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UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.

02/EN October, 2000






Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

UM12 Course















Copyright 2000 Nortel Networks, All Rights Reserved
Printed in France
NORTEL NETWORKS CONFIDENTIAL:
The information contained in this document is the property of Nortel Networks. Except as specifi cally authorized in
writing by Nortel Networks, the holder of this document shall keep the information contained herein confidential and
shall protect same in whole or in part from disclosure and dissemination to third parties and use for evaluation,
operation and maintenance purposes only.
You may not reproduce, represent, or download through any means, the information contained herein in any way or in
any form without prior written consent of Nortel Networks.
The following are trademarks of Nortel Networks Corporation: *NORTEL NETWORKS, the NORTEL NETWORKS
corporate logo, the NORTEL Globemark, HOW THE WORLD SHARES IDEAS, UNIFIED NETWORKS, BSC6000.
GSM is a trademark of France Telecom.
All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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Publication History

Version Date Comments
01.01/EN July 2000 Preliminary Draft
01.02/EN October 2000 First official version

















Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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UM12 Course

Introduction 1
WCDMA Introduction 2
Basic WCDMA Elements 3
Protocol Layers General Description 4
Logical Channels 5
Transport Channels 6
Physical Channels 7
Modulation and Demodulation 8
AMR Speech Codec 9
Glossary 10

Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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Volume Composition

No. Title Reference Version/Edition
1 Advanced UMTS Radio
Interface
Course UM12
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN















Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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Course Presentation
This course presents the main characteristics on the UMTS radio interface.
An extensive description of the CDMA multiplexing scheme is provided.
Also, it gives a detailed view of all the different UMTS channels and
associated information processing.
Course Objectives
Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
explain the history and principles of WCDMA,
understand the impacts of the different service rates,
describe the UMTS radio protocol layers,
define the different logical channels,
define the transport channels and their associated processing,
characterize all the physical channels
explain the UMTS modulation and demodulation methods,
describe who the AMR voice codec works.
Prerequisites
This course is intended for people whose occupation requires a detailed knowledged
of the UMTS radio interface.
Before attending this course, a basic knowledge of UMTS, GPRS and UMTS is
required. An excellent way to obtain this knowledge is to attend the 3-day UM10
course (UMTS System Description), the 3-day GP1 course (GPRS technical
description) and the 5-day SY1 course (GSM System and Products Overview).
Scope
This course applies to the R99 UMTS specifications.
Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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Table of Contents
COURSE NOTES CONTENTS
PUBLICATION HISTORY ii
UM12 COURSE iii
VOLUME COMPOSITION iv
COURSE INTRODUCTION v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
1. INTRODUCTION 1-1
GSM TRAINING CURRICULUM 1-2
UM12 COURSE 1-4
2. WCDMA INTRODUCTION 2-1
OBJECTIVES 2-2
CDMA BENEFITS 2-3
CDMA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 2-4
1998 ITU IMT-2000 PROPOSALS 2-5
NOVEMBER 99: 5 IMT-2000 FAMILY MEMBERS 2-6
ROADMAP TO UMTS 2-7
ROADMAP TO CDMA2000 2-8
STANDARDIZATION BODIES 2-9
GPP STANDARDS 2-11
QUESTIONS 2-12
3. BASIC WCDMA ELEMENTS 3-1
OBJECTIVES 3-2
ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES 3-3
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DUPLEX TECHNOLOGIES 3-4
DS-CDMA PRINCIPLES 3-5
CHANNELIZATION CODES OVSF 3-7
UMTS FRAME FORMAT 3-11
SCRAMBLING CODES PN 3-12
UPLINK SCRAMBLING CODES 3-13
DOWNLINK SCRAMBLING CODES 3-14
DS-CDMA CODES 3-15
RAKE RECEIVER 3-16
INTERFERENCE SOURCES 3-17
EB / NO 3-19
EB / NO & POWER CONTROL 3-20
POWER CONTROL 3-21
COVERAGE LIMITS 3-22
INTERFERENCE VERSUS SERVICE RATE 3-23
RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 3-24
COVERAGE LIMITS 3-25
COVERAGE-CAPACITY TRADEOFF 3-26
MACRO-DIVERSITY 3-30
COMPRESSED MODE 3-31
STTD 3-32
QUESTIONS 3-33
4. PROTOCOL LAYERS - GENERAL DESCRIPTION 4-1
OBJECTIVES 4-2
UE PROTOCOL LAYERS 4-3
LAYER 1 ARCHITECTURE 4-4
LAYER 1 FUNCTIONS 4-5
MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (MAC) 4-6
RADIO LINK CONTROL LAYER (RLC) 4-8
PACKET DATA CONVERGENCE PROTOCOL (PDCP) 4-9
BROADCAST / MULTICAST CONTROL (BMC) 4-10
Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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RADIO RESOURCE CONTROL LAYER (RRC) 4-11
PROTOCOL STACK FOR PACKET SERVICES 4-13
QUESTIONS 4-14
5. LOGICAL CHANNELS 5-1
OBJECTIVES 5-2
CHANNELS 5-3
UE PROTOCOL LAYERS 5-4
UE PROTOCOL STATES 5-5
LOGICAL CHANNELS 5-6
MAPPING 5-8
RLC SERVICES/FUNCTIONS APPLICABILITY 5-9
DATA FLOWS THROUGH LAYER 2 5-11
RLC HEADERS 5-12
MAC HEADER FOR LOGICAL CHANNELS 5-13
PROTOCOL TERMINATION 5-14
QUESTIONS 5-16
6. TRANSPORT CHANNELS 6-1
OBJECTIVES 6-2
CHANNEL PROTOCOL LAYERS 6-3
CHANNELS 6-4
GENERAL DESCRIPTION 6-5
IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS 6-6
TRANSPORT CHANNEL PROCESSING (DOWNLINK) 6-7
TRANSPORT CHANNEL PROCESSING (UPLINK) 6-8
QOS MONITORING 6-9
TRANSPORT BLOCK PROCESSING 6-10
TTI PROCESSING 6-16
RADIO FRAME PROCESSING 6-20
TIME SLOT PROCESSING 6-23
MAPPING BETWEEN CHANNELS 6-24
Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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BCH EXAMPLE 6-25
PCH AND FACH EXAMPLE 6-26
EXAMPLE FOR 384 KBPS DATA (DOWNLINK) 6-27
AMR EXAMPLE 6-28
EXAMPLE FOR 2048 KBPS DATA (UPLINK) 6-29
QUESTIONS 6-30
7. PHYSICAL CHANNELS 7-1
OBJECTIVES 7-2
CHANNEL PROTOCOL LAYERS 7-3
MAPPING BETWEEN CHANNELS 7-4
PHYSICAL CHANNEL PROCESSING 7-5
CONTROL BITS 7-6
SPREADING AND MODULATION IN DOWNLINK 7-7
COMMON DOWNLINK PHYSICAL CHANNELS 7-8
UPLINK PHYSICAL CHANNEL DESCRIPTION 7-12
COMMON DOWNLINK PHYSICAL CHANNELS 7-15
UPLINK PHYSICAL CHANNEL DESCRIPTION 7-17
DEDICATED DOWNLINK PHYSICAL CHANNELS 7-19
COMMON DOWNLINK PHYSICAL CHANNELS 7-21
UPLINK PHYSICAL CHANNEL DESCRIPTION 7-22
COMMON DOWNLINK PHYSICAL CHANNELS 7-23
TIMING RELATIONSHIP FOR DOWNLINK CHANNELS 7-24
POSSIBLE PHYSICAL CHANNEL COMBINATIONS 7-25
QUESTIONS 7-26
8. MODULATION AND DEMODULATION 8-1
OBJECTIVES 8-2
GENERAL OVERVIEW 8-3
CLASSICAL MODULATIONS 8-4
DOWNLINK MODULATION SCHEME 8-5
EXAMPLE FOR DL 384 KBPS DATA 8-6
Advanced UMTS Radio Interface

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DOWNLINK EXAMPLE FOR 2 PHYSICAL CHANNELS 8-7
UPLINK MODULATION SCHEME 8-8
EXAMPLE FOR UL 384 KBPS DATA 8-9
PULSE SHAPING 8-10
CLASSIC RECEIVER 8-11
DEMODULATION 8-12
RAKE RECEIVER PRINCIPLE 8-13
DESPREADING AND DECISION 8-14
DESPREADING EXAMPLE 8-16
QUESTIONS 8-17
9. AMR SPEECH CODEC 9-1
OBJECTIVES 9-2
WHY IS SPEECH DIGITIZED AND CODED? 9-3
AMR GENERAL DESCRIPTION 9-4
PERFORMANCES FOR CLEAN SPEECH 9-5
AMR COMPETITION 9-6
SPEECH TRANSMISSION CHAIN 9-7
HYBRID CODER 9-8
AMR DESCRIPTION 9-9
AMR FRAME STRUCTURE 9-10
AMR COMMUNICATION 9-11
COMPARISON OF TFO AND TRFO 9-13
SOURCE CONTROLLED RATE OPERATION 9-14
PERFORMANCES FOR CLEAN SPEECH 9-17
PERFORMANCES FOR OFFICE NOISE 9-18
AMR EXAMPLE 9-19
QUESTIONS 9-21
10. GLOSSARY 10-1
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UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 1-1
Introduction
October, 2000
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Section 1
Introduction
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 1-2
Introduction
October, 2000
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GSM Training Curriculum
1 - BSS and NSS Courses
BSS System Courses
ARI Advanced Radio Interface
Description 3 days
BS21 BSC 12000 and TCU
Advanced Description 2 days
NE2 BSS Optimization Parameters 3 days
NMO Network Monitoring and
Optimization 2 days
PR1 S8000 BTS Family
Advanced Description 2 days
PR3 BSS Products Overview 2 days
PR4 BSC and TCU e3 Advanced
Description 2 days
SR11 BSS Release V11 Overview 1 day
SR12 BSS Release V12 Overview 1 day
SY2 BSS Dimensioning 2 days
BSS Installation & Commissioning
PIC1 BSC & TCU Installation and
Commissioning. 5 days
PIC7 BTS S8000 Outdoor I&C 5 days
PIC10 BTS S8000 Indoor I&C 4 days
PIC17 BTS S8000 I&C 5 days
NSS System Courses
900 GSM Intelligent Networks Overview 3 days
930 GSM DMS Overview 3 days
931 GSM NSS Overview 2 days
932 GSM Data Overview 1 day
935 GSM HLR-PS (Provisioning Server) 3 days
936 GSM Billing Mediation Device (GMBD) 3 days
937 OMC-S Overview & Operation 2 days
938 GSM GPP-IWF 5 days
950 GSM DMS Maintenance Part 1 10 days
951 GSM DMS Maintenance Part 2 10 days
961 GSM09 Release Delta 2 days
962 GSM10 Release Delta 1 day
963 GSM11 Release Delta 2 days
970 GSM-MSC/VLR Translations 10 days
972 GSM HLR Service Datafill 5 days
974 GSM CCS7 Transl. and Operations 5 days
Radio and Network Engineering
Courses
RSV1 Radio Site Verification 1 day
RSV2 RSV Measurement & Post-Processing 2 days
CNE Cellular Network Engine. Process 1 day
RF0 RF Basics 3 days
CP1 Cell Planning Fundamentals 2 days
CP2 Cell Planning Project 5 days
RSQ1 Radio Survey and RF Qualification 2 days
RSQ2 Radio Measurements 3 days
SSE1 Site Survey and Site Engineering 1 day
SSE2 Site Survey Visit and Engineering
Case Studies 1 day
SSE3 Aerial Verification 2 days
NETRF1Network and RF Engineering Course 5 days
BSS Operation
& Maintenance Courses
OM1/2 BSS Operation and Maintenance 10 days
OM4 OMC-R Administration 4 days
OM5 BSS Databuild 5 days
OM6 S8000 BTS Local Maintenance 2 days
OM9 BSS Operation and Fault
Handling 4 days
OM31 BSC and TCU Local Maintenance3 days
OMDV10-12BSS Release for V10 Experts 3 days
OMDV12 BSS Release for V11 Experts 2 days
OM36 BSC, TCU and BTS S8000
Local Maintenance 5 days
System Courses
SY0 GSM General Overview 2 days
SY1 GSM System and Products
Overview 5 days
SYS GSM System Overview 3 days
TL1 Telecommunications Overview 2 days
TL4 ATM Overview 1 day
The BSS and NSS training courses are split into several families according to the
different skills required to deal with GSM networks:
System: to acquire general knowledge about GSM, as well as a general
overview of the equipment designed by Nortel Networks.
BSS System: to acquire a general knowledge on BSS system: products,
dimensioning, optimization.
BSS Operation and Maintenance: to be able to operate and maintain a
telecommunication network by fully using the OMC-R facilities and give an in-
depth understanding of the BSS functions and equipment.
NSS System: to acquire knowledge on the operation and maintenance of the
NSS part of the system.
Radio and Network Engineering: to be in charge of cell planning, BSS network
topology, field tests, data fill or BSS parameters optimization.
Installation and Commissioning: to be able to install, cable, and run test on-site
equipment.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 1-3
Introduction
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RL11 GSM-R System and Products
Overview 5 days
RL12 GSM-R deltas with GSM system 1 day
RL21 GSM-R BSS Optimization parameters 3 days
RL22 GSM-R BSS Optimization parameters
versus GSM 1 day
RL23 GSM-R BSS dimensioning 2 days
RL30 GSM-R IN Overview and datafill 5 days
RL31 GSM-R NSS Overview 2 days
RL32 GSM-R HLR Service Datafill 5 days
RL41 GSM-R RF Engineering 5 days
RL51 BTS S8002 I&C 3 days
RL61 BTS S8002 local maintenance 2 days
RL62 GSM-R performance measurements
tools 2 days
RL63 BSS O&M for GSM-R 10 days
RL64 BSS Operations and Fault Handling
for GSM-R 4 days
GSM-R Courses
TL2 Frame Relay Overview 1 day
TL3 TCP/IP Overview 2 days
GP0 GPRS General Overview 1 day
GP1 GPRS Technical Description 3 days
GP10 Passport Operation and Maintenance
for GPRS 3 days
GP2 PCUSN Configuration and Operation 2 days
GP3 SGSN Configuration and Operation 1 day
GP4 GGSN Configuration and Operation 3 days
GP5 OMC-D Operation 5 days
GP6 Charging Gateway Operation 1 day
GP7 PCUSN Operation and Maintenance 3 days
GP8 SIG Operation 1 day
GPRS Courses
UMTS Courses
UM0 UMTS Introduction 1 day
UM10 UMTS System Description 3 days
UM12 Advanced UMTS Radio Interface 3 days
PN1 PicoNode Product Overview 1 day
PN2 PicoNode OMC Network Operation 5 days
PN3 PicoNode OMC System Administration 5 days
PN4 PicoNode BSS Operation 5 days
PN5 PicoNode NSS Operation 5 days
PN245PicoNode: From I&C to O&M 10 days
PicoNode Courses
GSM Training Curriculum
2 - GPRS, UMTS, BSS Tools, GSM-R, and PicoNode Courses
BSS Tools Courses
CT1000 CT1000 Course 8 days
CT1000_NRP Reconfiguration Procedures 4 days
CT3100 CT3100 Course 5 days
CT3100OJT On the job training 3 days
CT7100 GSM Network Monitoring and
Optimization Tool (NSS and BSS) 4 days
CT7100_B GSM Network Monitoring and
Optimization Tool (BSS only) 3 days
CT7100_N GSM Network Monitoring and
Optimization Tool (NSS only) 2 days
CT7100_T GSM Network Monitoring Tool
(Call Trace/Call Path Trace) 1 day
The BSS and NSS training courses are split in several families according to the
different skills required to deal with GSM networks:
GPRS: an overview of this new system and advanced description of new
nodes.
UMTS: an overview of this future system.
BSS Tools: to be able to use the new tools.
GSM-R: an overview and advanced description of this new system for railways
companies.
PicoNode: to be able to operate and manage this new product line (wireless
access in rural or corporate areas).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 1-4
Introduction
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UM12 Course
UM12 Organization
Section 1: Introduction
Section 2: WCDMA Introduction
Section 3: Basic WCDMA Elements
Section 4: Protocol Layers General Description
Section 5: Logical Channels
Section 6: Transport Channels
Section 7: Physical Channels
Section 8: Modulation and Demodulation
Section 9: AMR Speech Codec
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-1
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
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Section 2
WCDMA Introduction
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WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
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Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
Objectives
WCDMA Introduction
- State the origins of WCDMA
- Cite the different technologies used in 3G for the radio
interface
- Briefly explain the evolution of the UMTS radio interface
from 2G
- List the different CDMA cellular systems in the world
- Cite the 3GPP specifications related to the UMTS radio
interface
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WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
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CDMA Benefits
Increased capacity Increased capacity
Improved coverage allowing for fewer cells Improved coverage allowing for fewer cells
Simplified system planning Simplified system planning
Increased battery time Increased battery time
Improved call quality Improved call quality
Bandwidth on demand Bandwidth on demand
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is a way to multiplex users on a common
media using mathematical codes instead of allocating a fix time slot and frequency.
The advantages of sharing a common resource instead of allocating a dedicated
resource per user are evident in the case of bursty traffic, because the unused
bandwidth is not wasted. In fact, it can be used to provide a higher QoS per user or
to increase the capacity of the system.
When CDMA is well implemented in a cellular system, it can bring many benefits to
an operator. According to the CDMA Development Group (CDG), heres a list of
these benefits:
capacity 8 to 10 times better than AMPS, and 4 to 5 times better than GSM,
increased time talk for portables,
improved coverage allowing for fewer cell sites,
improved call quality,
simplified system planning,
bandwidth on demand.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-4
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
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CDMA: Past, Present and Future
1950s:CDMA used for military purposes
1956: A form of Rake receiver is proposed
1961: Near-far problem for spread spectrum systems is
mentioned
1978: Suggestion of a cellular application for spread spectrum
systems followed by research
1993: Narrowband CDMA IS-95 standard
1995: Proposition of wideband CDMA for 3G systems
2000s:Commercialization of wideband CDMA systems
The origins of CDMA are in the military field and navigation systems. During the
1950s, CDMA was used to counteract intentional jamming. It may also have been
used during World War II.
But it wasnt until the late 70 s that the idea of a cellular application for spread
spectrum systems was proposed.
The first commercial launch of a CDMA system was made in September of 1995 by
Hutchison Telecom in Hong-Kong. This system is known as CDMA One,
corresponding to the IS-95 standard completed in 1993. It is now used all around
the world, but mostly in the United States.
Today, spread spectrum holds the potential to revolutionize wireless
communications, because it renders radio spectrum, a resource currently so
precious that only the largest of corporations can afford to buy it, plentiful enough for
all of us.
Spread spectrum is a highly efficient way of using the radio spectrum to
communicate, because it enables multiple users to share radio frequencies at the
same time, without interfering with each other.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-5
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
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1998 ITU IMT-2000 Proposals
UTRA WCDMA - ETSI
WPCDMA - T1
WCDMA - ARIB
CDMAII - TTA
CDMA 2000 - TIA
CDMA1 - TTA
DECT - ETSI
TD-SCDMA - CATT
UWC136 -TIA
7 / 9 terrestrial candidates were CDMA
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-6
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
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November 99: 5 IMT-2000 Family Members
UMTS FDD = IMT- DS (Direct Spread)
cdma2000 =IMT-MC (Multi-Carrier)
UMTS TDD & TD-SCDMA = IMT-TC (Time Code)
UWC-136 = IMT-SC (Single Carrier)
DECT = IMT-FT (Frequency Time)
} }
} }
CDMA CDMA
TDMA TDMA
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-7
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
2-7 WCDMA Introduction UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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t
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g
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p
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t

k
b
p
s
10 k
100 k
64 k
1 M
2 M
1 k
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Time frame
UMTS UMTS
GPRS GPRS
HSCSD HSCSD
9.6 9.6
14.4 14.4
c
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GPRS = General Packet Radio Service
HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data
EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution
UMTS = Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
EDGE EDGE
Roadmap to UMTS
Today, GSM has the capability to handle messages via the Short Message Service
SMS and a 14.4 kbps circuit switched data service for data/fax calls.
This maximum speed of 14.4 kbps, is relatively low compared to wireline modem
speeds of 34.4 and even 56 kbps.
To enhance the current data capabilities of GSM, operators and infrastructure
providers have specified new extensions to GSM phase 2:
High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD), by using several circuit
channels,
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), to provide packet radio access to
external Packet Data Networks (Internet or X.25 networks),
Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE), using a new modulation
scheme (8PSK) to give up three times higher throughput (for HSCSD and
GPRS),
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), a new wireless
technology but utilizing new infrastructure deployment.
These extensions enable:
higher data throughput,
better spectral efficiency,
lower call set-up times.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-8
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Roadmap to CDMA2000
IS IS--95A 95A
9.6 & 14.4 kbps data
13 kbps vocoder
Capacity improvements
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
IS IS--95B 95B
performance
enhancements
115.2 kbps max data rate
CDMA2000 phase 1 CDMA2000 phase 1
standard completed
1X1.25 MHz
153 kbps data rate
Capacity doubled
CDMA2000 phase 2 CDMA2000 phase 2
up to 2 Mbps
N X 1.25 MHz
Smart antennas
Transmit diversity
DD
AA
TT
AA
RR
AA
TT
E E
S S
Evolution vs. Revolution
Meets or exceeds IMT-2000 target
Radio interface very similar to 2G
Maximum re-use of h/w, s/w, and real estate
Leverage CDMA experience: development,
deployment, and optimization
Continuum of service & features enhancement
CDMA2000 is the American solution for 3
rd
generation cellular systems. The
standard was developed by the TR45.5 group, under the TIA (Telecommunication
Industries Association). We could say that CDMA2000 is to CDMAOne what UMTS
is to GSM. It is the evolution of the IS-95 standard.
As for UMTS, CDMA2000 will be deployed with the intention to protect the second
generation operators investments.
The main objective of CDMA2000 is to provide more efficient data rates. The IS-
95B standard provided a maximum data rate of 115 kbps, and CDMA2000 should
bring rates of up to 2 Mbps (phase 2).
Unlike in UMTS, the air interface of CDMA2000 will not be so different from the air
interface used in the preceding generation. Two configurations will be possible:
Direct Spread (used in UMTS) and Multi Carrier (MC). The MC scheme will be
deployed to maintain compatibility between CDMA2000 and IS-95 carriers.
However, in certain conditions the spectrum efficiency of MC is 5% to 10% worse
than direct spread (because it can resolve fewer multi-path components). MC and
direct spread will be possible in downlink, while only direct spread will be used in
uplink.
The 5 MHz nominal bandwidth for CDMA2000 is achieved by using three
consecutive IS-95B carriers, where each carrier has a chip rate of 1.2288 Mcps and
stands on a 1.25 MHz band.
In CDMA2000, the multi carrier scheme will allow 1, 3, 6, 9 or 12 separate 1.25 MHz
carriers.
The chip rate for the direct spread scheme will be 3*1.2288 = 3.6864 Mcps.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-9
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
2-9 WCDMA Introduction UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Standardization Bodies
IMT-2000
TIA TIA
ANSI-41 + CDMA2000
+ M-IP Architecture
TTA TTA T1P1 T1P1
ARIB ARIB
/TTC /TTC
Third Generation
Partnership Project
GSM- based UMTS
Mobile IP
UWCC UWCC
China China
CWTS CWTS
OHG = Operators Harmonization Group
IETF = Internet Engineering Task Force
3GPP includes 5 ORGANIZATIONAL PARTNERS: ARIB and TTC from Japan,
T1P1 from USA, TTA from Korea and ETSI from Europe (based in France).
These five have the capability and authority to define, publish and set standards
within the 3GPP scope in their respective areas.
3GPP also includes 6 MARKET REPRESENTATION PARTNERS who are by order
of admission: UMTS forum (UK based), GSA (Global Mobile Suppliers Association,
UK based), GSM Association (Ireland based), CWTS (China Wireless
Telecommunication Standard group), UWCC (Universal Wireless Communication
Consortium, USA based), IPv6 forum (Luxembourg based).
A Market Representation partner is invited by the Organizational partners to offer
advice to 3GPP and bring consensus view of market requirements. He does not
have the capability and authority to define, publish and set standards within the
3GPP scope, nationally or regionally.
(3GPP2 is the equivalent of 3GPP for CDMA2000).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-10
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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FDD FDD- -DS DS
IS41 IS41
Core Core N/W N/W
MAP MAP
Core Core N/W N/W
TDD TDD FDD FDD- -MC MC
Standardization Bodies
OHG Harmonisation Model
15 proposals for 3G radio transmission technology were delivered to ITU (deadline
was June 30, 1998): 9 for terrestrial networks and 6 for satellite.
After finalization, in 1999, five proposals remained for the terrestrial component.
Their name was: IMT-DS, IMT-MC, IMT-TC, IMT-SC and IMT-FT.
IMT-DS, IMT-MC and IMT-TC are the official names of respectively: FDD-DS
(Frequency Division Duplex - Direct Spread), FDD-MC (Frequency Division
Duplex - Multi Carrier) and TDD (Time Division Duplex).
For UMTS, there were two competing solutions: TDD and FDD-DS, until the
agreement of January 1998.
The result is a compromise between the two solutions, including both FDD and
TDD. The agreement is named UTRA (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access). However,
today Nortel Networks solution for UMTS phase 1 will be FDD-DS.
Coming on the market: China with a TDD proposal.
FDD-MC is the North American solution called CDMA2000, which enables current
IS-95 operators to have a smooth transition to 3G.
On the Core network side, two solutions would exist: one coming from the existing
GSM Core networks (MAP) and one coming from IS-95 or TDMA networks (IS41).
The goal is to enable inter-working between the different Access and Core
Networks.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-11
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
2-11 WCDMA Introduction UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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3GPP Standards
25.1XX: Radio performance aspects 25.1XX: Radio performance aspects
25.2XX: Radio aspects Layer 1 25.2XX: Radio aspects Layer 1
25.3XX: Radio interface Layer 2 and Layer 3 25.3XX: Radio interface Layer 2 and Layer 3
- 25.301: Radio Interface architecture, 25.302: PHY layer services
- 25.321: MAC protocol, 25.322: RLC protocol, 25.331: RRC protocol
25.4XX: Network interfaces 25.4XX: Network interfaces
- 25.401: UTRAN architecture
- 25.41X: Iu interface
- 25.42X: Iur interface
- 25.43X: Iub interface
25.9XX: Technical reports 25.9XX: Technical reports
Nortel is deeply involved with the Standards and Planning group in order to
participate in the definition of the different technical specifications.
There is an easy matching between GSM TS (Technical Specifications) and the
UMTS specifications produced by 3GPP: UMTS = GSM+20. For example, the
famous GSM specification 4.08 becomes 24.008 in UMTS.
UMTS R'99 specifications (i.e. version3.x.x) are recognized as complete. The
understanding is that no new functionality may be introduced into the UMTS R'99
Specifications. However, corrections, critical problems and clarification will be
considered as modifications of UMTS R'99.
UMTS R'00 specifications (i.e. version4.x.x) are incomplete and unstable. While
these specifications are under change control, their content may regularly change
and therefore may not reflect the complete or final set of standards requirements.
Almost all the specifications related to the air interface are in series 25: UTRA
aspects.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 2-12
WCDMA Introduction
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
2-12 WCDMA Introduction UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Questions
1) Give 3 advantages of using CDMA:
2) Since when is CDMA used in mobile phone networks?
3) Name the organization responsible for UMTS specifications:
4) What does EDGE mean?
5) What is the bandwidth used in IS-95?
6) What technologies will be used in the first release of UMTS and CDMA2000?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-1
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-1 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Section 3
Basic WCDMA Elements
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-2
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-2 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Basic WCDMA elements
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Distinguish the basic multiple access schemes
- Describe how DS-CDMA works
- List the characteristics of OVSF and scrambling codes
- Briefly explain how a rake receiver works
- Name the interference sources in downlink and uplink
- Explain the capacity-coverage trade-off
Objectives
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-3
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-3 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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F
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T
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Power
F
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T
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Power
F
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Power
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
Dedicated Channel: An individually-assigned,
dedicated pathway through a
transmission medium for one
users information
Access Technologies
The transmission medium is a resource that can be divided into individual channels
according to different criteria depending on the technology used:
Heres how the three most popular multiple access techniques divide their channels:
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
- each user on a different frequency,
- a channel is a frequency.
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
- each user on a different window period in time (time slot),
- TDMA usually uses FDMA to divide the frequency band into smaller
frequency channels, which are then divided in a time division fashion
(GSM),
- a channel is a specific time slot on a specific frequency.
WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
- each user uses the same frequency all the time, but mixed with different
distinguishing code patterns,
- WCDMA usually uses FDMA to divide the frequency band into smaller
frequency channels, which are then divided in a code division fashion
(UMTS),
- a channel is a unique (set of) code pattern(s), and a specific frequency.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-4
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-4 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Duplex Spacing: 190 MHz
FDD
Time
Frequency
Power
5 MHz 5 MHz
Code Multiplex &
Frequency Division
UL DL
UMTS USER 1
UMTS USER 2
Time
Frequency
Power
TDD
5 MHz
DL
UL
DL
Code Multiplex
&
Time Division
DL
666.67 s
UL
UMTS USER 2
UMTS USER 1
Duplex Technologies
W-CDMA: FDD or TDD
The possibility to operate in either FDD or TDD mode is allowed for efficient
utilization of available spectrum according to frequency allocation in different
regions. FDD and TDD are defined as follows:
FDD: A duplex method whereby the Uplink and the Downlink transmissions use
2 separate frequency bands:
- Uplink 1920 MHz - 1980 MHz; Downlink 2110 MHz - 2170 MHz.
- Bandwidth: each carrier is located on the center of a 5 MHz wide band.
- Channel separation: nominal value of 5 MHz that can be adjusted.
- Channel raster: 200 kHz (center frequency must be a multiple of 200 kHz).
- Tx-Rx frequency separation: nominal value of 190 MHz. This value can
be either fixed or variable (minimum of 134.8 and maximum of 245.2 MHz).
- Channel number: the carrier frequency is designated by the UTRA
Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (UARFCN). This number is
sent by the network (for the uplink and downlink) on the BCCH logical
channel and is defined by N
u
= 5 * (F
uplink
MHz) and N
D
= 5 * (F
downlink
MHz).
TDD: A duplex method by which the Uplink and the Downlink transmissions are
carried over the same frequency using synchronized time intervals. The carrier
uses a 5 MHz band. The available frequency bands for TDD will be:
1900-1920 MHz and 2010-2025 MHz.
FDD mode is the preferred mode for macro-cellular applications.
TDD mode is the preferred mode for the unpaired part of the spectrum. Because
each time slot can be assigned a different direction, the TDD mode offers a great
flexibility to manage the duplex and asymmetric traffic. The TDD spectrum will be
used for low mobility coverage in urban areas. TDD mode will not be available in
R99.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-5
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-5 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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DS-CDMA Principles (1/2)
Transmission
Tbit
Tchip
Data sequence
spreading sequence
transmitted sequence
a
2
Tbit = Ebit
1/T
bit
Tchip = Echip
1/T
chip
Frequency
a
2
Tchip
1/T
chip
+a
-a
-1
+1
-a
+a
x
=
Data
sequence
Transmitted
signal
Spreading sequence generator
Modulation
x(t)
Power spectrum
Different techniques can be used to obtain the wideband signal in a wideband
system. Thus, these methods can be used classify the different CDMA schemes.
This leads to three types of CDMA: direct sequence (DS-CDMA), frequency hopping
(FH-CDMA) and time hopping (TH-CDMA).
DS-CDMA consists in artificially increasing the modulation rate (chip rate) of the
information signal in order to spread its energy on a wide frequency band without
modifying the data rate. This is done by multiplying each information bit by a series
of chips, as illustrated on the slide.
The number of chips per bit is called the Spreading Factor (SF). It is related to the
service in case of dedicated channels (low SF for services requiring high bit rates).
For UMTS:
Bit Rate x SF = 3.84 Mcps (Chip Rate)
The following table shows examples of data services and associated Spreading
Factors:
Note
The bearer data rate corresponds to the bit rate just before modulation (after
channel coding, interleaving, etc.).
chip bit
T SF = T
Service Bearer Data Rate (kbps) SF Modulation rate (Mcps)
Speech 30 128 3.84
Packet 64 kbps 120 32 3.84
Packet 384 kbps 960 4 3.84
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-6
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-6 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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DS-CDMA Principles (2/2)
Reception
Tbit
Tchip
Data sequence
spreading sequence
received sequence
a
2
Tbit = Ebit
Power spectrum
1/T
bit
Tchip = Echip
1/T
chip
Frequency
a
2
Tchip
+a
-a
-1
+1
-a
+a
x
=
1/T
chip
Received
signal
Data
sequence
Spreading sequence generator
Demodulation
x(t)
To be able to perform the despreading operation, the receiver must not only know
the sequence used to spread the data signal, but the spreading sequence of the
received signal and the locally generated spreading sequence must also be
synchronized. This synchronization must be accomplished at the beginning of the
reception and maintained until the whole signal has been received.
This synchronization is only possible in downlink.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-7
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Channelization Codes - OVSF (1/4)
C
1,0
= 1
C
2,0
= 1 1
C
2,1
= 1 -1
C
4,0
= 1 1 1 1
C
4,1
= 1 1 -1 -1
C
4,2
= 1 -1 1 -1
C
4,3
= 1 -1 -1 1
SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8 512
Code tree generator
T
bit
N
chip
chip rate**
SF = = =
T
chip
N
bit
bit rate
** the chip rate is fixed at 3.84 Mcps
High data rates: low SF
Low data rates: high SF
Perfect synchronization: perfect orthogonality between codes at reception
Imperfect synchronization: non orthogonality between codes at reception
The channelization codes are Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes.
They are used to preserve orthogonality between different physical channels. They also
increase the clock rate to 3.84 Mcps. The OVSF codes are defined using a code tree.
In the code tree, the channelization codes are individually described by C
ch
,
SF
,
k
, where SF is
the Spreading Factor of the code and k the code number, 0 k SF-1.
A channelization sequence modulates one users bit. Because the chip rate is constant, the
different lengths of codes enable to have different user data rates. Low SFs are reserved
for high rate services while high SFs are for low rate services.
The length of an OVSF code is an even number of chips and the number of codes (for one
SF) is equal to the number of chips and to the SF value.
The generated codes within the same layer constitute a set of orthogonal codes.
Furthermore, any two codes of different layers are orthogonal except when one of the two
codes is a mother code of the other. For example C
4
,
3
is not orthogonal with C
1
,
0
and C
2
,
1
,
but is orthogonal with C
2
,
0
.
Each Sector of each Base Station transmits WCDMA Downlink Traffic Channels with up to
512 code channels.
Code tree repacking may be used to optimize the number of available codes.
Exercise: Find code C
ch
,
8
,
3
and code C
ch
,
16
,
15
OVSF shortage
Scrambling enables neighboring cells to use the same channelization codes. This allows
the system to use a maximum of 512 OVSF codes in each cell. Notice that the use of an
OVSF code forbids the use of the other codes in its branch. This reduces considerably the
number of available codes especially for high rate services. This may lead to an OVSF
shortage. In such a case, secondary scrambling codes are allocated to the cells and enable
the re-use of the same OVSF in the same cell.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-8
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-8 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Channelization Codes - OVSF (2/4)
Orthogonality
+
-1 -1 -1
-1 -1 -1 -1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
-1
*
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
C
j
C
k
T0 synchronisation
= 0
Orthogonal
No correlation
+
-1 -1 -1
-1 -1 -1 -1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
-1
*
1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1
C
j
C
k
no T0 synchronisation
= 4
Non orthogonal
Small correlation
Orthogonality means there is no correlation between codes, so, Ck presence does
not affect Cj energy.
OVSF codes are completely orthogonal for zero delay. For other delay they have
very bad cross-correlation properties, and thus they are suitable only for
synchronous applications.
If the synchronization at To is not respected then there is no orthogonality anymore
==> Cj and Ck interfere.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-9
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
1 1
1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1
1 1 -1 -1
1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1
1
1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1
1 -1 1 -1
1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 1
1 -1
1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1
1 -1 -1 1
1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1
1 2 4 8
SF =
3-9 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Channelization Codes - OVSF (3/4)
-1 1
USER 1
USER 2
Code 1: C
ch
(SF= )
Code 2: C
ch
(SF= )
Transmitted
Signal
(fixed Chip Rate)
1 -1 1 1 -1 1
Transmitted Signal: Downlink Case
=
+
*
*
=
=
2
-2
0
1
1 -1-1 1 1 1 -1
-1
1 -1 -1 1
1
-1
1
-1
8
4
The different downlink physical channels are spread with different OVSF and added
together synchronously at the BTS.
What are the spreading factors in both cases? Find the name C
ch
,
SF
,
k
of the OVSF
codes used to spread the signals.
Find the shape of the transmitted signal.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-10
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-10 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Channelization Codes - OVSF (4/4)
1
Received
Signal
USER 2 ?
Code 2
Soft Bits
2 2
+
= 4
0 0
+ + +
Data Extraction (Reception)
*
2
0
-2
2
0
-2
=
1
-1
= -4
+
= 4
+
= 4
+
= 4 = -4
-2 -2 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 -2 -2 0 0 2 2
1 -1 1 1 -1
UE 2 receives the composite signal (green), multiplies it synchronously with its
dedicated OVSF. If, for a bit period, the mean value found is positive, then the
receiver decides that the transmitter has sent a 1. If it is negative, it decides that
the transmitter has sent a -1.
Does the receiver retrieve the data that was intended for him?
Note that the received signal should be distorted because of interferences.
The channelization code of some physical channels is fixed. For example, the
OVSF code of the primary CPICH is always C
ch,256,0
. Generally, the channelization
code is assigned by the RNC.
It is important to remember that channelization codes enable multiplexing of users
only in downlink because the uplink is asynchronous.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-11
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-11 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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UMTS Frame Format
Frame #0 Frame #1 Frame #i Frame #4095
System frame = 4096 frames = 40.96 seconds
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #j Slot #14
Frame = 15 time slots = 10 ms
Slot = 0.667 ms = 2560 chips
Data or control or mixed: 10*2
k
bits, k from 0 to 6 (UL), from 0 to 7 (DL)
A time slot is a unit of time which carries chips. Each time slot lasts 0.667 ms and
is made of 2560 chips. The number of bits in a time slot depends on the spreading
factor used. It is equal to 10*2
k
bits, with k varying from 0 to 6 on the UL path, and
from 0 to 7 on the DL path.
In the first case, it corresponds to a SF ranging from 256 to 4. In the second case,
to a SF ranging from 512 to 4.
A radio frame is a processing unit which consists of 15 time slots. Its duration is
10 ms. It is always made of 38400 chips. This gives us a fixed chip rate of
3.84 Mcps.
The System Frame Number (SFN) is broadcast by the BCCH, and goes from 0 to
4095. It is used for paging and system information scheduling. Other
synchronization counters have been defined, like BFN (Node B frame number, from
0 to 4095), RFN (RNC frame number, from 0 to 4095) and CFN (connection frame
number, from 0 to 255 or 0 to 4095 for PCH).
An hyper frame has been defined for ciphering and integrity procedures. The
hyper frame number (HFN) is a 20 bit long sequence transmitted these procedures.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-12
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-12 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Scrambling Codes - PN
A Tapped, Summing Shift Register
Sequence repeats every 2
N
-1 chips,
where N is number of cells in register
PN Sequences Properties
Excellent auto-correlation properties
shows 100% correlation when correlated with a unshiftedversion of itself
shows no or very little correlation when correlated with a shifted version of itself
Excellent cross-correlation properties
shows very little correlation when correlated with another scrambling code
In addition to the OVSF Codes, WCDMA uses pseudo-noise (PN) sequences or
scrambling codes.
A pseudo-noise or pseudo-random sequence is a known sequence that exhibits the
properties of random numbers. So the PN sequence appears as random noise to
everybody except to the transmitter and the intended receiver.
PN sequences are generated using special feedback shift registers. A register
holds a number of bits equal to the number of cells in the register. At every clock
beat, each bit moves one cell down the register and the last cell loops back to the
first. If you watch the bits pass by, youll see the same sequence again and again. If
the register has N cells, the pattern is N bits long.
It becomes more interesting if the register is cross-connected at several points so
that the value of the last cell influences the value of several other cells in the shift
register. It generates a self-mutating pattern that keeps changing with a total length
of 2
N
-1 bits.
Scrambling codes are used to discriminate users in uplink and to discriminate cells
in downlink. Therefore, it is very important that the different codes show very little
cross-correlation between each other, to avoid demodulating too much of another
users (or cells) signal. It is also important that a code shows very little correlation
when correlated with a shifted version of itself, to limit multi-path interference. The
good auto-correlation function of scrambling codes allows code acquisition at
reception.
The pseudo-random (or pseudo-noise) characteristic of scrambling codes enables
to whiten the spectrum of the signal over a 5 MHz band, meaning that its energy is
spread more or less equally over the entire 5 MHz band.
The scrambling operation is done after spreading by an OVSF code. Scrambling
codes are 38,400 chips long. Each of the 38,400 chips of a frame (after application
of the OVSF code) is multiplied by one scrambling code chip.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-13
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-13 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Uplink Scrambling Codes
Total of 2
24
long scrambling codes
of 38400 chips
c
long,1,n
c
long,2,n
Real valued 2
25
-1 chip
long sequences
X
25
+ X
3
+ 1
X
25
+ X
3
+ X
2
+ X + 1
All the physical channels in the uplink are scrambled. In uplink, the scrambling code
can be described as either long or short, depending on the way it was constructed.
The scrambling code is always applied to one 10 ms frame. Different scrambling
codes will be allocated to different mobiles.
The figure above explains how long scrambling sequences are constructed. In
UMTS, Gold codes were chosen for their very low peak cross-correlation. Lets see
how they are constructed.
First, the shift registers are filled up with 25 bits each. For the upper register, these
bits correspond to the representation of the scrambling sequence number n. We
will explain later what this scrambling number corresponds to, but we can say for
now that it stands on 24 bits. So the first 24 shift registers correspond to these 24
bits and the last one is initialized to 1. For the lower register, all the cells are
initialized to 1.
At every clock transition, the bits of each register move one cell down, and the
modulo-2 additions are made. The output sequence of each register is 2
25
-1 bits
long. The two outputs are summed up (modulo-2) to create the real-valued Gold
sequence. Then, this sequence is NRZ coded (0=+1 and 1=-1) to create the
real-valued long scrambling sequence c
long,1,n
. The long scrambling sequence
c
long,2,n
is a 16,777,232 chip shifted version of the first one (which corresponds to the
modulo-2 additions on the figure above).
Finally, a complex addition between the two sequences is made to form the
complex-valued long scrambling sequence c
long,n
. This sequence is 2
25
-1 chips
long. A scrambling code is obtained by choosing a 38,400 chip long part of this
sequence. There is a total of 2
25
-1 possible scrambling code sequences. But since
the scrambling sequence number n used to initialize the upper register is constituted
of only 24 bits, only 2
24
long scrambling codes exist.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-14
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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.
Downlink Scrambling Codes
8192
scrambling
codes
512 sets of 1
primary and 15
secondary
codes
512 primary
codes divided
into 64 groups
Possibility of 262,143 different downlink scrambling codes
Only 8192 different scrambling codes have been defined
8192 ...
Cell #1
Cell #512
...
Primary scrambling code
Secondary scrambling code #1
Secondary scrambling code #2
Secondary scrambling code #15
The scrambling codes used in downlink are constructed very much like the long
uplink scrambling codes. They are created with two 18 cell shift registers.
First, the two shift registers are filled up. The upper one is filled up with zeros,
except for the first cell which is initialized at 1. All the cells of the lower register are
set to 1. At every clock transition, the bits of each register move one cell down, and
the modulo-2 additions are made. The two 2
18
-1 bit long outputs (x and y) are then
combined to form a Gold code. 2
18
-1 different Gold codes can be formed. After
NRZ coding of the bits, a complex scrambling code S
dl,n
of length 38,400 is formed.
2
18
-1 = 262,143 different scrambling codes can be formed using this method.
However, not all of them are used. The downlink scrambling codes are divided into
512 sets, of one primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes
each.
The primary scrambling codes are scrambling codes n=16*i where i=0511. The
15 secondary scrambling codes associated to one primary scrambling code are
n=16*i + k, where k=115. For now 8192 scrambling codes have been defined.
Each scrambling code k is associated with a left alternative scrambling code
(k+8192) and a right alternative scrambling code (k+16,384), that may be used in
compressed mode. In that case, the left alternative scrambling code is used if
n<SF/2 and the right one is used if n>SF/2, where C
ch,SF,n
is the channelization code
used for the non-compressed frames.
There is a total of 512 primary codes. They are further divided into 64 primary
scrambling code groups of 8 primary scrambling codes each. Each cell is allocated
one and only one primary scrambling code. The group of the primary scrambling
code is found by the mobiles of the cell using the SCH, while the specific primary
scrambling code used is given by the CPICH. The primary CCPCH and the primary
CPICH channels are always scrambled with the primary scrambling code of the cell,
while other channels can be scrambled by either the primary or the secondary
scrambling code.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-15
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-15 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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DS-CDMA Codes
1 physical channel = 1 spreading code + 1 scrambling code + 1 frequency
Scrambling codes distinguish cells (DL) and users (UL)
OVSF (channelization) codes separate different physical channels
transmitted by the same BTS or UE
Scrambling code
OVSF code 1
OVSF code 2
OVSF code 3
User 1 signal
User 2 signal
User 3 signal
Scrambling code 1
Scrambling code 2
Scrambling code 3
User 1 signal
User 2 signal
User 3 signal
OVSF code
OVSF code
OVSF code
Downlink
Uplink
BTS
A mobile is surrounded by base stations (node Bs), some of them transmitting on
the same W-CDMA frequency. It must be able to listen to only one set of code
channels. Therefore two types of codes have been defined:
Channelization Codes
A users data is modulated by a channelization code. The orthogonality properties of
OVSF enable the UE to recover each of his bits without being interfered by other
users. This is true only if the system is synchronous, which is the case in downlink,
but not in uplink. Thus, the OVSF codes are not used to separate users in uplink
and therefore different users can use the same code. But, they can be used to
distinguish the different physical channels of one user.
Scrambling Codes
The scrambling operation is used for base station and mobile station identification.
In downlink, the same scrambling code can be used on different channels in a cell,
but different scrambling codes are used in different cells. One specific set of 16
scrambling codes is allocated to each cell. In uplink, scrambling codes are used to
differentiate users since orthogonality cannot be achieved with the OVSF codes.
Scrambling codes reduce the interference between neighboring cells in downlink
since same channelization codes are used.
It is important to maintain good cross-correlation properties between the different
scrambling codes in order not to decode an interferer.
Once allocated to the mobile users, these codes do not change in the midst of
communication, unless the base station can be notified of the change.
Similar to the reuse of frequency in GSM, scrambling codes are reused.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-16
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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TX
D(t)
Delay
0
Delay
1
C(t-
0
)
( + ) D(t)

C(t-
1
)
Delay (
1
)
RX
C(t-
n
)
Delay (
0
)
Delay (
n
) RX
RX
C(t)

0

1

n
D(t)
D(t)
Take advantage of
multi-path diversity
BTS
RAKE Receiver
In a multi-path environment, the original transmitted signal is reflected on obstacles
such as buildings or mountains, and the receiver has to treat several copies of the
signal with different delays. Actually, from each multi -paths point of view, other
multi- path signals are considered as interference and are partially suppressed after
despreading thanks to the processing gain. However, a further benefit is obtained if
several multi-path signals are combined together using a rake receiver.
The rake receiver has multiple fingers (4 to 8), each for a multi-path component. In
each finger, the received signal is despread by the code which is time aligned with
the delay of the multi-path signal. After despreading, the signals are combined using
either equal gain or maximum ratio combining. This technique provides a more
stable transmission channel.
Rake receivers are used in uplink and downlink. In addition to multi-path
combination it is used by the UE to communicate with several cells (macro-
diversity). A trade-off has to be done between the multi-path gain and the capacity
loss due to the use of multiple channels.
Another receiver, which has been under study for a certain time now, works in a
totally different way. Multi-user detection (MUD) removes the unwanted multiple
access signals through a complex algorithm. Its goal is to cancel the intra-cell
interference.
By doing so, increased capacity and coverage are expected. Also, this would
cancel the near-far problem, but power control would still be needed to limit inter-cell
interference.
This receiver is a bit more complex than the rake receiver.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-17
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-17 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Interference Sources (1/2)
Uplink
4
BTS
intracell and intercell interference at the base station receiver comes
from the imperfect orthogonality of the scrambling codes (1 scrambling
code per user).
It is very important to understand where the main interferences come from in a
UMTS network.
Most of the interference comes from imperfect orthogonality between codes. Two
codes are orthogonal if their cross-correlation function is worth zero (or almost
zero). The cross-correlation function is the degree of similarity between two codes.
If that function is worth zero, the two codes are orthogonal meaning that a UE using
one code will not interfere with another UE using the other code. For perfect
synchronization (downlink), OVSF codes are 100% orthogonal, meaning that their
cross-correlation function is always worth zero. Scrambling codes are not perfectly
orthogonal but have the advantage of bringing a pseudo-orthogonality whether the
system is synchronized or not.
On the uplink, interference mainly come from other mobiles using the same
frequency carrier. This interference is divided into intra-cellular interference
(mobiles in the same cell) and inter-cellular interference (mobiles in other cells).
Intra-cell interference is mainly due to the imperfect cross-correlation (orthogonality)
between uplink scrambling codes. Because that cross-correlation is not worth
exactly zero, a node B always demodulates a small part of the other users signal
when trying to demodulate one users data. Inter-cell interference is also due to the
imperfect cross-correlation (orthogonality) between uplink scrambling codes. On
dedicated channels, every user is supposed to use a different scrambling code.
Normally, a user in another cell will create less interference, except in special cases
where the mobile is near the border of two cells.
The power control algorithm tries these interferences.
Of course, thermal noise always has to be taken into account.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-18
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Interference Sources (2/2)
Downlink
4
BTS
BTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
1&2: direct paths (no interference)
3&5: interfering indirect paths
from other users data
4&6: self-interfering indirect paths
UE2
UE1
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
intracell interference comes from multi-path reception
intercell interference comes from the imperfect orthogonality of the
scrambling codes
The downlink of a cellular system is synchronous, so perfect orthogonality can be
achieved with OVSF codes. Unfortunately, that is not exactly the case because
multi-paths introduce a form a non-orthogonality.
Downlink interferences are also divided into intra-cell and inter-cell interferences.
Because different cells use different scrambling codes and are not synchronized,
the inter-cell interference comes from the imperfect cross-correlation (orthogonality)
between downlink scrambling codes, like in uplink.
In one cell, the transmissions of a BTS are always synchronized on a chip level.
Therefore, OVSF codes provide a perfect orthogonality for the direct paths, for one
UE. But this orthogonality is lost for secondary paths because delays introduce a
loss of synchronization. But, because scrambling codes have good auto-correlation
properties (almost 0 outside [-T
c
, T
c
]), only a small part of the delayed versions of
the signal will be demodulated. Thus, the multi-path components are treated as
interference. This kind of interference also exists for the inter-cell context, but it is
relatively small compared to the interferences mentioned above.
Also, another source of intra-cell interference is introduced when the same
channelization code can be used in one cell, when there is an OVSF shortage. In
that case, the non orthogonality comes from the imperfect cross-correlation
properties of the scrambling codes.
Of course, a small part of the total interference is caused by mobiles (or networks)
functioning at a different frequency.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-19
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Maximum noise level
Eb/No
required
Eb / No
Power spectrum
Available power to share
between users
a
2
Tbit = Ebit
gain
Unwanted power
from other sources
Echip
Eb / No = C / I x processing gain
In conventional radio technologies (AMPS, TDMA and GSM), the desired signal
must be strong enough to override interferences. The figure of quality is the C/I
(carrier to interference ratio).
Co-channel users are kept at a safe distance by careful frequency planning to keep
the interference at a low level. Nearby users and cells must use different
frequencies.
In WCDMA all users occupy the same frequency band at the same time! The
figure of quality is the Eb/No (Energy per bit to interference spectral density ratio).
At the receiver, as the codes are orthogonal and known, only the power of the
intended user is despread.
After despreading (decoding), correct data recovery requires a given Eb to No ratio
that corresponds to a binary error rate (BER). Under this Eb/No, the noise will
generate too many errors. The noise is mainly generated by the other users
transmitting at the same time and at the same frequency, but using a different set of
codes.
Therefore, in order not to cross this maximal noise level, all the users have to share
the power. In WCDMA the Time-Frequency plane is not divided amongst the mobile
subscribers as done in TDMA or FDMA. So the common shared resource is power.
The despreading process results in a processing gain. The larger the Spreading
Factor, the larger the gain. This means that using a larger Spreading Factor, we can
reduce the power of transmission (and therefore the background noise). Thanks to
this property, spread signals can operate at negative signal to noise ratios (dB
scale), given that the processing gain is high enough.
Example: A narrow-band signal requires an Eb/No of 12 dB to achieve a certain bit
error rate performance. In that case, the spread signal with a processing gain of
20 dB would require a Ec/No of how much?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-20
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-20 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Eb / No & Power Control
a
2
Tbit = Ebit
Power spectrum
Maximum noise level
Eb/No
required
Unwanted power
from other sources
Eb/No
Power
control
Power , Interference , Capacity .
WCDMA interferences come mainly from nearby users. Transmit power on all users
must be tightly controlled so their signals reach the base station at the same signal
level. This way, interferences are controlled and the famous near-far problem is
alleviated.
Power control is also done in downlink to decrease the inter-cell interference.
The Eb/No target is set for every service, and for each environment. Every
constructor tries to have the lowest Eb/No target possible. For example, it could be
worth 6.1 dB for 12.2 kbps speech in downlink, in a dense urban area.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-21
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-21 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Power Control
1. MS Access_1 with estimated power
2. MS Access_n with increased power
3. RNS Response with Power Control
Open Loop
1. RNC sets SIR target
for service
2. BTS sends Power Control bits
to UE (1500 times/second)
3. MS Tx
4. RNC calculates
BLER for Tx
5. RNC sends new
SIR target
6. BtS continues
Power Control
Closed Loop
Inner Loop
Outer Loop
Node B
(BTS)
Node B
(BTS)
RNC
UE
UE
Power control is very important in WCDMA. Several Power Control procedures
exist.
The initial power control is the OPEN LOOP one, where the UE estimates the
access power level by sending a preamble signature at increasing power. If it gets
no response from the BTS, the UE waits a certain period of time and retransmits a
signature at a higher power level. The UE continues to do so until it receives a
response from the BTS.
When the communication is established, power is controlled by the CLOSED LOOP
algorithm.
The following procedure is called Uplink Power Control.
The RNC sets the target BLER (BLock Error Rate) level for the service. From this
BLER, It derives a SIR (Signal to Interference Ratio) target, and sends it to the
BTS.
The BTS estimates an UL SIR, compares it to the target SIR, and decides if the
power of the UE has to be increased or decreased. This is done 1500 times/second
(Inner Loop) to achieve a minimum output power.
The RNC calculates the SIR target once every 10 ms (or more, depending on the
service) and adjusts the SIR target. (Outer Loop).
In order to indicate to the UE to increase or decrease its output power, the BTS
sends TPC (Transmit Power Control) bits.
Downlink Power Control is also used, where it is the UE that sends the TPC bits
to the BTS (the RNC determining the target BLER, and sending it to the UE).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-22
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-22 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Max Interference level
Example: 2 UEs at the
same distance of the
BTS using 2 data rates
Eb/No
required
S
F

=

1
2
8
Service provided: speech
Max Interference level
Eb/No
required
S
F

=

8
Service provided: Data 144
User 2 needs more for the UL &
DL for the same quality as user 1
UE
2
UE
1
Speech 8 kbps
Data 144 kbps
The higher the SF, the less power is required
BTS
Transmitted power
Transmitted power
Coverage Limits
For a given noise level, as the processing gain is smaller for high rate user data, the
acceptable path loss is lower and therefore the range of the cell is smaller.
If 2 UEs have the same path loss, the one using the lowest SF will have to transmit
at a higher power level. Its Eb/No target shall not necessarily be higher, but it will
be more difficult to reach due to the lower processing gain.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-23
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-23 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Interference Versus Service Rate
a
2
T
b1
= E
b1
1/T
b1
2/T
b1
Frequency
a
2
T
c
= E
c
1/T
c
Frequency
a
2
T
b1
= E
b1
1/T
b1
Frequency
a
2
T
b2
= E
b2
1/T
b2
2/T
b2
Frequency
a
2
T
c
= E
c
1/T
c
Frequency
a
2
T
b2
= E
b2
1/T
b2
Frequency
Eb/No < Eb/No target
Low bit rate service
High bit rate service
As said before, a service necessitating a high bit rate will use a low spreading
factor. On the other hand, a low bit rate service will use a high spreading factor.
Having a high spreading factor is a huge benefit since it provides a high processing
gain and therefore enables to use a lower power of transmission.
High bit rate services will have a low processing gain and will need to increase their
power to reach their Eb/No target. Thus, high bit rate services will need a higher
transmit power to reach a certain Eb/No target than low bit rate services. Therefore,
they will create more interference for other users and the capacity of the cell will be
lower. This is very important for the dimensioning on the radio interface, since the
shared resource is power. Radio resource management will be done by the RNC
and will help operators manage the traffic.
That being said, different services have different Eb/No targets. Normally, a high bit
rate service will need a Eb/No a tad lower than low bit rate services. But high bit
rate services will still create much more interference than services requiring low bit
rates.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-24
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-24 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Radio Resource Management
Mapping between demanded QoS, subscription type and allocated QoS
QoS
Interactive
QoS
conversational
QoS
Streaming
QoS
Background
Gold
User
Priority Level
Preemption
Max BR
Guaranteed BR
etc...
1
Yes
384 kbit/s
144 kbit/s
etc...
Silver
User
Priority Level
Preemption
Max BR
Guaranteed BR
etc...
2
No
144 kbit/s
64 kbit/s
etc...
Brown
User
Priority Level
Preemption
Max BR
Guaranteed BR
etc...
3
No
144 kbit/s
16 kbit/s
etc...
etc...
QoS demanded by the mobile
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RAB QoS attributes
Traffic class
Maximum bitrate
Guaranteed bit rate
Delivery order
Maximum SDU size
SDU error ratio
Residual bit error ratio
Delivery of erroneous SDUs
Transfer delay
Traffic handling priority
Pre-emption Capability
Pre-emption Vulnerability
Queueing
In UMTS, a lot of different services will be available to users. High bit rate services
create a lot of interference on the radio interface and can lower the capacity of the
network. This is why radio resources have to be managed. The goal for the
operator is to maximize its QoS during busy hours and to stimulate traffic and
subscriber satisfaction out of busy hours. A maximum of capacity should be used at
all times.
Radio Resource Management (RRM) is a very important part of the end-to-end
QoS. It will be possible for the operator to manage the traffic on the radio interface
depending on the system load, and on other parameters. This should be done at
call admission, and during the communication.
RRM will be done dynamically and will enable the upgrade and downgrade of a
service from an end-to-end view, thus enabling the intelligent resource management
concept. The upgrade or downgrade should be seamless to the user.
On the radio interface, the upgrade or downgrade will be done using the AMR
control rate algorithm of the RNC for speech, and by reconfiguri ng the transport and
physical channels for packet services (web browsing, FTP, e-mails, etc.).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-25
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-25 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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2670 m
2080 m
1340 m
SF = 128
Speech 8 kbps Data 64 kbps Data 384 kbps
BTS
SF = 32
SF = 4
Coverage Limits
Cell Radius for a 50% Load
The radius of a cell varies with the Spreading Factor and, as we will see, the
interference level (or the number of active subscribers) in the cell. The figures are
given for a traffic load of 50% of the maximum traffic acceptable in the cell.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-26
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-26 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Receiver sensitivity (x kbps)
BS Receiver
Maximum Noise Floor
Lowest Despread Signal
BTS
UE
1
x kbps x kbps
UE
2
UE
3
x kbps
Eb/No
Processing
Gain
Coverage-Capacity Tradeoff
Uplink Limits (1/2)
Consider UE 1 transmitting at the boarder of the cell. That is to say UE1 transmits at
full power and is received at the minimum power to access the cell (equal to the
receiver sensitivity). After despreading, in order to decode UE1, a noise level lower
than the maximum noise floor fixed by the processing gain and the Eb/No is
needed. As far as the interference generated by users UE2 and UE3 do not cross
this floor, UE1 is correctly decoded.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-27
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-27 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Receiver sensitivity (x kbps)
BS Receiver
Maximum Noise Floor
Lowest Despread Signal
BTS
Cell Breathing
Eb/No
Processing
Gain
x kbps
UE
2
UE
3
x kbps
Eb/No
Processing
Gain
UE
1
x kbps
UE
4
x kbps
The more loaded the cell is, the smaller it becomes.
Coverage-Capacity Tradeoff
Uplink Limits (2/2)
The interference generated by UE2 to UE4 cross the maximum noise level. This
increases the BER of UE1. To maintain a good communication quality, UE1 has to
be handed over to another cell. This is called cell breathing.
In a WCDMA system, the cell size depends on the level of experienced interference.
If high interference level is detected by the base station, mobile users near the cell
boundary will be handed over to other neighboring base stations, therefore
decreasing its effective cell size.
The N
pole
formula gives the theoretical capacity of a cell as a function of the intra
and inter-cell interference, the processing gain, the voice activity factor and the
target Eb/No.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-28
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-28 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Coverage-Capacity Tradeoff
Downlink Limits (1/2)
BS Power Amplifier
50 W
0 W
BTS
BTS
UE
1
UE
2
UE
3
UE
4
Consider a BTS transmitting with UE1, UE2 and UE3. The further the UE is, the
more power is needed from the BTS to be able to reach it. When UE4 asks for an
access, the BTS doesnt have not enough power capacity to add the power
intended to UE4 although they are very close from each other.
In that case, UE can be handed over to another BTS (if possible), or the system can
degrade the quality of communication for the other UEs in order for the BTS to be
able to reach it.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-29
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
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3-29 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Coverage-Capacity Tradeoff
Downlink Limits (2/2)
UE
2
UE
3
UE
1
BS Power Amplifier
50 W
0 W
UE
4
BTS
BTS
In order to satisfy the request of UE4, UE1 is handed over to another cell if that is
possible. If not, the access to UE4 could be denied.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-30
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
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3-30 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Macro-Diversity
Serving RNC (SRNC) and Drift RNC (DRNC)
Node B
(BTS)
SRNC
DRNC Node B
(BTS)
Data UL
Data UL
Data UL
Data UL1
Data UL2
Data UL2
Data UL1
Data UL2
Data UL
Data UL
Data DL
Data DL2
Data DL2
Data DL1
Data DL2
Data DL1
Data DL1
Data DL2
Data DL
Core
Network
UE
In UMTS a functionality called macro-diversity is possible.
The purpose is to facilitate the handover procedure by allowing a UE to
communicate with more than one cell at a time. Two functions are available:
Macro-Diversity Combining Function: this function is responsible for
combining uplink transport blocks. It combines the transport blocks coming from
the Node Bs participating to the UE active set into a single flow of transport
blocks.
Macro-Diversity Splitting Function: this function is responsible for duplicating
downlink transport blocks. It broadcasts the transport blocks to all Node Bs
participating to the UE active set.
When such a functionality is used, and when 2 cells are belonging to 2 Node Bs,
that are belonging to 2 different RNCs, these RNCs have a specific functionality:
Serving RNC (SRNC): a role a RNC can take with respect to a specific
connection between a UE and UTRAN. There is one SRNC for each UE that
has a connection to UTRAN. The SRNC is in charge of the radio connection
between the UE and UTRAN. The SRNC terminates the Iu for this UE.
Drift RNC (DRNC): a role a RNC can take with respect to a specific connection
between a UE and UTRAN. A RNC, that supports the SRNC with radio
resources when the connection between the UTRAN and the UE needs to use
cell(s) controlled by this RNC, is referred to a Drift RNC.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-31
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-31 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Compressed Mode
One f r ame
( 10 ms ) Trans mi s s i on gap avai l abl e f or
i nt er- f requency meas urement s
Measurements done
inter-frequency power measurements
acquisition of control channel of other system/carrier
measurements for the actual handover operation
As in the GSM network, a UMTS mobile needs to make measurements on other
frequencies in order to be able to perform an inter-frequency handover. In a UMTS
network, a UE will be able to work on different FDD frequencies, on TDD
frequencies and on GSM frequencies. Thus, it will need to monitor these
frequencies.
The technique used to make these measurements is called compressed mode and
consists of creating a transmission gap in a frame during which inter-frequency
measurements can be done. Compressed mode exists in downlink as well as in
uplink and is commanded by higher layers. It can only be achieved on dedicated
channels.
Three methods can be used for time transmission reduction:
compressed mode by puncturing (DL only): bits are removed through additional
puncturing during rate matching to create the transmission gap;
compressed mode by reducing the spreading factor by 2: the SF can be
reduced by 2 to permit the transmission of the information bits in the remaining
time slots of the compressed frame. In that case, the scrambling code could be
different from normal mode;
compressed mode by higher layer scheduling: higher layers set restrictions in
order to know the maximum number of bits that will be delivered to the physical
layer during the compressed radio frame. The transmission gap can then be
created.
Because the bits of one frame have to be transmitted in a smaller period of time, the
effective number of data transmitted in one frame is reduced. Therefore, in order to
keep the same quality (BER, FER, etc.), the instantaneous transmission power has
to be increased.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-32
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
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.
STTD
Physical channel type Open loop mode Closed loop
TSTD STTD Mode
P-CCPCH X
SCH X
S-CCPCH X
DPCH X X
PICH X
PDSCH X X
AICH X
CSICH X
b
0
b
1
b
2
b
3
b
0
b
1
b
2
b
3
-b
2
b
3
b
0
-b
1
Ant enna 1
Ant enna 2
Channel bi t s
STTD encoded channel bi t s f or
ant enna 1 and ant enna 2.
Space-Time Transmit Diversity (STTD) is a special transmission technique that
can be used in downlink. It consists in using two different transmission paths (with
two antennas) to achieve a better quality. It can be used on all or only on a part of
the channels. The same transmission chain (channel coding, interleaving, ) is
done as in the non-diversity mode.
If transmit diversity is used on any downlink physical channel, it shall also be applied
on the P-CCPCH and the SCH that carry common control information.
Open and closed loop transmit diversity can be used. Closed loop diversity is
when there is a feedback from the mobile to indicate quality of reception. It can only
be used for dedicated and shared channels (DPCH and PDSCH). The feedback is
indicated by control bits (FBI bits). Modes 1 and 2 have been defined for closed loop
transmit diversity.
When STTD is used, the pilot sequence may be different for the two antennas. For
example, mode 1 uses different (orthogonal) pilot symbols for dedicated channels,
while mode 2 uses the same pilot sequence for both antennas.
A special sort of transmit diversity can be used for the synchronization channel
(SCH). Its called Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-33
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
3-33 Basic WCDMA Elements UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Questions
1) What technology is more adapted to asymmetrical traffic, TDD or FDD? Why?
2) Give the relation between chip rate, bit rate and spreading fact or:
3) True or false: A high spreading factor is needed for high bit rate services?
4) What is the use of:
the channelization codes is uplink and downlink?
the scrambling codes in uplink and downlink?
5) What is the name of the receiver used in UMTS? What is it used for?
6) What is the goal of power control? Why is it so important?
7) True or false: low bit rate services create more interference?
8) Whats the name of the scheme used for measurements before inter-frequency handovers?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 3-34
Basic WCDMA Elements
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Student notes
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-1
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-1 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Section 4
Protocol Layers - General Description
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-2
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-2 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Protocol Layers - General Description
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Describe the radio interface protocol architecture
- Cite the services provided by each protocol layer
- Briefly describe each protocol layer and explain their use
- Characterize the different transfer modes between layers
Objectives
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-3
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-3 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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UE Protocol Layers
Layer 1
Layer 3
Layer 2
Control Plane User Plane
PHY (PHYsical)
MAC (Medium Access Control)
RLC (Radio Link Control)
PDCP BMC
RRC (Radio Resource Control)
Management functions: MM, CC
Non access
stratum
Access
stratum
Network layer protocol:
Ipv4, Ipv6, ... AMR
The radio interface (Uu) is layered into three protocol layers:
the physical layer (L1)
the data link layer (L2)
the network layer (L3).
The layer 1 supports all functions required for the transmission of bit streams on the
physical medium. It is also in charge of measurements function consisting in
indicating to higher layers, for example, Frame Error Rate (FER), Signal to
Interference Ratio (SIR), interference power, transmit power, It is basically
composed of a layer 1 management entity, a transport channel entity, and a
physical channel entity.
The layer 2 protocol is responsible for providing functions such as mapping,
ciphering, retransmission and segmentation. It is made of four sub-layers: MAC
(Medium Access Control), RLC (Radio Link Control), PDCP (Packet Data
Convergence Protocol) and BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Control).
The layer 3 is split into 2 parts: the access stratum and the non access stratum. The
access stratum part is made of RRC (Radio Resource Control) entity and
duplication avoidance entity. The non access stratum part is made of CC, MM
parts.
Not shown on the figure are connections between RRC and all the other protocol
layers (RLC, MAC, PDCP, BMC and L1), which provide local inter-layer control
services.
The protocol layers are located in the UE and the peer entities are in the node B or
the RNC.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-4
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-4 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Layer 1 Architecture
Layer 1
Management
Transport
sub-layer
Physical
sub-layer
RLC / MAC
Layer 1
Layer 1
Management
Transport
sub-layer
Physical
sub-layer
RLC / MAC
Node B
(BTS)
Radio interface
(Uu)
Layer 2
UE
RNC
Transport channels Transport channels
The layer 1 is used to transmit information under the form of electrical signals
corresponding to bits, between the network and the mobile user. This information
can be voice, circuit or packet data, and network signaling.
The UMTS layer 1 offers data transport services to higher layers. The access to
these services is through the use of transport channels via the MAC sub-layer.
These services are provided by radio links which are established by signaling
procedures. These links are managed by the layer 1 management entity. One
radio link is made of one or several transport channels, and one physical channel.
The UMTS layer 1 is divided into two sub-layers: the transport and the physical sub-
layers. All the processing (channel coding, interleaving, etc.) is done by the
transport sub-layer in order to provide different services and their associated QoS.
The physical sub-layer is responsible for the modulation, which corresponds to the
association of bits (coming from the transport sub-layer) to electrical signals that can
be carried over the air interface. The spreading operation is also done by the
physical sub-layer. These sub-layers are well described in chapters 6 and 7.
These two parts of layer 1 are controlled by the layer 1 management (L1M) entity. It
is made of several units located in each equipment, which exchange information
through the use of control channels.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-5
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-5 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Layer 1 Functions
Functions performed by the Layer 1:
Macrodiversity distribution/combining and soft handover execution
Error detection on transport channels and indication to higher layers
Coding/decoding and interleaving/desinterleaving of transport
channels
Multiplexing of transport channels and demultiplexing of CCTrCHs
Mapping of CCTrCH on physical channels
Power weighting and combining of physical channels
Modulation/demodulation and spreading/despreading of physical
channels
Frequency and time synchronization
Measurements and indication to higher layers (FER, SIR, interference,
etc.)
Closed-loop power control
RF processing
Layer 1 offers information transfer services to MAC and higher layers. The
transport services are described by how and with what characteristics data is
transferred over the radio interface, and they correspond to transport channels.
The many functions of layer 1 are performed in the UE and the node B. Some
performed in the RNC in the case of macro-diversity.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-6
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-6 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Medium Access Control (MAC)
MAC Architecture, UE Side
MAC-c/sh
PCH FACH FACH RACH CPCH DSCH DSCH
MAC-d
DCH DCH
PCCH BCCH CCCH CTCH
MAC
Control
DCCH DTCH DTCH
The Medium Access Control (MAC) is the lower sub-layer on layer 2. The main function
of the MAC layer is to act as a relay between the physical layer (which only handles
transport channels) and communication layers (which offer Service Access Points to upper
layers).
It provides data transfer services to higher layers on logical channels. Each logical
channel type is defined by what type of information is transferred. In the UTRAN, it is
located in the RNC, except for the BCCH (located in the node B).
The MAC architecture is divided into three entities corresponding to the different transport
channels:
MAC-b: MAC entity handling the BCH. There is one MAC-b per UE and one MAC-b in
the UTRAN for each cell.
MAC-d: MAC entity handling dedicated channels (DCH). There is one MAC-d per UE
and one MAC-d in the UTRAN for each cell.
MAC-c/sh: MAC entity responsible for the handling of all the other channels (common
channels and shared channels). There is one MAC-c/sh per UE and one MAC-c/sh in
the UTRAN for each cell. The MAC-c/sh can communicate with the MAC-d entity in
case of mapping of traffic onto a common channel (RACH, FACH).
Like in layer 1, these entities are all controlled by the MAC control unit.
Transfer modes:
Transparent mode: the higher layer PDUs are transmitted without adding any protocol
information.
Unacknowledged mode (non transparent): the PDUs are transferred without
guaranteeing the delivery to the peer entity.
acknowledged mode (non transparent): the PDUs are transferred and their delivery
to the peer entity is guaranteed.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-7
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-7 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Medium Access Control (MAC)
MAC Functions
Mapping between logical channels and transport channels
Selection of appropriate transport format
Priority handling between data flows of one UE
Priority handling between UEs
Identification of UEs on common channels
Multiplexing / demultiplexing of higher layer PDUs
Traffic volume monitoring
Ciphering
Access Service Class selection for random access transmission
MAC services include:
Data transfer: service providing unacknowledged transfer of MAC SDUs
between peer MAC entities.
Reallocation of radio resources and MAC parameters: reconfiguration of
MAC functions such as change of identity of UE. Requested by the RRC layer.
Reporting of measurements: local measurements such as traffic volume and
quality indication are reported to the RRC layer.
The functions accomplished by the MAC sub-layer are listed above. Heres a quick
explanation for some of them:
Priority handling between the data flows of one UE: since UMTS is multimedia,
a user may activate several services at the same time, having possibly different
profiles (priority, QoS parameters...). Priority handling consists in setting the right
transport format for a high bit rate service and for a low bit rate service.
Priority handling between UEs: use for efficient spectrum resources utilization for
bursty transfers on common and shared channels.
Ciphering: to prevent unauthorized acquisition of data. Performed in the MAC
layer for transparent RLC mode.
Access Service Class (ACS) selection for RACH transmission: the RACH
resources are divided between different ACSs in order to provide different priorities
on a random access procedure.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-8
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-8 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Radio Link Control Layer (RLC)
Segmentation &
Concatenation
all modes
Ciphering
AM, UM modes
Add RLC
header
AM, UM modes
Transmission
buffer
all modes
AM, UM, Tr SAP
Upper layers
RRC
CRLC
SAP
Logical channels
SAP
Reassembly
all modes
Deciphering
AM, UM modes
Remove RLC
header
AM, UM modes
Reception
buffer
all modes
Retransmission
management
AM mode only
The RLCs main function is the transfer of data from either the user or the control
plane over the Radio interface. Two different transfer modes are used: transparent
and non-transparent. In non-transparent mode, 2 sub-modes are used:
acknowledged or unacknowledged.
RLC provides services to upper layers:
data transfer (transparent, acknowledged and unacknowledged modes),
QoS setting: the retransmission protocol (for AM only) shall be configurable by
layer 3 to provide different QoS,
notification of unrecoverable errors: RLC notifies the upper layers of errors
that cannot be resolved by RLC.
The RLC functions are:
mapping between higher layer PDUs and logical channels,
ciphering: prevents unauthorized acquisition of data; performed in RLC layer
for non-transparent RLC mode,
segmentation/reassembly: this function performs segmentation/reassembly of
variable-length higher layer PDUs into/from smaller RLC Payload Units. The
RLC size is adjustable to the actual set of transport formats (decided when
service is established). Concatenation and padding may also be used,
error correction: done by retransmission (acknowledged data transfer mode
only),
flow control: allows the RLC receiver to control the rate at which the peer RLC
transmitting entity may send information.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-9
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-9 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
User Plane
PDCP SAP
UM SAP
L2/RLC sub-layer
DTCH SAP
RRC
CPDCP
SAP
AM SAP Tr SAP
Compression
entity
Compression
entity
Compression
entity
PDU numbering
PDCP SAP PDCP SAP
L2/PDCP sub-layer
UMTS supports several network layer protocols providing protocol transparency for
the users of the service. Typical supported protocols are IPv4 and IPv6.
Using these protocols (and new ones) shall be possible without any changes to
UTRAN protocols. In order to perform this requirement, the PDCP layer has been
introduced. Then, functions related to transfer of packets from higher layers shall be
carried out in a transparent way by the UTRAN network entities.
PDCP shall also be responsible for implementing different kinds of optimization
methods. The currently known methods are standardized IETF (Internet Engineering
Task Force) header compression algorithms.
Algorithm types and their parameters are negotiated by RRC and indicated to
PDCP.
Header compression and decompression are specific for each network layer
protocol type.
In order to know which compression method is used, an identifier (PID: Packet
Identifier) is inserted. Compression algorithms exist for TCP/IP, RTP/UDP/IP,
Another function of PDCP is to provide buffering. This is done if loss less SRNS
relocation is required.
To accomplish this function, each PDCP-SDUs (UL and DL) is buffered and
numbered. Numbering is done after header compression. SDUs are kept until
information of successful transmission of PDCP-PDU has been received from RLC.
PDCP sequence number ranges from 0 to 255. If a sequence has been lost, or
badly received, there is retransmission.
PDCP is an optional layer.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-10
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-10 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Broadcast / Multicast Control (BMC)
Protocol Architecture for Broadcast Services




Node B
UE CBC
CBS Appl. 1 CBS Appl. 1
BM-IWF
Appl.3 Appl.3
TCP /
UDP
BMC
3G-SGSN
IP

BMC
TCP /
UDP
RRC
RLC
MAC
PHY
RRC
RLC
MAC
PHY
Iu tbd. Uu
AAL5
IP IP IP
AAL5
RNC
Node B
(BTS)
RNC
SGSN
Cell
Broadcast
Center
UE
Broadcast/Multicast Control (BMC ) is a sub-layer of L2 that exists in the User-Plane
only. It is located above RLC. The Broadcast Service is inherited from the GSM (Cell
Broadcast Service) and allows delivery of general information messages from a Cell
Broadcast Center (CBC located in the core network) to all mobile users in a given area.
The role of the BMC layer is to make sure the request from the CBC (message to be
broadcasted and the associated repetition scheme) is fulfilled.
The Multicast Service is very similar to the broadcast service. The difference is that
Multicast allows to prevent non authorized users to decode and read messages sent by the
Network.
The BMC is only used for Cell Broadcast/Multicast Services (CBS). The messages are
sent on the CTCH logical channel, which is equivalent to the CBCH in GSM. Each BMC
entity requires a CTCH.
The functions of the BMC include:
storage of cell broadcast messages,
traffic volume monitoring and radio resource request for CBS,
scheduling of BMC messages,
transmission of BMC messages to UE and to upper layers.
Scheduling is important because it enables the UEs to perform discontinuous reception, i.e.
not having to listen all the time to the CTCH.
The main requirements of release 99 are:
service continuity (i.e. no degradation of the GSM CBS as seen by users),
future broadcast/multicast service developments,
minimizing the power consumption by use of intelligent scheduling schemes for CB
messages.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-11
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-11 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Radio Resource Control Layer (RRC)
RRC Model, UE Side
L1
MAC
RLC
TME
BCFE PNFE DCFE
RRC
L1-ctrl
MAC-ctrl
RLC-ctrl

Gc-SAP Nt-SAP Dc-SAP
RRC SAPs
Access
Stratum
RFE: Routing Function
Entity
BCFE: Broadcast Control
Function Entity
PNFE: Paging and
Notification Function entity
DCFE: Dedicated Control
Function Entity
TME: Transfer Mode Entity
RFE
Tr-SAP UM-SAP AM-SAP
RFE RFE
The Radio Resource Control (RRC) layer handles the control plane signaling
between the UEs and UTRAN. It provides general control (Gc), notification (Nt) and
dedicated control (Dc) services to higher layers.
RRC is made of many functional entities:
Routing Function Entity (RFE): used to route the higher layer messages to
different MM/CM entities (UE side) or different core network domains (RNC
side).
Broadcast Control Function Entity (BCFE): to handle the broadcast
functions (Gc-SAP to upper layers). It uses the lower layer services provided
by the transparent and unacknowledged SAPs).
Paging and Notification Control Function Entity (PNFE): to control the
paging in idle mode (Nt-SAP to upper layers). It uses the lower layer services
provided by the transparent and unacknowledged SAPs).
Dedicated Control Function Entity (DCFE): to handle all functions specific to
one UE. It uses the lower layer services provided by the Tr, AM and UM SAPs,
depending on the message.
Transfer Mode Entity (TME): to handle the mapping between the different
entities inside the RRC layer and the SAPs provided by RLC.
The RRC layer is defined in the 25.331 specification from 3GPP.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-12
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-12 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Radio Resource Control Layer (RRC)
Main functions of the RRC layer are:
RRC connection management
Radio Bearers management
Radio resources management
Paging/Notification
Broadcast of information
Measurement reporting management
Outer loop power control management
Ciphering management
Routing of higher layer PDUs
Many functions are managed by the RRC layer. Here is the list of the most
important:
Establishment, re-establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC
connection between the UE and UTRAN: it includes an optional cell re-
selection, an admission control, and a layer 2 signaling link establishment.
When a RNC is in charge of a specific connection towards a UE, it acts as the
Serving RNC.
Establishment, reconfiguration and release of Radio Bearers: a number of
Radio Bearers can be established for a UE at the same time. These bearers are
configured depending on the requested QoS. The RNC is also in charge of
ensuring that the requested QoS can be met.
Assignment, reconfiguration and release of radio resources for the RRC
connection: it handles the assignment of radio resources (e.g. codes, shared
channels). RRC communicates with the UE to indicate new resources allocation
when handovers are managed.
Paging/Notification: it broadcasts paging information from network to UEs.
Broadcasting of information provided by the non-access stratum (Core
Network) or access Stratum. This corresponds to system information regularly
repeated.
UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting: RRC indicates
what to measure, when and how to report.
Outer loop power control: controls setting of the target values.
Control of ciphering: provides procedures for setting of ciphering.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-13
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-13 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Protocol Stack for Packet Services


GTP GTP
Relay
AAL5
TCP/UDP
IP

RLC



MAC
Utran RF
UDP

IP
L1bis

RLC



MAC
Utran RF

IP
L1bis
L2
L1
IP
L2
L1
IP

GTP
IP
Uu Iu Gn
AAL5

UDP UDP
Application
UDP
GTP
Core Network Access Network
SRNC
SGSN GGSN
PDCP PDCP
UE
This slide shows an overview of the protocol stack used for packet services in
UMTS.
The radio interface protocol layers involved are: the physical layer, MAC, RLC and
PDCP (optional).
In UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network), the physical layer is the only
layer located in the node B, all the others are in the RNC.
PDCP is an optional layer.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 4-14
Protocol Layers General Description
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
4-14 Protocol Layers General Description UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Questions
1) Name the protocol layer responsible for channel coding, interleaving, etc.:
2) Whats the name of the lowest part of layer 2?
3) Whats the name of the protocol layer responsible for header compression?
4) Describe the user plane from the UEs point of view?
5) Where is the RRC layer located in the network?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-1
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-1 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Section 5
Logical channels
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-2
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-2 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Logical channels
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Explain the use of logical channels
- Describe the different modes and states a mobile can be in
- Briefly describe each logical channel
- Roughly understand the applicability of RLC and MAC
services to logical channels
- List the different mappings between logical and transport
channels
Objectives
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-3
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-3 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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different
message
types
=
different
logical
channels
MESSAGE TYPE
Physical Channel
Channels
3 Types of Channels
Logical channels: What type of information is transferred
Transport channels: How and with what characteristics the
information is transferred
Physical channels: Real transmission resource
In UMTS, there are 3 types of channels:
Logical channels: each logical channel type is defined by what type of
information is transferred.
Transport channels: each transport channel is described by how and with
what characteristics data is transmitted over the radio interface.
Physical channels: provide the real transmission resource, being in charge of
the association between bits and physical symbols (electrical signals). It
corresponds, in UMTS, to a frequency and a specific set of codes.
As a conclusion:
Physical Channel = information container
Transport Channel = characteristics of transmission
Logical Channel = specification of the information global content
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-4
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-4 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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UE Protocol Layers
Layer 1
Layer 3
Layer 2
Control Plane User Plane
PHY (PHYsical)
MAC (Medium Access Control)
RLC (Radio Link Control)
PDCP BMC
RRC (Radio Resource Control)
Management functions: MM, CC
Non access
stratum
Access
stratum
Network layer protocol:
Ipv4, Ipv6, ... AMR
Logical channels
As it was mentioned before, the radio interface (Uu) is layered into three protocol
layers:
the physical layer (L1)
the data link layer (L2)
the network layer (L3).
The MAC (Medium Access Control) sub-layer provides data transfer services on
logical channels. There is one set of logical channel types defined per service
offered by the MAC sub-layer. Each type of logical channel is defined by what type
of information it transfers.
The mapping between logical and transport channels is performed by the MAC sub-
layer.
Basically, data blocks come from the RLC sub-layer in the form of Packet Data
Units (PDU). These blocks originate from higher layers. Each block corresponds to
a logical channel depending on the content of these blocks. Then, the MAC sub-
layer might add a header (transparent mode) to form a MAC PDU. These PDUs are
then sent to the physical layer.
So, the logical channels are defined in relation to the traffic or control data coming
from the RLC sub-layer.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-5
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-5 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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UE Protocol States
Establish RRC
Connection
Release RRC
Connection
UTRAN Connected Mode
UTRAN:
Inter-System
Handover
GSM:
Handover
Establish RRC
Connection
Release RRC
Connection
URA_PCH CELL_PCH
CELL_DCH
CELL_FACH
GSM
Connected
Mode
Establish RR
Connection
Release RR
Connection
Idle Mode
Camping on a UTRAN cell Camping on a GSM / GPRS cell
GPRS
Packet
Transfer
Mode
Initiation of
temporary
block flow
Release of
temporary
block flow
Cell reselection
In 2
nd
generation systems, only two levels of connection existed, idle and connected mode.
In UMTS, different levels of connections have been defined corresponding to the activity
level of the UE.
After power on, the UE is in idle mode until it transmits a request to establish an RRC
connection. Once that connection is made, the UE is in connected mode. A UE requests a
RRC connection when it wants to originate a call (speech or data), receive a call (or SMS),
make a location update or an IMSI detach and certain other procedures.
Four different states of connection have been defined. These different states indicate the
level of UE connection and which transport channels can be used by the UE.
Cell_DCH state is when a dedicated physical channel is allocated to the UE in uplink
and downlink. That state can be entered after RRC connection or after a physical
channel is assigned to the UE in cell_FACH state. When all dedicated channels have
been released, the UE goes into the cell_FACH state. That state is equivalent to the
connected mode in GSM.
Cell_FACH state is when no dedicated resource has been allocated to the UE, and
when the UE continuously listens to the FACH. In that state, an uplink common or
shared transport channel is assigned to the UE (RACH) so that it can transmit uplink
control signals. A UE uses the C-RNTI (Cell-Radio Network Temporary Identity) on
common transport channels. It reads the BCCH to acquire valid system information.
The UE moves to URA_PCH state after a URA update procedure. Procedures like
location updates are done in this state.
Cell_PCH state is when the UE is monitoring the PCH via an allocated PICH (Page
Indicator Channel). In that case, it uses DRX (discontinuous reception). No dedicated
channel is allowed to the UE, and no uplink activity is possible. The UE listens to the
BCCH to acquire system information. When a UE is paged or when it wants to initiate
uplink activity, it moves to cell_FACH state.
URA_PCH state is a lot like the cell_PCH state, except that the location of the UE is
known on a UTRAN registration area (URA) level according to the last URA update
done in cell_FACH state. An URA contains many cells and has been invented to use
less signaling.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-6
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-6 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Logical Channels
Traffic Channels
= downlink = uplink
DTCH
(Dedicated Traffic CHannel)
CTCH
(Common Traffic CHannel)
Speech from UMTS AMR codec at:
12.20 kbps; 10.20 kbps; 7.95 kbps;
7.40 kbps; 6.70 kbps; 5.90 kbps;
5.15 kbps; 4.75 kbps
Speech from GSM codecs
Circuit switched data
Packet switched data
Real-time and non real-time traffic
Common user data in transparent
and unacknowledged mode
Cell Broadcast messages (weather,
traffic, etc.)
Schedule message for support of
DRX of cell broadcast data at the UE
As in GSM, UMTS uses the concept of logical channels.
A logical channel is characterized by the type of information that is transferred.
For example, some channels are used to transfer dedicated information, some for
transfer of general control information, etc..
As in GSM, logical channels can be divided into two groups: control channels for
control plane information and traffic channel for user plane information.
The traffic channels are:
Dedicated Traffic CHannel (DTCH): a point-to-point bi-directional channel,
that transmits dedicated user information between a UE and the network. That
information can be speech, circuit switched data or packet switched data. The
payload bits on this channel come from a higher layer application (the AMR
codec for example). Control bits can be added by the RLC (protocol
information) in case of a non transparent transfer. The MAC sub-layer will also
add a header to the RLC PDU.
Common Traffic CHannel (CTCH): a point-to-multipoint downlink channel
for transfer of dedicated user information for all or a group of specified UEs.
This channel is used to broadcast BMC messages. These messages can either
be cell broadcast data from higher layers or schedule messages for support of
Discontinuous Reception (DRX) of cell broadcast data at the UE. Cell
broadcast messages are services offered by the operator, like indication of
weather, traffic, location or rate information.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-7
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-7 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Logical Channels
Control Channels
= downlink = uplink
BCCH
(Broadcast Control CHannel)
PCCH
(Paging Control CHannel)
l Broadcast of all system information
types (types 1 to 16) on BCH or
FACH, and corresponding messages
F frequency number (UARFCN);
F Cell and PLMN identity;
F Max. allowed uplink power; etc.
l To reach a UE (or several UEs) in
idle mode or in connected mode
(cell_PCH or URA_PCH state)
l Paging type 1 message is used
l Used to indicate to UEs a
modification of system information
DCCH
(Dedicated Control CHannel)
l To send control messages to a UE
for important procedures
F inter-frequency handovers;
F paging info for a UE in cell_FACH or
cell_DCH state;
F active set update messages; etc.
CCCH
(Common Control CHannel)
l Channel used to send messages
related to RRC connection and
location updates (cell and URA)
Fassignment of temporary identities
(C-RNTI and U-RNTI)
The control channels are:
Broadcast Control CHannel (BCCH): a downlink channel that broadcasts all
system information types (except type 14 that is only used in TDD). For
example, system information type 3 gives the cell identity, and type 5 and 6 give
the frequency information.
Paging Control CHannel (PCCH): a downlink channel that transfers paging
information. It is used to reach a UE (or several UEs) in idle mode or in
connected mode (cell_PCH or URA_PCH state). The paging type 1 message is
sent on the PCCH. When a UE receives a page on the PCCH in connected
mode, it shall enter cell_FACH state and make a cell update procedure.
Dedicated Control CHannel (DCCH): a point-to-point bi-directional channel
that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network.
This channel is used for dedicated signaling after a RRC connection has been
done. For example, it is used for inter-frequency handover procedure, for
dedicated paging, for the active set update procedure and for the control and
report of measurements.
Common Control CHannel (CCCH): a bi-directional channel for transmitting
control information between network and UEs. It is used to send messages
related to RRC connection, cell update and URA update. This channel is a bit
like the DCCH, but will be used when the UE has not yet been identified by the
network (or by the new cell). For example, it is used to send the RRC
connection request message, which is the first message sent by the UE to get
into connected mode. The network will respond on the same channel, and will
send him its temporary identities (cell and UTRAN identities). After these initial
messages, the DCCH will be used.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-8
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-8 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Mapping
Mapping Between Logical Channels and Transport Channels, Seen from the UE Side
uplink
downlink
BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH CTCH DTCH
BCH PCH CPCH RACH FACH DSCH DCH
Logical
channels
Transport
channels
The mapping between logical channels and transport channels is done by the MAC
sub-layer.
Different connections can be made between logical and transport channels:
BCCH is connected to BCH and may also be connected to FACH;
DTCH can be connected to either RACH and FACH, to RACH and DSCH, to
DCH and DSCH, to a DCH or a CPCH;
CTCH is connected to FACH;
DCCH can be connected to either RACH and FACH, to RACH and DSCH, to
DCH and DSCH, to a DCH or a CPCH;
PCCH is connected to PCH;
CCCH is connected to RACH and FACH.
These connections depend on the type of information on the logical channels.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-9
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-9 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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RLC Services/Functions Applicability
Applicability of RLC Modes and Functions in UE Uplink Side
Service Functions CCCH DCCH DTCH
Applicability + + +
Segmentation - + +
Transparent
Service
Transfer of user data + + +
Applicability - + +
Segmentation - + +
Concatenation - + +
Padding - + +
Transfer of user data - + +
Unacknowledged
Service
Ciphering - + +
Applicability - + +
Segmentation - + +
Concatenation - + +
Padding - + +
Transfer of user data - + +
Flow Control - + +
Error Correction - + +
Protocol error correction
& recovery
- + +
Acknowledged
Service
Ciphering - + +
Data flows through layer 2 are characterized by the transfer mode used. In
transparent mode, the higher layer PDUs are transmitted without adding any
protocol information. However, some protocol functions may still be applied. In
unacknowledged mode (non transparent), the PDUs are transferred without
guaranteeing the delivery to the peer entity, while the delivery of the PDUs is
guaranteed in acknowledged mode (non transparent). In acknowledged mode,
both data and control PDUs are exchanged between peer entities.
The decision to use one transfer mode or another will depend on the service.
Normally, conversational and streaming services will use the transparent mode
(voice for example) or unacknowledged mode, while service needing a very low
BER will use the acknowledged mode. System information broadcasting and
paging will use the transparent mode.
Depending on the transfer mode used, different RLC functions are used to process
the payload coming from higher layers. These functions may or may not be applied
on the different logical channels. For example, ciphering is only applied to
dedicated channels (DTCH and DCCH).
It is important to note that the acknowledged transfer mode can only be used for
dedicated channels. Also, the CCCH may only use the unacknowledged transfer
mode in downlink, and the transparent mode only in uplink.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-10
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-10 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Service Functions BCCH PCCH CCCH DCCH DTCH CTCH
Applicability + + - + + -
Segmentation + + - + + -
Transparent
Service
Transfer of user data + + - + + -
Applicability - - + + + +
Segmentation - - + + + +
Concatenation - - + + + +
Padding - - + + + +
Unacknowledged
Service
Ciphering - - - + + -
Applicability - - - + + -
Segmentation - - - + + -
Concatenation - - - + + -
Padding - - - + + -
Transfer of user data - - - + + -
Flow Control - - - + + -
Error Correction - - - + + -
Protocol error
correction & recovery
- - - + + -
Acknowledged
Service
Ciphering - - - + + -
RLC Services/Functions Applicability
Applicability of RLC Modes and Functions in UTRAN Downlink Side
RNC RNC RNC
On this slide, we see the applicability of RLC functions for logical channels in
UTRAN downlink.
An RLC header is not necessarily added for each of these functions. It is only
added in case of unacknowledged and acknowledged mode. For example, an RLC
header will be added in acknowledged mode to indicate if the PDU contains data or
control.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-11
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-11 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Data Flows Through Layer 2
Data Flow for Non-transparent RLC and MAC
Higher Layer
L1
Higher Layer PDU
RLC SDU
MAC SDU
Transport block (MAC PDU)
CRC

RLC
header
RLC
header
MAC SDU
Transport block (MAC PDU)
CRC

MAC
header
MAC
header

L2MAC
L2 RLC
Segmentation &
concatenation
reassembly
Higher Layer PDU
RLCSDU
The inter-layer transfer mode defines the data flows though layer 2. In fact, that
transfer mode will indicate if protocol information has to be added to the higher layer
payload. This is implemented differently on every logical channel.
BCCH BCH: no RLC or MAC header is needed.
BCCH FACH: no RLC header; MAC header needed to identify the logical
channel on FACH.
PCCH PCH: no RLC or MAC header is needed.
CCCH FACH/RACH: a MAC header is needed to identify the logical channel
in uplink and downlink; no RLC header is needed in uplink while one is needed
in downlink (unacknowledged RLC mode).
DCCH FACH/RACH: a MAC header is needed to identify the logical channel
mapped on FACH and RACH, and to distinguish the different logical channels
multiplexed on the same transport channel (in case on logical channel
multiplexing); a RLC header is also needed.
DCCH DSCH: a MAC header is needed for UE identification and in case of
logical channel multiplexing; a RLC header is needed.
DCCH or DTCH CPCH: a MAC header is needed in case of logical channel
multiplexing; a RLC header is needed.
DTCH FACH/RACH or DSCH: both MAC and RLC headers are mandatory.
DTCH or DCCH DCH: a MAC header is needed in case of logical channel
multiplexing; a RLC header may or may not be used.
CTCH FACH: a MAC header is needed for logical channel identification of
FACH; a RLC header is always used (unacknowledged mode).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-12
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-12 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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RLC Headers
.
.
.
Sequence Number E
Length Indicator E
Byte 1
Length Indicator E
Data
Padding
Byte N
(Optional)
.
.
.
Length Indicator E
Data
Padding
Unacknowledged
Mode data PDU
Acknowledged Mode
data PDU
(Optional)
(Optional) (Optional)
Sequence Number
Length Indicator E
P HE
Length Indicator D/C Byte 1
(Optional)
Byte 2
Byte N
(Optional)
A RLC PDU (protocol data unit) is a bit string made of a RLC SDU (service data unit)
coming from higher layers, and a RLC header. The header is different from one transfer
mode to another.
In transparent mode, no RLC header is added, so a RLC PDU is the same as a RLC SDU
(except when segmentation or concatenation is used). In non transparent mode, overhead
is added to the higher layer payload to form the RLC PDU. In non transparent mode, the
RLC SDU has to be a multiple of 8 bits, which is not the case for transparent mode.
A RLC PDU can be either data or control. Control PDUs are only used in acknowledged
mode. Remember that it is the only mode that guaranties the delivery to the peer RLC
entity. Here are the different control PDUs:
Status PDU: used to report the status between two RLC entities (missing PUs,
transmission window dialog).
Reset PDU and reset Ack PDU: used to reset all protocol states, variables and timers
of the peer RLC entity for synchronization purposes.
Here is a description of the different fields of the RLC header:
D/C field: indicates if the PDU is control (=0) or data (=1) in case of acknowledged
mode transfer.
Sequence Number: used for reassembly (UM and AM) and retransmission (AM only)
of the PDUs. It stands on 12 (AM) or 7 (UM) bits.
Polling bit (P): 1 bit to indicate if a status report is needed (=1) or not (=0).
Extension bit (E): 1 bit to indicate if the next byte is data (=0) or length indicator (=1).
Header Extension Type (HE): 2 bits indicating if the length indicator and E bit byte is
used.
Length Indicator: used, when several RLC SDUs are concatenated into the same PU,
to indicate the end of each SDU in a PU. It stands on 7 or 15 bits. The maximum
value cannot be greater than the RLC PDU size.
Padding: added so that the RLC PDU has the required predefined total length.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-13
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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MAC Header for Logical Channels
MAC Header for DTCH and DCCH
MAC SDU Case 2)
b):
MAC SDU Case 1)
a) :
TCTF
MAC header for BCCH (1 and 2), CCCH (2) and CTCH (2)
UE-Id
UE-Id
MAC SDU C/T
Case 2):
MAC SDU Case 1):
MAC SDU TCTF C/T
Case 3):
MAC SDU C/T Case 4):
UE-Id
type
UE-Id
type
1 MAC SDU = 1 RLC PDU
2 to 8 bits
4 bits
16 or 32
bits
2 bits
As it was said before, a MAC header is added to the RLC PDUs in non transparent
MAC transmission. Up to four different parameters can form the MAC header.
The Target Channel Type Field (TCTF) is a 2 to 8 bit flag that indicates which
logical channel is mapped onto the RACH and FACH transport channels. The C/T
field is 4 bits long and is used when more than one logical channel is mapped
onto the same transport channel (up to 15 logical channels can be mapped on the
same transport channel). It can also be used to identify the type of logical channel
on the RACH/FACH when these channels are used for data transmission. The UE-
id field is used to identify the UEs by using their temporary identities such as U-
RNTI and C-RNTI. This field is 32 bits long for the U-RNTI, and 16 bits long for
the C-RNTI. The UE-id type is a 2 bit long field that indicates which UE id type is
used (U-RNTI or C-RNTI).
In the case of dedicated logical channels (DTCH and DCCH), many different
scenarios can arise concerning the content of the MAC header:
If they are mapped to a DCH:
1) No multiplexing of logical channels: no MAC header.
2) Multiplexing of logical channels is done: C/T field needed.
3) If they are mapped to RACH/FACH: TCTF, C/T, UE-id type and UE-id fields
are all used.
4) If they are mapped to DSCH or CPCH: UE-id type and UE-id fields are always
used, while the C/T field is only included if multiplexing on MAC is applied.
It is much more simpler for the BCCH: no MAC header is used when it is mapped
onto the BCH (case 1) and only the TCTF field is included when i t is mapped on the
FACH (case 2). The TCTF is also the only field added for the CCCH and the
CTCH.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-14
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Protocol Termination
Protocol Termination for RACH/FACH (User Plane)
PHY PHY
MAC
RLC RLC
MAC
MAC
DTCH:
PDCP PDCP
PHY PHY
MAC
RLC RLC
MAC
MAC
Uu
PHY PHY
MAC MAC
RLC RLC
CTCH:
BMC BMC
Uu
Node B
(BTS)
SRNC CRNC
The protocol termination indicates in which node of the UTRAN the radio interface
protocols are terminated for each channel. Thus, it also indicates in which node
each of the layer protocols (MAC, RLC, etc.) are located.
The protocol termination for each logical channel sometimes depends on the
transport channel on which it is mapped. Generally, this is how it works:
DTCH: terminates in the PDCP or RLC (depending on the service provided by
upper layers) which are located in the serving RNC.
DCCH: terminates in the RRC situated in the serving RNC.
BCCH: terminates in the RRC situated in the controlling RNC.
CCCH: terminates in the RRC situated in the RNC.
DCCH: terminates in the RRC situated in the serving RNC.
CTCH: terminates in the BMC or RLC (depending on the service provided by
upper layers) which are located in the RNC.
The physical layer is always terminated in the node B, except when macro-diversity
applies. In that case, a part of the physical layer may terminate in the SRNC, an it
corresponds to the combining and splitting function.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-15
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Protocol Termination
Protocol Termination for DCH, Control Plane
RRC
RLC
PHY
PHY
RRC
RLC
PHY
MAC MAC
Node B
(BTS)
SRNC
PDCP PDCP
RLC
PHY
PHY
RLC
PHY
MAC MAC
Protocol Termination for DCH, User Plane
UE
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 5-16
Logical Channels
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-16 Logical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Questions
1) Name the three kinds of channels used in UMTS, and give a brief description
of each.
2) In what state(s) is the UE using a dedicated physical channel?
3) Which logical channel is used for:
system information broadcast?
transmission of cell broadcast messages?
carrying user traffic?
4) On what transport channel is the CCCH logical mapped in downlink?
When is it used?
5) What are the three possible RLC transfer modes?
6) True or false: acknowledged mode is used for conversational services?
7) Why can the UE-Id field be used in the MAC header?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-1 October, 2000
6-1 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Section 6
Transport Channels
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-2 October, 2000
6-2 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Transport channels
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Discuss about the use of transport channels
- Explain all the processing done to the data coming from
upper layers
- Briefly describe each transport channel in terms of its main
characteristics
- Explain how the transport channels are mapped onto
physical channels
Objectives
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-3 October, 2000
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MAC (Medium Access Control)
Channel Protocol Layers
RLC (Radio Link Control)
Logical Channels
Transport Channels Transport Channels
Transport sublayer
Physical Channels
Physical sublayer
PHY
(PHYsical Layer)
The physical layer offers data transport services to upper layers. The access to
these services is through the use of transport channels via the MAC sub-layer. The
physical layer transport services are described by how and with what characteristics
the data is transferred over the air interface. These characteristics define transport
channels.
Each service is defined by its characteristics of transmission.
The basic unit exchanged between L1 and the MAC sub-layer is called a transport
block. Typically, a transport block corresponds to a MAC PDU (protocol data unit).
A UE can set up multiple transport channels simultaneously, each having its own
transport characteristics. Each transport channel can be used for information
stream transfer of one radio bearer or for layer 2 and higher layer signalling
messages.
The multiplexing of these transport channels onto the same or different physical
channels is carried out by L1.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-4 October, 2000
6-4 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Channels
Transport Channels
Transport channels have different characteristics:
semi-static part (error protection, coding rate, )
dynamic part (size of data part, )
Common Transport Channels:
there is a need for inband
identification of the UEs when
particular UEs are addressed
Dedicated Transport Channels:
UEs are identified by the physical
channel, i.e. codes and frequency
Transport Channels can be classified into two groups
Each transport channel has several characteristics:
semi-static part
- error protection: turbo code, convolutional code, no channel coding,
- coding rate (for convolutional coding): 1/2, 1/3,
- size of CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check): 0, 8, 12, 16, 24 bits,
- Transmission Time Interval (TTI): 10, 20, 40, 80 ms.
dynamic part
- transport block size: 1 to 5000 (1 bit granularity),
- transport block set size: 1 to 200000 (1 bit granularity).
The transport format combination set is given to MAC for control (with assignment
done by RRC).
The semi-static part, together with the target value for the L1 closed loop power
control, correspond to the service attributes:
quality: e.g. BER (Bit Error Rate),
transfer delay.
Service attributes are offered by L1, but L3 guarantees they are fulfilled.
Remember that L3 sets these attributes.
The dynamic part can be modified between different TTIs to achieve different
channel bit rates.
The semi-static part is particular for each service.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-5 October, 2000
6-5 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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General Description
Transport Channels
= downlink
= uplink
BCH
(Broadcast CHannel)
low fixed bit rate
broadcasted into the entire cell
PCH
(Paging CHannel)
broadcasted into the entire cell
supports efficient sleep mode procedures
RACH
(Random Access CHannel)
limited data field
collision risk
open loop power control
DCH
(Dedicated CHannel)
possibility to use beam forming
possibility of fast rate change (every 10 ms)
fast power control
possibility to use beam forming
possibility of fast rate change (every 10 ms)
no fast power control
FACH
(Forward Access CHannel)
CPCH
(Common Packet CHannel)
possibility to use beam forming
possibility of fast rate change
fast power control
collision detection
open loop power estimate for pre-amble power ramp-up
possibility to use beam forming
possibility to use fast power control
associated with a DCH
DSCH
(Downlink Shared CHannel)
In order to carry logical channels, several transport channels are defined. They are:
Broadcast CHannel (BCH): a downlink channel used for broadcast of system
information into the entire cell.
Paging CHannel (PCH): a downlink channel used for broadcast of control
information into the entire cell, such as paging or notification.
Random Access CHannel (RACH): a contention based uplink channel used
for transmission of relatively small amounts of data, e.g. for initial access or non
real-time dedicated control or traffic data.
Forward Access CHannel (FACH): a common downlink channel used for
transmission of relatively small amounts of data. It is used, for example, to
respond to a random access and to give information relative to the service
(voice, data) and the physical channel (OVSF code for example).
Common Packet CHannel (CPCH): a contention based channel used for
transmission of bursty data traffic. This channel only exists in FDD mode and
only in the uplink. The common packet channel is shared by the UEs.
Downlink Shared CHannel (DSCH): a downlink channel shared by several
UEs carrying dedicated control or data traffic.
Dedicated CHannel (DCH): a channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or
downlink.
Fast Uplink Signaling Channel (FAUSCH): a dedicated uplink channel used
to allocate dedicated channels in conjunction with FACH. It allows a UE to
notify a request for a DCH by sending an uplink signaling code. This channel is
not for the UMTS R99.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-6 October, 2000
6-6 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Important Definitions
Transport block Transport block Transport block
Transport block
TTI TTI
Transport block set
Transport block
Attribute values BCH PCH FACH RACH
Dynamic
Part
Transport
Block Size
0 to 5000 bits
1 bit granularity
246 1 to 5000
1 bit granularity
0 to 5000
1 bit granularity
0 to 5000
1 bit granularity
Transport
Block Set Size
0 to 200 000 bits
1 bit granularity
1 to 200 000
1 bit granularity
0 to 200 000
1 bit granularity
0 to 200 000
1 bit granularity
Semi-static
part
TTI 10, 20, 40, 80 ms 20 ms 10 ms 10, 20, 40, 80 ms 10, 20 ms
Channel
coding
No coding
Turbo coding (r=1/3)
Convolutional coding
(r=1/2 and 1/3)
Conv.
Coding
r=1/2
Convolutional
coding r=1/2
No coding
Turbo (r=1/3)
Conv. coding
(r=1/2 and 1/3)
Convolutional
coding r=1/2
CRC size 0, 8, 12, 16, 24 bits 16 0, 8, 12, 16, 24 0, 8, 12, 16, 24 0, 8, 12, 16, 24
Ratio after
static rate
matching

0.5 to 4


Description of Transport formats
Transport block: basic unit exchanged between L1 and MAC. One transport block
typically corresponds to one RLC PDU (protocol data unit). In fact, it is identical to
one MAC PDU.
Transport block set (TBS): set of transport blocks exchanged between L1 and
MAC during the same time transmission interval (TTI) using the same transport
channel. When RLC segmentation is performed, it corresponds to the different RLC
PDUs of one RLC SDU. The transport blocks are transmitted in the order they were
received from the RLC (if they come from the same logical channel). The transport
blocks of one TBS all have the same size.
Transmission Time Interval (TTI): corresponds to the time that separates two
consecutive transport block transmissions. One TTI can be worth 10, 20, 40 or 80
ms (multiples of a radio frame period), depending on the service (20 ms for speech).
Transport format: format exchanged between L1 and MAC for the delivery of one
transport block set during a TTI, for one transport channel. The transport format is
made up of a dynamic part and a semi-static part.
Attributes of the dynamic part: transport block size and transport block set size (in
bits).
Attributes of the semi-static part: TTI, type and rate of channel coding, static rate
matching parameter, puncturing limit (UL only) and size of CRC attachment.
Different transport formats are defined for one transport channel to have the
possibility to change the bit rate. This set is called the transport format set. Only
the dynamic part is changed between different transport formats of a same set.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-7 October, 2000
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Transport Channel Processing (Downlink)
Layer 2
data
TrCH multiplexing
Insertion of DTX bits with flexible position
Physical channel segmentation
Physical channel mapping
Second interleaving
Rate matching
Insertion of DTX bits with fixed position
First interleaving
Radio frame segmentation
Transport block concatenation
Code block Segmentation
Channel coding
CRC attachment
Physical
Channel #1
Physical
Channel #N
QoS monitoring
Transport Block
Processing
TTI Processing
TTI = 10, 20, 40, 80 ms
Radio Frame Processing
(10 ms)
Time Slot Processing
(0.666 ms)
According to the requirements of both the upper layer service and the physical
channel, each transport channel is processed differently by the transport sub-layer.
In practice, the processing done to different channels is very similar.
The 5 different processing stages used to transport the layer 2 data units into
streams of bits that can be carried by the physical sub-layer are:
QoS monitoring used to control the effective BER (or BLER) on a transport
channel and to adjust the transmission power accordingly.
Transport block processing corresponds to all the processing done to one
transport block (concatenation, code block segmentation and channel coding).
Transmission Time Interval (TTI) processing is the processing done to code
blocks to distribute the bits on the radio frames corresponding to one TTI.
Radio frame processing is used to distribute the bits of different transport
channels corresponding to one radio frame on physical channels.
Time slot processing allocates the bits of one radio frame into 15 time slots.
Each of these stages is separated in mandatory or optional steps. The output of
this processing is one or several physical channels. Only the TTI processing stage
differs from downlink to uplink.
Each function has its counter part on the receiving side.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-8 October, 2000
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Transport Channel Processing (Uplink)
Layer 2
data
TrCH multiplexing
Physical channel segmentation
Physical channel mapping
Second interleaving
Rate matching
Radio frame size equalization
First interleaving
Radio frame segmentation
Transport block concatenation
Code block Segmentation
Channel coding
CRC attachment
Physical
Channel #1
Physical
Channel #N
QoS monitoring
Transport Block
Processing
TTI Processing
TTI = 10, 20, 40, 80 ms
Radio Frame Processing
(10 ms)
Time Slot Processing
(0.666 ms)
In uplink, the TTI processing stage is a bit different. The rate matching is done after
the first interleaving, and there is no insertion of DTX bits.
The reason of this difference is that the uplink and downlink transmission chains
were chosen from two different proposals. Also, some processing is only applied on
downlink (blind detection with fixed positions for transport channels) and requires
that the rate matching be done TTI by TTI for complexity reasons. In uplink, that
kind of processing is not done, so the rate matching is done at a radio frame level,
which simplifies a lot of things.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-9 October, 2000
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QoS Monitoring
CRC Attachment
0, 8, 12, 16 or 24 CRC bits are attached to the upper layer data for error
detection.
The CRC bits are computed on the input bits using 4 different cyclic generator
polynomials.
Can be used for power control and for macro-diversity
At the receiving side: CRC bits are computed on the payload and compared with
the received CRC bits. If not equal, an error is detected.
A flag CRCI is attached to each transport block by the BTS and is sent to the
RNC to indicate quality and to calculate the BLER.
Example: 5 input bits 1 0 1 0 1
8 CRC bits added => g
CRC8
(D) = D
8
+ D
7
+ D
4
+ D
3
+ D + 1
Output: 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 (input bits + CRC attachment)
CRC (Cyclic Redundant Check) bits are used for error detection. To determine if a
transport block has been correctly received, the transmitting side computes CRC
bits and adds them to the data units (payload) coming from the upper layer. CRC
attachment is done on each transport block of a transport block set.
The entire transport block transmitted by the MAC sub-layer is used to calculate the
CRC parity bits for one transport block. CRC attachment consists of 24, 16, 12, 8
(or 0) bits generated by 4 different cyclic generator polynomials. The CRC length
used for each TrCH is decided by upper layers. Here are the different polynomials:
g
CRC24
(D) = D
24
+ D
23
+ D
6
+ D
5
+ D + 1
g
CRC16
(D) = D
16
+ D
12
+ D
5
+ 1
g
CRC12
(D) = D
12
+ D
11
+ D
3
+ D
2
+ D + 1
g
CRC8
(D) = D
8
+ D
7
+ D
4
+ D
3
+ D + 1.
The CRC coding is performed in a systematic way using this formula:
CRC(D) = D
n-k
m(D) + r(D) where r(D) is the remainder of the division X
n-k
m(D) /
g(D), k is the number of input bits, n is the number of bits after CRC attachment and
m(D) is the input message. If fact, r(D) corresponds to the CRC bits. This
procedure insures that the resulting polynomial can be divided (without remainder)
by the cyclic generator polynomial.
At the receiving side, a CRC is computed on the payload and compared to the
received CRC. If there is an error, the 2 CRC will be different. The receiver can
either transfer the payload with an error indication or not transfer it and ask for
retransmission in the case of acknowledged mode.
Due to macro-diversity handling, CRC computation is the only part of L1 processing
that is done outside the node B. When no power control is done on a channel
(common channels), CRC computation is optional.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-10 October, 2000
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.
Transport Block Processing (1/7)
Transport Block Concatenation and Segmentation
Used when more than one transport block is
sent on the same transport channel by the
upper layer
8 8 8 8
. . .
8 8
80 bytes
Used when the transport block is larger than
the maximum code block size tolerated for
convolutional coding
Used when transport block segmentation is
used
TTI = 10 ms
640
Concatenation
Channel coding
Segmentation 320 320
Concatenation
of coded blocks
2 or 3 x 640
Transport block concatenation is only used when more than one transport block
is sent by the upper layer on the same transport channel, during on TTI. In that
case, the transport channel provides a concatenation function that puts together all
the bits corresponding to the same TTI.
At the receiving side, the opposite is done to send the data in several small
segments.
Transport block segmentation is used because the size of a code block that can
be handled by the channel coder is limited (to avoid too much complexity in the
channel coding function). The maximum code block size depends on the channel
coding scheme: 504 bits for convolutional coding and 5114 bits for turbo coding.
Also, the minimum size of a code block for turbo coding is 40 bits. Thus,
segmentation is performed when the transport block is larger than the maximum
code block size (but only when channel coding is done). Concatenation of coded
blocks will be done after channel coding to reassemble the the original data.
Transport block segmentation consists in splitting the transport block into n code
blocks of equal size. If the number of bits input to the segmentation is not a multiple
of n, filling bits (forced to 0) are added to the beginning of the first code block.
Concatenation and segmentation are never done on the BCH.
For example, let s suppose a 64 kbps service is needed. If the TTI is 10 ms, the
transport layer may offer a byte based interface (one byte every 0.125 ms=64 kbps)
and pack all the data in one transport block of 80 bytes (10 / 0.125). Then, if
convolutional coding is used, the transport block is segmented into 2 code blocks of
320 bits each.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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6-11 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Transport Block Processing (2/7)
Channel Coding
Type of TrCH Coding scheme Coding rate
BCH
PCH
RACH
1/2
Convolutional coding
1/3, 1/2
Turbo coding 1/3 CPCH, DCH, DSCH, FACH
No coding

Code block of N bits
(speech, data, signaling)
r=1/2 convolutional
coding
r=1/3 convolutional
coding
turbo coding
Coded information
2N+16 bits
Coded information
3N+24 bits
Coded information
3N+12 bits
no coding Uncoded
information N bits
The purpose of channel coding is to protect transmitted information against radio
disturbances (noise, interference, multi-path propagation,) in order to improve the
transmission quality.
The coding consists of adding redundancy bits to the source data (the number of
bits is multiplied by about 2 or 3). Thus, we can exploit that redundancy at the
receiving side to reduce the bit error ratio. Depending on the QoS required in terms
of BER and delay, different coding schemes are used. For UMTS, two types of
channel coding have been defined:
Convolutional coding (rate 1/2 or 1/3)
Turbo coding
Convolutional coding is simpler than turbo coding and it offers a shorter processing
delay. Turbo coding is more complex but offers better protection.
For common control channels, rate 1/2 convolutional coding will be used.
For dedicated channels, the type of channel coding depends on the requirements:
rate 1/2 convolutional coding for conversational services needing normal
channel protection, or for common channels (like BCH, RACH, FACH, etc.),
rate 1/3 convolutional coding for conversational or streaming services needing
high channel protection (like speech),
turbo coding for data interactive or background services needing a very low
BER.
Note
8 tail bits with binary value 0 are added at the end of the code block before
encoding.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-12 October, 2000
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source sequence - N bits
coded sequence - MxN bits
CODING PRINCIPLE:

=
0
0 0 0
0 0 0 0


Transport Block Processing (3/7)
Convolutional Coding
add sequence with same
shifted sequences:
N
use M convolutions per
sequence
CONVOLUTION
CODES
A convolution is the result obtained by adding (i.e. applying X-OR) a sequence and
shifted versions of itself. The general principle of a convolutional code consists in
transmitting the results of M convolutions where r=1/M is the convolutional rate. So,
according to the number of convolutions, the coded sequence contains M times the
number N of bits of the source sequence.
For example, in UMTS, the convolutional sequences are obtained by adding (for the
r=1/2 convolutional coder):
the source sequence and the same sequence shifted by 2, 3, 4 and 8 bits. The
characteristic polynomial for the first convolution is:
G
0
(D) = D
8
+D
4
+D
3
+D
2
+1 (D = delay).
the source sequence to the same sequence shifted by 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 bits.
The characteristic polynomial for the second convolution is:
G
1
(D) = D
8
+D
7
+D
5
+D
3
+D
2
+D+1.
Convolutional coding enables to decrease the Eb/No threshold that provides an
acceptable quality of communication. Furthermore, convolutional codes provide a
relatively easy decoding using the Viterbi algorithm.
For the convolutional codes, there is no formula providing the maximum number of
errors that the code can detect and correct. We can only speak about performances
of the code in terms of BER as a function of E
b
/N
0
.
A convolutional coder is often defined C(n, k, m), where k/n in the coding ratio and
m is the constraint length of the coder. The constraint length can be defined as the
number of shift registers over which a single message bit can influence the code
output. It corresponds to the number of shift registers plus one. The constraint
length of the UMTS convolutional coders is 9. It can also be represented by octal
numbers that correspond (when put in their binary form) to the code generator
polynomials. It can also be defined by its state diagram.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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6-13 October, 2000
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Transport Block Processing (4/7)
Convolutional Coding
D D D D D D D D
D D D D D D D D
Rate 1/2 convolutional coder
Rate 1/3 convolutional coder
Input X(k)
N bits + 8 x 0
Output Y
0
(k) (1
rst
, 4
th
, bit)
G
0
= 557
Output Y
2
(k) (3
rd
, 6
th
, bit)
G
2
= 711
Output Y
1
(k) (2
nd
, 5
th
, bit)
G
1
= 663
Output Y
0
(k) (1
rst
, 3
rd
, bit)
G
0
= 561
Output Y
0
(k) (2
nd
, 4
th
, bit)
G
1
= 753
Input X(k)
N bits + 8 x 0
X(k-1) X(k-2) X(k-3) X(k-4) X(k-5) X(k-6) X(k-7) X(k-8)
The convolutional codes have a simple hardware implementation, using shift
registers.
The convolutional coder of the UMTS is a finite-state (256 = 2
8
) machine which
processes bits in a serial manner. The generated code word at a given time is a
function of both the input and the state of the machine (XXXXXXXX with X=0 or
X=1). The initial value of the shift registers shall be "all 0" when starting to encode
the input bits.
Two or three sequences are obtained by applying the exclusive OR operator to
the source sequence and the source sequence delayed by a certain number of bit
periods. Let s look at how the output bits are calculated for the rate 1/2 coder:
Y
0
(k) = X(k) + X(k-2) + X(k-3) + X(k-4) + X(k-8)
Y
1
(k) = X(k) + X(k-1) + X(k-2) + X(k-3) + X(k-5) + X(k-7) + X(k-8)
and for the rate 1/3 coder:
Y
0
(k) = X(k-2) + X(k-3) + X(k-5) + X(k-6) + X(k-7) + X(k-8)
Y
1
(k) = X(k) + X(k-3) + X(k-4) + X(k-7) + X(k-8)
Y
2
(k) = X(k) + X(k-2) + X(k-5) + X(k-8)
8 tail bits are added at the end of the input data to end the channel coding process
in a predetermined state (8 x "0"). By noting r the coding rate, we get r*(N
input
+8)
output bits. The outputs of the 2 convolutions are multiplexed to get a serialized
encoded output (first bit Y
0
, second bit Y
1
, third bit Y
0
, ...).
The constraint length of the UMTS convolutional coder is 9.
The initial value of the shift registers shall be all 0 when starting to encode the
input bits.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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6-14 October, 2000
6-14 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Transport Block Processing (5/7)
Turbo Coding
T1
T2
u = [1 0 0 1 1]
x = [1 1 0 1 0]
u T1 T2 v x
1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 0
Interleaver
u = [1 0 1 0 1]
T T
T T
MUX
c = [1 1 0 1 0]
u' = [0 1 0 1 1]
a = [0 1 1 1 0]
y = [1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0 0]
y = [u
1
c
1
a
1
u
2
c
2
a
2
u
3
c
3
a
3
u
4
c
4
a
4
u
5
c
5
a
5
]
v
Turbo codes were introduced in 1993 by Berrou, Galvieux and Thitmajshima. They
have received a lot of attention lately because it has been demonstrated that they
closely approach the Shannon capacity limit. The coding structure is based on a
combination of two or more weak error control coders (usually convolutional
coders). The information bits are interleaved between two coders. The whole
process results in a code that has powerful error correction properties. Thus, turbo
codes will be used for services needing a very low BER.
Convolutional coders work in a feed-forward form, meaning that they can be
represented by something like (g
1
, g
2
)=(1+D
2
, 1+D+ D
2
). Turbo coders use the
convolutional codes in their recursive systematic form, meaning that the content of
some registers is fed back and modulo-2 added to the input bits. A turbo coder can
therefore be represented by something like (1, g
2
/g
1
) where the 1 corresponds to
the input bits that are used in the output and the polynomial division corresponds to
the transfer function of the 2 convolutional coders.
A different decoder has to be used for each coder because they have different input
sequences. Several decoders have been tested, but usually SOVA-like type
algorithms are used. The output of the first convolutional coder is decoded by the
first decoder, and the output is used as a priori information for the second decoding.
The output of the second decoder is fed to the first decoder and the whole decoding
process is repeated a fixed number of times.
On the figure above, we see a simple example of a Turbo coder. The left part
shows how a recursive systematic convolutional coder works. The feedback of bits
is a very important property of these coders. Then, the right part shows a simple
turbo coder constituted of two recursive convolutional coders and an internal
interleaver.
For the UMTS, the scheme of Turbo coder is a Parallel Concatenated Convolutional
Code (PCCC) with two 8-state (3 shift registers) constituent coders and one Turbo
code internal interleaver. The coding rate of the Turbo coder is 1/3.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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6-15 October, 2000
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Transport Block Processing (6/7)
Turbo Coding
For trellis
termination
xk
xk
z
k
Turbo code
internal i nterl eaver
x
k
z k
D
D D D
D D
Input
Out put I nput
Out put
x k
1st consti tuent encoder
2nd constituent encoder
The transfer function of the 8-state constituent code PCCC is: ,
where g
0
(D) = 1 + D
2
+ D
3
and g
1
(D) = 1 + D + D
3
.
The output of the Turbo coder is: x
1
, z
1
, z'
1
, x
2
, z
2
, z'
2
, , x
K
, z
K
, z'
K
, where x
1
, x
2
, ,
x
k
are the input bits of the Turbo coder (called systematic bits) and z
1
, z
2
, , z
K
and
z'
1
, z'
2
, , z'
K
are the bits output from first and second 8-state constituent coders
(called first and second parity bits).
The output bits of the internal interleaver (x
0
, x
1
,, x
k
) are the input bits of the
second 8-state constituent coder.
Thus, we see that the output of the last shift register is connected to the input of the
first one.
The initial value of the shift registers of the 8-state constituent coders shall be all 0
when starting to encode the input bits.
After all the information bits have been encoded, the bits remaining in the shift
registers are used to terminate the first constituent encoding (upper switch in lower
position) while the second constituent coder is disabled. The same thing is done
with the second coder while the first coder is disabled. Therefore, the transmitted
bits for trellis termination will be:
x
K+1
, z
K+1
, x
K+2
, z
K+2
, x
K+3
, z
K+3
, x'
K+1
, z'
K+1
, x'
K+2
, z'
K+2
, x'
K+3
, z'
K+3
.
Thus, there will be 3N
input
+ 12 output bits.
1
]
1

(D) g
(D) g
1, G(D)
1
0
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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TTI Processing (1/4)
Rate Matching (Uplink Example)
TrCH #1 640 bits TrCH #2 300 bits TrCH #3 1000 bits
Coded blocks
corresponding to 1 TTI
of 10 ms
Only one DPDCH
needed
A total number of
460 bits to repeat in one
TTI for normal mode
Depends of channel
coding and application
Transport channel
multiplexing
SF = 16 for DPDCH channel
bit rate of 240 kbps
Computation of the number of
bits to repeat in one radio
frame
Determination of the bits to
repeat on each TrCH
Addition of the repeated bits
on each TrCH
Combined bit rate = 194 kbps 1940 bits / frame
Rate matching is done to adapt the bit rate after transport channel multiplexing to
the capability of the underlying physical channel. The context is the following.
Every physical channel (except the primary CCPCH) offers the possibility to support
different bit rates by changing the spreading factor (SF). Normally, the SF should
be chosen to offer a bit rate on the physical channel that is at least equal to the
requirements of the transport channel, and to minimize interference. Thus, the
highest possible SF (lowest possible bit rate) that is just above the requirements of
the transport channel is chosen.
The rate matching algorithm is then used to compensate the difference between the
transport channel (s) and the physical channel by repeating bits in the radio frame.
Another possibility consists in choosing the SF that approximately meets the
requirements of the transport layer and then to adjust the level of redundancy to the
bit rate of the physical channel. This adjustment can be done be deleting a number
of redundancy bits (code puncturing). The bits to delete depend on the channel
coding structure and the application. For example, the systematic bits (excluding
the ones used for trellis termination) of turbo encoded transport channels cannot be
punctured. Therefore, a bit separation scheme is needed before the rate matching
algorithm, and bit collection has to be done after the algorithm to reassemble the
bits correctly.
Basically, the rate matching algorithms role is to calculate a parameter called N
ij
.
This parameter is calculated for every transport channel. It indicates the number of
bits to be repeated (if positive) or punctured (if negative) in each radio frame on
transport channel i with transport format combination j. N
ij
depends of a rate
matching attribute (sent by upper layers). Then, another algorithm has to decide
which bits will be repeated or punctured.
Rate matching is done differently in uplink and downlink. In downlink, it is done TTI
by TTI, while it is done frame by frame in uplink.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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.
TTI Processing (2/4)
Radio Frame Size Equalization (Uplink Only)
Coded block 106 bits
Channel
coding
TTI = 40 ms
F
i
= 4
Radio frame size
equalization: addition
of 2 bits
108 / 4 = 27 !
1
st
interleaving
1 0 0 1 0 1 . . . 0 1
1 0 0 1 0 1 . . . 0 1 0 0
Radio frame size equalization consists in padding the input bit sequence in order to
ensure that the output can be segmented in F
i
segments of same size (where F
i
is
the number of radio frames in one TTI, for transport channel i). That procedures is
only done in uplink because the length of the downlink rate matching output block is
always an integer multiple of F
i
.
This procedure simplifies the interleaving because the output will fit perfectly in the
interleaving matrix. It is only done when there is more than one radio frame per TTI
(i.e. F
i
>1 or TTI 10 ms).
Padding bits (0 or 1) will be transmitted but ignored by the receiving side.

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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TTI Processing (3/4)
Insertion of Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) Indication bits (DL Only)
Fixed positions for
Transport Channels
Flexible positions for
Transport Channels
Rate matching
0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
TrCH #1 TrCH #2
DTX
1
st
interleaving
A fixed number of bits is reserved for
each transport channel in the radio frame
Transport channel
multiplexing
0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0
Frame of
PhCH #1
Frame of
PhCH #2
Physical channel
segmentation
DTX bit are added at the end of the frame
before physical channel segmentation
CCTrCH
DTX
Discontinuous transmission (DTX) indication bits are only inserted in downlink. DTX
bits have nothing to do with voice activity as in GSM. These bits are used to fill up
the radio frame when perfectly done by the rate matching. DTX indication bits are
inserted to indicate when the transmission should be turned off, they are not
transmitted.
The insertion point of the DTX indication bits depends on whether fixed or flexible
positions are used for transport channels. That decision comes from the UTRAN.
When the fixed position scheme is used, a fixed number of bits i s reserved for each
transport channel in the radio frame. When that is the case, the insertion of DTX
indication bits takes place right after rate matching. Also, a fixed number of bits is
reserved for the insertion of the DTX bits, for each transport channel in the radio
frame. These bits are put at the end of one TTI. They can be placed in the TFCI
field when it is not used. In fact, fixed positions should be used for transport
channels when theres no TFCI (e.g. blind transport format detection).
In the case of flexible position for transport channels, the insertion is done after
transport channel multiplexing. The DTX indication bits are inserted at the end of
the radio frame. These bits will then be distributed over all slots after the 2
nd
interleaving.
It is important to note that the insertion of the DTX indication bits is not the same in
normal and compressed mode. For example, when compressed mode by
puncturing is used, additional puncturing is performed in the rate matching block.
The empty positions resulting from the additional puncturing are reserved to insert
p-bits in the first interleaving block. These bits will later be removed to create the
actual gap needed for inter-frequency measurements. Therefore, the DTX insertion
is limited to allow for later insertion of p-bits. Also, when compressed mode by SF
reduction is used, additional DTX shall be inserted if the transmission time reduction
method does not create a large enough gap.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
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6-19 October, 2000
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.
TTI Processing (4/4)
First Interleaving
TTI Number of columns CI Inter-column permutation patterns
10 ms 1 {0}
20 ms 2 {0,1}
40 ms 4 {0,2,1,3}
80 ms 8 {0,4,2,6,1,5,3,7}
108 Input bits coming from
radio frame size
equalization (UL) or rate
matching (DL). TTI = 40 ms
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 1 1 0
1 . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 . . . 1 0 1 1 1
27 x 4 matrix
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

1 1 1 0
1 . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1
Inter-column
permutation
27 bits 27 bits 27 bits 27 bits
First interleaving
output: 108 bits
Radio frame
segmentation
First interleaving consists of spreading the bits of all the radio frames
corresponding to one TTI in order to improve transmission quality. Indeed, if an
error occurs during transmission, the losses are spread over several radio frames
and the correction gives better results. Of course, it does not improve performances
when the TTI is 10 ms (i.e. only one radio frame per TTI). The higher the
number of radio frames per TTI, the better the transmission performance is.
The inter-frame interleaving is done only on bits corresponding to the same
transport channel.
The first step of inter-frame interleaving is to select the number of columns C in the
interleaving matrix from a predefined table (shown above). Then, the number of
rows R is obtained by a simple division (Number of input bits / C). The rectangular
matrix is then formed row by row. It is completely filled because of the rate
matching (downlink) or radio frame size equalization (uplink) stage. The interleaver
can then be seen as an R by C rectangular matrix, where R is the number of bits in
one radio frame and C is the the number of frames in one TTI. The fourth step is
the inter-column permutation that increases the average distance between
consecutive bits (only done for TTI = 40 and 80 ms). The final step consists of
reading out the bits column by column, starting by the bit in the first row of the first
column. When the TTI is 10 ms, the bits are simply written in one column and taken
out in the same order (not interleaved). The data is then separated into C segments
during the radio frame segmentation, to feed the physical channel with 10 ms
blocks of data.
In compressed mode by puncturing (only in downlink), p-bits are introduced in the
radio frames to be compressed. Additional puncturing has been done during the
rate matching stage to create room for these p-bits. These bits are inserted in the
radio frames during the first interleaving, in positions corresponding to the first bits
of the frames. The number of p-bits per column is higher layer dependant.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-20 October, 2000
6-20 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Radio Frame Processing (1/3)
Transport Channel Multiplexing
Pilot bits,
TPC (Transmit Power Control) bits
TFCI (Transport Format
Combination Indicator) bits
Phy CH3 (for control)
Coding
and
multiplexing
Demultiplexing
splitting
DCH1 DCH3 DCH2
Coded Composite
Transport Channel
(CCTrCH)
Phy CH1 Phy CH2
May be more or less
One radio frame
per TrCH every
10 ms
May be one or more (multicode
transmission for more than 1 Phy CH)
Transport channel multiplexing enables to carry different transport channels (with
the same QoS requirements) on the same physical channel. This stage is very
important because it enables not to have to allocate one physical channel per
transport channel.
Every 10 ms, one radio frame from each transport channel is delivered to the
transport channel multiplexing unit. If these transport channels follow a certain
number of rules, these radio frames are serially multiplexed into a Coded
Composite Transport Channel (CCTrCH). Basically, to be multiplexed on the
same CCTrCH, transport channels must:
be from/for the same user in case of dedicated channels,
belong to the same type of service,
roughly have the same transmission characteristics (same C/I requirements).
Here are different rules to apply for CCTrCH multiplexing:
On the downlink, several CCTrCHs (up to 8) can be used simultaneously for
one UE. The different CCTrCHs can have different C/I requirements, to provide
different QoS.
On the uplink, only one CCTrCH can be used (it can be CCTrCH of either
dedicated or control type.
Only transport channels with the same active set can be mapped on the same
CCTrCH.
Physical channels corresponding to the same CCTrCH have the same SF.
Different CCTrCHs cannot be mapped onto the same Physical channel.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-21 October, 2000
6-21 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Radio Frame Processing (2/3)
Multiplexing is not done for BCH, RACH and CPCH. There are only three
possible combinations:
One PCH and one or several FACHs on one secondary CCPCH (one
physical channel per CCTrCH)
Several DCH corresponding to one user on one DPCH (corresponding
to one or several DPCHs)
Several DSCH corresponding to one user on one PDSCH
(corresponding to one or several PDSCHs)
Example of a Transport Format Combination:
DCH1: Dynamic part: {20 bits, 20 bits}, Semi-static part: {10ms, Convolutional
coding only, static rate matching parameter = 2};
DCH2: Dynamic part: {320 bits, 1 280 bits}, Semi-static part: {10ms,
Convolutional coding only, static rate matching parameter = 3};
DCH3: Dynamic part: {320 bits, 320 bits}, Semi-static part: {40ms, Turbo
coding, static rate matching parameter = 2}.
Transport Format Combination (TFC): corresponds to the transport format of
each transport channel multiplexed on the same CCTrCH (Coded Composite
Transport Channel).
Transport Format Combination Set: set of TFC on a CCTrCH sent by the RRC.
The MAC sub-layer selects the appropriate transport format within an assigned
transport format set for each transport channel.
Transport format indicator (TFI): label for a specific transport format within a
transport format set. It is indicated by the MAC sub-layer.
Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI) bits: they are built from the TFIs
of all parallel transport channels multiplexed. They are used to indicate to the
receiving side the currently valid Transport Format Combination, and hence how to
decode, demultiplex and deliver the received data on the appropriate Transport
Channels. These bits are not always transmitted. There is one (or zero) TFCI field
per CCTrCH. When they are transmitted, they inform the receiver about the
transport format combination of the CCTrCH and the transport formats of each
transport channel is then known. When TFCI bits are not sent, blind transport
format detection has to be used.
The number of TFCI bits depends on the number of transport format combinations
to support. There are 0, 2, 4, 8 or16 TFCI bits (0 to 2
16
transport format
combinations). These bits are inserted during the physical sub-layer processing,
they are multiplexed with the transport sub-layer payload bits.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-22 October, 2000
6-22 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Radio Frame Processing (3/3)
Physical Channel Segmentation
CCTrCH 14400 bits
10 ms
Bit rate = 1200 kbps Result of 3 DCH
multiplexed, in uplink
Demultiplexing /
splitting
DPDCH #1 4800 bits DPDCH #2 4800 bits DPDCH #3 4800 bits
Channel bit rate =
480 kbps (SF=8)
Second
interleaving
Second
interleaving
Second
interleaving
Physical channel segmentation is used when more than one physical channel has to
carry the data of one CCTrCH. This operation is needed for high bit rate services,
when the capacity of a single physical channel is not enough to support the
CCTrCH.
After physical channel segmentation, all the physical channels have the same
spreading factor. Thus, segmentation divides the CCTrCH into N equal size
physical channels. It is important to note that the number N of physical channels is
already known because it has been calculated during the rate matching stage.
During that stage, the number of bits of each transport channel that was going to be
multiplexed on the same CCTrCH was established. So, when we arrive at the
physical channel segmentation stage, we are sure that the bit rate of the CCTrCH is
adjusted so that it perfectly fits on N physical channels (with same SF).
The maximum number of physical channels for one CCTrCH is given by the UE
capability class. But there is a maximum number of physical channel bits received
in one 10 ms frame for one UE. That number is 67,200. That number corresponds
to, for example, three 1920 kbps (SF=4) physical channels and one 960 kbps
(SF=8) physical channel (in downlink).
Physical channel segmentation is not used on BCH, PCH, RACH and FACH.
Physical channel segmentation is the stage where the p-bits inserted during 1
st
interleaving are removed to create the gap required for compressed mode by
puncturing.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-23 October, 2000
6-23 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Time Slot Processing
Second Interleaving
Physical channel 460 bits
1
1
1
1
]
1

0 0 ... u u
... ... ... ... ...
u u ... u u
u u ... u u
452 451
60 59 32 31
30 29 2 1
16 x 30 matrix
1
1
1
1
]
1

480 464 32 16
466 450 18 2
465 449 17 1
y y ... y y
... ... ... ... ...
y y ... y y
y y ... y y
Addition of filling
bits
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 . . . 0 1 0 1 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 . . . 0 1 1 1 1 1
480 bits
460 bits
Inter-column
permutations
The goal of the intra-frame interleaving is, as for the inter-frame interleaving, to
avoid block errors by shuffling bits before transmission. This interleaving distributes
the bits corresponding to one radio frame on the different time slots (15) of this
frame.
Each physical channel is interleaved separately.
The bits are put into a rectangular matrix as in the first interleaving, to the exception
that the number of columns of that matrix is fixed to 30. Then, the number of rows
corresponds to the minimum number enabling to write all the bits in the matrix. The
matrix is written row by row. Inter-column permutations are then performed.
Finally, bits are read out column by column. If the number of input bits cannot be
divided by 30 (i.e. if the matrix is not completely filled by the input bits), filling bits
are added. These bits are deleted when the bits are taken out of the matrix.
Here is the inter-column permutation pattern: {0, 20, 10, 5, 15, 25, 3, 13, 23, 8, 18,
28, 1, 11, 21, 6, 16, 26, 4, 14, 24, 19, 9, 29, 12, 2, 7, 22, 27, 17}.
The last step of transport layer processing is the mapping onto physical
channels. The output of the second interleaver represents the payload to be
transmitted on a physical channel. Control bits (like TFCI) will be added to that
payload before sending the data over the air interface.
The physical channel mapping is done on a time slot basis. The content of one time
slot comes from 2 consecutive columns of the interleaving matrix.
In compressed mode, no bits are mapped on certain slots of the physical channel.
The number of slots where no bits are mapped depends on the transmission gap
length (TGL).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-24 October, 2000
6-24 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Mapping Between Channels
Logical channels Transport channels Physical channels
BCCH BCH P-CCPCH
FACH S-CCPCH
PCCH PCH S-CCPCH
CCCH RACH PRACH
FACH S-CCPCH
CTCH FACH S-CCPCH
DCCH, DTCH DCH DPDCH
CPCH PCPCH
DSCH PDSCH
RACH, FACH PRACH, S-CCPCH
This page indicates how the mapping can be done between logical, transport and
physical channels. Not all physical channels are represented because not all
physical channels correspond to a transport channel.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-25 October, 2000
6-25 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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BCH Example
Transport block
CRC, and Tail
attachment
CRC
Convolutional
coding R=1/2
Physical channel
mapping
Radio frame
540
PCCPCH
246
Tail
2
nd
interleaving
16 8
246
Rate Matching
18
1
18 18
2
Slot
Radio frame
segmentation
270 270
15
18
1
18 18
2 15
Radio frame
540
270 270
540
1
st
interleaving
This slide shows the transport sub-layer processing done to the BCH. The number
of bits indicated is always the same.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-26 October, 2000
6-26 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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PCH and FACH Example
Transport block
CRC attachment
Tail bit attachment
Convolutional
coding R=1/2
Rate matching
TrBk
concatenation
TrCH multiplexing
Physical channel
mapping
Radio frame
SCCPCH
1 2 3 15
TFCI = 8 bits
Insertion of DTX
indication
2
nd
interleaving
PCH FACH#1 FACH#2
Code block
segmentation
#1 #5 #1 #3 #1 #3
#1 #10 #1 #15 #1 #15
200 200 70 70 70 70 12 12 8 8 8 8
2120 1170 1170
424 8 8 8 8 8 8 424 390 390 390 390
4320 2388 2388
4480 2500 2500
9480
9480
9480
632 632 632 632
One PCH and several FACHs can be mapped onto the same S-CCPCH. Here, the
number of bits can vary, it is just given as an example.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-27 October, 2000
6-27 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Example for 384 kbps Data (Downlink)
DTCH DCCH
Turbo code R=1/3
Radio frame FN=4N+1 Radio frame FN=4N+2 Radio frame FN=4N+3 Radio frame FN=4N
Information data
CRC detection
2nd interleaving
9120
9050 70 9050 70 9050 70 9050
9050 9050 #1 70 #2 70 #3 70 #4 70
9120 9120 9120
9050
11568
3856
CRC16
3840
3840
70
280
360
100
CRC12
Rate matching
1st interleaving
CRC detection
Information data
9050
9050 9050
280
100
Radio Frame
Segmentation
slot segmentation
480ksps DPCH
(including TFCI bits)
Rate matching
1st interleaving
0 1 14
608 608
0 1
608

14
0 1 14
608 608
0 1
608

14
0 1 14
608608
0 1
608

14
0 1 14
608 608
0 1
608

14
Termination 12
112
Tail8
Tail bit discard
Viterbi decoding R=1/3
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-28 October, 2000
6-28 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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AMR Example
One frame = 15 slots x 40 bits = 600 bits per frame
===> channel rate = 600/10 ms = 60 kbps = 30 ksps
SF = 128; 30 ksps x 128 = 3.84 Mcps
Information data
81 60 103
CRC +
tail bit attachment
89 103 60
Convolutional coding
R = 1/3
267 309 180
Rate matching
1st interleaving
688
344 344
344 76 344 76 344 76 344 76
Radio frame
segmentation
2nd interleaving
28 Slot segmentation
96
120
360
304
76 76 76 76 344 344
DCH A DCH B DCH C DCH (Control)
28 28 28 28 . 28 28 28 28 28 . 28 28 28 28 28 . 28 28 28 28 28 .
40 40 40 . 40 40 40 40 40 . 40 40 ..
Physical mapping
(including control bits)
This example deals with the transport of voice over the downlink path.
The support for the AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) speech codec is used as an example
for the possible use of several transport channels with different requirements.
The AMR codec delivers 3 classes of bits, containing a different number of bits
depending on the rate of the coder.
On the radio interface, one transport channel is established per class of bits i.e.
DCH A for class A, DCH B for class B and DCH C for class C. Each DCH has a
different transport format combination set which corresponds to the necessary
protection for the corresponding class of bits as well as the size of these class of
bits for the various AMR codec modes.
With this principle, the AMR codec mode which is used during a given TTI can be
deduced from the format of the transport channels DCH A, DCH B and DCH C for
that particular TTI.
Note that a similar principle can also be applied for other source codecs e.g. other
speech codecs or video codecs.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-29 October, 2000
6-29 Transport Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Example for 2048 kbps Data (Uplink)
D C C H D T C H
9 6 0k bp s D PD C H
( 6 c o d e mu l t i p l e x Tx .)
T u r b o C o d e
R= 1 / 3
I nf or mat i on
dat a
C R C
det ect i on

Ra t e
ma t c h i n g
2 n d
i n t e r l e a v i n g
5 7 5 1 6 8 4 5 7 5 1 6 8 4

5 7 5 16
# 1 5 7 5 1 6 # 2 5 7 5 1 6 # 8 5 7 51 6 # 1 8 4 # 2 8 4 # 4 8 4
4 9 4 7 3 0
4 94 7 0 3
1 64 4 8 0
T e r mi n a t i o n 3 3 x 1 2
C R C 1 6 x 4 0
8 4

3 6 0
3 6 0
1 1 2
T a i l 8
9 6
H e a d e r 1 6
C R C 1 6
p a d d i n g
Ma x . 8 0
1st
i n t e r l e a v i n g
At t a c h e mp t y Ra d i o Fr a me
s e g me n t a t i o n
s l o t s e g me n t a t i o n
( I nt o 6 s e g me n t s )
CRC d e t e c t i on
L a y e r 3
L AC h e a d e r , p a d d i n g
di s c ar d
Tai l bi t di scar d
Vi t e r b i d e c o d i n g
R= 1 / 3
1st
i n t e r l e a v i n g
1 2 1 5 1 2 1 5 1 2 1 5 1 2 1 5
R a d i o f r a me F N = 8 N + 1 R a d i o f r a me F N = 8 N + 3 R a d i o f r a me F N =8 N
6 4 0 6 4 0
1 2 1 5

1 2 1 5

1 2 1 5

1 2
6 40
1 5

#5 8 4 #6 8 4 # 8 8 4 #7 8 4
9 6 00
9 6 0 0
9 6 00
9 6 0 0
96 0 0
9 60 0
9 6 0 0 96 0 0 9 6 0 0
9 6 0 0 96 0 0 9 6 0 0
9 60 0 9 6 00 96 0 0
9 6 0 0 96 0 0 9 6 0 0
9 6 0 0 9 6 0 0 9 6 0 0
9 6 00 9 6 00 96 0 0
# 1 6 1 8 3 8 # 2 6 1 8 3 8 # 8 6 1 8 3 8 # 1 9 0 # 2 9 0 # 4 9 0 # 5 9 0 # 6 9 0 # 8 9 0 #7 9 0 # 3 9 0
# 3 8 4
1
9 6 0 0
9 6 0 0
9 6 0 0
9 6 0 0
9 60 0
9 60 0
0
9 6 00
9 6 0 0
9 6 00
9 6 0 0
96 0 0
9 60 0
0
4 0 9 6
4 0 9 6
4 0 9 6
4 0 9 6
4 0 9 6
4 0 9 6
4 0 9 6
x 4 0
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Transport Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-30 October, 2000
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Questions
1) Name the shared channels.
2) Which transport channel(s) can carry dedicated traffic and signaling?
3) Whats the name of the basic unit exchanged between L1 and MAC?
4) Which transport channel(s) has a fix transport format?
5) What are the different kinds of channel coding used in UMTS?
6) Whats a CCTrCH?
7) Whats the goal of interleaving?
8) Other than dedicated or shared channels, which channels can be multiplexed
on the same CCTrCH?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-1 October, 2000
7-1 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Section 7
Physical Channels
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
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7-2 October, 2000
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Physical channels
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Briefly explain all the processing done by the physical sub-
layer
- Describe the basic frame structure of the radio interface
- Understand the relation between the multiplexing structure
and the available capacity
- Briefly describe each physical channel in terms of the
information conveyed and its main characteristics
Objectives
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-3 October, 2000
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MAC (Medium Access Control)
Channel Protocol Layers
RLC (Radio Link Control)
Logical Channels
Transport Channels
Transport sublayer
Physical Channels
Physical sublayer
PHY
(PHYsical Layer)
After transport channels have been multiplexed and mapped onto physical
channels, the physical sub-layer has to process the data in order to transmit it over
the radio interface. That function is called modulation. It is the main function of the
physical sub-layer. It consists of associating electric signals (symbols) to the binary
information.
But that is not the only processing done by the physical sub-layer. The spreading
operation, which is specific to CDMA systems, is capital because it allows different
users to use the same frequency and time slot.
Basically, the transport sub-layer bits are first multiplexed with the physical sub-layer
control bits. Then, a baseband physical signal is associated to each bit through
NRZ coding. Spreading is applied after this step to allow for multiple access.
Finally, the signal is shifted in frequency and sent over the air interface.
The basic physical resource, the physical channel, is characterized by a specific
carrier frequency, code, and a relative phase (0 or /2) on the uplink because
different information streams can be transmitted on the I and Q branch.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-4 October, 2000
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Mapping Between Channels
Transport Channels
DCH
RACH
CPCH
BCH
FACH
PCH
DSCH
Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)
Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)
CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH)
Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH)
Collision Detection / Channel Assignment Indicator Channel
(CD / CA - ICH)
The different physical channels are:
Synchronization CHannel (SCH): used for cell search procedure. There is the
primary and the secondary SCHs. Downlink.
Common Control Physical CHannel (CCPCH): used to carry common control
information such as the scrambling code used in DL (there is a primary CCPCH
and additional secondary CCPCH). Downlink.
Common Pilot CHannels (P-CPICH and S-CPICH): used for coherent
detection of common channels. They indicate the phase reference. Downlink.
Dedicated Physical Data CHannel (DPDCH): used to carry dedicated data
coming from layer 2 and above (coming from DCH). Uplink and Downlink.
Dedicated Physical Control CHannel (DPCCH): used to carry dedicated
control information generated in layer 1 (such as pilot, TPC and TFCI bits).
Uplink and Downlink.
Physical Downlink Shared CHannel (PDSCH): used to carry data information
coming from several users. Downlink.
Page Indicator CHannel (PICH): carries indication to inform the UE that paging
information is available on the S-CCPCH. Downlink.
Physical Random Access CHannel (PRACH): used to carry random access
information when a UE wants to access the network. Uplink.
Physical Common Packet CHannel (PCPCH): used to carry data information
coming from several users. Uplink.
Acquisition Indicator CHannel (AICH): it is used to inform a UE that the
network has received its access request. Downlink. Three other indication
channels exist (AP-AICH, CD/CA-AICH and CSICH), they are also described in
this chapter.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-5 October, 2000
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Physical Channel Processing
Transport sub-
layer bits
Physical sub-layer
control bits
Transport sub-
layer bits
Physical sub-layer
control bits
Scrambling
(I) (Q)
I+jQ
Modulation Modulation
Bit multiplexing
Baseband
modulation
Code division
Physical channel
multiplexing
Analog Modulation
PhyCH #1
Time Multiplexing
NRZ modulation
Channelization
S/P
Channelization
Scrambling
I+jQ
Air
interface
UPLINK DOWNLINK
Serial -to-parallel
conversion
Multiple access
and multipath
treatment
Multiple access
and multipath
treatment
PhyCH #N
NRZ modulation
Channelization
PhyCH #1
PhyCH #N
NRZ modulation
Channelization
PhyCH #1
PhyCH #N
According to the requirements of upper layers and of the physical channel, the
processing done to each physical channel is different. This processing is done in
several steps, on a time slot basis. Each step may or may not be implemented for
each physical channel. Here are the different stages:
Time multiplexing of data and control bits is only done on the downlink
because data and control bits are sent in parallel on the uplink. The data part
comes from the transport sub-layer processing and the control part consists of
forward and feedback control bits. The data and control bits are time
multiplexed on one time slot.
NRZ modulation is used to associate a baseband signal to each bit. The
output is a real-valued sequence where symbol +1 corresponds to the binary
value 0, -1 to binary value 1 and 0 for DTX bits (downlink only)
Serial-to-parallel conversion is used in downlink to map each pair of
consecutive symbols on an I and Q branch. It is done to each downlink channel
except the SCH.
Channelization is the code division stage that enables to use the same
frequency and time slot for different physical channels. It consists of applying a
specific code to each symbol to spread the information bandwidth.
Physical channel multiplexing is a simple signal addition of the contribution of
each channel (in uplink, it is only used for DPDCHs and DPCCH).
Scrambling consists in transforming the original chip sequence in a new
scrambled sequence that has the same rate. It is used to differentiate emitters
and to resolve multipaths.
Analog modulation basically consists in shifting the signal in frequency at
around 2 GHz and to transmit it over the air interface.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-6 October, 2000
7-6 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Control Bits
Control bits added by the physical sub-layer:
TFCI (transport format combination indicator): to inform the receiver of the
TFC used
Pilot: known sequence used for coherent detection
TPC (transmit power control): used on dedicated channels only to control the
transmission power
FBI (feedback information): used in uplink (on dedicated channels only) when
the transmission technique used by the node B (either closed loop mode
transmit diversity or site selection diversity transmission SSDT) requires
feedback from the UE
During the physical sub-layer processing, control bits are added to the data bits
coming from the transport sub-layer. These control bits are time multiplexed with
the data bits on the downlink. On the uplink, the data and control bits are treated in
parallel.
There are 2 sorts of physical control bits: forward control and feedback control bits.
Forward control bits are added to the payload by the transmitting side to help the
demodulation at the receiving side. Thus, two kinds of forward control bits are sent:
pilot bits and TFCI bits. Pilot bits are a known sequence sent for channel
estimation (coherent detection). There is a predefined sequence for each time slot
of the frame. Pilot bits are also used to confirm frame synchronization. Transport
Format Combination Indication bits (TFCI) are used to inform the receiver of the
TFC used. They are used when the TFC changes (to increase/decrease the data
rate for example). They are not used for fixed rate services.
Feedback bits are added by the layer 1 management unit in order to inform the
transmitting side of the quality at the receiver. They are only used on dedicated
channels. Transmit Power Control bits (TPC) are sent by the emitter for the power
control algorithm and feedback information bits (FBI) are sent in uplink when the
transmission technique used by the node B (either closed loop mode transmit
diversity or Site Selection Diversity Transmission SSDT) requires feedback from the
UE. There is 1 or 2 TPC bits in uplink which correspond to an i ncrease or decrease
of power transmission. In downlink, there can be up to 16 TPC bits. There can be
up to 2 FBI bits.
SSDT is an optional macro diversity method used to reduce interference in a soft
handover mode by permitting only one cell in the active set to transmit.
The number of bits of each kind can vary and is determined by upper layers.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-7 October, 2000
7-7 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Spreading and Modulation in Downlink
I
S

P
C
ch,SF,m
S
dl,n
Q
I+jQ
S Any physical
channel except
SCH
j

G
1
G
2
G
P
G
S
S-SCH
P-SCH

Different downlink
physical channels
(point S on the figure
above)
To analog
modulation
Spreading for all downlink physical channels except SCH
This slide shows how the downlink physical channels are spread.
In downlink, the data coming from the transport sub-layer is time multiplexed with
the control bits added by the physical sub-layer. Of course, only the physical
channels on which transport channels are mapped will use that time multiplexing.
For example, no transport channel is mapped onto the PICH, so this channel only
consists of control bits.
After time multiplexing, the bits are NRZ coded. The 0 is mapped to +1, the 1 is
mapped to -1 and DTX bits are mapped to 0. Each pair of consecutive symbols is
first serial-to-parallel converted so that even and odd numbered symbols are
mapped to the I and Q branch respectively. The I and Q branches are then spread
to 3.84 Mcps by the same channelization code. The bits on each branch are
summed up to form a complex-valued sequence of chips. This sequence is
scrambled by a complex scrambling code. For all channels, the scrambling code is
applied aligned with the scrambling code applied to the P-CCPCH, for
synchronization. The P-CCPCH and the P-CPICH are always scrambled with the
cells primary scrambling while the other channels use either the primary or a
secondary scrambling code.
Then, each complex spread sequence corresponding to one physical channel is
weighted by a gain factor. Finally, all downlink physical channels are combined
using complex addition. All these channels can be added together because of the
synchronized spreading with different orthogonal codes (exception: SCH and
P-CCPCH which are time multiplexed).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-8 October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
SCH
Primary
SCH
Secondary
SCH
256 chips
2560 chips
One 10 ms SCH radio frame
acs
i,0
acp
acs
i,1
acp
acs
i,14
acp
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #14
Primary Synchronization Code (PSC)
256 chip long complex sequence
same PSC used by all cell
enables the mobile to detect the cell
and to synchronize itself to the time
slot boundaries
Secondary Synchronization Code (SSC)
256 chip long complex sequence
16 different SSCs, one per time slot
64 different sequences of 16 SSCs
When a UE is turned on, the first thing it does is to scan the UMTS spectrum to find
a UMTS cell. After that, it has to find the primary scrambling code used by that cell
in order to be able to decode the BCCH (for system information). This is done with
the help of the Synchronization Channel.
The SCH is a pure downlink physical channel broadcasted over the entire cell. It is
transmitted unscrambled during the first 256 chips of each time slot, in time
multiplex with the P-CCPCH. It is the only channel that is not spread over the entire
radio frame. The SCH provides the primary scrambling code group (one out of 64
groups), as well as the radio frame and time slot synchronization.
The SCH consists of two sub-channels, the primary and secondary SCH. These
sub-channels are sent in parallel using code division during the first 256 chips of
each time slot.
The P-SCH consists of a code, the Primary Synchronization Code (PSC) which is
formed as follows: c
p
= (1+j) x <a,a,a,-a,-a,a,-a,-a,a,a,a,-a,a,-a,a,a>, where
a=<1,1,1,1,1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,-1,1>. Thus, it is a 256 chip long complex-valued
sequence with identical real and imaginary components, which is repeated at the
beginning of each time slot. This code was chosen for its good aperiodic and
autocorrelation properties. The same code is used by all the cells and enables the
mobiles to detect the existence of the UMTS cell and to synchronize itself on the
time slot boundaries. This is normally done with a single matched filter or any
similar device. The slot timing of the cell is obtained by detecting peaks in the
matched filter output.
This is the first step of the cell search procedure. The second step is done using
the secondary synchronization code.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
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7-9 October, 2000
7-9 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
SCH
Antenna 1
Antenna 2
ac
s
i,0
ac
p
Slot #0 Slot #1
Slot #14
Slot #2
sl ot number Scr ambl i ng
Code Gr oup
# 0 # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 # 5 # 6 # 7 # 8 # 9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14
Gr oup 0 1 1 2 8 9 1 0 1 5 8 1 0 1 6 2 7 1 5 7 1 6
Gr oup 1 1 1 5 1 6 7 3 1 4 1 6 3 1 0 5 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 0
Gr oup 2 1 2 1 1 5 5 5 1 2 1 6 6 1 1 2 1 6 1 1 1 5 1 2
Gr oup 3 1 2 3 1 8 6 5 2 5 8 4 4 6 3 7
Gr oup 4 1 2 1 6 6 6 1 1 1 5 5 1 2 1 1 5 1 2 1 6 1 1 2

Gr oup 61 9 1 0 1 3 1 0 1 1 1 5 1 5 9 1 6 1 2 1 4 1 3 1 6 1 4 1 1
Gr oup 62 9 1 1 1 2 1 5 1 2 9 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 4 1 0 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 6
Gr oup 63 9 1 2 1 0 1 5 1 3 1 4 9 1 4 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 6 1 0
ac
p
ac
p
ac
s
i,2
ac
s
i,14
ac
p
ac
s
i,1
Structure of SCH transmitted by TSTD scheme
The S-SCH also consists of a code, the Secondary Synchronization Code (SSC) that
indicates which of the 64 scrambling code groups the cells downlink scrambling code
belongs to. 16 different SSCs are defined. Each SSC is a 256 chip long complex-valued
sequence with identical real and imaginary components. They are constructed from
position wise multiplication of an Hadamard sequence (from an order 8 Hadamard matrix)
and a sequence z defined as:
z=<b,b,b,-b,b,b,-b,-b,b,-b,b,-b,-b,-b,-b,-b>, where b=<1,1,1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1>
corresponds to the first 8 chips of a (defined for PSC) and the opposite of its last 8 chips.
This is why the primary and secondary synchronization codes are orthogonal and can thus
be sent in parallel.
There is one specific SSC transmitted in each time slot, giving us a sequence of 15 SSCs.
There is a total of 64 different sequences of 15 SSCs, corresponding to the 64 scrambling
code groups. These 64 sequences are constructed so that one sequence is different from
any other one, and different from any rotated version of any sequence. The UE correlates
the received signal with the 16 SSCs and identifies the maximum correlation value.
The S-SCH provides the information required to find the frame boundaries and the downlink
scrambling code group (one out of 64 groups). The scrambling code (one out of 8) can be
determined afterwards by decoding the P-CPICH. The mobile will then be able to decode
the BCH.
Attribution of secondary synchronization codes needs to be planned, because only 64
SSCs exist.
The primary and secondary synchronization codes are modulated by the symbol a, which
is worth +1 when STTD is used, and -1 when its not.
Time Switched Transmit Diversity (TSTD) can be applied to the SCH. It is an optional
technique used in UTRAN. A figure above illustrates the structure of the SCH transmitted
by the TSTD scheme.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-10 October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
CPICH
Pre-defined symbol sequence
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot # i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips , 20 bits = 10 symbols
1 radio frame: T
r
= 10 ms
P-CPICH
gives the primary scrambling code
phase reference for SCH, P-CCPCH,
AICH and PICH
always broadcasted over the entire cell
spread with C
ch,256,0
and scrambled with
primary scrambling code
S-CPICH
phase reference for S-CCPCH and
DPCH
not always broadcasted over the
entire cell
optional
SF = 256
The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is a pure physical control channel
broadcasted over the entire cell. It is not linked to any transport channel. It consists
of a sequence of known bits that are transmitted in parallel with the primary and
secondary CCPCH.
The CPICH is used by the mobile to determine which of the 8 possible primary
scrambling codes is used by the cell, and to provide the phase reference for
common channels.
Finding the primary scrambling code is done during the cell search procedure
through a symbol-by-symbol correlation with all the codes within the code group.
After the primary scrambling code has been identified, the UE can decode system
information on the P-CCPCH.
There are two types of common pilot channels, the primary and secondary CPICH.
The use of the S-CPICH is optional.
The P-CPICH is the phase reference for the SCH, P-CCPCH, AICH and PICH. It is
broadcasted over the entire cell. The channelization code used to spread the
P-CPICH is always C
ch,256,0
(all ones). Thus, the P-CPICH is a fixed rate channel.
Also, it is always scrambled with the primary scrambling code of the cell.
If it is used, the S-CPICH provides the phase reference for the secondary CCPCH
and the downlink DPCH. It is transmitted over the entire cell or only over a part of
the cell. It is spread by an arbitrary channelization code of SF=256, and scrambled
with the primary or with a secondary scrambling code. By default, it uses the same
scrambling code as P-CPICH. There can be zero, one or several S-CPICHs.
In case of SSTD, the pre-defined symbol sequence of the CPICH is different for the
two antennas.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-11 October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
P-CCPCH
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot # i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips , 20 bits
(Tx OFF)
256 chips
Data 18 bits
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
P-CCPCH bits
SCH bits
The Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) is a fixed rate
(SF=256) downlink physical channel used to carry the BCH transport channel. It is
broadcasted continuously over the entire cell like the P-CPICH.
The figure above shows the frame structure of the P-CCPCH. The frame structure
is special because it does not contain any layer 1 control bits. The only bits
transmitted during a P-CCPCH slot are data bits from the BCH transport channel. It
is important to note that the P-CCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of
the slot. In fact, another physical channel (SCH) is transmitted during that period of
time. Thus, the SCH and the P-CCPCH are time multiplexed on every time slot.
Channelization code C
ch,256,1
(128 +1 followed by 128 -1) is always used to spread
the P-CCPCH. Also, it is always scrambled by the primary scrambling code of the
cell.
The P-CCPCH can only have one fix predefined transport format combination.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
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Uplink Physical Channel Description
PRACH
#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14
5120 chips
radio frame: 10 ms radio frame: 10 ms
Access slot
One access slot
p-a

p-m

p-p
Pre-
amble
Pre-
amble Message part
Acq.
Ind.
AICH access
slots RX at UE
PRACH access
slots TX at UE
The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is used by the UE to access the
network and to carry small data packets. It carries the RACH transport channel.
The PRACH is an open loop power control channel, with contention resolution
mechanisms (ALOHA approach) to enable a random access from several users.
The PRACH is composed of two different parts: the preamble part and the message
part that carries the RACH message. The preamble is an identifi er which consists
of 256 repetitions of a 16 chip long signature (total of 4096 chips). Basically, the UE
is assigned one of the 16 possible preambles and transmits it at increasing power
(starting at the lowest transmission level) until it gets a response from the network
(on the AICH). That is a sign that the power level is high enough and that the UE is
authorized to transmit, which it will do after acknowledgment from the network. If
the UE doesnt get a response from the network, it has to select a new signature to
transmit. The message part is 10 or 20 ms long (split into 15 or 30 time slots) and is
composed of the RACH data and the layer 1 control information.
The PRACH transmission is based on two structures, an access frame and a radio
frame structure. The access frame is composed of 15 access slots and lasts 20 ms.
Thus, there are 15 access slots per 2 radio frames. Each access slot lasts 5120
chips. One radio access transmission consists of one or several preambles and a
10 or 20 ms message. The radio frame of 10 ms is used to define the multiplexing
structure of the message part that lasts 10 or 20 ms.
To avoid too many collisions and to limit interference, a UE must wait at least 3 or 4
access slots between two consecutive preambles.
The data and control bits of the message part are processed in parallel. The SF of
the data part can be 32, 64, 128 or 256 while the SF of the control part is always
256. The control part consists of 8 pilot bits for channel estimation and 2 TFCI bits
to indicate the transport format of the RACH (transport channel), for a total of 10 bits
per slot.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-13 October, 2000
7-13 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Uplink Physical Channel Description
PRACH Concept of Access Service Class
SFN
Modulo-8 of
P-CCPCP
frame
Sub-channel number
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 12 13 14 8 9 10 11
2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 9 10 11 12 13 14 8
4 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5
5 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
6 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
14 15
14 15
Double frame = 15 access slots
Sub-channel 1
Sub-channel 2
In order to provide different priorities on the random access procedures, the RACH
resources (access slots and signatures) can be divided between different Access
Service Classes (ASC). ASCs are numbered from 0 to 7, from highest priority to
lowest. ASC 0 may only be used in case an emergency call or an equivalent priority
motive.
RACH sub-channels corresponding to access slots and RACH signatures are
associated to the different ASCs. There is a total of 12 sub-channels. RACH sub-
channel i corresponds to the following access slots:
access slot i for which SFN mod 8 = 0 or SFN mod 7 = 1,
every 12
th
access slot relative to this access slot (look at the slide to
understand).
There is a total of 16 RACH signatures.
Before doing a random access, a UE has to randomly select the RACH sub-channel
group from the available ones for a ASC. That group could be sub-channels 0 and
1 for example. Then, the UE derives the available access slots in the next two
frames (SFN and SFN+1) from the table above. After that, it randomly selects one
uplink access slot in the next frame, if there is one available. If not, it will select one
in the next frame. Now, the UE knows in which access slot it will transmit its
random access preamble. But before transmitting, it needs to know which signature
it will use. So the UE randomly selects a signature from the available signatures
for its ASC.
If the UE doesnt get an answer from the network, it has to reselect an access slot
and a signature using the same procedure before transmitting a new preamble.
It is possible that more than one ASC is assigned to the same access slot and/or
signature.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-14 October, 2000
7-14 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Uplink Physical Channel Description
PRACH
j
c
c
c
c
d

d
S
r-msg,n
I+jQ
PRACH message
control part
PRACH message
data part
Q
I
Slot Format
#i
Channel Bit
Rate (kbps)
Channel
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
SF Bits/
Frame
Bits/
Slot
Ndata
0 15 15 256 150 10 10
1 30 30 128 300 20 20
2 60 60 64 600 40 40
3 120 120 32 1200 80 80
Random access message data part
To analog
modulation
As mentioned before, the first thing a mobile does when it wants to access the
network is to send a preamble message at increasing power. That preamble
message is built from a preamble scrambling code and a preamble signature as
follows. The mobile has to select a 16 bit long signature from a set of 16 preamble
signatures. This choice is made randomly from the available signatures for a given
Access Service Class (ASC), which are given by the RRC. That signature is
repeated 256 times to get 4096 real valued chips. Then, these chips are scrambled
by a real 4096 chip long preamble scrambling code C
long,1,n
. There are 8192 PRACH
scrambling codes in total, which are divided into 512 groups of 16 codes (16 per
cell). There is a one to one correspondence between the group of the preamble
scrambling codes in a cell and the downlink primary scrambling code of the cell.
So, the PRACH preamble code is constructed as follows:
The PRACH message consists of a data part coming from the RACH, and a control
part added by the physical sub-layer. They are processed in parallel on I and Q
branches like it is illustrated on the figure above. After the NRZ coding (0=+1 , 1=-
1), the real-valued signals are spread using a different OVSF code for the control
and data. The OVSF codes depend on the signature s (from 0 to 15) that was used
for the PRACH preamble, as follows: c
c
= C
ch,256,m
, where m = 16s + 15; c
d
=
C
ch,SF,m
, where m = SF*s/16. After channelization, the real-valued chips are
weighted by a gain factor and summed up to create a complex sequence. Then,
this sequence is scrambled by a 4096 chip shifted version of a long complex
scrambling code C
long,n
, where n is the same as the n used for the preamble
scrambling code (for 1 PRACH).
The PRACH resources (access slots and preamble signatures) are divided between
different Access Service Classes (ASC) in order to provide different priorities of
RACH usage. The ASC number ranges from 0 (highest priority) to 7 (lowest
priority).
4096 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 k , e ) k ( C ) k ( S ) k ( C
) k
2
( j
sig acc acc

+
4

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-15 October, 2000
7-15 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
AICH
1024 chi ps
Tr ansmi ssi on Of f
AS # 1 4 AS #0 AS #1 AS # i AS # 1 4 AS #0
AI par t ( 4096 chi ps)
Ac c e s s Sl ot f r a me 2 0 ms
a0 a 1 a 2 a 3 0 a 3 1
j , s
15
0 s
s j
b AI a

Where AI
s
{-1, 0, +1} and b
s
corresponds to one uplink
signature
The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is a common downlink channel used to
control the uplink random accesses. It carries the Acquisition Indicators (AI), each
corresponding to a signature on the PRACH (uplink). When the node B receives
the random access from a mobile, it sends back the signature of the mobile to grant
its access.
The AICH consists of a burst of data transmitted regularly every access slot frame.
One access slot frame is formed of 15 access slots, and lasts 2 radio frames (20
ms). Each access slot consists of two parts, an acquisition indicator part of 32 real-
valued symbols and a 1024 chip long part during which nothing is transmitted to
avoid overlapping due to propagation delays. That structure is illustrated above.
The 32 real-valued symbols are given by:
, where AI
s
is the acquisition indicator corresponding to the signature
s (with values 0, +1 and -1, corresponding to the answer from the network to a
specific user) and the 32 chip long sequence <b
s,j
> is given by a predefined table.
There are 16 sequences <b
s,j
>, each corresponding to one PRACH signatures. A
maximum of 16 AIs can be sent in each access slot. The user can multiply the
received multi-level signal by the signature it used to know if its access was granted.
If STTD is used, basic STTD coding is applied to each sequence <b
s,j
> before the
sequences are combined into AICH symbols <a
j
>.
The SF used is always 256.
j , s
15
0 s
s j
b AI a

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-16 October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
S-CCPCH
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
Data N
data
bits N
TFCI
bits N
pilot
bits
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 20*2
k
bits (k=06)
SF = 256/2
k
FACH + PCH on one S-CCPCH
=> TFCI bits needed and S-CCPCH broadcasted over the entire cell
PCH on one S-CCPCH and FACH on another
=> first S-CCPCH broadcasted over the entire cell and the second can be transmitted
only in a narrow lobe
The Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) is used to carry
the FACH and PCH transport channels. Unlike the P-CCPCH, it is not broadcasted
continuously. It is only transmitted when there is a PCH or FACH information to
transmit. At the mobile side, the mobile only decodes the S-CCPCH when it
expects a useful message on the PCH or FACH.
A UE will expect a message on the PCH after indication from the PICH (page
indicator channel), and it will expect a message on the FACH after it has transmitted
something on the RACH.
The FACH and the PCH can be mapped on the same or on separate S-CCPCHs. If
they are mapped on the same S-CCPCH, TFCI bits have to be sent to support
multiple transport formats. In that case, the S-CCPCH is transmitted over the entire
cell. If they are not mapped onto the same S-CCPCH, the one carrying the PCH is
transmitted over the entire cell, while the one carrying the FACH may be transmitted
in a narrow lobe (beamforming) in the same way as a dedicated channel. This is
done with the help of smart antennas.
The figure above shows the frame structure of the S-CCPCH. There are 18
different slot formats determining the exact number of data, pilot and TFCI bits. The
data bits correspond to the PCH and/or FACH bits coming from the transport sub-
layer. If the FACH and the PCH are multiplexed over the same S-CCPCH, TFCI
bits will be used but pilot bits might not be used if there is a S-CPICH.
The SF ranges from 4 to 256. The channelization code is assigned by the RRC
layer as is the scrambling code. They are sent on the BCCH so that the UE can
decode the channel.
For certain slot formats, DTX bits are put in the TFCI field when TFCI bits are not
needed.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-17 October, 2000
7-17 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Uplink Physical Channel Description
DPDCH and DPCCH
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Data
N
data
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10 bits
1 radio Frame: T
f
= 10 ms
DPDCH
DPCCH
FBI
N
FBI
bits
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
T
slot
= 2560 chips, N
data
= 10*2
k
bits (k=0..6)
Data and control bits are processed in
parallel (code multiplexed)
Dedicated channels are established between one UE and the network to carry user
dedicated data and control.
There are two kinds of uplink dedicated physical channels, the Dedicated Physical
Data Channel (DPDCH) and the Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH).
The DPDCH is used to carry the DCH transport channel. The DPCCH is used to
carry the physical sub-layer control bits.
One the figure above, we can see the DPDCH and DPCCH time slot constitution.
The parameter k determines the number of bits per slot. It is related to the
spreading factor (SF) of the DPDCH by this simple equation: SF=256/2
k
. The
DPDCH SF ranges from 4 to 256 (low SFs are reserved for high bit rates). The SF
for the uplink DPCCH is always 256, which gives us 10 bits per slot. The exact
number of pilot, TFCI, TPC and FBI bits is configured by higher layers. This
configuration is chosen from 12 possible slot formats. It is important to note that
bits are transmitted during all slots for the DPDCH, when a certain number of slots
(between 0 and 7) are reserved for compressed mode on the DPCCH.
The different slot formats of the DPDCH and the DPCCH are given in TS 25.211.
The SF of the DPDCH is determined by higher layers.
There can be up to 6 uplink DPDCHs, but only one DPCCH is associated to these
DPDCHs on each radio link. More than one DPDCH is used for data rates above
960 kbps (maximum capacity of one DPDCH). Thus, the maximum channel bit rate
for one UE is 960 * 6 = 5.76 Mbps in uplink, corresponding to a user bit rate of
2048 Mbps.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-18 October, 2000
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Uplink Physical Channel Description
DPDCH and DPCCH
I

Q
S
dpch,n
I+jQ
c
d,1

d
DPDCH
1
c
d,3

d
DPDCH
3
c
d,5

d
DPDCH
5
c
d,2

d
DPDCH
2
c
d,4

d
DPDCH
4
c
d,6

d
DPDCH
6
c
c

c
DPCCH

Short or long
scrambling code
Up to 6 DPDCH
for one user
The figure above illustrates the principle of the uplink spreading of DPDCH and
DPCCH. The first step, the NRZ modulation, consists in associating a real signal to
each bit of these channels. The binary value 0 is mapped to the real value +1 and
the binary value 1 is mapped to the real value -1. Then, each channel is spread
by an OVSF code. As it was mentioned before, channelization codes are only used
to spread the information in uplink (not for channel multiplexing) because
synchronization between UEs is too complex to achieve.
The channelization code used for DPCCH is always C
ch,256,0
(all ones). If only one
DPDCH is used, it is spread by code C
ch,SF,k
, where k is linked to SF by k=SF/4.
When more than one DPDCH is used, they will all have a SF equal to 4. DPDCH
n
is spread by code c
d,n
= C
ch,4,k
, where k=1 for n {1,2} , k=3 for n {3,4} , and k=2
for n {5,6}. Thus, the same channelization code can be used by two different
DPDCHs in uplink. After channelization, the chip rate is equal to 3.84 Mcps.
After channelization, the spread signals are weighted by a gain factor (
c
for
DPCCH and
d
for all DPDCHs). These gain factors are quantized into 4 bits, giving
values between 0 and 1. There is at least one of the values
c
and
d
that is equal
to 1. These gain factors may vary for each TFC, and are either signaled or
computed.
Then, the streams of chips are summed up giving a multilevel signal. After this
addition, the real-valued chips on the I and Q branches are summed up and treated
like a complex-valued stream of chips. This stream is scrambled by a complex-
valued scrambling code. For DPDCH and DPCCH, a unique scrambling code of
38,400 chips (corresponding to one radio frame) is used. That code can be either of
long or short type.
Finally, the complex chips are I and Q multiplexed and sent over the air interface.
The result of all this is a BPSK modulation, which gives us 1 bit per symbol. We will
study that part in the next section.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-19 October, 2000
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Dedicated Downlink Physical Channels
DPCH (DPCCH + DPDCH)
One radio frame, T
f
= 10 ms
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10*2
k
bits (k=0..7)
Data2
N
data2
bits
DPDCH
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
Data1
N
data1
bits
DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH
Data and control bits are time multiplexed on
the same DPCH
Downlink physical channels are used to carry user specific information like speech,
data or signaling, as well as layer 1 control bits. Like it was mentioned before, the
payload from the DPDCH and the control bits from the DPCCH are time multiplexed
on every time slot. The figure above shows how these two channels are
multiplexed. There is only one DPCCH in downlink.
Basically, there are two types of downlink DPCH. They are distinguished by the use
or non use of the TFCI field. TFCI bits are not used for fixed rate services or when
the TFC doesnt change.
The number of bits in the different fields corresponds to a specific slot format.
There is a total of 49 slot formats that can be used, depending on the bit rate
required and the transmission mode (compressed or normal mode). The slot format
is configured and can be reconfigured by higher layers.
The parameter k in the figure above determines the total number of bits per time
slot. It is related to the SF, which ranges from 4 to 512. Thus, the maximal bit rate
is 1920 kbps on one physical channel. The channelization code is assigned by
UTRAN.
Not always are all of the 15 time slots in a radio frame used. Only 8 to 14 slots are
used in compressed mode. Specific slot formats are reserved for compressed
mode by SF reduction (0B, 1B, 2B, ) and for for other transmission time reduction
methods (OA, 2A, 3A, ).
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-20 October, 2000
7-20 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Dedicated Downlink Physical Channels
DPCH (DPCCH + DPDCH)
T r a n s m i s s i o n
P o w e r
P h y s i c a l C h a n n e l 1
T r a n s m i s s i o n
P o w e r
P h y s i c a l C h a n n e l 2
T r a n s m i s s i o n
P o w e r
P h y s i c a l C h a n n e l L
D P D C H
O n e S l o t ( 2 5 6 0 c h i p s )
T F C I P i l o t T P C

D P D C H
Downlink slot format in case of multicode transmission
When multi-code transmission is used (several DPCHs corresponding to the same
CCTrCH), the layer 1 control bits are transmitted only on the first DPCH. DTX bits
(nothing is transmitted) replace the control bits for the corresponding period of time.
Also, when more than one CCTrCH is used, the DPCCH is transmitted on one of
the physical channels of the CCTrCH that has the lowest SF among the multiple
CCTrCH.
If STTD is used, the pilot bits of each antenna can be different. If closed loop mode
transmit diversity is used, orthogonal pilot patterns are used on the two antennas for
mode 1 while the same pilot bits are used for mode 2.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-21 October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
PICH
b
1
b
0
288 bits for paging indication 12 bits (transmission off)
One radio frame (10 ms)
b
287
b
288
b
299
Listen to the
P-CCPCH !!!
The Page Indicator Channel (PICH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) physical channel
used by the node B to inform a UE (or a group of UEs) that a paging information will
soon be transmitted on the PCH. Thus, the mobile only decodes the S-CCPCH
when it is informed to do so by the PICH. This enables to do other processing and
to save the mobiles battery.
The PICH carries Paging Indicators (PI), which are user specific and calculated by
higher layers. It is always associated with the S-CCPCH to which the PCH is
mapped.
The frame structure of the PICH is illustrated above. It is 10 ms long, and always
contains 300 bits (SF=256). 288 of these bits are used to carry paging indicators,
while the remaining 12 are not formally part of the PICH and shall not be
transmitted. That part of the frame (last 12 bits) is reserved for possible future use.
In order not to waste radio resources, several PIs are multiplexed in time on the
PICH. Depending on the configuration of the cell, 18, 36, 72 or 144 paging
indicators can be multiplexed on one PICH radio frame. Thus, the number of bits
reserved for each PI depends of the number of PIs per radio frame. For example, if
there is 72 PIs in one radio frame, there will be 4 (288/72) consecutive bits for each
PI. These bits are all identical. If the PI in a certain frame is 1, it is an indication
that the UE associated with that PI should read the corresponding frame of the S-
CCPCH.
The position of a PI corresponding to a mobile (or a group of mobiles) in a group of
N PIs in a frame is predetermined and given by:
Where SFN is the system frame number transmitted on the BCCH logical channel,
and PI is calculated by upper layers based on the IMSI of the UE (see specification
25.304).
] ] ]
( ) ( ) ( ) N mod
144
N
144 mod 512 / SFN 64 / SFN 8 / SFN SFN 18 PI p

,
_

1
]
1

+ + + +
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-22 October, 2000
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Uplink Physical Channel Description
PCPCH
AP - AI CH C D - I C H
A P s
C D
P0
P1 P1
D P C C H ( D L )
P C P C H ( U L )
0 or 8 sl ots
Powe r Cont r ol
Preambl e
Information and
Control Data
Power Control , Pilot and CPCH
control commands
T
a
Related downlink indicators:
AP-AICH: 4096 chips to answer the open loop power control
CD-ICH: 4096 chips to insure that there is no collision
CSICH: 120 bits / frame to indicate the status of the different PCPCHs is a CPCH set
The Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH) is a shared uplink channel. The
equivalent downlink channel is the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH). Shared
channels are common to all users. They are used to carry the additional traffic of a DPCH
user. For example, a user could send a small file on a shared channel while making a
phone call on a dedicated channel.
The transmission of the PCPCH is based on a random access procedure a bit different from
the PRACH. Basically, the mobile starts by sending several access preambles (AP) at
increasing power, until it receives a response from the network on the AP-AICH. The
mobile then sends a collision detection (CD) preamble at the same power and awaits a
response from the network on the CD-AICH. This preamble is used to insure that the
mobile can use the shared channel. When the mobile detects the response from the
network, it sends an optional power control preamble to fine tune the transmission
power. This tuning is based on the transmission of TPC bits on the associated DPCCH.
The power control preamble lasts 0 (not used) or 8 slots. Finally, the message part of
length N*10 ms is sent.
The message part consists of a data part and a control part which are processed in parallel.
The slot format for the data part is chosen from the same slot format set used for the
DPDCH. The slot format of the control part shall be the same as the control part of the
PCPCH power control preamble illustrated above. It consists of pilot, TFCI, TPC and FBI
bits. The spreading factor of the control part is always 256 while the SF of the data part
varies from 4 to 256 depending on the bit rate required. A UE is allowed to increase its SF
during transmission on a frame to frame basis.
The message part of the PCPCH consists of data and control bits processed in parallel
exactly the same way as for the PRACH message part. The channelization code for the
control part is always c
c
= C
ch,256,0
. The data part is spread by the channelization code c
d
=
C
ch,SF,k
, where k=SF/4. The UE is allowed to increase the SF on a frame to frame basis.
Long or short complex scrambling codes (C
long,n
and C
short,n
can be used to scramble the
message part.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-23 October, 2000
7-23 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Common Downlink Physical Channels
PDSCH
Slot format #i Channel Bit
Rate (kbps)
Channel
Symbol Rate
(ksps)
SF Bits/
Frame
Bits/ Slot Ndata
0 30 15 256 300 20 20
1 60 30 128 600 40 40
2 120 60 64 1200 80 80
3 240 120 32 2400 160 160
4 480 240 16 4800 320 320
5 960 480 8 9600 640 640
6 1920 960 4 19200 1280 1280
Each PDSCH radio frame corresponds to one users DPCH
The control bits used for PDSCH are those of the associated DPCCH
The SF can vary from frame to frame
The Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) is common to all the mobiles
and is used to carry the additional traffic of a DPCH user. The aim of the shared
channels is to carry the sporadic traffic of a user. It carries the DSCH (Downlink
Shared Channel) transport channel. The PDSCH is always associated with one
DPCH.
A PDSCH is allocated on a radio frame basis to a single UE. Within one radio
frame, different PDSCHs can be allocated to different UEs. Also, multiple parallel
PDSCHs, with the same spreading factor, may be allocated to a single UE.
The frame structure of the downlink shared channel in very simple. The time slots
only contain data bits coming from the transport sub-layer. There is no need to add
layer 1 control bits because these bits are transmitted on the DPCCH part of the
associated dedicated physical channel. The number of data bits depends on the
channel bit rate required, which is given by the spreading factor. The table
illustrated above shows the possible channel bit rates. Thus, the SF ranges from 4
to 256, and it may vary from frame to frame. The TFCI of the associated DPCH is
used to inform the UE of the instantaneous parameters (SF, channelization code,
TFC, ) of the PDSCH. So, the content of one PDSCH radio frame corresponds to
one user, but it can change from user to user at every radio frame (10 ms).
One DSCH transport channel can be mapped to several parallel PDSCHs, with the
same SF. Frame synchronization between the parallel PDSCHs will then be
necessary.
An advantage of associating a shared channel to a DPCH is that the node B can
control its power emission based on the transmission parameters of the downlink
DPCCH. Also, unlike multicode transmission, all the frame is used for data.
A UE will be informed that there is data to decode on the PDSCH either by using the
TFCI field of the DPCCH, or by higher layers.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-24 October, 2000
7-24 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Timing Relationship for Downlink Channels
First 256 chips
of each slot
Tx off during first 256 chips
of each slot
AI CH access
slots
Secondary
SCH
Pri mary
SCH
Tk x 256 chi ps
10 ms
3 TS
#0 #1 #2 #3 #14 #13 #12 #11 #10 #9 #8 #7 #6 #5 #4
P- CCPCH, ( SFN modul o 2) = 0 P- CCPCH, ( SFN modul o 2) = 1
Any CPI CH
k: t h S- CCPCH
PI CH f or k: t h S- CCPCH
n: t h DPCH
Tn x 256 chi ps
Any PDSCH
T
k
{0, 1, , 149}
T
n
{0, 1, , 149}
This slide describes the frame timing for the downlink physical channels. Like it was
mentioned before, the P-CCPCH on which the Super Frame Number (SFN) is
transmitted, is used as timing reference for all the physical channels.
SCH (primary and secondary), CPICH (primary and secondary), P-CCPCH and
PDSCH all have the same frame timing
The S-CCPCH frame timing may be different for different S-CCPCH. The
S-CCPCHs will always be shifted by a multiple of 256 chips from the P-CCPCH
frame timing.
The PICH frame timing is always 7680 chips (3 TS) prior to its corresponding
S-CCPCH frame timing. By corresponding, we mean the S-CCPCH carrying
the PCH transport channel with the corresponding paging information.
The AICH access slot #0 starts at the same time as P-CCPCH even numbered
frames (SFN modulo 2 = 0). The AICH is related to the PRACH and PCPCH
timing.
The DPCH frame timing may be different for different DPCHs. The DPCHs will
always be shifted by a multiple of 256 chips from the P-CCPCH frame timing.
DPCCH/DPDCH timing relation:
The DPCCH and all the DPDCHs corresponding to one UE have the same
frame timing in uplink, and in downlink
The uplink DPCCH/DPDCHs frame transmission is shifted by approximately
1024 chips (148 chips) after the reception of the first significant path of the
corresponding downlink frame. 1024 chips correspond to a distance of 80 km.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-25 October, 2000
7-25 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Possible Physical Channel Combinations
Physical Channel
Combination
Transport Channel
Combination
1
2
3
P-CCPCH BCH
S-CCPCH FACH + PCH
S-CCPCH + AICH FACH + PCH + RACH in uplink OR
FACH + PCH + CPCH in uplink
4 More than one S-CCPCH More than one FACH + one PCH
5 PICH N/A
6 DPCCH + one DPDCH One or several DCHs in one CCTrCH
7 DPCCH + several DPDCHs One or several DCHs in one CCTrCH
8 PDSCH + DPCCH + one or several
DPDCHs
DSCH + one or several DCHs coded into
one CCTrCH
9 S-CCPCH + DPCCH + one or several
DPDCHs
FACH + one or several DCHs coded into
a one CCTrCH
10 S-CCPCH + PDSCH + DPCCH + one
or several DPDCHs
FACH + DSCH + one or several DCHs
coded into a one CCTrCH
11 One DPCCH + several DPDCHs Several DCHs coded into one or more
CCTrCH
For the FDD mode of a UMTS system, there is only three uplink physical channels.
Thus, the possible combinations are very simple. A UE can support 4 different
combinations:
PRACH (data + control) alone,
PCPCH (data + control) alone,
DPCCH + DPDCH corresponding to one or several DCHs coded into one
CCTrCH,
DPCCH + several DPDCHs corresponding to one or several DCHs coded into
one CCTrCH.
In downlink, much more channels exist, and therefore, much more combinations.
The different combinations are given on this slide.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN
Physical Channels
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-26 October, 2000
7-26 Physical Channels UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Questions
1) On which physical channel is mapped the BCH transport channel?
2) Name the different kinds of control bits added by L1. On which channel are
they transmitted?
3) True or false: data and control bits are time multiplexed in uplink?
4) To which physical channel does the UE listen to when it is switched on?
5) Which physical channel is time multiplexed with the SCH? What is it used for?
6) On what channel does the node B respond to a random access from a UE?
7) What is the PICH physical channel used for?
8) How many DPDCHs can be used in uplink by the same UE?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-1
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-1 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Section 8
Modulation and Demodulation
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-2
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
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8-2 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Modulation and Demodulation
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
Objectives
- Describe the digital modulations schemes used for UMTS
- Present how the rake receivers recovers the data
- Understand why matched filters are used at reception
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-3
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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General Overview
Digital Modulations
Channel Coding
Rate matching
Interleaving
Source
coding
NRZ coding
Spread spectrum
modulation
Chip Modulation
Speech
Data
Signaling
BITS BITS
MODULATED SIGNAL
Transmission of
information under
the form of
physical signals
Information to
transmit
Coding of
information using
the smallest
amount of bits
possible
Adding
redundancy to
protect the
information
Modulation in a general term used to describe the processing that is done to convey
a local information to a remote receiver. It is the lowest part of the physical layer. In
radio transmissions, the spectrum is shared between several applications (TV, FM
radio, cellular phones). The modulation is made up of a baseband processing stage
which defines the amount of bandwidth required for the transmission, and a
frequency translation stage to center the signal in the appropri ate band. Generally,
modulation consists in manipulating either the amplitude, the phase or the frequency
of a sinewave.
Modern telecommunication systems are all based on digital modulations. The term
digital doesnt mean that the bits are transmitted over the air interface. It only
means that the user information is present under the form of bits, which must be
transmitted into electrical signals and radio waves. A bit is a logical entity that has no
physical existence and cannot be transmitted. Therefore, the bits have to be
associated to a certain physical signal which has a certain energy and duration. This
signal is called a symbol.
Each symbol carries the information of a small quantity of bits, typically 1 to 3 in radio
communications.
A modulation scheme is designed to optimize the radio resource according to the
typical applications of the system. It results from a compromise between efficiency,
cost and complexity.
Modulation techniques can be characterized as narrow band or spread spectrum
modulations. For narrow band modulations, the goal is to use the smallest
bandwidth and present the highest SNR (example: GSM). For spread spectrum
modulations, symbols are transmitted over the radio interface at a very low SNR in
order to minimize interferences.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-4
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-4 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Classical Modulations
Phase Shift Keying
1
t
1 1 0
1
t
-1
NRZ
coding
f
o
BPSK
Modulated
BPSK
signal
Carrier
Information
signal
S/P
NRZ
coding
90
o
NRZ
coding
QPSK
Q(t)
I(t)
=0 = =0
f
o
A
A Acos(
o
t)
Acos(
o
t + /2)

1 1 /4
1 -1 7 /4
-1 1 3 /4
-1 -1 5 /4
) cos( 2 : + o A QPSK
Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulation uses the phase of the signal to distinguish the
different symbols. The binary information is represented by a phase shift. The PSK
modulated signal is:
Where
o
is a constant phase offset and is a phase shift that is characteristic of a
symbol. For example, in a BPSK (binary-PSK), the possible phase shifts are 0 and
. In a QPSK modulation, the possible phase shifts are 0, /2, and 3/2.
Thus, one QPSK symbol represents two information bits. Using a higher number of
phase shifts (e.g. a higher order modulation) will provide a higher throughput, giving
that one symbol will represent a higher number of bits. But higher order modulations
need a much better SNR because when an error occurs on one symbol, more bits
are lost. Also, it is harder for the receiver to take a decision on the symbols since
phase shifts are closer from one another. EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM
Evolution) is a good example of that trade-off, since it will provide data rates up to
380 kbps, but only for users close to the base station (in a 100 m radius
approximately). EDGE uses an 8-PSK modulation scheme.
As it is explained on the slide, to obtain a QPSK modulation, two orthogonal BPSK
modulations of same weight are used.
In UMTS, a spread spectrum modulation is used. It is made of two stages:
a symbol modulation based on spread spectrum symbols. Each symbol is
modulated by several chips,
a chip modulation based on a simple narrow band modulation. This is a classical
PSK modulation.
) cos( ) ( o ot A t s + +
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-5
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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cos(
o
t)
-sin(
o
t)
OVSF
Downlink Modulation Scheme
Pulse
Shaping
Pulse
Shaping

Real
&
Imag.
split
S/P
I+jQ
G
1
DL
scrambling
code
.
.
.
G
p
P-SCH
G
s
S-SCH
P-CCPCH
NRZ
S/P
OVSF
I+jQ
DL
scrambling
code
G
N
NRZ
DPCH
Chip1 Chip2
1 1 /4
1 -1 7 /4
-1 1 3 /4
-1 -1 5 /4
QPSK
Chip Modulation
In UMTS, a Direct Spread Spread Spectrum (DS-SS) modulation is used. The DS-SS
symbols are used to transmit the binary information, to spread the signal and to multiplex
several streams of information. The symbol modulation is done in three steps: NRZ
modulation, spreading and multiplexing.
DS-SS chips are used to carry the energy of the symbols. The chip modulation is based on
BPSK and QPSK. A chip doesnt carry a binary information, but an energy.
The UMTS downlink modulation scheme is presented on the slide above. After the time
multiplexing of data and control bits, the binary information is NRZ encoded. After a serial to
parallel conversion where each pair of consecutive symbols are put on an I and Q branch,
the channelization code is applied on each NRZ signal. Then, the I and Q branches are
summed up to create a complex NRZ signal, which is scrambled by a complex downlink
scrambling code. This is done for all downlink channel, except the SCH.
Each of the complex NRZ signal of these channels (except SCH) is weighted by a weight
factor proportional to the output power. Then, all the signals are added up to create one
multi-level complex signal, with equal real and imaginary parts (absolute values).
We take this complex signal and split the real and imaginary parts on separate branches. A
pulse-shaping filter is applied. Finally, the frequency translation takes place, where the real
and imaginary parts are modulated by orthogonal carriers at around 2 GHz. The sum of both
branches gives us a QPSK modulated carrier for each physical channel, as explained in the
previous slide. Each set of 2 chips makes a QPSK signal. 38,400 QPSK signals are sent
over the radio interface every 10 ms.
The digital-to-analog conversion is done just before pulse shaping.
Depending on the value of the 2 chips modulated together, well have a different phase
shifts. At reception, finding the phase shift of the carrier will give us the 2 chips.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-6
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Example for DL 384 kbps Data
120 8 8 488 16
SF=8
640 bits/slot
960 kbps
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0
OVSF
OVSF code =
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
cos(
o
t) -sin(
o
t)
NRZ
-1 1
-1 1
I+jQ 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
8 real chips
-1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1
8 real chips
-1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1
8 real chips
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
8 real chips
8 Consecutive QPSK symbols:
Acos(
o
t + 3 /4) ,
Input bits Consecutive output phases
0 0 /4 /4 /4 /4 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4
0 1 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4
1 0 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4
1 1 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4 /4 /4 /4 /4
N
data1
N
TPC
N
TFCI
N
data2
N
pilot
Data + Control
8 complex
chips
Higher SF = easier to recover Higher SF = easier to recover
the information bits the information bits
This slide shows that in downlink, we can achieve a certain bit rate using a SF two
times higher than in uplink. In this case, a SF=8 is used to obtain a 384 kbps
service, while a SF=4 is needed in uplink for the same rate.
It also shows that the modulation scheme is QPSK for one physical channel. For
several physical channels, the modulation scheme may not be QPSK, but we
consider that several QPSK signals are sent over the radio interface (one for each
physical channel). The receiver in the UE tries to recover each QPSK in parallel
using the rake receiver structure.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-7
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Downlink Example for 2 Physical Channels
OVSF
OVSF code =
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
NRZ
-1 1
-1 1
I+jQ
1 1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1
8 real chips
-1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1
8 real chips
8 complex
chips
OVSF
OVSF code =
1 -1 1 -1
NRZ
(-1 -1) (-1 1)
-1 -1 -1 1
I+jQ
(-1 1 -1 1) (1 -1 1 1)
8 real chips
(-1 1 -1 1) (-1 1 -1 1)
8 real chips
8 complex
chips
1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

Several BPSK signals
equivalent to 2 x 8 QPSK
signals in parallel
cos(
o
t) -sin(
o
t)
-1 1 -2 -1 2 -2 1 -2 1 2 -1 2 1 -2 1 -2
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-8
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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t p
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"
.
Uplink Modulation Scheme
cos(
o
t)
-sin(
o
t)
Pulse
Shaping
Pulse
Shaping
NRZ
NRZ
OVSF
d1
OVSF
c


Real
&
Imag.
split

d

c
j
I+jQ
Q(t)
I(t)
DPDCH
1
NRZ
OVSF
d1

d
DPDCH
2
NRZ
OVSF
d2

d
DPDCH
3
NRZ
OVSF
d3

d
DPDCH
5
NRZ
OVSF
d2

d
DPDCH
4
NRZ
OVSF
d3

d
DPDCH
6
DPCCH
Chip1 Chip2 1 2
1 1 0 /2
1 -1 0 3 /2
-1 1 /2
-1 -1 3 /2
UL
scrambling
code
Data
Control
Chip Modulation
Although the same elements are used, the uplink modulation scheme is different
from the one used in downlink. This is due to the different I&Q multiplexing scheme.
In downlink, data and control bits are time multiplexed and each pair of consecutive
bits is mapped on an I and Q branch. The same gain factor is applied on both
branches (in fact on the sum of the two branches), giving the same weight to each
branch. The fact that both branches have the same gain enables to multiplex two
BPSK signals using I&Q multiplexing, to obtain a QPSK signal. In uplink, the data
and control bits are code multiplexed and two different gains are applied on the two
branches, so two orthogonal BPSK signals are added up and transmitted together
over the air interface. The receiver uses the orthogonality between the two carriers
to separate the two BPSK modulations.
The advantage of using code multiplexing instead of time multiplexing for data and
control is that a higher SF can be used for the control part. Thus, control bits are
sent at a lower power and create less interference for other users. The uplink also
allows for more flexibility since different gains can be applied for data and control.
As we see, the chip modulation is done the same way in uplink and downlink. It is
based on I&Q multiplexing, but the result of that multiplexing is different. In downlink,
one QPSK symbol is sent every Tc (0.26 s) while two BPSK symbols are sent
during the same time in uplink. But in both cases, the symbols carry the energy of
two chips.
In uplink, only one kind of physical channel is sent simultaneously. Thus, either the
PRACH, the PCPCH or a set of DPCHs is sent over the radio interface. For the
PRACH, the data and control parts are sent on the I and Q branch respectively. For
the PCPCH and DPCH, several physical channels can be sent simultaneously using
multicode transmission. This is used for high bit rates. In that case, only the data
part is sent on multiple physical channels. The gain factor is the same for all data
channels.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-9
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-9 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Example for UL 384 kbps Data
N
Data
DPDCH
N
pilot
N
TFCI
N
FBI
N
TPC
DPCCH
640 10
1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 . . . 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
SF = 4
960 kbps
SF = 256
15 kbps
NRZ NRZ
OVSF = 1 1 1 -1 OVSF = 1 1 1 1 1
-sin(
o
t) cos(
o
t)
64 bits 1 bit
256 real chips 256 real chips
256 complex chips
256 real chips 256 real chips
256 BPSK
signals
256 BPSK
signals
Input bit output phases
0 0 0
1 0 0
Input bit output phases
0 /2 /2 /2
1 3 /2 3 /2 3 /2
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-10
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-10 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Pulse Shaping
+ a
T
b
Time
0 1 0 0 1 0
NRZ
coding
- a
a
2
T
b
= E
b
1/T
b
2/T
b
Frequency
After
spreading
+ a
- a
Time
1/T
c
2/T
c
Frequency
a
2
T
c
= E
c
= E
b
/SF
After pulse
shaping
1/T
c
2/T
c
Frequency
a
2
T
c
99% of
total
power
The spectrum of the NRZ modulation is made of lobes that cut the frequency axis at
multiples of the bit period. After spreading, the spectrum of the signal is also made of
lobes, but the lobes now cut the frequency axis at multiples of the chip period. Thus,
the energy of the signal is spread over a larger band. At that point, around 90% of
the energy of the signal is in the first lobe (in the 5 MHz band). Unfortunately, there
is still a small part of the energy that is outside the first lobe and creates interference
for other UMTS carriers. The goal of the transmit pulse shaping filter is to remove
the energy of the signal outside the 5 MHz nominal UMTS band.
In order to optimize the power budget, a filter with a sharp cut-off frequency has to be
chosen. In UMTS, a root-raised cosine (RRC) filter with a roll-off =0.22 will be
used.
After pulse shaping, we consider that the occupied bandwidth is the part of the
spectrum containing 99% of the power of the transmitted signal. Based on a chip
rate of 3.84 Mcps, that bandwidth is a bit less than 5 MHz.
In the time domain, the result of trying to have a limited bandwidth is that high
frequency transitions will be smoothed and spurious signals appear outside the
symbol time. This phenomenon is called inter-symbol interference and has to be
compensated for at the receiver.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-11
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-11 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Classic Receiver
F
o
B
Demodulator Demodulator
b
5 MHz
2 GHz
Band-pass pre-demodulation
filter necessary to increase
SNR
To obtain the
processing gain
Low-pass post-demodulation
filter necessary to increase
SNR
The receiver used in the telecommunication industry use the structure illustrated
above. A pre-demodulation is necessary to reject the interference outside the
signals band, in order to increase the signal to noise ratio before demodulation.
After demodulation, a low-pass filter is applied to reject the interference outside the
information bandwidth. It will reject most of the interference from other users and
therefore increase the SNR before channel decoding.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-12
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-12 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Demodulation
Frequency
translation
Matched
filter
Finger
combination
Despreading
Symbol
decision
F
i

Delay (
n
)
Delay (
1
)
Delay (
0
)
Estimated
chips
00
01 11
10
x
E
s
= E
c
Rake receiver
In digital communications, the demodulation stage is not just the opposite of the
modulation. In fact, its quite different because the purpose of the demodulation is
not to recreate the symbols but to extract the binary information with a maximum of
likelihood.
The demodulation is made of two stages: the chip demodulation and the symbol
demodulation, which correspond to the two stages of the modulation scheme. The
chip demodulation is based on the rake receiver that has to estimate which chips
were transmitted.
The symbol demodulation is done in two steps: despreading and symbol estimation.
To despread the signal, the chips are simply multiplied by the spreading code
(scrambling and channelization) of the user. The symbol estimation is a maximum
likelihood estimation. It consists in combining the estimations of the different chips
corresponding to the same symbol in order to decide which symbol was transmitted.
The information of all the chips is combined and a processing gain is obtained. If
we have a high spreading factor (a high number of chips per symbol), well have a
high processing gain, meaning that it will be easier to recover the symbol.
In order for the receiver to be able to recover the transmitted signal, it has to at least
know the pilot sequence, the scrambling code and the channelization code used at
transmission.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-13
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-13 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Rake Receiver Principle
time
T
c

1

2
Finger positioning
(for one PhyCH)
Chip
matched
filter
Chip
matched
filter
Chip
matched
filter

Estimated energy
in signal space
Output: Sum of
the energy of all
fingers
Phase error
correction
1
1
1
The rake receiver is the key element of the demodulation. It is used to estimate which chip
was transmitted using the information received from several paths.
A rake receiver is made of several fingers (one per echo) and a combiner (one per physical
channel). A finger is a simple matched filter which is used to estimate the transmitted chip
and correct an eventual phase inversion due to reflections.
There is in theory one matched filter per possible chip. In UMTS, four different complex
chips can be sent with one QPSK signal in downlink, or two BPSK signals in uplink.
Therefore, there should be a bank of four matched filters in theory. In practice, several
optimizations can be made to reduce the number of matched filters to a minimum.
The matched filter collects the energy of the signal and indicates the degree of correlation
between the received signal and the expected chip.
The combiner is used to combine the outputs of the different fingers in order to increase the
reliability of the chip estimation. The combination is a simple addition of the chip estimation
made by the different fingers.
The positioning of the finger and the resolution of the phase ambiguity is made in parallel
and is called coherent detection. It is done by the Impulse Response Measurement block
which finds the multi-path components. It is based on the transmission of pilot bits sent on
the CPICH or DPCCH in downlink, and on the control part of the uplink channels.
The rake receiver is also used in case of macro-diversity in the mobile. In that case, fingers
can be allocated to the signals coming from other cells. The data part can be combined, but
the control part cannot since it can be different. For example, a cell can tell the UE to
increase its power while another one is telling him to decrease it.
There is one structure like the one illustrated one the slide above for each physical channel.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-14
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-14 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Despreading and Decision
Downlink Principle
Estimation of chips
(complex values) from
rake receiver
OVSF
Real
&
Imag.
split
Scrambling
code
Data/control
demultiplexing
Symbol
decision
1 1
1 -1 -1 -1
-1 1
0
/2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Input bits Consecutive output phases
0 0 /4 /4 /4 /4 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4
0 1 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4
1 0 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4 3 /4 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4 7 /4
1 1 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4 5 /4 /4 /4 /4 /4
00
01 11
10
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
00
01 11
10
x
E
s
= E
c
sum of energy
Data
Control
The goal of the depreading operation is to gather the energy of all the chips
corresponding to one data symbol (one or two bits) and to use it afterwards for the
symbol decision. If we have a high SF, that decision will be easier to take.
After the rake receiver, the signal is made of the estimation of the transmitted chips.
The scrambling code is applied to remove the interference coming from other cells (in
downlink) or users (in uplink). The channelization code is then applied to complete
the despreading operation. After the multiplication by the OVSF code, the signal is
still made of chips, but most of the interference coming from other physical channels
has been removed. At that point, a decision can be taken with a maximum of
likelihood by taking into consideration the information from every chip.
If the decision for data bits is erroneous, the channel decoding may correct it
afterwards. The L1 control bits will not go through channel decoding, they are
extracted after decision.
If we look in the signal space, we see that the energy of the chips corresponding to
one symbol are added up in order to make the proper decision. In downlink, that
decision consists in finding which pair of bits was sent by the BTS for a particular
physical channel.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-15
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-15 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Despreading and Decision
Uplink Principle
Estimation of chips
(complex values) from
rake receiver
Scrambling
code
Real
&
Imag.
split
Control OVSF
Data OVSF
Symbol (bit)
decision
Symbol (bit)
decision
Desinterleaving,
channel decoding,
etc.
640 X
per slot
for SF=4
10 X
per slot
for SF=256
0
/2
.
. .
1
0

3 /2
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
. . .
.
.
.
.
.
0
/2
.
. .
-1
1

3 /2
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
. . .
.
.
.
.
.
0
/2
1
0

3 /2
x
0
/2
.
. .
.
-1 1

3 /2
0
/2
.
.
.
.
1 0

3 /2
0
/2
x
1 0

3 /2
Extraction of L1
control bits
The despreading scheme is similar in uplink, but the control and data bits are still
treated separately. The data chips are despread with the data OVSF and the control
chips are despread with the control OVSF.
Usually, the SF of the control part is higher than the data part so more data bits have
to be demodulated during one frame.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-16
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-16 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Despreading Example
1
Estimated
chips
USER 2 ?
Code user 2
Soft Bits
3 1
+
= 4
1 -1
Data Extraction (Reception)
*
3
0
-3
3
0
-3
=
1
2
1
-2
-1
2
1
-1
-2
-1
1
+ +
= 4
+
= 4
+
= 4
-
= -6 = -6
1 -1 3 1 1 -1 3 1 3 1 1 -1 1 -3 -3 -1 1 -3 -1 -1
1 1 1 -1 -1
+ -
Sent data:
0 0 0 0 1 1
If we take back the example used in section 3, but with 3 users this time, we see how
a decision can easily be taken after despreading.
The right code is applied on the descrambled data and the result is a series of chips
indicating which bit was transmitted. Although an error may occur on one chip or two
because of the interference caused by other physical channels, the decision is still
right. Of course, if most of the chips are wrong, the decision will probably also be
wrong!
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-17
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-17 Modulation and Demodulation UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Questions
1) What is the goal of modulation?
2) What kind of chip modulation is used in downlink? In uplink?
3) True or false: the bandwidth in UMTS is exactly 5 MHz?
4) What happens if an error occurs on a chip during demodulation?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 8-18
Modulation and Demodulation
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Student notes
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-1
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-1 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Section 9
AMR Speech Codec
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-2
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-2 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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AMR Speech codec
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to:
- Draw the speech transmission chain
- Briefly explain how speech is coded with the AMR codec
- Describe how the AMR rate adaptation scheme works
- Compare the AMR to the GSMs FR and EFR codecs in
terms of performances
Objectives
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-3
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-3 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
SPEECH
TRANSMISSION
BETWEEN MOBILE
AND NETWORK
Node B
UE
SPEECH MUST BE
DIGITIZED AND CODED
Better Quality
Lower Rate
Why is Speech Digitized and Coded?
Although UMTS will be oriented for data transfers, speech will remain a very
important attribute in third generation systems. Second generation systems were
optimized for speech quality, and one goal of UMTS is to at least keep that same
quality for speech.
In wireless communications, the best way to detect and correct errors introduced by
the transmission path is to process a digital signal. Then, by threshold comparisons,
we can recover the binary information with an acceptable quality, compared to the
analog transmission.
Thus, the first thing to do is to convert the voice analog signal into a digital one.
This is called digitizing. Then, a coding scheme is used to try to reduce the
number of bits used to represent a speech frame. The aim of speech coding is to
decrease the coding rate to a minimum in order to increase the system capacity,
while keeping a good acoustic quality. Then, channel coding will add redundancy
bits in order to correct errors.
The conversational traffic class shall be used for the speech service. The
parameters corresponding to the QoS (maximum and available bit rate, SDU error
ratio, etc.) will be sent by the CN during RAB setup.
Telephony bandwidth is from 300 to 3400 Hz. The sampling frequency is 8 kHz.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-4
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-4 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
AMR General Description
AMR Principle
BTS
Excellent radio
channel
No need for No need for
protection protection::
Source coding rate
Channel coding rate
Bad radio channel
Speech needs to Speech needs to
be protected: be protected:
Source coding rate
Channel coding rate
The Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) will be the speech codec used in UMTS. It will
also be the last codec used for the GSM.
The AMR allows to choose, in real time, the best distribution between the source
rate and protection rate, depending on the quality of the radio channel and the traffic
conditions. Previous GSM speech codecs (HR, FR and EFR) worked at a fixed rate
and constant error protection level. AMR selects the optimum codec mode (speech
and channel bit rates) to deliver the best combination of speech quality and system
capacity.
This is based on the following principle: when the radio channel is excellent, using
protection bits is a sub-optimal solution when adding source information would
improve speech quality at reception. On the other hand, when the radio channel is
bad, it is better to decrease the source coding rate and increase channel coding.
Using less bits to code speech will at first deteriorate the intrinsic quality, but using
more protection will allow to restore speech with a higher quality.
The flexibility of the AMR brings many benefits:
Optimized speech quality
Ability to trade speech quality for network capacity in a flexible manner
Improved robustness against channel errors under a certain SIR
Ability to adapt the AMR operation to the needs of the operator
Therefore, when a high source coding rate is used, rate convolutional coding may
be used and bits may be punctured during rate matching. When a low source
coding rate is used, rate 1/3 convolutional coding (or turbo coding) is used and code
words may be repeated during rate matching.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-5
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-5 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Performances for Clean Speech
T e s t R e s u l t s
1 . 0
2 . 0
3 . 0
4 . 0
5 . 0
C o n d i t i o n s
M O S
E F R
1 2 . 2
1 0 . 2
7 . 9 5
7 . 4
6 . 7
5 . 9
5 . 1 5
4 . 7 5
E F R 4 . 0 1 4 . 0 1 3 . 6 5 3 . 0 5 1 . 5 3
1 2 . 2 4 . 0 1 4 . 0 6 4 . 1 3 3 . 9 3 3 . 4 4 1 . 4 6
1 0 . 2 4 . 0 6 3 . 9 6 4 . 0 5 3 . 8 0 2 . 0 4
7 . 9 5 3 . 9 1 4 . 0 1 4 . 0 8 3 . 9 6 3 . 2 6 1 . 4 3
7 . 4 3 . 8 3 3 . 9 4 3 . 9 8 3 . 8 4 3 . 1 1 1 . 3 9
6 . 7 3 . 7 7 3 . 8 0 3 . 8 6 3 . 2 9 1 . 8 7
5 . 9 3 . 7 2 3 . 6 9 3 . 5 9 2 . 2 0
5 . 1 5 3 . 5 0 3 . 5 8 3 . 4 4 2 . 4 3
4 . 7 5 3 . 5 0 3 . 5 2 3 . 4 3 2 . 6 6
N o E r r o r s C/ I = 1 6 d B C/ I = 1 3 d B C/ I = 1 0 d B C / I = 7 d B C / I = 4 d B C / I = 1 d B
The AMR Characterization test results showed that the selected solution satisfies
the AMR requirements in clean speech. The previous results demonstrate that the
combination of all 8 speech codec modes provide a robust codec down to 4 dB C/I.
The results also showed that the four highest codec modes (12.2, 10.2, 7.95 & 7.4)
are equivalent to EFR in error free conditions and barely affected by propagation
errors over a wide range Channel conditions (down to 10-7 C/I). The four lowest
codec modes (6.7, 5.9, 5.15 & 4.75) are all judged in error free conditions to be
equivalent to EFR at 10 dB C/I. The three lowest codec modes are statistically
unaffected by propagation errors down to 4 dB C/I.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-6
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-6 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
AMR Competition
Constraints and Objectives
Better speech quality than GSM codecs under the same
conditions
Low complexity
Possibility to evolve quickly
Round trip processing delay not more than 10 ms higher
than in GSM (138.8+10 = 148.8 ms)
Compatibility with GSM
Possibility to change rate every 20 ms
Support of TFO
Rate adaptation controlled by the mobiles or by the
network
Signaling transmitted jointly with speech
In 1998, a competition was held under the supervision of ETSI in order to select the
best technical solution for the AMR codec. The solution had to:
show good speech quality under static and dynamic C/I conditions,
not be too complex,
have the possibility to evolve,
be compatible with GSM.
It was required that the solution be better than the EFR and FR codecs used in
GSM under the same conditions.
Heres a list of the different constraints for the AMR codec:
possibility to change rate every 20 ms,
processing delay not more than 10 ms higher than in GSM
(138.8 + 10 = 148.8 ms),
must support TFO,
signaling for rate adaptation must be transmitted jointly with speech,
rate adaptation controlled by the mobiles or by the network.
Today, that competition is over. It gave constructors a strong base to work on, but
they are still looking to improve the solution given in 1998.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-7
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-7 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
AIR INTERFACE
Iub signaling Iub signaling
15, 30 or 60 ksps
AMR rate
+ Iub and
ATM
overhead
Iu signaling Iu signaling
RNS
UE
RNC
BTS
5-6-7
Digitizing Digitizing
128 kbps
Coder Coder 55--66--77
12.2 kbps
Information
processing
(Sections 5-6-7)
Speech Transmission Chain
10100010110001
0
1
.
.
.
4.75 kbps
15, 30 or 60 ksps
12.2 kbps
.
.
.
4.75 kbps
AMR rate
+ Iu and
ATM
overhead
WG - TCU
CN
Decoder Decoder
64 kbps
The analog speech is split into blocks of 20 ms. Each block is sampled at 8 kHz,
given us 160 samples per block. Each sample is quantized with a dynamic of
13 bits (A-Law) or 14 bits (-law). In fact, each sample is left justified to avoid gain
dependence between -law and A-law, and 2 or 3 '0' bits are added to have a 16 bit
sample.
The digital speech, whose rate is too high for the transmission on the radio path
(128 kbps), is encoded by the AMR codec. Depending on the mode used, we will
have 8 different source rates ranging from 12.2 to 4.75 kbps (1.80 kbps for DTX).
Speech parameters are channel encoded to be protected against transmission
errors on the radio path. This information processing (coding, interleaving, ...) is
explained in detail in sections 5 through 7. The rate on the air interface will depend
on the Spreading Factor used. There will be the possibility to choose a SF equal to
256 or 128. SF=64 might also be used. Thus, the traffic on the radio interface will
be at 15, 30 or 60 kbps (compared to 22.8 or 11.4 kbps in GSM).
In the BTS, a new bit processing (decoding, ...) enables to obtain the initial signal at
a rate between 12.2 to 4.75 kbps. Then, signaling is added by the node B for the
Iub interface, and by the RNC for the Iu interface.
In the TCU, a TransCoder Board converts the low rate speech to 64 kbps to be
compatible with the PSTN network. This conversion is done by the AMR decoder.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-8
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-8 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
Excitation
generator
Synthesis
H(z)=1/A(z)
Choice
criterion
(least square)
+
Original speech
2560 bits / 20 ms
Perceptual
filter: W(z)
Synthesized speech
+
-
Randomized
Excitation
160 bits
Long Term
Prediction
46 bits
Linear Prediction
Coding LPC
38 bits / 20 ms
+
ANALYSIS-BY-SYNTHESIS
METHOD
Hybrid Coder
Example for
12.2 kbps
With the intention of being able to use the UMTS AMR codec in the GSM world, the EFR
source coding scheme was included as one of the eight AMR codec modes. Also, in order
to simplify the implementation of other source coders, the other seven modes were all
derived from the EFR. Thus, all the modes are based on ACELP (Algebraic Code Excited
Linear Prediction). The same functions are present for all rates, it is the number of output
bits that varies.
ACELP coding is a kind of hybrid coder which uses the same linear prediction filter model of
the vocal tract as found in LPC vocoders. The parameters of this filter are the first part of
the coding result:
This is called the short-term synthesis filter. We use 10 coefficients for H(z). The same
filter will be used in the decoder in order to synthesize the speech.
The synthetic speech is the result of filtering of the so-called innovation signal through the
linear filter. This innovation signal, which is the second part of the coding result, is the sum
of two excitations:
the Long Term Prediction for voiced signal,
the randomized excitation for non-voiced signal: an algebraic excitation,
this innovation, updated 4 times per speech block (each 5 ms), is adapted little by little,
by comparing the synthetic speech to the original (least square criterion): this process
is called Analysis-by-Synthesis. A perceptual filter smoothes the error spectrum giving
more weight to low energy frequencies (because the corresponding relative error
would be higher):
H z
A z a z a z
p
p
( )
( ) ...

+ + +

1 1
1
1
1
) / (
) / (
) (
2
1

z A
z A
z W
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-9
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-9 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
AMR Description
Concept of Class Division
AMR codec
mode
Total
number of
bits
Class A Class B Class C
12.2 244 81 103 60
10.2 204 65 99 40
7.95 159 75 84 0
7.40 148 61 87 0
6.70 134 58 76 0
5.90 118 55 63 0
5.15 103 49 54 0
4.75 95 42 53 0
GSM EFR
IS-641 TDMA EFR
ARIB PDC-EFR
The AMR speech codec produces a certain number of bits depending on the mode used.
The speech encoder output are put in order according to their subjective importance. This
bit ordering can be utilized for error protection purposes.
In fact, after the bits have been ordered according to a predefined table, they are further
divided into three indicative classes, still according to their subjective importance.
Therefore, the AMR codec delivers three classes of bits, each containing a different number
of bits depending on the rate of the coder. They are Class A, Class B and Class C.
On the radio interface, one dedicated transport channel can be established per class of bits,
i.e. DCH A for Class A bits, DCH B for Class B bits and DCH C for Class C bits. Thus,
each class can be subject to a different error protection scheme.
Class A contains the bits most sensitive to errors and any error in these bits would result in
a corrupted speech frame which needs error correction for proper decoding. It may be the
only class protected by a CRC.
Classes B and C contain bits where increasing error rates gradually reduce the speech
quality, but the decoding of an erroneous frame can be done without significantly degrading
the quality. Class B bits are more sensitive to errors than Class C bits.
This way, the AMR codec mode used during a particular TTI can be deduced from the slot
format of the three DCHs. In fact, the TFCI indicates which mode was used by the
transmitting entity.
A particular channel coding and rate matching scheme can be applied for the different
classes of bits, depending on the radio conditions. Channel coding is always applied on
DCH A, while it may not be used for DCH B and DCH C.
When an error occurs on class A bits, they are delivered with an error indication. Class B
and C bits are delivered without any error indication.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-10
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-10 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
AMR Frame Structure
AMR Interface Format 1 (AMR IF1)
Frame type (4 bits)
Frame Quality Indicator (1 bit)
Mode Indication (3 bits)
Mode Request (3 bits)
Codec CRC (8 bits)
Class A bits
Class B bits
Class C bits
AMR header
AMR Auxiliary
Information
AMR Core
Frame
Codec mode used
Corrupted or good frame
For TFO
Mode Adaptation
Error Detection
Speech or Comfort noise data
Speech
Speech
When speech is coded with the AMR, signaling has to be added to the data by the
emitter. The AMR frame is divided into three parts:
AMR header (frame type and frame quality indicator),
AMR auxiliary information (mode indication, mode request and CRC),
AMR core frame (speech or comfort noise data).
In the AMR header, there is a 4-bit frame type field used to indicate the codec
mode. It can be one of the eight AMR codec modes, one of four different comfort
noise frames, or an empty frame. Three frame type indices are reserved for future
use.
The frame quality indicator in the header consists of 1 bit which indicates whether
the data in the received frame contains errors (=0) or not (=1).
The AMR auxiliary information is used for Tandem Free Operation, mode adaptation
and error detection. The mode indication field is 3 bits long and tells the receiver
which codec mode is used. The mode request is used by the BTS in downlink to tell
the UE which mode to use in uplink. An 8-bit internal CRC can be computed on the
most important bits (class A bits) using a cyclic generator polynomial. This is done
to detect errors after decoding in order to avoid as much as possible the synthesis
of speech from erroneous parameters.
All of these parameters were listed in the 3GPP specifications, but will not
necessarily be used. On the radio interface, the codec mode will be given by the
TFCI bits, and the codec mode request will be sent in downlink on a DCCH logical
channel. In uplink, none of these fields will be used on the radio interface. At the
transcoder side, the frame type, the FQI and the codec mode request will be used.
The AMR internal CRC might be used in future releases, in case the location of the
transcoder changes.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-11
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-11 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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.
AMR Communication
Rate Adaptation
Measures the radio
quality in downlink
and sends it to the
BTS in uplink
Measures the radio
quality in uplink and
sends to the UE the
codec mode to use
S
p
e
e
c
h
+
s
ig
n
a
lin
g
Rate may theoretically be changed every 20 ms
Different codec modes may be used in downlink and uplink
UTRAN
The AMR codec offers the possibility to adapt the coding scheme to the radio channel
conditions. The most robust codec mode is selected in bad propagation conditions. The
codec mode providing the highest source rate is selected in good propagation conditions.
The codec mode that will be used is set during RAB establishment. It is contained in the
RAB establishment request sent by the CN to the RNC. The RNC can then deduce the
corresponding transport format.
During an AMR communication, the receiver measures the radio link quality and must
return to the emitter either the quality measurements or the actual codec mode the emitter
should use during the next frame. That exchange has to be done as fast as possible in
order to better follow the evolution of the channels quality.
In uplink, the UTRAN explicitly indicates to the UE the codec mode it should use. However,
in downlink, the mobile has to send quality measurements to UTRAN that will deduce the
appropriate mode to use, using an algorithm. The AMR control algorithms are located in
the RNC, and they will have a major impact on voice quality and system capacity.
In the first releases, codec mode selection will be based only on the quality of the radio link.
But in further enhancements, the selection could be based on the loading on the different
interfaces, the available codes and the QoS.
In each transmitted speech frame, the AMR codec has to indicate the mode it is currently
using as well as the quality/mode-to-use information. In the network, the Codec Mode
Indication must also be sent to the Transcoder Units so that the correct source decoding is
selected.
The rate adaptation scheme is based on thresholds. For each mode, lower and upper
thresholds are defined. These bands may overlap from one mode to another. The decision
to change rate is made on the network side.
In theory, the codec mode can be changed every speech frame (20 ms). In practice, the
codec mode should be adapted at a lower rate.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-12
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
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9-12 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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AMR Communication
Rate Adaptation: Example
AMR
coder
AMR
decoder
Channel
coding
Channel
decoding
Codec
Adaptation
Channel
decoding
Channel
coding
Codec
Adaptation
AMR
decoder
AMR
coder
Uplink speech data
Codec Mode Indication for UL
Quality measurements Codec Mode
for DL
Downlink speech data
Codec Mode Indication for DL
Codec Mode for UL
RNS
TRAU
Speech IN
Speech
OUT
Speech
IN
Speech
OUT
During a voice communication, quality measurements are exchanged between the
UE and the UTRAN. The codec mode decision is done in the RNC.
A different codec mode can be used in uplink and downlink.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-13
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
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.
Comparison of TFO and TrFO
RAN
RAN
TRANSCODER
Core
Network
TRANSCODER
Core
Network
Voice Path for TFO Operation
Voice Path for TrFO Operation
For a communication between two UEs, a decoding/coding is unnecessary, the
signal doesnt need to be converted to 64 kbps in the TCU.
In TFO (Tandem Free Operation), the voice path carries TFO frames that confirm
the use of the codecs throughout the call. If something changes and transcoding is
needed again, the transcoders are already in the voice path and can therefore be
used immediately.
In TrFO(Transcoder Free Operation), the voice path carries compressed voice with
no TFO frames. The negotiation happened outband at call setup by using signaling
between the 2 MSCs.
Using TFO or TrFO, speech will be transferred in the network at a much lower rate.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-14
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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SAVE POWER IN THE MOBILE
&
REDUCE THE INTERFERENCE LEVEL
a
b
Cell a
SPEECH
NOISE
speech needs a
lot of parameters
HIGH RATE FLOW
noise needs less
parameters
LOW RATE FLOW
40%
60%
Source Controlled Rate Operation
Principle
During a communication, users speak in average 40% of the time. Consequently,
two kinds of transmissions can be distinguished:
when the user is speaking, speech and noise are transmitted,
when the user is not speaking, only noise is transmitted (comfort noise).
In the first case, more information needs to be transmitted (speech+noise) and
moreover speech needs more parameters to be characterized. In the second case,
noise needs a lower transmission rate because it can be coded with a few
parameters (background noise characteristics) and because the transmission
quality required for the noise is less important than for the speech.
Source Controlled Rate (SCR) is a mode of operation where the speech coder
encodes speech frames containing only background noise with a lower bit rate than
normally used for speech encoding. It is equivalent to the VAD/DTX in GSM.
The basic SCR mechanism requires the following functions:
a Voice Activity Detector (VAD) on the transmit side,
evaluation of the background acoustic noise on the transmit side, in order to
transmit characteristic parameters to the receive side,
generation on the receive side of a similar noise, called comfort noise, during
periods where the transmission is switched off.
There are two advantages of using SCR mode:
saving power in the user equipment,
reduce the global interference level and load in the network.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-15
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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DECISION BASED ON 4
DETECTORS/ESTIMATORS
SPEECH
SIGNAL
NOISE
SIGNAL
TRANSMISSION
COMFORT NOISE
DECISION
VOICE ACTIVITY DETECTOR
Source Controlled Rate Operation
Voice Activity Detection
Pitch detection
Tone detection
Complex signals
Sub-band levels
AND / OR
The Voice Detection Activity (VAD) function of the AMR codec is used to decide whether
each 20 ms speech coder frame contains a signal that should be transmitted (speech,
music or information tones), or not. Therefore, it is located after the speech coder and uses
its output parameters.
The output of the VAD is one bit (VAD_flag) that indicates the presence (=1) or the
absence (=0) of a speech frame.
The VAD is made of 4 detectors/estimators each looking for a particular signal:
a filter bank decomposing the input signal in 9 sub-bands. The signals level and the
background noise are estimated,
a pitch detector used to detect vowels and other periodic signals,
a tone detector for information tones since the pitch detector cannot detect these
signals,
a complex signal detector that indicates the presence of a correlated complex signal
such as music.
The VAD output is calculated using these four flags. But the AMR waits a certain period of
time (hangover) before sending the VAD flag (from VAD = 1 to VAD = 0). This is done in
order not to class the end of an active period during which speech is at a low power level,
as a non active zone. If the coder switches from active mode to inactive mode, and then
back to inactive mode after a very short speech period, that hangover is not used.
In case the VAD decides that there is nothing to be transmitted, SID (Silence Descriptor)
frames are sent at regular intervals by the comfort noise function in the transmitter. Four
special frame formats have been defined to identify SID frames of existing systems (AMR,
GSM-EFR, IS-641 and PDC-EFR Comfort noise frames). The type of frame used (speech,
SID, codec mode) is always indicated to the receiver.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-16
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-16 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Source Controlled Rate Operation
AMR Comfort Noise Description
S S S S S S S S F N N U S S N N N N N N N U N
. . .
VAD 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Hangover
Frame types: S = SPEECH; F = SID_FIRST; U = SID_UPDATE; N = NODATA
1 3 35
Comfort Noise parameters
Mode
Indication
SID Type
Indicator
20 ms
SID Type
Indicator
Mode
Indication
Comfort Noise
parameters
SID_FIRST 1 (=0) 3 35 (=0)
SID_UPDATE 1 (=1) 3 35
A basic problem when using SCR is that the background noise that is transmitted together
with speech on speech frames, would disappear when the transmission is cut, resulting in
discontinuities in the background noise. This can be very annoying to the listener. The
solution is to generate a comfort noise on the receive side, similar to the transmit side
background noise.
When speech (or any signal that should be transmitted) is absent, the synthesis scheme in
the decoder is different from the case when normal speech frames are received.
Comfort noise in an artificial noise generated in the receiver based on the received non-
speech parameters. It is generated as follows:
the evaluation of the acoustic background noise on the transmit side,
the noise parameter coding is done in the transmitter (SID frames),
the generation of comfort noise in the receiver.
The comfort noise generation process begins when the VAD decides that there arent any
important signals to transmit. In that case, speech frames are still transmitted during 7
speech frames (hangover of 140 ms). During that time, the decoder can compute a silence
descriptor frame from the received speech parameters. Then, changes are made in the
coding scheme and the first SID frame is sent (SID_FIRST). A SID frame is made of three
parts: SID type indicator, mode indicator and comfort noise parameters. These are all class
A bits.
As long as VAD flag = 0, the transmitter shall compute SID_UPDATE frames every 8
th
speech frame. The first SID_UPDATE frame shall be sent 3 frames after the SID_FIRST
frame.
As soon as a SID frame is received, comfort noise is generated at the decoder end. For the
SID_FIRST frame, all the comfort noise parameters are forced to 0, and the decoders
averages the speech parameters received during the hangover period to generate the
comfort noise. After that, the generation of comfort noise is based on the received
SID_UPDATE frames.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-17
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-17 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Performances for Clean Speech
Test Resul ts
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Condi ti ons
MOS
Requi r.
AMR
EFR
Requi r. 4.01 4.01 4.01 3.65
AMR 4.06 4.06 4.13 4.08 3.96 3.59 2.66
EFR 4.01 4.01 3.65 3.05 1.53
No Errors C/ I =16 dB C/ I =13 dB C/ I =10 dB C/I= 7 dB C/I= 4 dB C/I= 1 dB
This slide provides a graphical representation (in Mean Opinion Scores) of the AMR
performances in clean speech. It compares the performance recorded for the best
AMR codec mode for each impairment condition, with the corresponding
performance of EFR and the related AMR project performance requirements.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-18
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-18 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Performances for Office Noise

Test Results
1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

No Errors

C/I=16 dB

C/I=13 dB

C/I=10 dB

C/I= 7 dB

C/I= 4 dB

C/I= 1 dB

Conditions

DMOS

Requir.

AMR

EFR

FR

DMOS: Degradation Mean Opinion Score
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-19
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-19 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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AMR Example
One frame = 15 slots x 40 bits = 600 bits per frame
===> channel rate = 600/10 ms = 60 kbps = 30 ksps
SF = 128; 30 ksps x 128 = 3.84 Mcps
Information data
81 60 103
CRC +
tail bit attachment
89 103 60
Convolutional coding
R = 1/3
267 309 180
Rate matching
1st interleaving
688
344 344
344 76 344 76 344 76 344 76
Radio frame
segmentation
2nd interleaving
28
Slot segmentation
96
120
360
304
76 76 76 76 344 344
DCH A DCH B DCH C DCH (Control)
28 28 28 28 . 28 28 28 28 28 . 28 28 28 28 28 . 28 28 28 28 28 .
40 40 40 . 40 40 40 40 40 . 40 40 ..
Physical mapping
(including control bits)
This example deals with the transport of voice over the downlink path.
The support for the AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) speech codec is used as an example
for the possible use of several transport channels with different requirements.
The AMR codec delivers 3 classes of bits, containing a different number of bits
depending on the rate of the coder.
On the radio interface, one transport channel is established per class of bits i.e.
DCH A for class A, DCH B for class B and DCH C for class C. Each DCH has a
different transport format set which corresponds to the necessary protection for the
corresponding class of bits as well as the size of these classes of bits for the various
AMR codec modes.
With this principle, the AMR codec mode which is used during a given TTI can be
deduced from the format of the transport channels DCH A, DCH B and DCH C for
that particular TTI.
Note that a similar principle can also be applied for other source codecs e.g. other
speech codecs or video codecs.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-20
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-20 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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AMR Example
Viterbi decoding R=1/3
Radio frame FN=4N+1 Radio frame FN=4N+2 Radio frame FN=4N+3 Radio frame FN=4N
Information data
CRC detection
Tail bit discard
2nd interleaving
420
343 77 343 77 343 77 343
#1 343 #2 343 #1 77 #2 77 #3 77 #4 77
420 420 420
686
804
260
Tail8
CRC16
244
244
77
308
360
112
Tail8
100
CRC12
Rate matching
1st interleaving
CRC detection
Information data
Tail bit discard
Viterbi decoding R=1/3
DTCH DCCH
686
#1 343 #2 343
308
100
Radio Frame
Segmentation
slot segmentation
30ksps DPCH
(including TFCI bits)
Rate matching
1st interleaving
0 1 14
28 28
0 1
28

14
0 1 14
28 28
0 1
28

14
0 1 14
28 28
0 1
28

14
0 1 14
28 28
0 1
28

14
Example for 12.2 kbps speech:
DTCH
Transport block size: 244 bits
Transport block set size: 244 bits
TTI: 20 ms
Channel coding: convolutional r=1/3
Rate matching attribute: 256
Size of CRC: 16 bits
Position of transport channels in radio frame: fixed.
DCCH
Transport block size: 100 bits
Transport block set size: 100 bits
TTI: 40 ms
Channel coding: convolutional r=1/3
Rate matching attribute: 256
Size of CRC: 12 bits
Position of transport channels in radio frame: fixed.
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-21
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-21 AMR Speech Codec UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Questions
1) What does AMR stand for?
2) True or false: its better to use a high channel coding rate when radio
conditions are bad?
3) In theory, at what rate can the AMR codec be adapted? (once every X seconds)
4) How many different rates does the AMR codec propose for speech?
5) Why does the AMR codec deliver three classes of bits?
6) Where is the TCU in the network?
7) True or false: when using TFO, different rates can be used in uplink and
downlink?
8) What does SCR mean? What is it used for?
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 9-22
AMR Speech Codec
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Student notes
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 10-1
Glossary
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
10-1 Glossary UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
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Glossary
Section 10
UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN 10-2
Glossary
October, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-3

A

AAL
ATM Adaptation
Layer

AAL-PCI
AAL-Protocol Control
Information
consists of SAR-PDU header, CS-PDU header, CS-PDU trailer, SAR-PDU
trailer
ACM
Address Complete
Message

ACS
Adjacent Channel
Selectivity

AICH
Acquisition Indicator
CHannel

ALCAP
Access Link Control
Application Protocol
generic name for transport signaling protocols used to set-up and tear-
down transport bearers
AM
Acknowledged Mode
AMR
Adaptive Multi Rate
vocoder (or codec)
compatible with GSMEFR, IS-136 EFR, DPC EFR
AN
Access Network
AN
Advanced Network
ANM
ANswer Message
ANSI
American National
Standard Institute

API
Application Program
Interface

APN
Access Point Name
ARIB
Association of Radio
Industries and
Businesses
Japan
ARP
Address Resolution
Protocol

AS
Access Stratum
ATM
Asynchronous
Transfer Mode

ATM RM
(bsc, IN)
provides a SONET OC-3 interface to allow direct connection on to the
Control Node; those modules are provisioned in pair to provide
redundancy and connection protection
AU
Administrative Unit
B


BCCH
Broadcast Control
CHannel

BCH
Broadcast CHannel
BELLCORE
BELL
COmmunication
REsearch

BER
Bit Error Rate
B-ISDN
Broadband ISDN
B-ISUP
Broadband ISUP Q.27xx
BLER
Block Error Rate
BMC
Broadcast/Multicast
Control

BOM
Beginning Of
Message

Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-4
Message
BPSK
Binary Phase Shift
Keying

BRAN
Broadband Radion
Access Network

BRI
Basic Rate Interface for user: 144 kbps
2B + D (2x64 kbps for data, 16 kbps for signaling)
BSS
Base Station
Subsytem

BSSAP
BSS Application Part protocol used on A interface; it is split in 2 parts: DTAP and BSSMAP
BSSMAP
BSS Management
Application Part
messages interpreted by the BSS (radio resource management); part of
BSSAP
C

C
ch

Channelization Code distinguishes one communication channel direction; there are OVSF
C
scramb

Scrambling Code distinguishes cells and mobile users
CAC
Connection (or Call)
Admission Control
in CDMA networks the 'soft capacity' concept applies: each new call
increases the interference level of all other ongoing calls, affecting their
quality; therefore it is very important to control the access to the network in
a suitable way
CallP
Call Processing all the work related to the management of the GSM communications
CAMEL
Customized
Application for Mobile
network Enhanced
Logic
one of the main drivers for CAMEL Phase 3 has been the desire for a
roaming pre-paid service for GPRS and SMS
CAP
CAMEL Application
Part

CBC
Cell Broadcast Center
CBS
Dell Broadcast Service
CBR
Constant Bit Rate
CC1 (bsc,
CN)
Cam Controller 1
module
it is the ATM switch that implements the ATM network used as the
Control Node backplane, and provides ATM on OC-3 connectivity towards
the Interface Node; those modules are provisioned in pair to provide
redundancy
CCCH
Common Control
CHannel

CCH
Control CHannel
CCS7
Common Channel
Signaling number 7

CCTrCH
Coded Composite
Transport CHannel

CDMA
Code Division
Multiple Access

cdma2000
IS-95 evolution
CEM (bsc,
IN)
Common Equipment
Module
the active CEM controls the subrack and controls traffic switching
functions; the inactive CEM is in stand-by mode providing redundancy for
the shelf; those modules are provisioned in pair to provide redundancy
CEM (bts)
Channel Element
Module

Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-5


CEM (tcu)
Common Equipment
Module
the active CEM controls TCU resource modules, provides system
maintenance, clock synchronization and traffic switching; the switching
fabric in the CEM allows 64 kbit/s channels coming from interface resource
modules to be routed to either a vocoder resource for speech compression
or directly to another interface port for channels that do not require any
processing (e.g., channels carrying SS7 to the MSC)
CES
Contivity Extranet
Switch

CGF
Charging Gateway
Function

CGI
Cell Global Identity CGI = LAI + CI
CI
Cell Identity identifies one cell
CIR
Committed
Information Rate

CLP
Cell Loss Priority
CM
Configuration
Management

CM (bts)
Control Module
CM (msc)
Core Module
CN
Core Network
CN (bsc)
Control Node
codec
coder decoder
COM
Continuation Of
Message

CORBA
Common Object
Request Broker
Architecture
standard used to define a general opened architecture
CORE (bts)
COnfiguration
Resource module

C-plane
Control plane
CPCH
Common Packet
CHannel
carried by the PCPCH; it is an uplink transport channel; it is a contention
based random access channel used for transmission of bursty data traffic;
it is associated with a dedicated channel on the downlink which provides
power control for the uplink CPCH
CPCS
Common Part
Convergence Sublayer
part of CS
CPICH
Common PIlot
CHannel
it is a fixed rate (30 kbps, 15 ksps, SF = 256) downlink physical channel that
carries a pre-defined bit/symbol sequence; it consists of 20 bits = 10
symbols
CRC
Cyclic Redundant
Check
possibility to have 0, 8, 12, 16 or 24 bits of CRC
CRNC
Controlling RNC
CS
Call Server
CS
Circuit Switched
CS (ATM)
Convergence Sublayer split in 2 parts: CPCS, SSCS
CSE
CAMEL Service
Environment
a CSE is a logical entity which processes activities related to Operator
Specific Services (OSS); name of SCP for CAMEL
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-6

CSI
CAMEL Subscription
Information
the CSI identifies that CAMEL support is required for the subscriber and
the identities of the CSEs to be used for that support. The CSI also
contains information related to the OSS of the subscriber, e.g. Service Key.
CSN
Ciphering Sequence
Number

CTCH
Common Traffic
CHannel

CTMx (bsc,
SAI)
Cable Transition
Module x
it is available in 3 styles:
- CTMC (PCM30 coax) which provides 3 PCM30 spans
- CTMP (PCM30 twisted pair) which provides 3 PCM30 spans
- CTMD (DS-1 twisted pair) which provides four DS-1 spans
CTU (bsc,
SAI)
Cable Transition Unit
module
it provides the physical interface between the LSA RC and the customer's
spans; it is a set of resource modules that include:
- a CTB (Cable Transition Board): is equipped to mate the backplane with
seven CMTs and a CTMH
- a single CTMH (Cable Transition Module High density); ensures
connectivity between CTU and LSA RC
- 7 CTMx (Cable Transition Module); is either the CTMP for PCM-30 120
interface, the CTMC for PCM-30 75 interface, or CTMD for the DS-1 100
interface
it provides the following functions:
- terminates the cables that connect to the TIM via the CTMH
- provides connectors for terminating customer A and Ater spans
- contains CTMs which provide secondary surge protection, manual
loopback, switches, and passive electronics for impedance matching for
PCM-30 coax connections
Cu
reference point between USIM and ME
D

DC
Dedicated Control it is a SAP; user control; multiplexed with data
DCA
Dynamic Channel
Allocation

DCH
Dedicated CHannel characterized by the possibility of fast rate change (every 10 ms), fast
power control and inherent addressing of UEs; it is a downlink or uplink
transport channel
DCCH
Dedicated Control
CHannel

DMS
Digital Multiplex
System

DMTAP
Direct Message
Transfer Application
Part

DP
Detection Point the points in processing at which notifications (to the service logic) can
occur and transfer of control (to the gsmSCF) is possible; they are
activated in SSP
DPCCH
Dedicated Physical
Control CHannel
I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame
DPCH
Dedicated Physical
CHannel

DPDCH
Dedicated Physical
Data CHannel
I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame; it is used to carry dedicated
data generated at Layer 2 and above, i.e. the dedicated transport channel
(DCH)
DRNC
Drift RNC
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-7

DS-CDMA
Direct Sequence
CDMA
access scheme of WCDMA
DSCH
Downlink Shared
CHannel

DSCH CCH
DSCH Control
CHannel

DSS2
Digital Subscriber
Signaling System
number 2

DTAP
Direct Transfer
Application Protocol
transparent MS/MSC chain messages (mobility management and call
control); part of BSSAP
DTC
Digital Trunk
controller

DTCH
Dedicated Traffic
CHannel

DTX
Discontinuous
Transmission

E

E
c

average energy per PN chip
ECU
Error Concealment
Unit

EDGE
Enhanced Data Rates
for GSM Evolution

EDP
Event Detection Point dynamic DP
EFCI
Explicit Forward
Congestion Indication

EMC
ElectroMagnetic
Compatibility

ENET
Enhanced NETwork
EOM
End Of Message
ETSI
European
Telecommunications
Standards Institute

F

FACH
Forward Access
CHannel

FAUSCH
FAst Uplink Signaling
CHannel

FDD
Frequency Division
Duplex
using W-CDMA
FDDI
Fiber Distributed Data
Interface

FEC
Forward Error
Correction

FER
Frame Error Rate
FFH-CDMA
Fast Frequency
Hopping CDMA

FM
Fault Management
Forward
Link
BS to Mobile link
FRM (bts)
RF Module
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-8

FRU
Field Replaceable Unit
G

GAN
Global Area Network WAN that spans the globe, using both terrestrial and wireless
telecommunications
GC
General Control it is a SAP; message of the cell = BCCH
GFC
Generic Flow Control
GGSN
Gateway GPRS
Support Node

GLR
Gateway Location
Register

GPRS
General Packet Radio
System

GPS (bts)
Global Positioning
System module

GSA
Global Mobile
Suppliers Association

G/W
GateWay
H

HCS
Hierarchical Cell
Structures

HEC
Header Error Control
HFN
Hyper Frame Number
HMM
High MultiMedia
HPLMN
Home PLMN
HSLAN
High Speed LAN
I

IAM
Initial Address
Message

IDU
Interface Data Unit
IEM (bsc,
IN)
Interface Electronics
Module
part of the LSA RC
IETF
Internet Engineering
Task Force

I/F
InterFace
IMM
Interactive
MultiMedia

IMSI
International Mobile
Subscriber Identity
it is only stored in the UTRAN for the duration of the RRC connection
IMT 2000
International Mobile
Telecommunication
for year 2000
3G ITU standard
IMUI
International Mobile
User Identity

IN
Intelligent Network
IN (bsc)
Interface Node
INAP
IN Application Part
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-9

INM
Integrated Network
Management

IOP
Input Output
Peripheral

IP
Internet Protocol
IPLMN
Interrogating PLMN this is the PLMN that performs the interrogation of the HPLMN for
information on the treatment of a terminating call.
IPRs
Intellectual Property
Rights

ISDN
Integrated Services
Data Network

ISM
Integrated Services
Module
audio server
ISP
Internet Service
Provider

ISUP
Integrated Services
User Part

ITU
International
Telecommunication
Union

ITU-T
ITU
Telecommunication
Standardization
Sector
permanent organ of the ITU; it is responsible for studying technical,
operating and tariff questions and issuing recommendations on them with a
view to standardizing telecommunications on a worldwide basis; has
replaced CCITT since 1
st
March 1993
IS-95
also called 'narrow band CDMA'
Iu
CN-UTRAN interface
UMTS access to CN; interface between RNC and Core Network; open
interface
this interface is mapped on AAL2 towards the Circuit Switched (CS)
Domain
this interface is mapped on IP/AAL5 towards the Packet Switched (PS)
Domain
it will use ATM with BSSMAP-like control protocols
Iub
interface between RNC and access node; open interface
Iur
interface between two RNCs; open interface
Iu UP
Iu User Plane 2 modes of operations: TrM and SMpSDU
IWF
InterWorking
Functions

IWU
InterWorking Unit to link an UMTS CN to an IMT-2000 CN
J



K

kbps
kilo bit(s) per second
ksps
kilo symbol(s) per
second

L

LA
Location Area
LAC
Location Area Code
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-10

LAI
Location Area Identity LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC
LAN
Local Area Network short -distance data communications networks, intended to connect
computers within the same location for the purpose of sharing information
and/or peripheral devices such as printers, CD-ROMs, and modems; a
typical LAN operates at 4, 10, or 16 Mbps
LCD
Long Constrained
Delay
fixed services: LCD64, LCD144, LCD384, LCD2048 exist; circuit connection
emulation (for speech service also); code(s) allocated to the unique use of
one user communication
LCS
LoCation Services it shall be possible to identify and report in a standard format (e.g.
geographical co-ordinates) the current location of the users terminal and to
make the information available to the user, ME, network operator, service
provider, value added service providers and for PLMN internal operations;
the location identification is provided to identify the likely location of
specific MEs; this is meant to be used for charging, location-based
services, lawful interception, emergency calls, etc., as well as the
positioning services; the standard shall support both GSM BSS and
UTRAN to facilitate determination of the location of a mobile station
LIU
Link Interface Unit
LM
Location Management
LNA
Low Noise Amplifier
LSA RC
(bsc IN, tcu)
Low Speed Access
Resoucre Complex
it provides 21 PCM-30 or 28 DS-1 span connections; it is a set of resource
modules that include:
- a duplicated IEM (Interface Electronics Module): there is one spare for
every IEM that is processing calls
- a single TIM (Termination Interface Module); as all the functions of the
TIM are implemented with passive components, it allows the TIM to be
non-redundant without impacting system reliability
- a RCM (Resource Complex Mini backplane); is equipped to mate the
backplane with two IEMs ans a TIM
the IEM transmits the PCM-30 or DS-1 line encoded signals to the CEM
across the S-link interface, handles various other functions such as clock
and frame recovery, alarm detection, line coding, mapping the span
information into the S-link format and providing a diagnostic interface
LTC
Line Trunk
Controller

M

MAC
Medium Access
Control

MAC-c
Common MAC
MAC-d
Dedicated MAC
MAN
Metropolitan Area
Network
high-speed intra-city networks, usually constrained to a 50-kilometer
radius; MANs enable real-time data, voice, and image transmission, and
typically operate at speeds ranging from 1 Mbps to 200 Mbps
MAP
Mobile Application
Part

MCC
Mobile Call Center RNC simulator
MCC
Mobile Country Code
MCI
Matsuhita
Communication
Industrial
Panasonic
Mcps
Mega chip per second 3.84 Mcps is the fixed spreading factor of UMTS
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-11

ME
Mobile Equipment
MEGACO
MEdia GAteway
COntrol protocol

MER
Message Error Rate
MeXe
Mobile station
application eXecution
environment
provides a standardized environment for applications and services on the
mobile station; it uses both Java and WAP technologies to realize services;
MExE provides a standardized execution environment in an MS, and an
ability to negotiate its supported capabilities with a MExE service provider,
allowing applications to be developed independently of any MS platform;
the MS (consisting of the ME and SIM/USIM) can then be targeted at a
range of implementations for MExE from small devices with low bandwidth,
limited displays, low processor speeds, limited memory, MMI etc., to
sophisticated with a complete MExE execution environment
MGCP
Media Gateway
Control Protocol

MM
Mobility Management
MMM
Medium MultiMedia
MCN
Mobile Network Code
MMS (bsc,
CN)
Memory Mass Storage
module
it holds all the private data and those that must be secured and still
accessible in the event of an OMU failure or disk failure; those modules are
provisioned in pair to provide redundancy
MRC
Maximum Ratio
Combining

MSC
Mobile services
Switching Center

MTM
Maintenance Trunk
Module

MTP
Message Transfer Part
MTP3b
MTP layer 3 for
broadband networks

Multimedia
the combination of multiple forms of media in the communication of
information; can include text, images, sound, video, animation, and
telephony
N


NAS
Non Access Stratum
NBAP
Node B Application
Part
protocol used over Iub
network
set of resources used to provide a set of services
NISDN
Narrowband ISDN until 2 Mbit/s
NNI
Network Node
Interface

Node B
controls a number of cells and can be ordered to add/remove radio links in
those cells (from CRNC)
Nt
Notification it is a SAP; broadcasted in the cell, but for only one user (e.g. paging)
NVOD
Near Video On
Demand

Glossary


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UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-12

O

OAM
Operation
Administration and
Maintenance

OCCCH
ODMA Common
Control CHannel

OC-n
Optical Carrier level
n

ODCCH
ODMA Dedicated
Traffic CHannel

ODCH
ODMA Dedicated
CHannel

ODMA
Opportunity Driven
Multiple Access
only in TDD
ODTCH
ODMA Dedicated
Traffic CHannel

OHG
Operators
Harmonization Group

OMU (bsc,
CN)
Operation and
Maintenance Unit
it manages all BSC resources, ensures BSC survival, BSS interface with the
OMC-R and disk management; those modules are provisioned in pair to
provide redundancy
OoBTC
Out-of-Band
Transcoder Control
uses ISUP+ signaling to negotiate a suitable codec
ORACH
ODMA Random
Access CHannel

ORB
Object Request
Broker
used within CORBA
OS
Operating System
OSA
Open Service
Architecture
it is a network interface toolkit being developed which will be part of the
VHE concept
OSI
Open System
Interconnection

OSS
Operator Specific
Services
any service offered on a PLMN that is not standardized by the GSM
specifications.
OVSF
Orthogonal Variable
Spreading Factor

P

PCCC
Parallel Concatenated
Convolutional Code

PCCH
Paging Control
CHannel

P-CCPCH
Primary Common
Control Packet
CHannel
used to carry BCH; it is a fixed rate (30 kbps, 15 ksps, SF = 256)
PCG
Project Co-ordination
Group

PCH
Paging CHannel
PCM
Pulse Code
Modulation

PCPCH
Physical Common
Packet CHannel
used to carry CPCH
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-13

PD
Propagation Delay in UMTS: it is the round trip propagation delay of the radio signal from the
Node B to the UE and back to the BS in one chip resolution
PDH
Plesiochronous
Digital Hierarchy

PDP
Packet Data Protocol
PDTC
PCM30 Digital Trunk
controller

PDU
Packet Data Unit
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
PGW
PSTN GateWay
PICH
Page Indication
CHannel

PIN
Personal
Identification Number

PLL
Phase Locked Loop
PLMN
Public Land Mobile
Network

PM (OMC)
Performance
Management

PM (MSC)
Peripheral Module
PM
Physical Medium
PMD
Physical Medium
Dependant
split in 2 parts: TC and PM
PN
Pseudo Noise
PN
Pseudo-Random Noise
Code
uniquely identifies individual sector on Forward Link; uniquely identifies
users sectors on Reverse Link
POI
Point Of Interconnect
PP
PassPort
PRACH
Physical Random
Access CHannel
used to carry RACH
PRI
Primary Rate ISDN 2 Mbit/s for E1; 1,5 Mbit/s for T1
PS
Packet Switched
PSCH
Primary Sync
CHannel

PSTN
Public Switched
Telephone Network

PSU
Power Supply Unit
PT
Payload Type
PTI
Payload Type
Identifier

PVC
Permanent Virtual
Circuit

PVG
Packet Voice Gateway
Q

QoC
Quality of Coverage
QoS
Quality of Service
QPSK
Quadrature Phase
Shift Keying

R

Glossary


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UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-14
RA
Routing Area one RA is a subset of one, and only one, LA, meaning that a RA do not
span more than one LA; RA and LA is equal
RAB
Radio Access Bearer
RAC
Routing Area Code
RACH
Random Access
CHannel
carried by PRACH
RACHFP
RACH Frame Protocol
RAN
Radio Access Network
RANAP
RAN Application Part in general RANAP signaling is an enhanced BSSMAP
RCM (bsc,
IN)
Resource Complex
Mini backplane
part of the LSA RC
Reverse
Link
Mobile to BS Link
RFI
Request For
Information

RLC
Radio Link Control
RM
Resource
Management

RNC
Radio Network
Controller
it belongs to one RNS
RNS
Radio Network
Subsytem
composed of BTSs and one RNC
RNSAP
Radio Network
Subsytem Application
Part
protocol responsible for providing signaling information across the Iur
interface
RNTI
Radio Network
Temporary Identity
allocated at RRC connection establishment; use as UE identifier within
UTRAN and in signaling messages between UE and UTRAN
RRC
Radio Resource
Control
layer 3
RRC
Root-Raised Cosine
RS
Reed Solomon
RTD
Round Trip Delay
RTT
Radio Transmission
Technology

S


S
Speech
SA
Service Area
SA
System Architecture
S-AAL
Signaling AAL
SAI
Service Area Interface
SAP
Service Access Point used to interconnect access stratum and non-access stratum; there are 3:
DC, GC, Nt
SAR
Segmentation And
Reassembly

Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-15


SAT
SIM Application
Toolkit
SAT provides a standardized execution environment for applications stored
on the SIM card and the ability to utilize certain functions of the supporting
mobile equipment; SAT provides mechanisms which allow applications,
existing in the SIM, to interact and operate with any ME which supports
the specified mechanism(s) thus ensuring interoperability between a SIM
and an ME, independent of the respective manufacturers and operators; a
transport mechanism is provided enabling applications to be down-loaded
and/or updated; a significant aspect of SAT is the highly secure
environment provided by the SIM card.
S-CCPCH
Secondary Common
Control Packet
CHannel

SCCH
Synchronization
Control CHannel

SCCP
Signaling Connection
Control Part

SCH
Synchronization
CHannel
it is a downlink signal used for cell search
SCF
Service Control
Function

SCP
Service Control Point
SCSI
Small Computer
System Interface

SD
Switched Data
SDH
Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy

SDM
Supernode Data
Manager

SDU
Service Data Unit
SEAL
Simple and Efficient
Adaptation Layer
other name for AAL-5
SF
Spreading Factor SF = T
b
/Tc; it is the number of chips per data symbols

SFN
System frame Number indicates super frame synchronization; broadcasted in BCH
SGC
Succession Gateway
Controller

SGSN
Serving GPRS
Support Node

SHC
Softer Handover
Controller

SHO
Soft Hand-Over
SIG
SS7/IP Gateway provides interworking between GPRS nodes in an IP network and GSM
nodes in an SS7 network
SIGTRAN
set of protocols developed by the IETF for seamless interworking between
IP and SS7 networks
SIM
Subscriber Identity
Module

SIM (bsc,
CN)
Shel Interface Module provides the power and alarm interfaces for the shelf; it provides shelf-
originated signals on their way to the AUI and frame-originated alarm
signals on their way to the OMU modules
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-16

SIM (bsc,
IN, tcu)
Shel Interface Module provides the power and alarm interfaces for the shelf; it provides shelf-
originated signals on their way to the AUI and frame-originated alarm
signals on their way to the CEM modules
SIR
Signal to Interference
Ratio

SN
Sequence Number
SNP
Sequence Number
Protection
to protect the SN field
SM
Session Management
SM
Simple Messaging
SMDS
Switched
Multimegabit Digital
Service

SMG
Succession Media
Gateway

SMP
Service Management
Point

SMS
Short Message
Service

SNMP
Simple Network
Management Protocol

SMpSDU
Support Mode for
predefined SDU size
can be used for transfer of AMR speech PDUs because the size of the user
data being transferred can vary in a predefined manner; control procedures
are defined for this support mode; PDU type 0 is used for the transfer of
user data and PDU type 15 is used for all the control procedures except the
error event which uses PDU type 14
SMvSDU
Support Mode for
variable SDU size
adds flexibility but is not included for release 99; it may be included in
release 00
SOH
Section OverHead
SONET
Synchronous Optical
NETwork

SPM
SPectruM telecom
platform
the first application of this platform is the DSM-100 OC-3 interface; this
program is often referred to as the SPM base program
SRNC
Serving RNC
SRNS
Serving RNS
SRTS
Synchronous Residual
Time Stamps

SSCF
Service Specific
Coordination
Function

SSCH
Secondary
Synchronization
CHannel

SSCOP
Service Specific
Connection Oriented
Protocol

SSCS
Service Specific
Convergence Sublayer
part of CS of ATM
SSM
Single Segment
Message

SSP
Service Switching
Point

Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-17

SSF
Service Switching
Function

STDM
Statistical Time
Division Multiplexer

STM-n
Synchronous
Transport Signal,
level n
hierarchy of ITU-T for SDH
STP
Signaling Transfer
Point

STS-n
Synchronous
Transport Signal,
level n

STTD
Space Time Transmit
Diversity

SVC
Switched Virtual
Circuit

swact
software activate
T

T1
Standards Committee
T1
Telecommunications
USA
TA
Timing Advance in UMTS: it is the amount of time, expressed in number of chips, by which
the transmission of an uplink burst is anticipated by the UE in order to be
received by the cell inside the corresponding time slot.
T
b

bit duration
T
c

chip duration
TC
Transmission
Convergence

TCAP
Transaction
Capabilities
Application Part

TCH
Traffic CHannel
TDD
Time Division Duplex using TD-CDMA
TDM
Time Division
Multiplexing

TDP
Trigger Detection
Point
static DP
TFCI
Transport Format
Combination
Indication
this field shall uniquely identify the transport format used by each
transport channel of the Coded Composite Transport Channel within the
current radio frame
TFC
Transport Format
Combination

TFO
Tandem Free
Operation
the current method used in GSM in order to bypass transcoding is Tandem
Free Operation (TFO), which is negotiated in-band; this in-band mechanism
will have to be implemented in UMTS for the AMR voice
TFT
Traffic Flow Template information available for the GGSN for multiplexing of downlink data
packets onto several secondary PDP contexts, i.e. information used to
select the right PDP context for a data packet
TGL
Transmission Gap
Length

Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-18

TIM (bsc,
IN)
Termination Interface
Module
part of the LSA RC
TMG
Traffic ManaGement
TMN
Telecommunication
Management Network
it is a telecommunication network which interfaces the Telecommunication
Networks to get data and to control the operations
TMU (bsc,
CN)
Traffic Management
Unit
provides the processing capability required to perform the GSM treatments
and protocol termination required for the GSM interfaces; one TMU
computes 300 Erl (whatever the subscriber profile); those modules are
provisioned in an n+p schemes: n to provide the targeted performance, p to
provide the redundancy
TPC
Transmit Power
Control
1 or 2 bits
TPC
Transport Power
Control

Tr
Transparent Mode
TRAU
Transcoder and Rate
Adaptation Unit

TrFO
Transcoder Free
Operation
in the out-of-band mechanism, when both ends can use the same codec the
transcoder can be avoided completely
TrM
Transparent Mode one of the 2 modes of Iu UP; used for the transfer of GTP-U PDUs (e.g. IP
packet), that have a variable length. No format of PDU is defined for this
mode. No Iu UP frames are generated. No control procedures are defined
for this mode
TRM (tcu)
Transcoding Resource
Module
it is responsible for GSM vocoding of the voice channels; this task is
accomplished by an array of general purpose, programmable DSFs; the
flexibility and computational power of the TRM allow it to run any of GSM
codecs on multiple traffic channels; those modules are provisioned for n+1
redundancy per dual-shelf
TSG
Technical
Specification Group

TSG SA
TSG Service and
System aspects

TTA
Telecommunications
Technology
Association
Korea
TTC
Telecommunication
Technology
Committee
Japan
TTI
Transmission Time
Interval

TTLNA
Top Tower LNA
TU3
Typical Urban 3 km/h
U

UARFCN
UTRA Absolute Radio
Frequency Channel
Number

UDD
Unconstrained Delay
Data
flexible data services: UDD64, UDD144, UDD384, UDD2048 exist; packet
connection (shared codes as GPRS has shared channels); code(s) can be
re-allocated to an another user during a communication
UE
User Equipment
Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-19

UICC
UMTS Integrated
Circuit Card

UIM
User Identity Module
Um
User interface for
mobile telephone

UM
Un-acknowledged
Mode

UMM
UMTS Mobility
Management

UMS
User Mobility Server
UMSC
UMTS MSC it is a serving node in charge of both CS and PS domains
UMTS
Universal Mobile
Telecommunications
System

UNI
User Network
Interface

UPC
User Parameter
Control

U-plane
User plane
URA
UTRAN Registration
Area

URAN
UMTS Radio Access
Network

USAT
USIM Application
Toolkit

U-RNTI
UTRAN Radio
Network Temporary
Identity
composed of S-RNTI an SRNC identifier
USCH
Uplink Shared
CHannel

USIM
Universal Subscriber
Identity Module
the ID-1 and Plug-in format used for the GSM SIM shall be adopted
USIM
User Service Identity
Module

USP
Universal Signaling
Point

USTS
Uplink Synchronous
Transmission scheme

UTRA
UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access
it is the UMTS radio access between UE and BTS
UTRAN
UMTS Terrestrial
Radio Access Network
it is all RNS of the network; because RNCs of RNSs can communicate
together, we can speak of network
Uu
UMTS radio interface; open interface
V

VBR
Variable Bit Rate
VC
Virtual Channel
VC
Virtual Container
VCC
Virtual Channel
Connection

VCI
Virtual Channel
Identifier

Glossary


"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".

UMT/TRD/CN/0005 01.02/EN October, 2000
10-20
VHE
Virtual Home
Environment

VLSI
Very Large Scale
Integrated

VMSC
Visitor Mobile
services Switching
Center

VoATM
Voice over ATM
VOD
Video On Demand
VoIP
Voice over IP
VP
Virtual Path
VPC
Virtual Path
Connection

VPI
Virtual Path Identifier
VPLMN
Visited PLMN
VPN
Virtual Private
Network

W

Walsh Code
uniquely identifies forward channels within a sector; used for additional
error correction on Reverse Link
WAN
Wide Area Network it connects a LAN to other LANs located in different buildings, or even
different cities, using telecommunications; WANs most often operate over
leased lines that range from 56 kbps to 1.54 Mbps
WAP
Wireless Application
Protocol

W-CDMA
Wide band Code
Division Multiple
Access
GSM evolution
WG
Wireless Gateway
WG
Working Group
WGC
Wireless Gateway
Controller

WTSC
World
Telecommunication
Standardization
Conference

X

XA-Core
advanced eXtended
Architecture Core

Y



Z



3

3GPP
3
rd
Generation
Partnership Project
in charge of UMTS
3GPP2
3
rd
Generation
Partnership Project 2
in charge of CDMA2000