal lhey
loo vould come lo knov vhal should be knovn by develo-
8
ing lhe Middle Ialh. Il is |usl like a erson recounling hov
he vas cured of lhe disease he vas suering from by laking
a cerlain eeclive medicine. Iersons having lhe same disease
vill realize lhal lhey could also cure lheir disease by lhe
same medicine.
The uddha's audience al lhal lime vas made u of eole
vho vere already accomlished in pranis lo auain higher
knovledge by hearing lhe hrsl sermon of lhe uddha. They
vere in a osilion lo undersland vhal he meanl. Accordingly,
il could be laken lhal lhey conlemlaled on lhe Trulh of Suer-
ing al lhe momenl of occurrence, develoing tipassan na in
successive slages, and ullimalely realized Nibbna by means
of lhe four ariqa naggas.
There is no doubl lhal lhe good eole forming lhis audience
could also, by conlemlaling on lhe Trulh of Suering, by
laking nole of lhe henomenon of rising and vanishing, come
lo knov lhe four Trulhs as lhey should be knovn and realize
lhe higher knovledge of lhe ariqan alh and fruilion.
Underslanding lhe sermon in lhe manner I have |usl ex-
lained, one member of lhe audience al lhe hrsl sermon of
lhe lessed One, lhe Venerable Kondaa, noling all lhe he-
nomena of hearing, knoving, feeling of devolion and lea-
sure, feeling glad, louching, seeing, lhal aeared lo him al
lhe lime of rising, develoed tipassan nagga and realized
scipaui alh and fruilion. Hov he realized lhem vill be lhe
sub|ecl of our discussion laler.

Iighleen crores |1 crore 1o millionj of |rannas likevise


achieved similar realizalion. According lo Milinda Ili lexl,
innumerable knatcara devas also medilaled in a similar vay
and auained lhe higher knovledge of lhe ariqa alh and frui-
lion. ecause all lhe beings vho vere develoed sucienlly
lo receive lhe dhamma had auained higher knovledge and be-
cause he had comlelely covered all lhe dhammas he should
leach, lhe lessed One broughl his sermon lo conclusion vilh
lhe vords |usl quoled above. The recilers al lhe Iirsl Council
had recorded lhis accounl of lhe lerminalion of lhe sermon
and hov lhe grou of hve bhikkhus vere gladdened by lhe
sermon in lhese vords.
Rrcorns Or Tnr S~Ncn4v~N4, Tnr Frrsf Orr~f CouNcri
|!anatcca Bnagat, auanan pacataggiq Bnikknu
|nagataic |nsiian a|ninan!unii.
Thus soke lhe lessed One, slarling vilh '!tc nc,
Bnikknatc, ani pa||ajiicna na sctiia||a' and ending vilh
'naiini !ni puna||natcii', and lhe grou of hve hikkhus
greally re|oiced, velcomed lhe vords of lhe lessed One
vilh delighl.
Then lhe Theras of lhe hrsl Council also recorded hov lhe
Venerable Kondaa auained lhe higher knovledge.
|nasanica pa tcqqakaranasanin |naannc qasanaic
Kcn!aassa tirajan tiiana|am !nannacakkum u!ap!i.
qam kici sanu!aqa !nannan, sa||an iam nirc!na inan ii.
jo
'Il is vorlhy of secial nole lhal vhile lhis discourse vas
being exounded or has |usl been exounded, lhe dusl-
free, slainless eye of dhamma, olhervise scipaui nagga
na arose lo lhe Venerable Kondaa. Iverylhing lhal
has lhe nalure of arising has lhe nalure of ceasing.
riey, lhis record slaled lhal lhe Venerable Kondaa became
a scipanna (slream-vinner) by auainmenl of scipaui alh and
fruilion. When did il haen` He auained il vhile lhe lessed
One vas 'exounding lhe discourse'. This is lhe recise lrans-
lalion of lhe grammalical lense as given in lhe lexl, namely,
|nanananc, |naniqananc. The Sraua Diani sub-commenlary
reroduced lhe same lense, bul Ialisambhid commenlary
referred lo lake lhe erfecl lense, asl lense roximale lo lhe
resenl lense, |naniic, meaning 'aer being exounded'. We
have similarly rendered il as 'has |usl been exounded'.
How Tnr VrNrr~iir KoNn~NN~ Aff~rNrn Hrcnrr
KNowirncr Wnrir LrsfrNrNc To Tnr Drscoursr
The Venerable Kondaa could have develoed lhe Iighlfold
Ialh and auained lhe ariqa nagga pna|a vhile lhe lessed One
vas enuncialing on lhe Middle Way, olhervise lhe Iighlfold
Ialh, during lhe discourse. When he heard aboul lhe four
Noble Trulhs, loo, he could have conlemlaled on il knoving
vhal should be knovn and auained lhe higher knovledge of
nagga pna|a. Isecially, vhen he heard lhal lhe Trulh of Suf-
fering should be fully comrehended and nagga should be de-
veloed, il is very robable lhal he could have conlemlaled
j1
on lhe Trulh of Suering, olhervise lhe up!nakknan!nas and
by develoing lhe tipassan nagga, auained lhe higher knov-
ledge of scipaui alh and fruilion.
As for conlemlaling on suering, by noling lhe sound of
dhamma al every inslanl of hearing il, he vould have come
lo knov lhe realily as il is and lhe nalure of anicca, !ukkna and
anaua, and in lhis vay develoed lhe Iighlfold Ialh. When
dee arecialion for lhe meaning of lhe discourse arose, il
could be conlemlaled uon. Devolional arecialion of lhe
dhamma and for lhe voice lhal delivered il could be noled,
loo, as il occurred. Re|oicing lhal came aer arecialion, lhe
lhrill of |oy (piii) lhal accomanied il could all be conlemlaled
uon. Il is quile robable lhal piii vas laken as an ob|ecl for
conlemlalion. Il vas menlioned in lhe Ili lexl lhal al lhe
momenl vhen lhe mind vas feeling hl and reared, so and
lender, free from hindrances, elaled and exullanl, full of failh
and devolion, hearing lhe discourse on lhe four Trulhs, many
had auained lo higher knovledge. The Iighlfold Ialh could
also be develoed by laking nole of vhal is laking lace in
lhe body, lhe sensalions of suerings or leasure fell in lhe
body, and by conlemlaling on lhe acl of aying reseclful
homage lo lhe uddha.
Seeing, hearing, elc., menlioned above vilh resecl lo lhe
nna and rpa resenlly arising are nol |usl paaui, mere
lerms or names, lhey are paranauna !nannas (ullimale reali-
lies) vhich aclually exisl, vhich aclually occur. Up!nakknan!-
nas are such realilies. The !ukkna sacc vhich should be fully
comrehended is also a realily, paranauna !nanna. When, in
jz
accordance vilh lhe leaching lhal !ukkna sacc should be fully
comrehended, every henomenon is noled, !ukkna sacc is
fully comrehended lhrough underslanding lhe nalure of
anicca, !ukkna and anaua. On each occasion of underslanding
in lhis vay, craving vhich may arise because of lhe nolion of
nicca, sukna and aua, gels eliminaled, having no oorlunily
lo arise. This, lhen, is momenlary abandonmenl of sanu!aqa.
Delusion or ignorance vilh resecl lo lhe ob|ecl under con-
lemlalion, logelher vilh ki|csa, kanna and tipka lhal may
arise in conneclion vilh il, vanish and come lo cessalion
loo vilh each noling. This is momenlary cessalion achieved
vilh each noling by virlue of having accomlished il. Il goes
vilhoul saying lhal tipassan naggas are being develoed al
each momenl of observalion. In lhis vay, by noling vhal vas
seen, heard, elc., lhe Venerable Kondaa develoed vias-
sana vhich knovs lhe four Trulhs as lhey should be knovn
and auained lhe scipanna alh and fruilion vhile he vas lis-
lening lo lhe discourse on Dhammacakka. In olher vords, he
became a scipanna by realizing lhe scipaui nagga and pna|a
|usl al lhe end of lhe discourse.
How M~cc~ N4N~ Is Dusf-Frrr ANn Sf~rNirss
The scipanna na auained by lhe Venerable Kondaa vas
raised in lhe suua as being dusl-free and slainless. Il vould
be rohlable lo consider hov lhis scipanna na vas dusl-
free and slainless. Sraua Dan sub-commenlary slales: Il
is dusl-free, being free from lhe dusl and dirl of rga (lusl)
j
vhich vould lead lo lhe nelher vorlds, slainless, being free
from dehlemenls of !iiini and ticikiccn. This is a hguralive de-
scrilion of ki|csas vhich are eliminaled by scipaui nagga, bul
Ialisambhid Magga commenlary considers bolh dusl as vell
as dehlemenls as raga, elc. Lusl (rga) lends lo conceal, lo cover
u and, hence, is likened lo dusl. Again, lusl is likened lo im-
urilies or dehlemenls because il soils or brings deslruclion.
Anolher consideralion arises here. Does 'being free from dusl
and dehlemenls' mean (a) arising of lhe eye of dhamma, olh-
ervise nagga na, unaccomanied by dusl and dehlemenls,
or (b) nol hindering or inlerfering vilh nagga na so lhal
Nibbna could nol be seen` Magga, hovever, has no associa-
lion vilh ki|csas. Il is obvious, lherefore, lhal il has no refer-
ence here lo unaccomanimenl of dusl and dehlemenls. Thus,
'being free from dusl and dehlemenls' should be underslood
in lhe sense of 'nol hindering or inlerfering vilh nagga na
so lhal Nibbna could nol be seen'.
This is hov hindrance is overcome. In sile of viassana med-
ilalion, Nibbna is nol yel seen by means of scipanna na
vhilsl !iiini and ticikiccn (vhich should be eliminaled by
scipaui nagga) and rga (vhich leads lo lhe nelher vorld)
remain in force. Il is |usl like lhe inabilily lo see because of
lhe calaracl in lhe eye. ul, vhen tipassan na becomes fully
accomlished and slrenglhened, lhe !iiini, ticikiccn and rga
vhich vould lead lo lhe nelher vorld vould gel veakened,
lhey can no longer hinder so as lo conceal lhe Nibbna, |usl
as lhe layer of calaracl vhich gels lhinner can no longer com-
lelely cover u lhe eyesighl. Then scipanna nagga na can
j
see lhrough and realise lhe Ni||an. Such caacily lo erceive
lhrough and realize lhe Nibbna is described as 'being free
from dusl, tirga, free from slains, tiiana|a'.
Magga na eradicales only aer viassana has done ils ulmosl
lo eliminale.
The above inlerrelalion falls inlo conformily vilh lhe hgura-
live descrilion of lhe 'eye of dhamma' and vilh lhe exosi-
lion in lhe Visuddhimagga and Mahlika vhich slale lhal su-
ramundane nagga na eradicales vilhoul remainder only
lhose ki|csas vhich have been veakened lo lhe ulmosl by lhe
mundane tipassan na.
M~cc~ N4N~ Evoivrs Ouf Or Vri~ss~N4 N4N~
Il should be esecially noled here lhal suramundane nagga
na does nol come forlh from novhere. As successive con-
sciousness arises oul of receding consciousness, nagga na
can also be said, by vay of unily, lo have arisen oul of ti-
passan na. Thus, dehlemenls such as !iiini, ticikiccn, elc.,
vhich have been debililaled by lhe over of tipassan na
can no longer kee lhe Nibbna hidden from viev. 'y being
dusl-free and slainless' is meanl lhis inabilily of rgas, elc., lo
kee lhe Nibbna hidden anymore.
rahmyu Suua of Ma||hima Iannsa describes lhe lhree
lovers naggas as lhe eye of dhamma. In lhe Cularhulovada
Suua of of Uarisa Iannasa, all lhe four alhs and fruilions
are described as lhe eye of lhe dhamma. When, lherefore,
jj
lhese higher auainmenls are slaled lo be dusl-free and slain-
less', il means lhal kana, raga and tqapa!a are so veakened
by virlue of tipassan na lhal lhey could nol kee lhe Nib-
bna hidden from viev. We have laken lhe lrouble of delving
deely inlo lhese oinls so as lo make il easily comrehensi-
ble lhal ariqa nagga na does nol arise oul of novhere, bul
evolves only from tipassan na by virlue of sucing condi-
lions in nalure, pakaiupanissaqa.
The queslion arises lhen: hov does lhis !nanna cakknu, olh-
ervise lhe scipaui nagga na arise` This na arises by er-
ceiving lhal 'everylhing lhal has lhe nalure of arising has
lhe nalure of assing avay'. There are lvo modes of erceiv-
ing in lhis manner. Al lhe momenl of develoing u!aqa|naqa
na, seeing lhe henomenon of originalion and inslanl dis-
solulion, realizalion comes lhal vhal arises asses inlo disso-
lulion. This is ercelion by means of tipassan na. When
sanknarupakkn na is fully eslablished, vhile noling lhe con-
linuous rocess of dissolulion of rpa and nna, a slage is
reached vhen (volilional aclivilies of) nna, rpa and sankna-
ras aear lo gel dissolved inlo a slale of comlele cessalion.
This is erceiving lhe eaceful bliss of Nibbna by aclually re-
alizing il, vhen all lhe henomena of conslanl arising come
lo comlele cessalion. This is ercelion by means of ariqa
nagga na.
The eye of dhamma, olhervise called scipaui na, is devel-
oed by lhe second kind of erceiving. Ior lhis reason, auain-
menl of scipaui nagga is clearly indicaled vhen all volilional
aclivilies of nna and rpa gel dissolved inlo a slale of com-
j6
lele cessalion. Once realized by scipanna na, lhe knov-
ledge lhal erceives lhal 'everylhing lhal arises gels dissolved'
remains hrm, unshakeable. Hence, Cularhulovada Suua de-
scribes lhe realizalion of all lhe four nagga nas in lhe same
vords. 'The dusl-free, slainless eye of dhamma arose: every-
lhing lhal has lhe nalure of arising has lhe nalure of assing
avay.'
All nna-rpa cease vhen Nibbna becomes lhe ob|ecl of
nagga na.
_oling CuIaniddesa commenlary vhich slales, 'y means of
scipaui nagga, lhese hve akusa|a consciousnesses come lo ces-
salion: four consciousnesses connecled vilh vrong viev (!i-
iinigaia sanpaquua) and one consciousness accomanied vilh
doubl (ticikiccnsanaguua)'. A cerlain erson is going around
leaching and vriling, auemling lo refule lhe slalemenl 'al
lhe momenl of scipaui alh and fruilion, all nna-rpa sa-
nknras are erceived lo have ceased'. He seems lo hold lhal
scipaui alh and fruilion has as ils ob|ecl only lhe cessalion
of lhe hve akusa|a consciousnesses broughl aboul by scipaui
nagga. This is a very vrong viev for lhe simle reason lhal
Nibbna is nol arlial cessalion of akusa|a nor cessalion in
arls of nna rpa !nannas. As a mauer of facl, Nibbna
means comlele cessalion of lhree tauas, namely, ki|csa, kanna
and tipka, lhe comlele cessalion of all nna rpa sanknras,
all comounded lhings. Thus, lo lhe queslion 'vhal has ariqa
nagga as ils ob|ecl`' The rely vould be lhal il has Nibbna
as ils ob|ecl and Nibbna is, as |usl exlained, comlele cessa-
j;
lion of all condilioned nna and rpas. Thus, lhe asserlion 'al
lhe momenl of auainmenl of scipaui alh and fruilion, one
erceives only lhe coming inlo cessalion of lhe sense-ob|ecl
knovn as vell as lhe knoving mind' is a faclual slalemenl of
vhal is aclually observed.
A careful sludy of A|ila Suua in lhe Iaryana Vagga on vhich
lhe exosilion vas given in lhe said commenlary lo CuIanid-
desa Ili lexl, vill reveal lhe slalemenl lherein: 'Al lhis eace
of Nibbna all nna rpa cease'. Iurlhermore, if queslioned, 'Is
Nibbna, vhich is lhe ob|ecl of scipaui nagga, lhe same Nib-
bna vhich is lhe ob|ecl of lhe higher naggas`' The ansver
vould be 'Yes, lhe same, lhere is no dierence'. If scipaui
nagga vere lo have lhe hve akusa|a consciousnesses as ils ob|ecl,
and lhe olher naggas have as lheir ob|ecls lhe cessalion of re-
seclive consciousnesses lhey have eradicaled, vould lhe ob-
|ecls of four naggas be four dierenl Nibbnas` There is, hov-
ever, no such dierence and il is obvious, lherefore, lhal all
four naggas have as lheir ob|ecls lhe one and only Nibbna.
Ior lhe reasons ve have slaled above, il is a lolally vrong
viev lo hold lhal 'scipaui nagga musl have only lhe cessalion
of lhe hve akusa|a consciousnesses as ils ob|ecl'.
We have digressed from lhe main discourse lo make some
crilical remarks aboul cerlain vrong asserlions. We musl nov
come back lo lhe original loic by recounling lhe meaning
of lhe Ili lexl: While lhis discourse vas being exounded
or has |usl been exounded, lhe dusl-free slainless eye of
dhamma, olhervise scipaui nagga na, arose lo lhe Vener-
j8
able Kondaa lhal 'everylhing lhal has lhe nalure of arising
has lhe nalure of ceasing'.
W~s Nof M~cc~ N4N~ Aff~rNrn Bv Aiirrcr~froN
Or Tnr Drscoursr?
Here is a oinl for argumenl. Is il nol a facl lhal in lhe assage
|usl quoled, lhere is no menlion of lhe Venerable Kondaa
engaging in lhe raclice of tipassan` Il menlions only lhal
lhe eye of dhamma or scipaui nagga vas develoed vhile
lhe lessed One vas exounding lhe dhamma or had |usl
hnished exounding lhe dhamma. Could il nol be lhal lhe
scipaui nagga na vas develoed lhrough arecialion of
and delighl in lhe discourse` In lhal case, all lhe elaboralion
aboul hov Kondaa engaged himself in lhe raclice of vi-
assana medilalion is really redundanl. This is lhe oinl for
argumenl.
The elaboralions are nol redundanl al all. In lhe Dhamma-
cakka Suua ilself, il is dehnilely slaled lhal lhe Iighlfold alh
should be develoed. In addilion, lhe commenlary exosi-
lion of sann!iiini slales lhal !ukkna sacc and sanu!aqa sacc
should be underslood by conlemlaling on lhem. There are
also slalemenls lhal ariqa nagga na is develoed only vhen
pu||a|nga nagga, olhervise called tipassan nagga, is fully ac-
comlished. Il is also dehnilely slaled lhal vilhoul conlemlal-
ing on any of lhe four sub|ecls of medilalion, namely, body,
sensalion, mind and dhamma, no tipassan pa nor nagga
pa could be auained (Iarl III of lhis discourse refers). Ili
j
lexls also clearly slale lhal sannsaii nagga could arise only
by develoing lhe fourfold mindfulness.
ecause of lhese reasons, lhere can be no arising of ariqa
nagga vilhoul develoing lhe tipassan nagga. These elabor-
alions are given lo facililale underslanding hov tipassan
could be develoed vhile lislening lo lhe discourse. Il musl
be laken, lherefore, lhal by adoling one of lhe melhods of
medilaling, as exlained above, lhe Venerable Kondaa had
auained inslanlly lhe scipaui nagga and pna|a.
Aer describing hov lhe Venerable Kondaa auained lhe
scipaui nagga na, lhe Theras of lhe hrsl council venl on lo
describe lhe manner in vhich lhe Dhammacakka Suua vas
acclaimed.
Acci~V~froN Bv Tnr Drv~s ANn Br~nV~s
Pataui ic ca pana Bnagatai !nannacakkc |nunn !ct
sa!!ananussatcsum, |iam |nagatai Varanasiqam |sipaianc
Miga!aqc anuuaram !nannacakkam patauiiam appaii
tauiqam sanancna t |rannancna t !ctcna t nrcna
t |rannun ta kcnaci t |ckasaninii.
Whal is vorlhy of secial nole is lhal vhen lhe lessed One
had sel in molion lhe Wheel of Dhamma (according lo lhe
commenlary, lhe Wheel of Dhamma means paiitc!a na, en-
elralive insighl and lhe knovledge of vhal and hov lo imarl
lhe dhamma (!csana na), by lhe leaching of lhe Dhamma-
6o
cakka Suua, il amounls lo seuing in molion lhis Wheel of
Dhamma). In olher vords, vhen lhe lessed One had given
lhe discourse on lhe Dhammacakka Suua, lhe huma devas,
lhe earlh-bound devas, roclaimed in one voice:
The incomarable Wheel of Dhamma has been sel in
molion (lhe incomarable discourse on lhe Dhamma-
cakka has been given) by lhe lessed One al Isialana,
lhe deer sancluary in lhe lovnshi of Vrnasi, a molion
vhich no recluse nor |rannana nor any !cta nor nara nor
|rnna nor any olher being in lhe vorld can reverse or
revenl.
Having heard lhis roclamalion by lhe humadevas, lhe
Calumahr|ika devas and lhe devas in lhe uer realms
of Tvalimsa, Yma, Tusila, Nimmnarali, Iaranimilavasavali
and lhe rahmas, all roclaimed in one voice:
The incomarable Wheel of Dhamma has been sel in
molion (lhe incomarable discourse on lhe Dhamma-
cakka has been given) by lhe lessed One al Isialana,
lhe deer sancluary in lhe lovnshi of Vrnasi, a molion
vhich no recluse nor |rannana nor any !cta nor nra nor
|rnna nor any olher being in lhe vorld can reverse or
revenl.
|iina icna knancna icna nunuucna qta |ranna|ck sa!!c
a||nuggaccni.
Thus, in an inslanl, in a momenl, lhe voice of roclama-
lion venl forlh u lo lhe vorld of lhe brahmas.
61
Tnr E~rfnqu~kr ANn Aiir~r~Ncr Or SnrNrNc Lrcnfs
Aqaca !asasanassi |cka!niu samkanpi sanpakampi
sampatc!ni. Appannc ca u|rc c|nsc |ckc paiuranasi
aiikkanna !ctnam !ctnu|ntan ii.
The enlire cosmos of lhe lhousand vorlds shook in
uvard molion, quaked in uvard and dovnvard
molion, and lrembled in four direclions. An immeasur-
able sublime radiance, caused by lhe mighly !csan (leach-
ing), surassing even lhe ma|eslic, divine radiance of lhe
!ctas aeared on earlh.
FrrvrNf Uffrr~Ncr Or Jov Bv Tnr Birssrn ONr
Aina knc Bnagat inam u!nam u!ncsi: Asi taia |nc
Kcn!ac, asi taia Kcn!ac'ii. |ii ni!am qasanaic
Kcn!aassa asi Kcn!ac itcta nnam ancsi'ii.
Then, |usl aer delivering lhe discourse, |usl aer lhe aear-
ance of lhe eye of dhamma or scipaui nagga na lo lhe Vener-
able Kondaa, lhe lessed One made lhis |oyous uuerance:
Oh, friends, indeed Kondaa has underslood. Indeed,
Kondaa has underslood. Thus, il vas because of lhis
|oyous uuerance lhal lhe Venerable Kondaa had von
lhe name of Asi Kondaa, lhe one vho has under-
slood. Here ends lhe Discourse on lhe Dhammacakka
Suua.
6z
The concluding assage reciled above marks lhe lerminalion
of lhe Dhammacakka Suua as recorded in lhe Ili Canon
of Mah Vagga Samyuua. On reeclion al lhe conclusion
of lhe discourse, lhe lessed One erceived lhal lhe Vener-
able Kondaa had auained lhe higher knovledge of scipaui
nagga pna|a. So |oyously he made lhe uuerance, Indeed,
Kondaa has erceived, Kondaa has erceived. Il vas
in reference lo lhis uuerance lhal lhe Venerable Kondaa
became commonly knovn as Asi Kondaa.
According lo lhe Samyuua Ili lexl, lhe Dhammacakka Suua
ends here, bul lhe Vinaya Ili lexl conlinued on from lhere
giving an accounl of hov lhe hikkhu Sangha came inlo exis-
lence. We shall relale lhis accounl nov.
Tnr VrNrr~iir ANN4sr KoNn~NN~'s Rrqursf
For OrnrN~froN
Aina knc qasan asi Kcn!ac !iiina!nannc paua-
!nannc !itiia!nannc pariqcg|na!nannc iinnaticikiccc
tigaiakaunamkaunc tcsrajjappauc aparappaccaqc saunu-
ssanc |nagataniam cia!atcca, |a|ncqqnam |nanic
|nagataic saniikc pa||ajjam |a|ncqqam upasanpa!anii.
Aer lhe lessed One had made lhe |oyous uuerance, lhe Ven-
erable Kondaa made lhe folloving requesl in lhese vords:
Lord (Bnanic), may I have leave lo lake u lhe ascelic life as
a novice (pa||ajjam) in lhe resence of lhe uddha, may I re-
ceive (ordinalion) admission inlo lhe uddha's Order (upasan-
pa!am).
6
Nof E~sv To Orvr Ui ONr's Tr~nrfroN~i Brirrrs
The Venerable Kondaa musl have reviously embraced
some kind of lradilional religious belief. To give u lhis old
belief and desire admission inlo lhe uddha's Order could
nol have come aboul vilh mere ordinary failh. In modern
limes, il is no easy mauer for eole of olher failhs lo |oin lhe
uddha's Order aer acceling uddhism. Ior some eole,
nol lo say uuing on lhe yellov robes, lo lake refuge in lhe
Three Gems and kee lhe recels for lhe urose of raclis-
ing medilalion is a dicull lask.
Aarl from lhe Venerable Kondaa, lhe remaining four of
lhe grou aeared lo be indecisive regarding admission inlo
lhe uddha's Order. Why lhen did Kondaa seek ermis-
sion lo |oin lhe uddha's Order` The ansver is lhal Konda-
a had become ossessed of virlue and qualilies vhich are
described by such eilhels as !iiina!nannc, elc.
Iully invesled vilh such virlues as Diiina!nannc, elc., Konda-
a made lhe requesl having seen lhe dhamma (!iiina!nanna).
He had seen nirc!na sacc of lhe four Trulhs, lhal is, he had
realized Nibbna. Then, having seen lhe eace of Nibbna, he
sav lhe conslanl arising and vanishing of condilioned nna
rpa as avesome suering. He erceived, loo, lhal lhe crav-
ing vhich look delighl in lhem vas lhe lrue cause of suer-
ing. He realized al lhe same lime lhal nagga sacc consisling
of sann!iiini, elc., vas lhe lrue alh lhal vould lead lo lhe
eace of Nibbna. Realizing lhus lhe four Trulhs himself, hrm
conhdence lhal lhe uddha himself had also realized lhe four
Trulhs arose. Such conhdence is knovn as atcccappasa!a na,
6
knovledge born of comlele failh. Il is like lhe conhdence
a alienl laces in his hysician, vhose lrealmenl has eec-
lively cured him of his disease. Thus, for having seen lhe four
lrulhs exaclly as exounded by lhe uddha, Kondaa had
made lhe requesl for monkhood.
Diiina!nanna (having seen): lo indicale lhal il means seeing
vilh lhe eye of knovledge and nol by hysical eye, il is qual-
ihed by paua!nannc (having arrived, auained, reached), lo
connole arriving lhrough knovledge and nol by any olher
means, il is qualihed again by ti!niia!nannc (having clearly
knovn). To assure lhal such knovledge is nol |usl arlial
or fraclional bul comlele, lhe qualifying vord pariqcga|a!-
nanna is menlioned, vhich means dive inlo, enelrale inlo,
conveying lhal he had enelraled fully inlo all asecls of lhe
dhamma. All lhese vords reecl lhe richness of lhe Ili vo-
cabulary of lhose days.
Il is very imorlanl lo see, lo knov by one's ovn knovledge,
lhe Iour Noble Trulhs. Wilhoul knoving lhe real lrulh yel,
mere rofession of lhe uddhisl failh vill nol have removed
all doubls aboul lhe uddha, lhe Dhamma and lhe Sangha.
Misgivings on lhem may aear under cerlain circumslances.
Doubls may arise also vilh regards lo lhe raclice of si|a, san-
!ni and pa one is ursuing. y knoving vhal should be
knovn by oneself, one may become free from scelicism lo a
cerlain exlenl.
The yogi vho raclices noling every inslance of seeing, hear-
ing, meeling, knoving, elc., knovs vhen lhe over of con-
cenlralion gels slrenglhened, knovs lhe ob|ecl observed (rpa)
6j
searalely from lhe knoving mind (nna). Then he knovs
lhrough his ovn exerience lhal seeing lakes lace because
lhere is lhe ob|ecl and lhe eye, lhere is lhe acl of going be-
cause of lhe desire lo go. ecause he fails lo nole lhe ob|ecl, he
vrongly lakes il lo be leasanl, lhinking il leasanl, he lakes
delighl in il. ecause of delighl, he craves for il. To salisfy lhe
demands of his craving, he has lo exerl himself lo suilable ac-
lions. All lhese become his ovn knovledge lhrough ersonal
exerience. He also knovs he faces dicullies and bad silu-
alions because of bad kanna, he en|oys good lhings because
of good kanna. When his knovledge grovs lo lhis exlenl, he
can become free of doubls as lo vhelher lhere is soul, living
enlily or crealor.
When he conlinues vilh lhe raclice, he erceives lhe ob|ecls
of nna rpa arising and vanishing even vhile he is observ-
ing lhem. He becomes convinced, vhile conlinuing vilh lhe
noling, of lheir nalure of imermanence, dreadful suering
and lheir being nol self, nol sub|ecl lo conlrol. This singular
ercelion slrenglhens his conhdence lhal 'lhe uddha vho
had given lhis discourse musl have realized lhe Trulh him-
self, he musl be a lrue uddha, his leachings are lrue and lhe
Sanghas vho are raclising his leachings are lrue Sanghas
engaged in lhe righl raclice'.
Then comes lhe slage vhen all condilioned nna and rpa
dissolve inlo a slale of comlele cessalion. This is realizing
ersonally lhe eace of Nibbna, in olher vords nirc!na sacc.
Simullaneously, lhe lhree remaining Trulhs are realized by
virlue of having accomlished lhe lasks of fully and righlly
66
comrehending !ukkna, abandoning sanu!aqa, and develoing
nagga in oneself. Knoving lhe four Trulhs as lhey should be
knovn, his conhdence and failh in lhe uddha, lhe Dhamma
and lhe Sangha becomes hrmly rooled, unshakeable. His con-
hdence in lhe raclice of si|a, san!ni and pa also gels
hrmly eslablished. Wilh hrmly rooled conhdence and failh,
ticikiccna (scelical doubls) are vell overcome. The Venerable
Kondaa had seen lhe four Trulhs himself and, lhus, had
le all uncerlainlies behind, iinnaticikiccnc. Ior lhis reason,
loo, he made lhe requesl lo lhe uddha for ordinalion. When
he vas free from doubls and scelicism, he became free from
vavering, irresolulion, indecision (tigaiakaiankaic) vhich is
synonymous vilh iinna, ticikiccnc. He had made lhe requesl
for lhis reason, loo.
Iurlhermore, he made lhe requesl lo lhe uddha because
he had acquired courage of conviclion in lhe leaching tcsra
japauc, courage born of knovledge of lhe Trulh and also be-
cause he had become quile indeendenl of lhe olhers, aparpac-
caqc, in lhe mauer of lhe doclrine of lhe leacher, having ac-
quired ersonal knovledge of il.
Mosl follovers of various religious failhs in lhe vorld are de-
endenl on olhers in lhe mauer of lheir beliefs, being igno-
ranl aboul lhem lhemselves. Some vorshi lhe deilies of lrees,
foresls and mounlains because lhe raclice has been handed
dovn from generalion lo generalion by anceslors of lhe family.
No one has seen nor mel lhose beings. Some vorshi lhe king
of devas, brahmas or gods of heaven. No one has lhe ersonal
knovledge of lhese ob|ecls of vorshi. Ieole lake on lrusl
6;
vhal vas lold lo lhem by lheir arenls, leachers, elc. Amongsl
lhe eole of lhe uddhisl failh, loo, rior lo auainmenl of
vhal should be knovn, lhey are deendenl on elders, arenls
and leachers in lhe mauer of lheir beliefs. When some knov-
ledge has been gained by one's ovn eorl, by means of rac-
lice of concenlralion medilalion or viassana medilalion, self-
conhdence may be gained lo a cerlain exlenl. When lhe slage
is reached for auainmenl of jnnas, alh and fruilion, one has
lhe ersonal knovledge of lhese auainmenls and lhe belief in
lhem is no longer deendenl on olhers.
Crff~, Tnr Wr~ifnv M~N ANn N4)~iuff~
Al lhe lime of lhe uddha, lhere lived a cerlain veallhy man
by lhe name of Ciua, vho had auained lhe slage of lhe an-
gani alh. One day, he haened lo arrive al lhe lace of N-
lauua, lhe leader of lhe Niganda secl. The secl leader, Nla-
uua, vas vorshied as a sureme God by lhe follovers
of }ainism and vas also knovn as Mahvira. He vas quile
vell-knovn since before lhe Inlighlenmenl of lhe uddha.
Nlauua addressed lhe rich man Ciua, Well, your leacher
Golama is said lo have laughl lhal lhere is jnna san!ni free
from tiiakka, and ticra. Do you believe so`
Ciua, lhe veallhy man, relied, I acknovledge lhere is jnna
san!ni free from tiiakka and ticra, nol because of my failh
in lhe uddha. The greal leacher Nlauua made a vrong
inlerrelalion of lhis rely. He lhoughl lhe rich man had re-
lied lhal he had no failh in lhe uddha. So he lold his follov-
ers, Look, Oh disciles, lhe rich man Ciua is very slraighl-
68
forvard and honesl. Whal he did nol believe in, he said he
did nol believe in. Well, lhis mauer is really unbelievable. Il's
imossible, |usl like lrying lo calch lhe air vilh a nel, or lo
arresl lhe svi oving valers of lhe Ganges vilh lhe hsl or
lhe alm of lhe hand. Il's imossible lo gel free from tiiakka
and ticra.
On hearing lhis vrong inlerrelalion, lhe rich man Ciua
asked lhe greal leacher Nlauua, Which is nobler, knov-
ing or believing` Nlauua relied, Knoving is of course
nobler lhan believing. The rich man Ciua relorled lhen, I
can auain anylime I vish lhe hrsl jnna vilh tiiakka and ticra,
lhe second jnna free of tiiakka and ticra, also lhe lhird jnna
free from piii and lhe fourlh jnna devoid of sukna. In lhis
mauer of saying 'lhere is jnna san!ni unaccomanied by ti-
iakka and ticra' vhen I am exeriencing ersonally lhe jnna
san!ni nol accomanied by tiiakka and ticra, is lhere any
need for me lo rely on olher noble ersons, samanas, for my
belief`
In lhis slory, lhe rich man Ciua, vho had exerienced erson-
ally jnna san!ni unaccomanied by tiiakka and ticra, had
no need lo rely on olhers for believing lhis facl. Likevise,
Kondaa, vho had ersonal exerience of lhe four Trulhs
vas nol deendenl on olhers on lhe mauer of uddha's leach-
ing on lhe Iighlfold alh and si|a, san!ni and pa. Ior lhus
ersonally knoving lhem, vilhoul deending on olhers, he
asked lhe uddha for admission lo his Order. This assage is
so insiring and slimulales so much devolion lhal ve shall
recile il once again in full, comlele vilh lranslalion.
6
DrvrioirNc DrvofroN~i INsirr~froN
When lhe lessed One had made lhe |oyous uuerance, lhe Ven-
erable Asi Kondaa, having seen lhe dhamma, lhal is lhe
Iour Noble Trulhs, having auained, reached lhe Iour Noble
Trulhs, having clearly underslood lhe Iour Noble Trulhs,
having enelraled lhrough lhe Iour Noble Trulhs, leaving
uncerlainly behind, having overcome all doubls, being free
from vavering, irresolulion, having acquired lhe courage of
conviclion vilh resecl lo lhe Teaching of lhe uddha (nol
being afraid lo face lhe enquiry as lo vhy one has changed
failh), having lhe ersonal knovledge of lhe dhamma, nol de-
endenl on olhers vilh regard lo lhe Teaching, made lhe re-
quesl lo lhe uddha for leave lo lake u lhe life of sanancra,
sanana, novice and monk, in lhe resence of lhe uddha.
This record by lhe Theras of lhe Iirsl Council, describing lhe
Venerable Kondaa's requesl, gives delails of his qualihca-
lions and auainmenls lo eslablish his eligibilily for admission
lo lhe Order, develos in lhe reader inlense devolional insi-
ralion. The more one knovs lhe dhamma, lhe more inlensely
one feels lhis devolional insiralion.
When lhe Venerable Kondaa made lhe requesl in lhe above
manner, lhe lessed One ermiued him lo |oin lhe Order in
lhese vords.
OrnrN~froN Bv Enr Bnrkknu
|ni Bnikkn ii Bnagat atcca, stkknic !nannc cara
|rannacariqam sann !ukknassa aniakiriqq ii. Sta iassa
qasanaic upasanpa! ancsi'ii.
;o
Iirsl, lhe lessed One said, Come, hikkhu, |oin my order.
Then he said, Well laughl is lhe Dhamma. Come and rac-
lise lhe holy life of si|a, san!ni and pa for lhe sake of lhe
comlele ending of suering. This invilalion by lhe lessed
One, saying 'Come, hikkhu' conslilules lhe acl of ordina-
lion, and accordingly Kondaa became a hikkhu of lhe
uddha's Order.
Venerable Kondaa vas al lhal lime already an ascelic, a
sanana, bul nol of lhe uddha's Order. Therefore, he asked
for admission lo lhe uddha's Order from lhe lessed One
vho ermiued him lo do so by saying '|ni Bnikknu.' This
is acknovledgmenl by lhe lessed One of his enlry lo lhe
uddha's Order. Thus, lhe Venerable Asi Kondaa had
become a discile of lhe uddha as a member of lhe uddha's
Order.
BrrNcs Wno Aff~rNrn A Hrcnrr KNowirncr
Tnroucn Hr~rrNc Tnr Frrsf SrrVoN
Al lhe lime of delivery of lhe Dhammacakka Suua, lhere vere
only hve members of lhe human vorld, lhe grou of hve hik-
khus, vho heard lhe hrsl sermon. And of lhem, only one
single erson, lhe Venerable Kondaa, auained lo higher
knovledge. ul il is slaled in lhe Milinda Iaa Ili Texl lhal
eighleen crores of brahmas and innumerable kntacara !ctas
auained lo lhe higher knovledge lhen.
Al lhal lime, only lhe Venerable Kondaa had soughl enlry
lo lhe uddha's Order and became a sanana discile of lhe
;1
uddha. The remaining four, namely, lhe Venerables Vaa,
haddiya, Mahnma and Assa|i had nol yel done so. Their
hesilalion may be accounled for by lhe facl lhal lhey vere nol
fully accomlished yel in ersonally knoving lhe dhamma
like lhe Venerable Asi Kondaa. They vere slill dehcienl
in lhe courage of conviclion vilh resecl lo lhe uddha's
leaching. ul by virlue of hearing lhe Dhammacakka Suua
discourse, lhey had develoed sa!!n, failh in lhe leaching.
Therefore, from lhe lime of hearing lhe discourse, lhese four
vere being engaged in lhe raclice of medilalion under lhe
guidance of lhe lessed One. Vinaya Maha Vagga Ili Canon
gives lhe folloving accounl of hov lhey raclised medilalion
and hov lhey came lo see and realize lhe dhamma.
Hrcnrr KNowirncr Aff~rNrn ONiv Arfrr Acfu~i Pr~cfrcr
Aer lhe Venerable Kondaa had been admiued lo lhe Order,
lhe lessed One gave guidance and inslruclions on lhe rac-
lice of lhe dhamma lo lhe remaining four members of lhe
grou. eing lhus guided and inslrucled by lhe lessed One,
lhe dusl-free, slainless eye of dhamma rose lo lhe Venerable
Vaa and haddiya 'lhal everylhing lhal has lhe nalure of
arising, has lhe nalure of assing avay'.
When lhe eye of dhamma oened and lhey became sciapanas,
lhe Venerables Vaa and haddiya requesled lhe lessed
One for admission lo lhe Order and lhe lessed One acceled
lhem inlo lhe order by saying |ni Bnikknu.
;z
SvsfrV~frc Ourn~Ncr ANn Pr~cfrcr IN Tnr E~riv Prrrons
Or Tnr S~s~N~
The Mah Vagga Ili lexl, conlinued.
Aer lhe Venerables Vaa and haddiya had been lhus ad-
miued lo lhe Order by lhe '|ni Bnikknu' ordinalion, lhe lessed
One gave inslruclions on dhamma and guidance lo lhe re-
maining Venerables, Mahnma and Assa|i, vilhoul going on
lhe rounds for alms-food in erson. Three hikkhus venl
oul for almsfood and all six, including lhe lessed One, sus-
lained lhemselves on vhalever food vas broughl back by lhe
lhree. eing lhus guided and inslrucled by lhe lessed One
on lhe raclice of lhe dhamma, lhe dusl-free, slainless eye of
dhamma arose lo lhe Venerables Mahnma and Assa|i lhal
'everylhing lhal has lhe nalure of arising, has lhe nalure of
assing avay'. And lhese Venerables Mahanama and Assa|i,
having seen lhe dhamma, having reached, having clearly un-
derslood, having enelraled lhrough lo lhe dhamma, leaving
uncerlainly behind, having overcome all doubls, being free
from vavering, irresolulion, having acquired lhe courage of
conviclion vilh resecl lo lhe Teaching of lhe uddha, having
lhe ersonal knovledge of lhe dhamma, nol deending on
olhers vilh regard lo lhe Teaching, made lhe folloving re-
quesl lo lhe lessed One.
Lord (Bnanic), may ve have leave lo lake u lhe ascelic life as
novices in lhe resence of lhe uddha, may ve receive ordi-
nalion (admission lo lhe uddha's Order, upasanpa!am). And
lhe lessed One relied, Come, hikkhus. Well laughl is lhe
dhamma. Come and raclise lhe holy life for lhe sake of com-
;
lele ending of suering. This invilalion by lhe lessed One
consliluled lhe acl of ordinalion and accordingly lhe Venera-
bles Mahnma and Assa|i became hikkhus in lhe Order of
lhe uddha.
In lhe Ili lexl of lhe Vinaya Mahvgga, il is menlioned lhal
lhe four hikkhus auained higher knovledge in lvo grous
of lvo each, vhereas ils commenlary slales lhal lhey auained
higher knovledge one by one, vhich is slaled as follovs: 'Il
should be underslood lhal lhe eye of dhamma arose lo lhe
Venerable Vaa on lhe hrsl vaning day of Wso, lo lhe Ven-
erable haddiya on lhe second vaning day, lo lhe Venerable
Mahnma on lhe lhird vaning day, and lo lhe Venerable
Assa|i on lhe fourlh vaning day reseclively.'
Iurlhermore, il should be secially noled lhal all lhis vhile,
lhe lessed One had remained in lhe monaslery vilhoul
going oul for alms-food, ready lo render assislance lo lhe four
hikkhus in removing lhe imurilies (obslacles) and comli-
calions (dicullies) lhal mighl arise lo lhem in lhe course of
raclising medilalion. Ivery lime imurilies (obslacles) arose
in lhe hikkhus, lhe lessed One venl lo lheir aid lravelling
lhrough sace and removed lhem. On lhe hh vaning day of
Wso, lhe lessed One galhered all lhe hve hikkhus logelher
and inslrucled lhem by giving lhe discourse on lhe Anaua
Lakkhana Suua.'
In lhe above accounl in lhe commenlary, lhe slalemenl aboul
lhe uddha's lravelling lhrough sace lo remove lhe imuri-
lies (obslacles) reveals lhe urgenl nalure of assislance needed
by lhe medilaling hikkhus. Al lhe resenl lime, loo, il vould
;
be benehcial if medilalion leachers could conslanlly auend on
lhe yogis and give guidance.
The Iasarasi Suua of lhe Mla Iannasa gives lhe folloving ac-
counl on lhe sub|ecl. 'hikkhus, vhen I gave inslruclions lo
lhe lvo hikkhus, lhe lhree hikkhus venl around for alms-
food. The grou of six of us lived on lhe food broughl back
by lhe lhree hikkhus. When I gave inslruclions lo lhe lhree
hikkhus, lhe lvo hikkhus venl around for alms-food. The
grou of six of us lived on lhe food broughl back by lhe lvo
hikkhus. Then, being lhus inslrucled and guided by me, lhe
grou of hve hikkhus, having in lhemselves lhe nalure of
arising in nev exislence, and seeing danger and vrelched-
ness in fresh rebirlhs, searched and endeavoured for lhe no-
blesl, Sureme Nibbna, free from fresh rebirlh and accord-
ingly had auained lhe Sureme Nibbna vhich is free from
rebirlh, free from yoga, auachmenl lo rebirlh.' In lhis vay, lhe
lessed One slaled lhal lhe hve hikkhus had auained lhe
aranaua pna|a.
The commenlary on lhis Suua has lhis lo say. 'The lessed
One remained in lhe monaslery ready lo go and assisl lhe
Venerable Vaa, elc., in removing lhe imurilies lhal arose in
lhe course of lheir medilalion. Whenever imurilies and com-
licalions arose in lhem, lhe hikkhus came lo lhe lessed
One and asked of him (informed him of lheir dicullies). The
lessed One himself also venl lo vhere lhe hikkhus vere sil-
ling in medilalion and removed lhese imurilies. Thus, vilh-
oul going oul on alms-round, living on lhe almsfood broughl
lo lhem and folloving lhe inslruclions given by lhe lessed
;j
One, lhe hikkhus venl on medilaling. Of lhese hikkhus,
lhe Venerable Vaa became scipanna on lhe hrsl vaning
day of Wso, lhe Venerable haddiya on lhe second, lhe Vener-
able Mahnma on lhe lhird and lhe Venerable Assa|i on lhe
fourlh vaning day of Wso, lhe hve hikkhus vere assem-
bled lo one grou and lhe Anaua Lakkhana Suua vas laughl
lo lhem by lhe lessed One. Al lhe end of lhe discourse on
lhe Suuas, all hve hikkhus auained Arahalshi.'
Mrrr LrsfrNrNc To Tnr Drscoursr Is Nof SurrrcrrNf,
Acfu~i Pr~cfrcr Is Nrrnrn
According lo lhe Vinaya and Suua Ili lexls, lhe auainmenl
vas described as being achieved in lvo grous of lvo hik-
khus each, vhereas lhe commenlary gave a delailed descri-
lion of hov individual hikkhus auained scipanna slage on
searale days. Thal vas lhe only dierence belveen lhe Ili
lexl versions and lhe commenlary version. Il vas nol |usl by
lislening lo lhe discourse, bul only aer aclual raclice lhal
lhey auained scipanna. They did nol go oul for alms-round
bul vorked conlinuously day and nighl. The uddha himself
slayed all lhe lime in lhe monaslery, ready lo go lo lheir assis-
lance and give guidance. On lhese oinls, lhere is agreemenl
in all versions.
Il is very lain, lherefore, lhal lhe Venerable Vaa began
vorking in lhe evening of lhe full-moon day of Wso and al-
lained scipanna on lhe hrsl vaning day for having slriven as
inslrucled and guided by lhe lessed One, nol |usl by lislen-
ing lo lhe discourse. The Venerable haddiya had lo slrive for
;6
aboul lvo days and auained scipanna on lhe second vaning
day, lhe Venerable Mahnma for aboul lvo days and al-
lained scipanna on lhe lhird vaning day, Venerable Assa|i
had lo slrive for aboul four days lo auain scipanna on lhe
fourlh vaning day of Wso. All of lhem had lo ul in greal
eorls for lheir auainmenls, lhey achieved scipanna nol by
lislening lo lhe discourse bul by vorking for il slrenuously
under lhe close suervision and guidance of lhe lessed One
himself. This facl is very lain.
Venerable hikkhus of lhe grou of hve, such as lhe Venerable
Vaa, elc., vere no ordinary ersons. Il vas said lhal lhey
vere lhe royal aslrologers vho had forelold lhe fulure of lhe
odhisaua al lhe lime of his birlh. Some commenlaries, hov-
ever, said lhal lhey vere lhe sons of lhese courl aslrologers.
They vere singular individuals vho had given u household
life and become recluses vhile lhe odhisaua vas slill in his
leens. They vere also endoved vilh remarkable inlelligence,
able lo gras easily lhe leaching of lhe uddha. Were sci-
panna auainable by mere lislening lo lhe dhamma, lhey vere
lhe ersons vho vould have realized il vilhoul having lo
slrive slrenuously for il for one day, lvo days, elc. The lessed
One vould nol have lo urge lhem lo endeavour earneslly, he
vould merely have laughl lhem once lo become scipannas
and, if necessary, vould have reealed lhe leaching lvice or
lhrice, elc. Inslead, he required lhem nol |usl lo lislen lo lhe
dhamma bul lo raclise medilalion slrenuously. His reason
for doing so vas quile obvious, on reeclion, he knev lhem
lo belong lo lhe ncqqa class of individuals, vho need lo rac-
lise under guidance.
;;
Asserlions are being made novadays lhal 'no concenlralion
medilalion nor Viassan medilalion is necessary lo reach
lhe mere slage of scipanna, arecialing and underslanding
vhal is laughl by lhe leacher is enough lo gain lhis slage'.
These asserlions only serve lo discourage and dissuade lhe
raclice of sanaina and Viassan medilalion. Il musl hrsl be
noled lhal lhese vievs are groundless and are causing greal
disservice and harm lo lhe sread of Ialiaui Ssan. Il musl
be hrmly noled loo lhal believers and follovers of such vievs
vill hnd lhe alh lo Nibbna closed lo lhem.
How Tnr VrNrr~iir V~ii~, Efc., Sfrovr For Aff~rNVrNfs
The Venerable Vaa, elc., of lhe grou of hve hikkhus,
slrove hard for auainmenls by develoing vilhin himself lhe
Iighlfold Ialh as laughl in lhe Dhammacakka Suua. And
lhe Iighlfold Ialh vas develoed, as described in delail ear-
lier, by laking nole of lhe henomenon of seeing, hearing,
elc., vhich is conslanlly occurring in oneself, so as lo com-
lelely and righlly comrehend lhe Trulh of Suering, lhe up-
!nakknan!na.
The yogi, vho hrsl begins noling incessanlly on lhe arising of
nna rpa as il haens, may hnd himself lroubled vilh van-
dering lhoughls and imaginalion. Isecially for lhe learned
and inslrucled, scelicism and doubls are liable lo arise. Ior
some, unbearable ains vill develo inlensely in lheir bodies.
Ob|ecls of slrange vision and signs may dislracl lhem, giving
lhem high oinions of lhemselves (vilh vrong conclusions
as lo lheir achievemenl). Some may hear vhisering noises
;8
in lheir ears or gel demoralised lhrough slolh and loror.
Irogress may also be relarded lhrough imbalance belveen
sa!!n and pa (failh and knovledge) or belveen san!ni
and tiriqa (concenlralion and eorl). In lhe absence of concen-
lraled eorl, san!ni na (one-oinledness of mind) may nol
be evolved.
Al lhe slage of u!aqa|naqa na vhen slrange henomena
such as lighl, piii, sukna and eculiarly inlense mindfulness
aear, il is generally noled lhal lhe yogi may become self-
oinionaled as lo his ovn auainmenls. When such dislrac-
lions, dehlemenls, dicullies arise in lhe course of medila-
lion, il becomes necessary for lhe leacher of medilalion lo
give guidance and hel lo remove lhem. In lhe absence of a
leacher lo guide and hel him, lhe yogi's eorls al medilalion
may rove fulile. Thal vas lhe reason vhy lhe lessed One
vailed in readiness vilhoul going oul on lhe alms-round lo
give guidance vhile lhe Venerable Vaa, elc., vere engaged
in medilalion.
Wilh such guidance and assislance, lhe Venerable Vaa
gained scipaui nagga pna|a aer aboul a day's eorl. When he
gained furlher realizalion of lhe four Trulhs, he became eslab-
lished in !iiina !nanna virlues and qualihcalions, elc. Knov-
ing lhe lrulh ersonally, all doubls aboul lhe Teaching van-
ished. There came lhe courage of conviclion, ready lo face any
queslioning concerning lhe Teaching. Having eslablished his
eligibilily lhus, he requesled of lhe lessed One admission lo
lhe Order. And lhe uddha acceded lo his requesl by lhe vel-
coming vords '|ni Bnikknu'.
;
The Venerables haddiya, Mahanama and Assa|i also auained
scipaui nagga pna|a, and having le uncerlainly behind, gain-
ing lhe courage of conviclion in lhe dhammas, requesled on
lhe second, lhird and fourlh vaning days of Wso, resec-
lively, admission lo lhe Order. And lhe uddha ordained
lhem by saying, '|ni Bnikknu.'
On lhe hh vaning day of Wso, lhe lessed One assembled
all hve hikkhus logelher and laughl lhem lhe Anaua Lak-
khana Suua. Al lhal lime, vhile lislening lo lhe discourse, all
hve hikkhus conlemlaled on lhe up!nakknan!na and de-
veloed lhe tipassan naggas by virlue of vhich lhey all al-
lained Arahalshi.
Srx Ar~n~fs INciunrNc Tnr Birssrn ONr
Tcna knc pana sanaqcna cna |ckc arananic ncn'ii.
Thus recorded lhe comilers of lhe Iirsl Greal Council in lhe
Vinaya Mahavagga Ili Canon. 'Al lhe lime, aer lhe Anaua
Lakkhana Suua had been delivered, lhere vere six arahals, in-
cluding lhe uddha, in lhis vorld, a really vonderful, unrec-
edenled evenl.'
Lel us nov bring lo a close lhis series of discourses on lhe
Dhammacakka Suua by having our minds on lhese accom-
lished Venerable Ones, lhe six Arahals, and giving lhem our
reverenlial homage: 'We, lhe disciles of lhe lessed One, bov
vilh clased hands lo ay our homage and adoralion vilh
a dee sense of reverence lo lhe uddha, logelher vilh lhe
grou of hve hikkhu Arahals vho, having eradicaled lhe
8o
ki|csas, had become fully Accomlished Ones, lvo lhousand
hve hundred and hy-one years ago on lhe hh vaning day
of Wso, in lhe deer sancluary, near Vrnasi.'
Tnr Orr~f CoNciunrNc Pr~vrr
May all you good eole in lhis audience, by virlue of having
given reseclful auenlion lo lhis greal discourse on lhe Turn-
ing of lhe Wheel of Dhamma, olhervise called lhe Dham-
macakkaavauana Suua, vhich has been delivered vilh full
elaboralion in eighl arls on eighl occasions, from lhe nev
moon day of Tavlhalin lo lhe full-moon day of Hnaung Tagu
of 1z n.i., be able lo avoid lhe exlremely relaxed alh of
indulgence in sensuous leasures as vell as lhe exlremely
auslere alh of self-morlihcalion. And, by develoing lhe
Middle Ialh, olhervise called lhe Noble Iighlfold Ialh, may
you become accomlished in pariapaiitc!a, pari|nisanaqa
(fully and righlly comrehending lhe Trulh of Suering), in
pannapaiitc!a, panna|nisanaqa (abandoning of lhe Trulh of
lhe Origin of Suering), in saccnikiriqapaiitc!a, saccnikiriqa|nisa-
naqa (realizalion of lhe Trulh of lhe Cessalion of Suering),
and in |ntanpaiitc!a, |ntan|nisanaqa (develoing lhe nagga
sacc in oneself) and very soon auain Nibbna, lhe end of all
suerings.
S!nu! S!nu! S!nu!
Tnis is +ni iu oi +ni Gni.+ Discoinsi o +ni Dn.xx.c.xx. Si++..