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Badger Key Stage 3 Science

Level-Assessed Tasks

Year 8
How Science Works
Andrew Grevatt

You may copy this book freely for use in your school. The pages in this book are copyright, but copies may be made without fees or prior permission provided that these copies are used only by the institution which purchased the book. For copying in any other circumstances, prior written consent must be obtained from the publisher.

Badger Publishing

CONTENTS
Task 8A Cells 8B Respiration 8C Variation 8D Microbes 8E Physical Changes 8F Simple chemical reactions 8G Patterns in chemistry 8H Health & Disease 8I Magnets & Electricity 8J Hearing & Sound 8K Energy transfers 8L Energy Resources 8M Geological Changes Topic Area Investigating enzymes Investigating germinating peas Investigating variation in beans Investigating yeast Investigating cooling Investigating how metals react with oxygen Investigating displacement reactions The vaccination debate Investigating electromagnets Investigating hearing with age Investigating insulation The nuclear power debate Investigating limestones Focus P CE ObC P CE OaC CE A ObC CE P A OaOb A CE

8N The solar system & beyond The Life on Mars debate 8O Environment Investigating dandelion populations Exemplar Material Commentaries of assessed students work.

Assessment Area
Planning to collect evidence Obtaining evidence (observing and recording) Obtaining evidence (presenting evidence) Considering evidence Evaluating evidence Developing and Argument P Oa Ob C E A

Acknowledgements
This new edition is dedicated to memory of my Gran, Sylvia Finch. Many people have helped me develop these tasks over the past year, both directly by using the tasks and indirectly through professional discussion. Without them, I would not have had the confidence to develop this material. I would like to particularly acknowledge the support of Matthew Newberry, Professor John Gilbert and the Cams Hill Science Consortium team (www.thinkingframe.com). I would also like to thank the fantastic team at Badger Publishing for their hard work, commitment and belief in my work.

INTRODUCTION
Welcome to the new updated version of the Badger Key Stage 3 Science Level Assessed Tasks. These tasks have been adapted to the new KS3 Science National Curriculum and improved in response to feedback and advances in the use of tasks such as these. Since the first book was published back in 2004, I have been delighted with the hugely positive response from so many teaching colleagues from around the country. Through providing training sessions to departments that have taken this approach to assessment for learning and having seen the tasks used in such a variety of ways I have been inspired to adapt and improve the tasks for the new Key Stage 3. Something I have noticed is that colleagues do not always have the opportunity to read this introduction. Almost all questions that are asked about these tasks can be answered by reading the introduction. Even if it is not the first time you are using these tasks, please take a few minutes to read through the next few pages. If you are the person responsible for initiating these tasks into your department, I would highly recommend giving your colleagues the opportunity to read a copy of this introduction during a department meeting and discuss their thoughts before using the tasks. I hope you and your pupils enjoy using these assessment tasks. I always welcome feedback on how you are using the tasks. Andrew Grevatt

Whats new?
I have made some improvements to the tasks to make them even more effective for assessment for learning in science lessons.

Level boundaries.
The level boundaries have increased from two level ranges (3-5 and 5-7) to three level boundaries: Level 3-5, Level 5-7 and Level 7-EP (Exceptional Performance). The new National Curriculum does not have level descriptors for Level 3, so I have made an educated guess to the expectations at this level. The reason that I kept Level 3 in the ladder is because we are still going to have learners who are on the Level 3 and 4 border-line, so I thought it necessary to keep the descriptors in. I did consider calling these descriptors below level 4 and if you want to use that terminology, please feel free to change it.

Science Concepts and How Science Works.


I have divided the curriculum into Science Concepts and How Science Works to improve knowledge and understanding of key science concepts and to improve knowledge and understanding of HSW in the contexts of these concepts respectively.

Literacy and Numeracy Guidance


There are now additional literacy or numeracy ladders on each task. These have been added to support both teachers and learners in improving writing and numeracy in science. You will notice that there is different guidance on the tasks at each level boundary. This is based on the assumption that learners working at higher levels of science will be working at higher levels of literacy and numeracy. Obviously if you decide not to use these, they can easily removed before printing. Additional guidance on literacy and numeracy in science can be found online in the National Strategy materials.

More Choice
I have increased the number of tasks from twelve to fifteen in each of the books. Most of the original tasks remain, but a few colleagues reported that they found particular tasks more difficult to use and so these have been refined or replaced. There are also additional tasks to help assess the new concepts such as ethology (behaviour) and atmosphere. I have also added tasks based on developing an argument.

Condensed Key Stage 3


Some schools and colleges are choosing the two year KS3 approach to science teaching. I have taken this into account when writing the new edition. Although the books are published in the format of Year 7, Year 8 and Year 9 topics, teachers can use any of the tasks at any point throughout KS3. Although I doubt many Year 7 learners will use the Level 7-EP tasks, the tasks themselves can be used at any stage in the Key Stage.

KEY FEATURES OF THE HOW SCIENCE WORKS TASKS


Ready to use tasks with popular science investigations from the QCA. Tasks matched to QCA topics, focusing on one or two areas of Sc1. A level ladder in learner-friendly vocabulary to guide progress, assessment and decide on improvement targets for the new How Science Works criteria. Uses assessment for learning principles to promote progression through science levels. Assesses knowledge and understanding of How Science Works skills. Excellent diagnostic tool for highlighting individual and class misconceptions. Encourages teacher and learner engagement with progression through How Science Works criteria, through the National Curriculum Levels. Levels based on National Curriculum Levels additional guidance on levels in science. Fully differentiated for Levels 3-EP. Actively promotes the development of literacy skills through scaffolding.

Introduction
Imagine overhearing this conversation while Year 8 students are lining up outside your laboratory expecting to do an investigation: Faye: Michelle: Faye: Michelle: Stephen: Michelle: Faye: Michelle: I am going to try to get a Level 5 in this investigation. So am I. I got Level 4a last time, but I need to make sure I am going to make it more accurate today. How are you going to do that? I am going to do repeats. That doesnt make it accurate, that makes it more reliable. Thats what I meant, make it more reliable. Is that all you have to do to get a Level 5? Yeah, look, Ill show you on my level ladder.

That was one of those proud teacher moments. Everything I had been aiming to achieve with Assessment for Learning and Scientific Enquiry in science teaching was summed up by this short conversation. Everything had just slotted into place. The learners involved knew their current levels, had an improvement target and were discussing what they had to do in order to achieve that. Suddenly I felt my work was done! This class were starting to become independent learners, in charge of their learning and actually being able to decide on their own next steps for improving. The focus of science teaching at Key Stage 3 and 4 is being reemphasised due to the new demands of the National Tests and new GCSEs. The increased focus on How Science Works is leaving many science teachers feeling a little uneasy as we have to explicitly teach and level the more difficult area of Scientific Enquiry. This has always been the area I had felt less confident in communicating with my classes and developing and using level ladders has improved that greatly. Not only that, but the level ladders provide a framework through which I can communicate the skills required for scientific investigations with my students. Having used these in my department and with colleagues throughout my local education authority, it is clear that these tasks are giving other teachers and learners a similar experience. These tasks have been written to enhance the teaching and learning through our everyday science investigations. They can be used in exactly the same way as the Badger KS3 Science Concept Level-Assessed Tasks. However, I highly recommend that you read the following notes to ensure you and your students get the most out of them.

HOW TO USE THESE TASKS


Each task is a simple open-ended task that assesses skill, knowledge and understanding of scientific investigation from a QCA topic. The tasks can be photocopied with the task sheet and the level ladder back-to-back or reduced so the task and level-ladder are side by side. The level ladder can be used by teachers and learners to guide their response to the task. Each task is now available in three level ranges: Levels 3-5, Levels 5-7 and levels 7-EP. I chose this split because most learners are either working towards Level 5 or working beyond Level 5. Level 5 requires learners to start using abstract concepts like energy, forces, particles and cells. Once they can use these concepts, they are able to access Levels 6 and beyond more easily. Most of the tasks are similar for all level ranges, but the demand of the task, key words and level ladders are suited to the ability of the learners. As with all new approaches, learners may need to do a few of these tasks before they get the full benefit from them. The tasks are very open and, to start with, some learners can feel overwhelmed by the freedom. They may need a lot of support and encouragement for the first few; as their confidence grows, the learners gain more independence at attempting the tasks.

Scientific Investigation Skill Focus


I have divided the How Science Works criteria from the National Curriculum into six sections for easy assessment. These are P Oa Ob C E A Planning to collect evidence Obtaining evidence (observing and recording) Obtaining evidence (presenting evidence) Considering evidence Evaluating evidence Developing an Argument

Developing Scientific Enquiry skills and Literacy Support


It is becoming increasingly clear that learners have trouble accessing Level 5 and above because they have limited literacy skills. These tasks have literacy support in the form of writing frames, cloze examples and sentence starters where appropriate. These supports are available for the tasks at Level 3-5, but removed from Level 6, 7, 8 & EP. Scientific enquiry skills have to be explicitly taught for learners to be able to develop these skills. There are many resources available for teachers to use to develop these skills. These resources can be used alongside the level ladder supported tasks to enhance the learning experience and develop learners scientific enquiry skills.

Big Ideas in Science


The Framework is divided into six Big Ideas in Science Energy, Forces, Particles, Cells, Interdependence and Scientific Enquiry. The first five can be seen as the abstract concepts, meaning that when learners can use these Big Ideas they can start to access criteria for Level 5 and beyond. My level descriptors use this language to encourage learners to use these ideas, e.g. use the Big Idea of Energy to explain the chemical reaction. This acts as a prompt, rather than giving them the answers!

General approaches
As the tasks have evolved and been trialed, several approaches have been tried. These are outlined below. Whatever approach you decide to use, make sure that the tasks allow formative assessment. It is important that these are not used as replacement summative tests. They are designed to encourage learners to demonstrate what they understand and to have the opportunity to improve. This is the foundation of formative assessment strategies: Where am I now? What am I aiming for? How do I get there? The tasks are designed to give learners the opportunity to show their full potential in science. To ensure this, I allow the class to use their notes from exercise books, text books and other secondary sources to help them with the task. I also encourage the learners to talk with their peers about the task and discuss their ideas. This rarely leads them to copy each other, but does encourage the development of their ideas and challenges their misconceptions.

Standard approach:
When carrying out an investigation, it is recommended that only part investigations are carried out so that the teaching and learning of particular skills is focused. Even when doing a complete investigation, it is worth focusing on just one or two areas for assessment. Starter activity (5-10 minutes) to introduce the task. Make sure each learner knows which level they should be aiming for. Main activity (30-40 minutes) learners attempt task. Teacher circulates, encouraging use of the level ladder and challenging misconceptions. Plenary activity (10 minutes) self or peer assessment, where level ladders are used to decide on level and improvement targets. Homework activity make the improvement, teacher collects and assesses them, giving one improvement target.

Alternative approaches:
Set the task for homework after carrying out or demonstrating the investigation. This could be attempted as a draft. Then assess the homework with one or two improvement targets and then give some lesson time to support learners in making improvements.

Encouragement of use of level ladder


Some learners find it difficult to use the level ladder to guide their work. Strategies I have seen used include: encouraging the learner to tick or highlight the statements on the level ladder when they think they have satisfied it; laminating level ladders which can be ticked off using whiteboard markers, then wiped clean.

ASSESSMENT OF THE TASKS


There are three approaches to assessing these tasks: teacher assessment, self assessment and peer assessment:

Teacher assessment
If you have not used these tasks before, I would recommend starting with the teacher assessment approach for assessing the learners responses to the tasks. These are not like the standard national tests, where you have very clear guidance of what answers to accept and not accept. This approach is much more flexible and requires the use of professional judgment when assigning a level. These tasks are not summative tests, so the level that is assigned to a learners work is only a snapshot. Learners often vary in their level from skill to skill. A good analogy to use with them is that of computer games. Computer games are often based on levels of success. Some people score higher levels on some computer games than others. The same will be experienced when doing the level-assessed tasks. However, most learners show a general improvement trend when using these tasks. The level ladders are written in learner-friendly language, are related to National Curriculum Levels and have been matched with national science tests where possible. These should be used when assigning a level to a learners work. Additional guidance is given for teachers in the teacher notes - this should be used alongside the level ladder. I take a very general approach to levelness, outlined in the table below. If I am ever in doubt, I refer back to this and consider the ability of the learner. Then, using professional judgment, I can assign a suitable level along with a suitable improvement target.

Planning P planning to collect evidence


To get level
3

Learners should:
Simply state what you are trying to find out. Suggest a simple way to investigate the question. Suggest one way to make it a fair test. State a prediction. Decide on and write down a scientific question to investigate. Select and list suitable equipment for the investigation. Describe how you will investigate the question (write step-by-step instructions). Identify which variable (factor) you will change. Identify which variable (factor) you will measure. Identify which variables you will control (keep the same). State a simple prediction with a reason. State how will make sure you are safe while doing the experiment. Decide on a suitable scientific question to investigate. Select suitable equipment for the investigation, stating reasons. Describe how you will investigate the question (write step-by-step instructions). Identify and explain which variable (factor) you will change and which variables (factors) you will keep the same. State the range of measurements you will make. State a prediction with a reason. Describe how you will make sure the investigation is safe for you and others. As for Level 5, but using scientific knowledge and understanding and Plan to collect repeat measurements. Describe how you will make the measurements precise. Make a prediction based on scientific knowledge and understanding. Describe the risks involved and the actions you will take to control them. If appropriate, do a Preliminary study. Select at least one source of information about X that helps to plan your investigation. Do a trial investigation first to help you make decisions on your final plan. Write down what you did and what you found out. Decide on a suitable scientific question to investigate. Select a range of suitable equipment for the investigation, stating reasons based on its precision. Describe in detail how you will investigate the question systematically and collect data that is reliable. Identify the variables involved; explain how you will attempt to control them. Make a prediction based on a scientific reason. Describe how you will make sure the investigation is safe for you and others. Plan to collect data that is reliable. Carry out a risk assessment for the investigation, referring to the appropriate information. Plan a Preliminary study. Select at least two sources of information about X that help to plan your investigation. Do a trial investigation first to help you make decisions on your final plan. Write down what you did and what you found out. Explain the decisions you made from this for your actual investigation. As for level 7, but independently use secondary sources to inform your preliminary investigation & planning. Discuss in detail your decisions for choosing particular high precision equipment, comparing alternative options. Without assistance, use your scientific knowledge and understanding to plan an appropriate investigation. Include the following: Synthesise information from a variety of resources to inform your plan and prediction. Consider a range of approaches to the investigation, making a decision based on scientific knowledge and understanding. Plan to use high precision equipment to measure a range of appropriate variables. Confidently carry out a risk assessment and make amendments to your plan to control risks.

EP

Obtaining Oa Collecting and recording evidence


To get level 3 Learners should: Be safe when instructed. Follow simple instructions With some help, take three observations or measurements. Follow instructions carefully. When told, take action to keep yourself safe during the experiment. Change one variable only, controlling another variable. Make at least three observations/measurements.

With some help, recognise hazards and take action to reduce risk to yourself and others. Change one variable only, controlling a range of other variables. Make a series of observations/measurements systematically. On your own, take action to reduce familiar risks to yourself and others. Change one variable only, controlling a range of other variables. Make a series of precise observations or measurements systematically. With some help, change one variable only, taking action to control a range of variables that are difficult to control. On your own, make a series of precise and reliable observations/measurements systematically using different types of equipment. On your own, you carry out the experiment taking action to: Control all risks to yourself and others. Control variables that are difficult to control. Make systematic, precise and reliable observations and measurements. Use a range of equipment confidently. As for Level 8, but independently and confidently take action to control risks and make decisions about obtaining precise, accurate and reliable data.

EP

Obtaining Ob Presenting Evidence Graphs


To get level 3 4 Learners should: With help put some results in a simple table. With help plot a simple bar chart. Record data in a simple table Draw simple bar charts, with some help with scales. With help, plot simple graphs Design a simple results table. Record your evidence clearly in the table. Design a results table to display your data. Record your evidence clearly in your table. Decide on suitable simple scales for your graph. Plot the points on the graph. Attempt to draw a line or curve of best fit.

5 6

Design a results table to display relevant data, including averages where appropriate. Record your evidence in your table. With help, carry out simple calculations. Decide on a suitable way to present your evidence. Decide on suitable scales for your graph. Plot at least five points on the graph. Draw an accurate line or curve of best fit. Design a results table to display relevant and sufficient data, including additional calculations. Calculate speed/pressure/averages, using appropriate units. Record your evidence in your table clearly. Decide on a suitable way to present your evidence. Decide on suitable complex scales for your graph. Plot sufficient points on the graph. Draw an accurate line or curve of best fit. As for level 8 but also independently and confidently: Decide on the precision required for the measurements. Identify and explain points of particular significance.

EP

Considering Evidence C
To get level 3 Learners should: With help (teacher, teaching assistant or writing frames): State the pattern from your evidence. State your conclusion. With help (teacher, teaching assistant or writing frames): State the pattern from your evidence. State your conclusion. Explain your conclusion using simple scientific ideas. With some prompts: Describe the pattern from your evidence. State your conclusion, using a Big Idea in Science. Explain your conclusion using scientific words and units. Mostly working independently, with some help with Level 6 specific skills: Describe any pattern from your evidence accurately. Make a conclusion consistent with your evidence. Explain your conclusion using scientific concepts, keywords and symbols where appropriate. Fairly independently, with some help through discussion with the teacher: Describe the relationship between the variables quantitatively. Explain the relationship scientifically, where appropriate. Identify any anomalies in your results. Use a range of scientific ideas and mathematical units appropriately.

Independently: Begin to explain and allow for anomalies Carry out multi-step calculations and use compound measures. Communicate findings and arguments using a range of views Considering Evidence Describe the relationship between the variables quantitatively. Explain the relationship scientifically, where appropriate, offering alternative views. Explain any anomalies in your results. Use scientific ideas and mathematical units appropriately and confidently. Independently and confidently: Describe the relationship between the variables quantitatively. Explain the relationship scientifically, where appropriate, offering alternative views, using scientific ideas and mathematical units appropriately. Discuss how certain you can be of the evidence you have produced.

EP

Considering Evidence E
To get level 3 4 5 6 Learners should: Suggest an improvement to the investigation. Suggest improvements with reasons. Suggest how the investigation could be improved with scientific reasons. Suggest practical improvements. Evaluate the evidence: suggest one strength and one weakness with the evidence Explain how the method could be improved. Begin to consider if the data is sufficient for the conclusions Evaluate the evidence: suggest some strengths and weaknesses with the evidence. Explain in detail how the method could be improved. Decide if the data is sufficient to support the conclusion. Evaluate the evidence: suggest a range of strengths and weaknesses with the evidence. Explain in detail how the method could be improved based on your evaluation. Discuss if the data is sufficient to support the conclusion. Evaluate the evidence: suggest a range of strengths and weaknesses with the evidence. Discuss how certain you are about the evidence. Explain in detail how the method could be improved based on your evaluation. Discuss if the data is sufficient to support the conclusion, explaining what additional evidence could be collected.

EP

Developing an Argument A
To get level 3 Learners should: Select information for your argument. Write down what your argument is about. Make one point supported by evidence. State your conclusion. Use some key words correctly. Select scientific information for your argument. Describe what your argument is about. Make two points each supported by evidence. State one reason why we cannot be sure whether State your conclusion. Use a range of key words correctly. Select scientific information for your argument. Explain simply what your argument is about. Make two points each supported by evidence. Explain simply why you chose each piece of evidence. Explain simply why scientists cannot be sure whether Explain your conclusion. Use a range of key words correctly. Use the criteria to select scientific or other evidence for your argument. Explain what your argument is about. Make three points, each supported by evidence. Explain why you chose each piece of evidence, based on the criteria. Explain why scientists cannot be sure whether Explain your conclusion. Use key words, mathematical and scientific conventions correctly. Use criteria to select scientific or other evidence for your argument. Draw on your own scientific knowledge and understanding to select evidence for your argument. Explain what your argument is about. Make several relevant points, each supported by evidence. Explain in detail why you chose each piece of evidence, based on the criteria. Explain in detail why scientists cannot be sure whether Explain, using scientific detail, your conclusion. Suggest what further evidence would be needed to support your argument. Use a range of key words, mathematical and scientific conventions correctly. Devise criteria to select scientific or other evidence for your argument. Explain clearly what the argument is about. Make several relevant points, each supported by evidence, drawing on your own scientific knowledge and understanding to select evidence for your argument. Explain in detail why you chose each piece of evidence, based on the criteria. Explain in detail why scientists cannot be sure whether Explain your conclusion based on the evidence you have selected, using scientific detail. Discuss what further evidence is needed to support your argument. Use a range of relevant key words, mathematical and scientific conventions confidently. Devise criteria to select scientific or other evidence for your argument. Explain clearly what the argument is about. Make a range of relevant points, each supported by evidence, drawing on addition evidence you have researched for your argument. Explain in detail why you chose each piece of evidence, based on your criteria. Explain in detail why scientists cannot be sure whether . Explain your conclusion based on the evidence you have selected, using scientific detail. Discuss in detail what further evidence is needed to support your argument and what evidence would be required for you to change your mind. Use a range of relevant key words, mathematical & scientific conventions consistently & confidently.

EP

Do not get too bogged down in which level to assign make a judgement using the criteria, then assign the level. I find that learners do pick me up on anything they think has been badly judged! The resulting discussion is very useful to both parties.

Assigning sub-levels
Many schools and colleges use sub-levels to help measure and monitor progression in scientific knowledge and understanding. These can be easily applied to these tasks. Most level ladders have about three or more statements per level. If the learner has satisfied one descriptor out of the three for Level 4, the Level 4c can be awarded; all three descriptors would mean that 4a can be awarded. Some issues do arise over whether to assign a Level 4a or 5c (for example). At these boundaries, if it is not clear from the learners work then professional judgement comes into play. Decide what will help aid the learners progression the most.

Dealing with misconceptions


The great advantage of open-ended tasks is that they allow learners to have freedom to express their ideas, knowledge and understanding about science. This of course includes all their misconceptions as well. This is a particularly useful aspect of these tasks, but also can be daunting when assessing the work if a learner has many misconceptions demonstrated in their work. I usually circle anything that is not scientifically correct, but base the improvement target on the next step in progression.

What happens if the learner completely misses the point?


Sometimes learners can produce a piece of work that does not seem possible to assess using the level ladder. The simple approach is that the improvement target is to do the task again using the level ladder to guide. If it is a reoccurring issue, sit the learner next to someone who can use the level ladder and encourage them to work together. In order to pre-empt this issue, it is often useful to show the class the type of response you are looking for. This can be done using an exemplar.

Self-assessment and peer-assessment


Encouraging learners to assess their own work or each others can be very valuable to the learning experience. As with anything new, learners will need more guidance and support to start with before their confidence develops to do this successfully. I would highly recommend that time is taken to help learners develop these skills with the support of these tasks. Self assessment can be done by guiding learners through the level ladder and encouraging them to tick off the descriptors they feel they have satisfied. Then they can use the improvement ladder to help decide on suitable improvement targets. Peer assessment can be useful because learners can learn from each other as well as engage with what is required for each level.

Generally learners are reasonably accurate at assigning levels, but in self-assessment there is an issue that they may not be aware of misconceptions that have been made. If you intend the learners to self-assess a piece of work in class, it is worth making sure that you challenge major misconceptions as you circulate. With both these types of assessment, it is the process of discussing and deciding on a level that is important, not necessarily whether the work is assessed to the correct sub-level. The latter can be dealt with by the teacher.

8A

CELLS (TN)

INVESTIGATING ENZYMES
RESOURCES:
Appropriate task sheets and level ladder (3-5, 5-7 or 7-EP). Demonstration equipment for an enzyme1 acting on a substrate, e.g. protease on albumen, trypsin on gelatine, amylase on starch. For preliminary study, equipment will include water bath, suitable buffer solutions (for pH), test tubes, spotting tiles, Pasteur pipettes.

NATIONAL CURRICULUM LINK

Practical and enquiry skills Use a range of scientific methods and techniques to develop and test ideas and explanations Assess risk and work safely in the laboratory, field and workplace Plan and carry out practical and investigative activities, both individually and in groups. Communication Use appropriate methods, including ICT, to communicate scientific information and contribute to presentations and discussions about scientific issues. Organisms, behaviour and health Life processes are supported by the organisation of cells into tissues, organs and body systems.

RISK ASSESSMENT
If the investigation is carried out, carry out an appropriate risk assessment and check learners plans before they commence their investigation. 1 Carry out appropriate risk assessment for use of specific enzymes.

SUGGESTED APPROACHES
The QCA suggests that you remind learners of the range of food types with large molecules and explain that, in addition to enzymes, the conditions inside the gut assist the breakdown of large molecules, e.g. body temperature. Ask learners to suggest what might affect how well the enzyme digests the food, e.g. pH, temperature, and help them to plan an investigation, identifying what they are going to measure and which variables they will need to control. As a starter, ask learners in pairs to read the task and put together their first ideas and questions. Most published schemes of work have a suggested approach to this type of investigation which could be used as a starting point. For Level 3 or 4 learners, I find that just three temperatures cold, warm and very hot is enough to compare the action of amylase on starch. Learners aiming for Level 6 or above should be given the opportunity to do a preliminary study to help inform their plan.

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: T EACHER NOTES

However, I find that all learners benefit from having a go before writing the plan. Learners should have the opportunity to self or peer assess their plans and make improvements.

ICT OPPORTUNITY
Use a digital pH probe or temperature probe to increase accuracy. Encourage comparison of qualitative and quantitative data.

ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE FOR ASSIGNING A LEVEL


Sub-levels may be assigned to indicate the extent of understanding within a particular level. Level
3

Teacher guidance
Learners will need assistance with deciding on the question and the variables. They should demonstrate a simple understanding of a fair test and be able to make a prediction, e.g. Stomach enzymes will work better in acid conditions. No safety is considered. Learner chooses a question and writes a plan with help, includes fair test. Personal safety is considered in familiar contexts. Learners should be able to come up with a question that can be tested, e.g. How does temperature effect the action of an enzyme? These are listed, with others that are not so scientific, on the Level 3-5 task sheet. Prediction should have a scientific reason, e.g. because this is body temperature / the same pH as the stomach. Writes a plan that is fair, collecting data systematically. A prediction is made with a (non-scientific) reason. Personal safety and the safety of others are considered in familiar contexts. e.g recognising hazard symbols on substances. Learners should be encouraged to give reasons for their choice of equipment, especially size/volume/quantity of equipment used. This may be done in the step-by-step instructions. Learners should be able to decide on a suitable range of measurements. Plan now includes repeats. Plans to measure using fine-scale apparatus (precision ). Scientific knowledge and understanding informs prediction. Preliminary research/study is planned and carried out to help plan. Learners should have the opportunity to do a preliminary study, to help make decisions about their plan, such as the equipment needed and volume of substrate required, time intervals to make measurements. Plan explains why repeats are to be used, systematic observations will be made and how precise measurements will be taken. Writes a simple risk assessment, drawing on appropriate resources. e.g. Hazcards Preliminary research/study is planned and carried out to inform plan. Learners should show a confident and detailed understanding of both the scientific approach to planning an investigation and the scientific knowledge surrounding the investigation. Learners design their plan independently and critically, relating it directly with the question they are asking. Discusses different strategies for the investigation, with reasons for chosen plan. Adapts plan to control risk. Learners plan the investigation competently and independently. Building on Level 8, the learner will use a wide variety of sources of information critically to develop their plan.

5 6

EP

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: T EACHER NOTES


8 A I NVESTIGATING ENZYMES

8A

CELLS (TS3-5)

INVESTIGATING ENZYMES

FOCUS: PLANNING SKILLS (P)


INFORMATION
Enzymes are chemicals that are made by cells. The human digestive system makes lots of different enzymes. These are used to break down large insoluble food molecules into smaller, soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the body.

THINK ABOUT
Choose a good scientific question to test. Some of these are better than others. Which conditions do enzymes work best in? What temperature does the enzyme amalyse work best at? What pH do enzymes work best at?

TASK
Plan an investigation to answer the question you have chosen. Your plan should include the following: Title what question are you trying to answer? List of equipment. Step-by-step plan clear instructions of what you will do. How I will make it a safe investigation hazards and precautions you will take. How I will make it a fair test. How I will make the results accurate and reliable. Prediction give a reason for your prediction. Writing for a purpose Write in the future tense e.g. I will set the water bath at 20oC. Be as specific as you can, so someone else could do the experiment using your plan e.g. I will need 5 test tubes, etc. Give a scientific reason for your prediction, using scientific words.

KEY WORDS
control, dependent variable, independent variable, prediction, temperature, volume amylase, enzyme, glucose, pH, starch solution, thermometer, water bath

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: TS (L3-5)


! BADGER PUBLISHING LTD

8A
To get level 3

CELLS (LL3-5)

INVESTIGATING ENZYMES
You might: Simply state what you are trying to find out. I am trying to find out Suggest a way to investigate which conditions enzymes work best. Suggest one way to make it a fair test. The factor (variable) I will keep the same is The factor I will change is State a prediction. I predict that the enzyme will work best in Decide on and write down a scientific question to investigate. Select and list suitable equipment for the investigation. Describe how you will investigate the question (write step-by-step instructions). Identify which variable (factor) you will change. The independent variable is Identify which variable (factor) you will measure. The dependent variable is Identify which variables you will control (keep the same). The variables I will control are State a simple prediction with a reason. I predict that the enzyme will work best in because State how you will make sure you are safe while doing the experiment. Decide on a suitable scientific question to investigate. Select suitable equipment for the investigation, stating reasons. Describe how you will investigate the question (write step-by-step instructions). Identify and explain which variable (factor) you will change and which variables (factors) you will keep the same. The independent variable is The dependent variable is The variables I will control are State the range of measurements you will make. I will investigate different conditions. State a prediction with a reason. I predict that because Describe how you will make sure the investigation is safe for you and others.

What is your target level? Use the level ladder to help you reach it.

Which level have you achieved? Choose one improvement target and try it.

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: LL (L3-5)


! BADGER PUBLISHING LTD

8A

CELLS (TS5-7)

INVESTIGATING ENZYMES

FOCUS: PLANNING SKILLS (P)


INFORMATION
Enzymes are chemicals that are made by cells. The human digestive system makes lots of different enzymes. These are used to break down large insoluble food molecules into smaller, soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the body.

THINK ABOUT
Choose a good scientific question to test. Some of these are better than others. Which conditions do enzymes work best in? What temperature does the enzyme amalyse work best at? What pH do enzymes work best at?

TASK
Plan an investigation to answer the question you have chosen. Your plan should include the following: Title what question are you trying to answer? List of equipment. Step-by-step plan clear instructions of what you will do. How I will make it a safe investigation hazards and precautions you will take. How I will make it a fair test. How I will make the results accurate and reliable. Prediction give a reason for your prediction. Writing for a purpose Write in the future tense e.g. I will set the water bath at 20oC. Be as specific as you can, so someone else could do the experiment using your plan e.g. I will need 5 test tubes, etc. Give a scientific reason for your prediction, using scientific words.

KEY WORDS
control, dependent variable, independent variable, prediction, temperature, volume amylase, enzyme, glucose, pH, starch solution, thermometer, water bath

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: TS (L5-7)


! BADGER PUBLISHING LTD

8A
To get level 5

CELLS (LL5-7)

INVESTIGATING ENZYMES
You might: Decide on a suitable scientific question to investigate. Select suitable equipment for the investigation, stating reasons. Describe how you will investigate the question (write step-by-step instructions). Identify and explain which variable (factor) you will change and which variables (factors) you will keep the same. State the range of measurements you will make. State a prediction with a reason. Describe how you will make sure the investigation is safe for you and others. As for Level 5, but using scientific knowledge and understanding and Plan to collect repeat measurements. Describe how you will make the measurements precise. Explain why you have selected equipment or techniques that will allow you to collect precise results. Make a prediction based on scientific knowledge and understanding. Describe the risks involved and the actions you will take to control them. If appropriate, do a Preliminary study. Select at least one source of information about enzymes that helps to plan your investigation. Do a trial investigation first to help you make decisions on your final plan. Write down what you did and what you found out. As for Level 5, but using detailed scientific knowledge and understanding and Plan to collect data that is reliable. Carry out a risk assessment for the investigation, referring to the appropriate information. If appropriate, do a Preliminary study. Select at least two sources of information about enzymes that help to plan your investigation. Do a trial investigation first to help you make decisions on your final plan. Write down what you did and what you found out. Explain the decisions you made from this for your actual investigation.

What is your target level? Use the level ladder to help you reach it.

Which level have you achieved? Choose one improvement target and try it.

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: LL (L5-7)


! BADGER PUBLISHING LTD

8A

CELLS (TS7-EP)

INVESTIGATING ENZYMES

FOCUS: PLANNING SKILLS (P)


INFORMATION
Enzymes are chemicals that are made by cells. The human digestive system makes lots of different enzymes. These are used to break down large insoluble food molecules into smaller, soluble molecules that can be absorbed into the body.

THINK ABOUT
Decide on a scientific question to investigate.

TASK
Plan an investigation to answer the question you have chosen. Your Plan should include the following: What are the main features of your plan? What should you include? How much detail is necessary? How could you get quantitative results? Writing for a purpose How will you present your plan? Which tense will you use? Who are you writing for?

Use the Level Ladder to help you achieve your target level.

KEY WORDS
Decide on key words that are suitable for this task.

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: TS (L7-EP)


! BADGER PUBLISHING LTD

8A
To get level 7

CELLS (LL7-EP)

INVESTIGATING ENZYMES
You might: Decide on a suitable scientific question to investigate. Select a range of suitable equipment for the investigation, stating reasons based on its precision. Describe in detail how you will investigate the question systematically and collect data that is reliable. Identify the variables involved; explain how you will attempt to control them. Make a prediction based on a scientific reason. Describe how you will make sure the investigation is safe for you and others. Plan to collect data that is reliable. Carry out a risk assessment for the investigation, referring to the appropriate information. Plan a Preliminary study. Select at least two sources of information about enzymes that help to plan your investigation. Do a trial investigation first to help you make decisions on your final plan. Write down what you did and what you found out. Explain the decisions you made from this for your actual investigation. As for level 7, but independently use secondary sources to inform your preliminary investigation and planning. Discuss in detail your decisions for choosing particular high precision equipment, comparing alternative options. Without assistance, use your scientific knowledge and understanding to plan an appropriate investigation. Include the following: Synthesise information from a variety of resources to inform your plan and prediction. Consider a range of approaches to the investigation, making a decision based on scientific knowledge and understanding. Plan to use high precision equipment to measure a range of appropriate variables. Confidently carry out a risk assessment and make amendments to your plan to control risks.

What is your target level? Use the level ladder to help you reach it.

EP

Which level have you achieved? Choose one improvement target and try it.

Y8 HSW LEVEL-A SSESSED T ASKS: LL (L7-EP)


! BADGER PUBLISHING LTD