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Shear zones & crustal blocks of southern India

UGC SAP DRS Phase II Seminar

Fluid Inclusions Tectonics Petrology

Dept. of Geology University of Kerala, rivandru! "#$ $%&, India

March 29 2!"#

UGC-SAP-DRS II Seminar

Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India

Proceedings of the UGC-SAP-DRS II seminar 29 March 2014 Department of Geology, University of Kerala Trivandrum, India Year of publication: 2014

Dept. of Geology University of Kerala, Trivandrum 695 581, India. geo.pradeep@gmail.com shajigeology@gmail.com

A. P. Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds)


Editors

ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1

Contents Preface
Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis: Yelagiri alkaline complex, south India. M. L. Renjith 1 Role of saline brine in graphite-bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study K.R.Baiju, C.G.Nambiar, G.N.Jadhav 8 A note on the brittle fault zones observed in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone Biju John, Sandeep Nelliat and Yogendra Singh 14 From arc to highlands: the story of origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India C. Sreejith and G. R. Ravindra Kumar 26 Petrology and Tectonic Significance of Probable Neo-Archaean Alaskan-Type Ultramafic Rocks in Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India V . J. Rajesh, S. Arai and M. Santosh

32

Rutile exsolution in garnet in Mg-Fe-Al granulites from Karur area, Madurai Block, southern India: an indicator of decompression P-T path Y. Anilkumar and S.C. Patel 34 Protolith constraints of garnetiferous biotite gneiss of Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) E. Shaji and A.P . Pradeepkumar

37

A chemico-mineralogical study of dolerites of Perinthalmanna area, Malappuram district, Kerala, India Deeju T. R. and S. N. Kumar 38 Mechanism of formation of dehydration patches in the Munnar granite, southwestern India S. Rajesh and A. P . Pradeepkumar

39

Preface
The Department of Geology, University of Kerala established in 1963, is one of the pioneering educational institutes, imparting studies in earth system sciences, in Kerala, India. The department has successfully completed the UGC-SAP-DRS Phase I with thrust area of research 'Kinematics of south Indian shear zones'. The second phase of UCG SAP (2013 to 2018) has been sanctioned to this department in order to strengthen the research facilities of the department with a thrust area of research on 'Shear zones and crustal blocks of south India with special emphases on fluid inclusions and tectonics'. The Southern Granulite Terrain is composed of a collage of blocks exposing mid- and lower-levels of the continental crust, dissected by crustalscale shear zones among which the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ) in the north and the Achankovil Shear Zone (ACSZ) in the south have been interpreted as suture zones. These domains continue to attract the attention of geologists worldwide to get a clear understanding of the fluid activities and crustal dynamics. Under the proposed project detailed investigations will be carried out on the metamorphic rocks, shear zone rocks, kinematics of shear zones and the tectonics of the crustal blocks on the basis of petrography, geochemistry, fluid inclusions. As a prelude to the research initiative, we have decided to organize a UGCSAP DRS Phase II conference to bring geoscientists together and collate abstracts of their scientific studies carried out so far in the thrust area. In this connection, well known experts from various scientific organizations/universities/research centers in petrology, tectonics and geochemistry are invited to present their research work. It is hoped that the outcome and deliberations of the conference would give a strong foundation for the department to start the phase II research progarmme in a well-planned and systematic manner. We are extremely happy to bring out this volume, which contains the full papers and abstracts of the papers presented in the conference. The contributions received from the experts from GSI, CUSAT, NIRM, MES College, CESS and IIST are greatly acknowledged. The financial support received from UGC has helped this department to proudly stand as one of the pioneering research centers of the country. The department is going to build up a strong petrological and fliud inclusion lab with the financial support of UGC SAP during the tenure of the scheme between 20132018. This will benefit the students and faculty of this University as well as neighbouring ones and will open to all researchers of this country.

E.Shaji Dty coordinator, UGC-SAP-DRS II

A.P .Pradeepkumar Coordinator, UGC-SAP-DRS II

M.L.Renjith

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis: Yelagiri alkaline complex, south India.
M. L. Renjith
Marine and Coastal Survey Division, Geological Survey of India, Cochin 682037, India E-mail: renjithml@rediffmail.com Abstract Yelagiri alkaline complex, southern India, provides a unique opportunity to study shallow crustal magma chamber processes involved in syenite petrogenesis. Yelagiri syenite is a batholith-size, dome-shaped massive intrusive body, which has developed three litho-facies (inner, middle and outer) of reversely zoned character as a result of systematic modal variation of K-feldspar, plagioclase, augite, biotite, edenite and quartz. Reverse zoning indicates i) differentiation by insitu fractional crystallization and ii) existence of chamber-scale magmatic gradient in terms of composition (increasing SiO2 from inner to outer facies), fO 2 (stabilization of quartz-magnetitetitanite assemblages at middle and outer facies) and water content (variation in biotite-edenite modal content and K-feldspar/plagioclase ratio across the lithofacies). Dimensional preferred orientation of K-feldspar megacrysts in magmatic flow fabrics imply chamber-scale convection or shear flow at a pre-rheological critical melt percentage (30%). In addition, scattered occurrence of crystal accumulation fabrics of K-feldspar megacrysts suggest quiescent crystal settling. These outcrop-scale evidences strongly advocate a heterogeneous magma chamber in terms of a dynamically active as well as a stagnant state. Other significant features in Yelagiri syenite are the widespread occurrence of microgranular mafic enclaves (MME) and synplutonic dykes. They are the robust witness of magma mixing process by the incremental supply of more-mafic magma into the crystallizing magma chamber. Efficient magma mixing at the early Newtonian condition imparted disequilibrium growth of feldspar crystals (Ca-spike zoning, zone truncation and synneusis) in host syenite magma. Mechanical mixing (magmatically deformed enclaves) enhanced by chaotic-advection played a significant role as the rheological state changed with progressive crystallization. Dispersion of the invaded mafic magma was restricted to the conduit as synplutonic dykes when the host magma attained near-solid state. Various grain to outcropscale magma mixing features suggest that the syenite magma chamber experienced input of more mafic magma during it entire crystallization-solidification history from Newtonian to near-solid state and evolved through multiple magma processes.
Key words: Syenite, Magma mixing, Flow fabrics, Crystal accumulation, Magma chamber process

Introduction In any igneous system magma undergoes numerous complex physical as well as geochemical processes (or changes) during its entire crystallization history. Evidences for such magmatic evolution are systematically recorded in grain-to-outcrop scale features. Particularly in plutonic alkaline complexes, the magma processes involved are more complex than in any another rock suites. Occurrences of a diverse spectrum of igneous rocks with chaotic field

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 1

M.L.Renjith

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis

relationships in a small volume make the alkaline complex rocks more enigmatic. In this paper one such plutonic complex, the Yelagiri alkaline complex of south India, is investigated to understand the shallow crustal magma chamber processes involved in syenite petrogenesis. Geological setting Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), a polymetamorphic terrain of south India hosts a number of A-type granite, syenite, ultramafic and carbonatite complexes dating between 850-450 Ma (Veevers, 2007). Spatially they are closely associated with crustal-scale shear and fault zones. The Yelagiri alkaline complex (YAC) (75732 Ma; Miyazaki et al., 2000) under investigation is one amongst them, and occurs in the northeastern part of the SGT (Fig.1a).

Fig. 1 (a) Map of South India showing major tectonic blocks and shear zones. SB: Salem block; MB: Madurai block; TB: Trivandrum block. Major shear zones are numbered as 1 to 7 and a transition zone as 8. (b) Geological map of the Yelagiri Alkaline Complex (after Renjith et al., 2014).

This unmetamorphosed and undeformed intrusive complex emplaced into late Archaean epidote-hornblende gneiss is constituted of three intrusive rock units: dunite, pyroxenite and syenite, as ordered by their decreasing areal extent. The present study is restricted to the youngest intrusive phase. Field relations and petrography Yelagiri syenite forms a dome shaped massive hilly outcrop of ~828 m height from ground level. Pegmatoidal to medium grained syenite is found in grey ( inner facies), pink (middle

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 2

M.L.Renjith

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis

facies) and leucocratic varieties (outer facies), distributed concentrically (Fig.1b). Salient petrographic features of syenite lithofacies are: i) K-feldspar/plagioclase ratio and cpx content gradually increase and decrease respectively from inner to outer facies; ii) amphibole and biotite are absent from inner and outer facies respectively; iii) liquidus quartz stabilized only at the northeastern margin and iv) titanite is always associated with amphibole and present

Fig.2. Packing density of K-feldspar grains (number of grains per unit area) and direction of magmatic foliation. Three types of grain packing: a. wide, b. moderate and c. closely spaced.

at the middle and outer facies. Presence of megacryst-size (2-6 cm long) K-feldspars is the unique feature in Yelagiri syenite and they impart diverse meso-scale fabrics to the outcrops. Dimensional preferred orientations of K-feldspars define magmatic flow fabrics which are found in all the syenite facies. Packing density of grains (number of grains per unit area) and direction of magmatic foliation varies at the meter scale. Three types of grain packing are observed: wide, moderate and closely spaced (Fig.2). Various crystal accumulation fabrics are also observed from many out crops. Such fabrics show cryptic layering (Fig.3a,c), random orientation (Fig.3b), and graded fining upward variations (Fig.3b). K-feldspar megacrysts show various primary dissolution-regrowth textures. Compositional growth zoning (Ca-spike zone) is a common feature. Growth zones show synneusis plagioclase inclusions, curved corners and zone truncation. Centimeter scale, rounded to irregular shaped, fine-grained melanocratic microgranular mafic enclaves are scattered over the syenite (Fig.4a, b). They show sharp to diffusive boundaries with host syenite and magmatic deformations (Fig.4a). They frequently carry feldspar xenocrysts incorporated from the host syenite. Their texture varies from hypidiomorphic to allotriomorphic, and is dominantly constituted of edenite, plagioclase and K-feldspar. Presence of acicular apatite and amphibole are characteristic. Synplutonic dykes are another important feature in syenite (Fig.4c). Some of them carry MME and show diffusive to sharp boundary.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 3

M.L.Renjith

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis

Fig.3 Field photographs of meso-scale crystal accumulation fabrics in syenite developed by K-feldspar megacrysts. (a) cryptic crystal accumulation layering ; (b) randomly oriented crystal in a mush zone; (c) gradual settling of crystals ; (d) cryptic graded variation of K-feldspar crystals. White triangle is provided for correlating gradational variation of grain size.

Fig.4 Field photograph of MME with sharp to diffusive boundary (a) and magmatic deformation (b) K-feldspar rich synplutonic dyke. (c)Synplutonic dykes in syenite

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 4

M.L.Renjith

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis

Discussion and conclusion Yelagiri syenite is a batholith-size reversely zoned plutonic body. The three lithofacies demarcated show systematic increase in SiO 2 content from the inner to the outer facies syenite (Fig.5). More evolved as well as quartz-bearing rock units occurring at the pluton margins imply a reversely zoned character for the syenite body. Systematic variation in Fe-Mg minerals and CaO in the Harker diagram (Fig.5) suggests that in situ fractional crystallization played a significant role in the development of reverse zonation. Early crystallization of anhydrous phases such as cpx and feldspars stabilize biotite in the grey inner facies syenite. Liquidus edenite-amphibole was stabilized in the middle and outer facies syenite suggesting that progressive crystallization increases the water content. Intense crystallization of silica-poor amphibole (edenite) stabilized quartz in the more evolved composition. Biotite and amphibole have markedly different phase boundaries in the TcH 2O space (Conrad et al., 1988; DallAgnol et al., 1999). Amphibole requires a relatively high water content in the melt of at least 4 to 5 wt.% H2O whereas stabilization of biotite requires a stable water content of as low as 2-2.5 wt.% (DallAgnol et al., 1999). Biotite-rich inner facies and amphibole-rich middle and outer facies syenite imply the existence of a chamber-scale magmatic gradient in terms of water content i.e., more hydrous outer margin and less hydrous inner region of the chamber (Fig.6). Systematic variation of K-feldspar/plagioclase ratio also substantiates this fractional crystallization and increase in water content (e.g., Whitney, 1975, 1988; Day and Fenn, 1982). Stabilization of titanite-magnetite-quartz assemblage in the more evolved

Fig. 5 Harker variation diagram for CaO content in syenite lithofacies.

composition suggests high oxygen fugacity conditions during the crystallization (e.g., Wones, 1989). Estimated P-T conditions suggest that syenite crystallized at a 2-4 kb pressure range (Al-in Amphibole and Amphibole-Plagioclase pair) and 660-740 C temperature (Renjith, 2010). Estimated zircon saturation temperature yielded a temperature between 900 and 850 C for the grey inner facies syenite whereas middle and outer facies syenite yielded less than 775 C (Renjith, 2010). Zircon crystallization is well correlated with the reverse zoning and fractional crystallization. Various crystal accumulation fabrics in scattered outcrops suggest localized crystal settling in a quiescent magmatic environment. Cryptic layering and crystal-rich mush zones indicate that crystal settling was intense at the early stages of the melt-supported state of the

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 5

M.L.Renjith

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis

magma chamber (e.g., Vernon and Paterson, 2008). When the crystals were suspended enough to move freely in a liquid, mechanical accumulation by gravity settling was the significant process responsible for the accumulation fabrics in Yelagiri syenite. In contrast to this settling process, the magma flow fabrics developed by K-feldspar megacrysts imply a shape preferred orientation (SPO) due to magmatic flow (a prerheological critical melt percentage, 30%; Arzi, 1978) in the magma chamber. The early formed tabular crystals in a more melt supported system and suspended state were flowing along with the magma turbulence or shear flow as the logs do in a river (e.g., Vernon and Paterson, 2008). Variation in packing density of the grains indicates that magma flow was active at different stages of crystallization. Features like fine grained nature, sharp contact, presence of acicular amphibole and apatite in microgranular enclaves indicate that they were formed by thermal quenching of mafic magma globules upon injection into relatively cold host syenite magma (e.g., Vernon, 1983; Vernon et al., 1988). Hybridization between enclave and host magmas occurred

Fig. 6 Cartoon illustrate a proposed magma chamber model for the Yelagiri syenite.

through different mechanisms. At the Newtonia stage, homogenization of invaded magma was efficient and caused fluctuating phase equilibrium in the crystallizing melt. Disequilibrium micro-textures in K-feldspars indicate magma- mixing-driven growth textures. Deformed MMEs and schleiren-like structures indicate that mafic magma blobs were mechanically diluted through chaotic dynamic advection (Renjith et al., 2014). Synplutonic dykes in syenite indicate injection of mafic magma at the nearly-solid state crystallization of the host syenite magma (Fig.4c) Due to the high thermal rheological contrast with host

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 6

M.L.Renjith

Evidence for multiple magma processes in syenite petrogenesis

syenite the invaded magma remained in the conduit of injection and solidified as dykes. MMEs and synplutonic dykes are witnesses of magma mixing features in syenite. From various grain to outcrop scale evidences a magma chamber model is envisaged for the Yelagiri syenite (Fig.6). Multiple magma chamber processes were involved in the crystallization-solidification history of the syenite. Crystal accumulation and mechanical settling was the major physical differentiation of the syenite magma in the early stage of crystallization. In situ fractional crystallization promoted the development of chamber-scale hydrous and less hydrous magma. This resulted in the formation of syenite lithofacies. Input of more mafic magma into the crystallizing chamber was another significant process that contributed to the evolution of Yelagiri syenite. References
Arzi, A. A. 1978. Critical phenomena in the rheology of partially melted rocks. Tectonophysics 44, 173184. Conrad, W.K., Nicholls, I.A., Wall, V .J. 1988. Water satuarted and under saturated melting of metaluminous and peraluminous crustal compositions at 10kb: evidence for the origin of silicic magmas in the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand, and other occurrences. J. Petrol., 29, 765-803. DallAgnol, R., Scaillet, B., Pichavant, M. 1999b. An experimental study of a lower Proterozoic A-type granite from the Eastern Amazonian Craton, Brazil. J. Petrol., 40, 16731698. Day, H.W., Fenn, P .W., 1982. Estimating the P-T-XH 2O conditions during crystallization of low calcium granites. J.Geol., 90, 485-508 Miyazaki, T., Kagami, H., Shuto, K., Morikiyo, T., Ram Mohan, V ., Rajasekaran, K.C., 2000. Rb-Sr geochronology, Nd-Sr isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of Yelagiri and Sevattur syenites, Tamil Nadu, South India. Gondwana Research 3, 39-53. Renjith M.L., S.N. Charan, D.V . Subbarao, Babu, E.V .S.S.K., Rajashekhar, V .B. 2014. Grain to outcropscale frozen moments of dynamic magma mixing in the syenite magma chamber, Yelagiri alkaline complex, south India, Geoscience Frontiers, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016 /j.gsf.2013.08.006 Renjith, M.L., 2010. Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of the Yelagiri alkaline complex, Tamil Nadu. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Osmania University, India. Veevers, J.J., 2007. Pan-Gondwanaland post-collisional extension marked by 650-500 Ma alkaline rocks and carbonatites and related detrital zircons: a review. Earth Science Reviews 83, 1-47. Vernon, R. H., Paterson, S. R. 2006. Mesoscopic structures resulting from crystal accumulation and melt movement in granites. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 97 (04), 369-381. Vernon, R.H. 1983. Restite, xenoliths and microgranitoid enclaves in granites. J. R. Sot. New South Wales 116, 77-103. Vernon, R.H., Etheridge, M.A., Wall, V .J., 1988. Shape and microstructure of microgranitoid enclaves: indicators of magmatic mingling and flow. Lithos 22, 1-12. Whitney, J.A. 1975. The effects of pressure, temperature, and XH 2O on phase assemblages in four synthetic rock compositions. J.Geol., 83, 1-31. Whitney, J.A.1988. The origin of granite: The role and source of water in the evolution of granitic magmas. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 100, 1886-1897. Wones, D.R. 1989. Significance of assemblage titanite+magnetite+quartz in granitic rocks. Am. Mineral., 74, 744-749.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 7

K R Baiju et al.,

Saline brine in graphite bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study

Role of saline brine in graphite-bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study
K.R.Baiju1*, C.G.Nambiar1, G.N.Jadhav2
1

Department of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Lakeshore Avenue, Kochi, India
2

Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, India *Corresponding author Email: baijukr@gmail.com

Abstract Saline brine occurrences have been reported from many granulite terrains which are believed to be generated from the lower crust and upper mantle. They may be concentrated in deep fluid system from vivid sources like saline connate fluid, dissolution from sedimentary salts, and H 2O loss by preferential partitioning into hydrous minerals during retrograde metamorphism or into hydrous silicate liquids during melting and infiltration of externally derived magmatic fluids. In the Madurai Granulite Block (MGB), a prominent tectonic block of the central region of the Southern Granulite Terrain, the role of CO 2-rich fluids in charnockitization process was proposed by many early workers derived support from the common occurrence of high-density CO 2 inclusions in various minerals (e.g. Srikantappa et al., 1992; Mohan et al., 1996). The present study reveals the presence of high saline brines inclusions in graphite-bearing charnockite and associated gneisses from the MGB and its implication in the metamorphic history of the terrain. The calculated density of the primary inclusions falls in a nominal range of 0.77-0.87 g/cc which denotes slightly lesser pressure than the peak metamorphic condition of the terrain. The total homogenisation temperature of the youngest generation biphase/polyphase inclusions of vapour + liquid + halite ranges between 150-500 OC has inclusions low CO2 densities ranging between 0.58 -0.75 g/cc. The salinity of the halite bearing inclusions were calculated from halite melting temperature and it ranges between 32-52. wt% NaCl equivalent, which is comparatively high. This indicates a late stage saline-hydrothermal activity at a lower temperature has affected the terrain, which might have initiated a retrogressive stage. The immiscible nature of brine and carbonic fluids, which can persist together, even at very high magmatic temperatures, provides the explanation for the coexistence of CO 2 inclusions and NaCl-H2O high salinity inclusions in same trails. Introduction The thermodynamically isolated micro geochemical systems entrapped in various minerals during their growth are popularly known as fluid inclusions. Fluid and melt inclusions provide a wealth of information on the genetic and evolutionary history of the mineral assemblages in a rock or ore formation as they furnish valid clues for the physico-chemical interpretations. They represent ideal samples of the fluid or melt, which were in equilibrium with host mineral either during its genesis or at later stages.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 8

K R Baiju et al.,

Saline brine in graphite bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study

Fig. 1. Sample locations. Inset shows the general geological setting of the MGB By far the most abundant type of fluid inclusion is that which contains a low viscosity liquid and a smaller volume of gas or vapour bubble. The liquid is generally aqueous has a pH within one unit of neutral, and contains a total salt concentration between 0 and 40 weight percent. The salts contain major amounts of Na +, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, CI- and SO42- ions, with minor amount of Li+, Al3+, BO33-, H4SiO4, and bicarbonate and carbonate ions. Na and Cl ions are usually dominant. CO2 in both liquid and gas form and liquid hydrocarbon are fairly common. Liquid hydrogen sulphide has also been observed, but is rare. Carbon dioxide occurs as a supercritical fluid above 31C, its critical point. Daughter minerals, usually cubes of halite or sylvite form when nearly saturated fluids cool from the initial temperature of entrapment. Other crystals that are observed but are not simple precipitates of a supersaturated solution include sulphides, quartz, anhydrite, calcite, hematite and gypsum. Such crystals either form before the inclusion was finally sealed, as a result of secondarily introduced fluids or even through oxidation resulting from hydrogen diffusion (Roedder, 1979). Studies on fluid inclusion in rocks of different metamorphic grade shows that there is a consistent relation of composition of fluids found in inclusion to the metamorphic conditions and the variation will be only according to the difference in grade (Crawford and

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 9

K R Baiju et al.,

Saline brine in graphite bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study

Hollister, 1986). In a host mineral, the inclusions behave as closed volumes and during its path to exhumation in a definite P-T trajectory it maintains isochoric behaviour. So in highgrade metamorphic rocks all most all the generation fluids are well preserved rather than in low-grade rocks which makes the studies much easier. (Frezzotti et. al., 2004). The southern Indian granulite terrain (SGT) has been a key area in understanding the nature and role of fluids in deep crustal processes in the past three decades (e.g. Newton et al., 1989; Santosh et al., 1991). The Madurai Granulite Block (MGB), which is a prominent tectonic block of the central region of the SGT (Fig. 1), the role of CO 2-rich fluids in charnockitization process was proposed by many early workers derived support from the common occurrence of highdensity CO2 inclusions in various minerals (e.g. Srikantappa et al., 1992; Mohan et al., 1996). The present study reveals the presence of high saline brines inclusions in graphite-bearing charnockite from the MGB and its implication in the metamorphic history of the terrain. Geological Setting The MGB is the largest single granulite block among the different tectonic units in the SGT and is bounded by the Palghat-Cauvery Shear system (PCS) in the north and the Achankovil Shear (ACS) in the south. The block is predominantly constituted of high-grade metamorphic rocks of the granulite facies (Fig 1). The major rock types include charnockites, mafic granulites, hornblende-biotite gneisses, migmatitic gneisses, garnet-cordierite-sillimanite gneisses, garnet-biotite gneiss, marbles, sapphirine-bearing granulites, and other quartzofeldspathic gneisses (eg. Naqvi and Rogers, 1987; Sivasubramanian et al., 1991; Mohan, 1996; Satish-Kumar et al., 2002; Sajeev et al., 2004 etc.). Some of the previous studies point out a polymetamorphic and multistage evolution for the MGB. Analytical Procedures The microthermometric investigations of the samples were carried out on a Linkam TMSG600 heating-freezing stage (-196C to +600C) housed in the Dept. of Earth Sciences, IIT Bombay. The precision of measurements is 1.1C. The data obtained from microthermometry, and occasionally volume fraction estimates of the fluid inclusions were evaluated using computer program package FLUIDS-1 (Bakker, 2003) in order to transform melting temperatures, homogenization temperatures and optical volume fraction estimates into bulk compositions and densities. Results Fluid inclusion petrography In metamorphic rocks, fluid inclusions are studied in various rock forming minerals, particularly quartz or garnet which have no cleavage and therefore suffer less fluid leakage after trapping (Touret, 2001). The absence of cleavage and the ability of easy recrystallization make quartz an ideal mineral to preserve the fluid inclusions (Van den Kerkhof and Hein, 2001; Touret, 2001). Thus quartz-rich samples were selected in this study. The fluid inclusion petrography was observed at room temperature (26-28C). The most common type of fluid inclusions in the studied samples is a monophase gas rich type. These inclusions are found as solitary negative crystal type inclusions or in isolated groups, which can be considered to be of primary origin, compared to those occurring as arrays along healed or fresh fractures (pseudosecondary and secondary). Biphase liquid/gas rich and polyphase inclusions of vapour + liquid + halite are also noticed as pseudosecondary or secondary type (Table1). Fluid inclusion chronology
A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 10

K R Baiju et al.,

Saline brine in graphite bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study

Chronologically the fluid inclusions can be grouped into three major generations. They are: 1. Monophase carbonic inclusions with well-developed negative crystal shape seen isolated or in isolated groups in the samples. Based on fluid inclusion petrography this can be considered to be of primary origin (Fig. 2a). 2. Monophase carbonic inclusions of pseudosecondary type (occurring in arrays mostly along healed fractures) (Fig. 2b). This can be considered to be the modified first generation fluid inclusions. Sometimes biphase (CO 2 + H2O) inclusions are also found as pseudosecondary type, which may be of the same generation due to some heterogeneous trapping, or of two different generations. Their relative chronology is not clear from the fluid inclusion petrography. 3. Secondary type (occurring along fractures) biphase (CO 2 + H2O) as well as polyphase (CO2 liquid + CO2 gas+ H2O+ NaCl) inclusions that can be considered to be the last generation fluid inclusions (Fig. 2c). Table 1. Type of inclusions present in the samples studied Sample No. G4B CK108 G5 Types of fluid inclusions present Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Polyphase (CO2 gas+ CO2 liquid +H2O) Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Polyphase (CO2 gas+ CO2 liquid + H2O) Polyphase (CO2 + H2O+ Halite) Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Polyphase (CO2 + H2O+ Halite) Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Monophase CO2 Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Biphase (CO2 + H2O) Polyphase (CO2 + H2O+ Halite)

G6 CK6B

CK42

CK57G CK73 CK109

Microthermometry The freezing stage experiments conducted in all samples confirms the presence of CO 2 inclusions from its melting temperature (TM) ranging between (-55.7C) to (58.5C). The calculated density of the primary inclusions falls in a nominal range of 0.77-0.87 g/cc which denotes slightly lesser pressure than the peak metamorphic condition of the terrain is explained in Baiju et al 2009. The total homogenisation temperature of the youngest generation biphase/polyphase inclusions ranges between 150-500 OC and has inclusions low

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 11

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Saline brine in graphite bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study

0.1mm

0.1m m

0.1mm

Fig. 2. a)Primary monophase carbonic inclusion, b)pseudosecondary monophase inclusion, c) secondary biphase inclusions CO2 densities (0.58 -0.75 g/cc). The inclusions of vapour + liquid + halite are prominent in samples G4B, CK6B, CK42, showing halite dissolution temperature at 210.6C , 400-412C and 443 C (Fig. 3) respectively from which the salinity is calculated as 32.4 wt%, 48.5 wt% and 52.0 wt% NaCl equivalent. The presence of clathrates are identified in samples G6, CK42, CK57G, CK108 and CK109.

-78.8C

-58.5C

400C

443C
0 0.1mm

512C

Fig.3. Dissolution of halite in CK42. Discussion In the present study all the samples selected is graphite bearing and the inclusions are compositionally CO2, CO2+H2O, CO2+H2O+ NaCl, with minor amounts of CH 4. The youngest generation biphase/polyphase inclusions identified with low CO2 densities, total homogenisation temperature below 500 OC and the presence of halite illustrate a late stage hydrothermal activity at a lower temperature. In the field it is noted that the charnockites of the present study are retrogressed to biotite/hornblende-bearing gneisses at places controlled by fractures associated with pegmatitic veins and/or quartz veins. The presence of halites within inclusions associated with this stage suggests an influx of saline brine at the

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 12

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Saline brine in graphite bearing high grade metamorphic rocks a fluid inclusion study

retrogressive stage. The presence of clathrates identified in samples may indicate an interaction of brine fluids and graphite to produce CO 2 -CH4 rich fluids (Baiju et al 2009). The immiscible nature of brine and carbonic fluids, which can persist together, even at very high magmatic temperatures, provides the explanation for the coexistence of CO 2 inclusions and NaCl-H2O high salinity inclusions in same trails. Conclusion The younger generation low density CO 2 inclusions along with high saline brine noticed all over the study area points towards a universal injection of the fluids at shallow depth. The CO2 density pertains to a low pressure condition and the fluid regime might have occurred during the exhumation of the terrain together with a retrogressive mechanism in the metamorphic history of the MGB. References
Baiju, K.R., Nambiar, C.G., Jadhav, G. N., Kagi, H., Satish-Kumar, M., 2009. Low-density CO2-rich fluid inclusions from charnockites of southwestern Madurai Granulite Block, southern India; implications on graphite mineralization. J. Asian Earth Sci. 36, 332-340. Bakker, R.J., 2003. Package FLUIDS 1. Computer programs for analysis of fluid inclusion data and for modelling bulk fluid properties. Chemical Geology 194, 3-23 Crawford, M.L. and Hollister, L.S. 1986 Metamorphic fluids: the evidence from fluid inclusions. In: J.V . Walther and B.J. Wood (eds), Fluid-rock interactions during metamorphism. Adv. Phys. Geochem., 5, 1-35. Frezzotti, M.L., Cezare, B. and Scambelluri, M. 2004. Fluids at extreme P-T metamorphic conditions: the message from high-grade rocks. Per. Mineral., 73, 209-219. Mohan, A., Prakash, D., Sachan, H.K., 1996. Fluid inclusions from charnockites from Kodaikanal massif (South India): P-T record and implication for crustal uplift history. Mineral. Petrol. 57, 167-184. Naqvi, S.M., Rogers, J.J.W., 1987. Precambrian geology of India. Oxford University Press. 223. Newton, R.C., 1989. Metamorphic fluids in the deep crust. Ann. Rev. Earth and Planet. Sci. 17, 385412. Newton, R. C., Aranovich, L.Y., Hansen, E. C., Vandenheuvel, B. A., 1998. Hypersaline fluids in Precambrian deep -crustal metamorphism. Precamb. Res. 91, 41-63. Newton, R. C., Manning C. E., 2010. Role of saline fluids in deep-crustal and upper-mantle metasomatism: insights from experimental studies. Geofluids. 10, 58-72. Roedder, E., 1979. Origin and significance of magmatic inclusions. Bull. Mineral., 102, 487-510. Sajeev, K., Osanai, Y., Santosh, M., 2004. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism followed by two-stage decompression of garnet-orthopyroxene-sillimanite granulites from Ganguvarpatti, Madurai Block, southern India. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology 148, 29-46. Santosh, M., Jackson, D.H., Harris, N.B.W., Mattey, D.P ., 1991. Carbonic fluid inclusions in South India granulites: evidence for entrapment during charnockite formation. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 108, 318330. Sivasubramanian, P ., Natarajan, R. and Janardhan, A.S. 1991. Sapphirine-bearing assemblages from Perumalmalai, Palani hills, Tamil Nadu. J. Geol. Soc. India, 38, 532-537. Srikantappa, C., Raith, M., Touret, J.L.R., 1992. Synmetamorphic high density carbonic fluids in the lower crust: Evidence from the Nilgiri granulites, southern India. J. Petrol. 33, 733-760. Touret, J.L.R., 2001. Fluids in metamorphic rocks. Lithos, 55, 1-25. Van den Kerkhof, A.M., Hein, U.H., 2001. Fluid inclusion petrography. Lithos 55, 27-47.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 13

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

A note on the brittle fault zones observed in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone
Biju John, Sandeep Nelliat and Yogendra Singh
Seismotectonic Group, Engineering Seismology Department, National Institute of Rock Mechanics Champion Reef P .O., Kolar Gold Fields Karnataka 563117 India E-mail: b_johnp@yahoo.co.in

Abstract Geological mapping in the western end of Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ) identified deformation ranging from ductile to semi-ductile to brittle. Previous studies suggest that the ductile and semi-ductile deformation associated with this shear zone corresponds to Pan African orogeny or older. Even though the thermo-tectonic events and associated ductile deformations in this region are well constrained, the younger tectonic deformation and associated brittle faulting were not given due importance. The present study concentrates on the brittle deformations observed in the southwestern terminus of PCSZ. The present work is limited to rock exposures from the quarry sections south of Bharathapuzha River. These brittle faults are generated from both tension and compression. Compressional movements manifested as strike-slip and reverse faults and have fluid activity indicating their deep seated continuity. The strike-slip faults generally trend in NNE-SSW direction with a steep dip whereas the reverse faults trend in NW-SE directions with a southward dip. The major fault in the area, Desamangalam Fault, shows multiple gouge generation and fluid activity identified through cross cutting relationship indicating episodic nature of deformation. The normal fault zones are generally wider at the surface and narrowing towards depth. Though the youngest deformation is dated using ESR technique, no date could be derived for older events. The presence of fluids associated with faulting indicate the scope for secondary fluid inclusion studies which can provide vital clues to the timing of faulting especially those happened in the present stress regime. Key words: Precambrian shear zones, brittle deformation, fault core, fluid activity Introduction Southern Peninsular India consists of high grade Precambrian crystalline terrains which are separated by shear zones. These terrains were well studied earlier to understand the various thermo-tectonic events that occurred (Santosh et al., 2003; Ghosh et al., 2004). The youngest of the events was occurred around 550 Ma which were associated with the pegmatite intrusions (Soman et al., 1990). All these thermo-tectonic events occurred well before the split of Gondwana around 120 Ma. The entire Peninsular India experienced tension till it collided with Eurasian plate (around 40 Ma; Molnar and Tapponnier, 1977) to form the Himalayas. The Indian plate witnessed volcanic activity 68-63 Ma (Radhakrishna, et al., 1994) when it passed over the Kerguelen hotspot. Related dyke formation occurred along some of the deep tension fractures even in southern Peninsula. The continued northward
A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 14

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

push of the Indian continent towards the Eurasian plate changed the tensional regime of Indian plate into compression (Gowd et al., 1992). Under the present compressional stress regime, the favorably oriented preexisting weak zones show reactivation (Rajendran et al., 1992; Gowd et al., 1996).

Fig 1. Study area and the earthquake events

Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ) is considered as one of the weak structures in Peninsular India, in terms of seismicity (Rajendran and Rajendran, 1996). The studies consequent to the occurrence of 1994 Wadakkancheri (M=4.3) earthquake (Fig. 1) identified a south dipping reverse fault (John and Rajendran, 2009). This fault, named Desamangalam fault, influenced the drainage network of the area (John and Rajendran, 2008). The low level seismicity observed in the area mainly confined to the hanging wall side of the fault (John and Rajendran, 2009). Deformational features ranging from ductile to brittle are observed in the area. However, ductile and semi ductile deformations are rare in the southern part of the Desamangalam fault. Instead we identified brittle deformation showing normal, reverse and strike-slip movements and associated secondary mineralization as well as gouge formation. In this paper, we present our observations on brittle faults near Wadakkancheri area at the western end of the PCSZ. Geologic and structural setup The study area lies on the southern flank of the Palghat gap (Fig. 1), a conspicuous EW trending linear valley developed within the Proterozoic granulite terrain in South India (Arogyaswami, 1962; Drury et al., 1984; Subramaniam and Muraleedharan, 1985; D'Cruz et al., 2000), which is a part of the Proterozoic Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ) (Bhaskar Rao et al., 1996). The region essentially consists of charnockite and khondalite group of rocks (Fig 2). The higher levels of the crystalline basement are occasionally covered by lateritic regolith and the terraces adjoining the southern riverbank are made up of older alluvium

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 15

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

Fig. 2 Geology (adopted from Geological Survey of India, 1992) and lineament map of the area (after John and Rajendran, 2008). The folded rock units are part of Palghat-Cauvery shear zone.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 16

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

Fig. 3 One of the semi-ductile faults observed in the area; please see Fig. 2 for location.

Observations on brittle faults Brittle fault growth commonly produces a fault core composed of slip surfaces and comminuted rock material, and also a broader volume of distributed deformation called the damage zone (McGrath and Davison, 1995; Caine et al., 1996; Vermilye and Scholz, 1998). In this study we define the fault zone into Fault Core, Damage Zone and Protolith, as per the model put forward by Caine et al. (1996). Fault core is the portion of a fault zone where much of the displacement is accommodated. The damage zone consists of a network of fault related subsidiary structures that bound the fault core. Protolith is the undeformed host rock surrounding the fault rock and the damaged zone. Desamangalam fault Studies subsequent to 1994 Wadakkancheri earthquake identified a NW-SE trending reverse fault (John, 2003). The trace of the fault is identified near Desamangalam in a charnockite quarry (Fig. 4). This fault zone can be divisible into core and damage zone. Weakly developed foliation planes were observed within the outcrops. There are some quartzo-feldspathic veins observed in the section. Some of the veins are parallel to the fault trend. The present fault zone seems to have been formed along a quartzo-feldspathic vein. The relative movement between the hanging wall and foot wall is reflected on the vertical offsets exhibited by the quartzo-feldspathic veins. The fault core, labeled as F2 in Fig. 4, shows clear-cut evidence of offsets and gouge formation. Within the principal slip plane, the host rock appears to have been pulverized, and the original bulk fabrics completely disrupted. The faulting has created a 3 to 6 cm thick gouge zone, consisting of both consolidated and unconsolidated forms, where a thin layer (0.6 cm) of loose gouge is developed all along the slip plane. Similar observations of narrow
A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 17

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

zone accommodating large slip are reported from San Gabriel Fault (Chester et al., 1993) and Punchbowl Fault (Chester and Chester, 1998) of USA and in Nojima fault of Japan (Bouller et al., 2004).

Fig. 4 View of Desamangalam fault; F2 is the main fault described in the text.

Detailed petrological studies of exhumed fault zones generally provide insight into the deformation processes associated with fault slip and also the role of pore fluid in earthquake cycle (Sleep and Blanpied, 1992). Petrological and X-ray diffraction studies conducted on the fault rocks from Desamangalam fault zone identified different secondary minerals namely, chlorite, muscovite, clinoptilolite and montmorillonite (John and Rajendran 2009). It is possible that each of these minerals might have formed during the faulting events at different temperature conditions. For example, chlorite has a temperature of formation between 322 C and 150 C (De Caritat et al., 1993), whereas zeolites form below 100 C (Karlsson, 2001). Ray et al. (2003), based on the heat flow studies, calculated the present day geothermal gradient of southern granulate terrain as ca. 20 C/km. ESR dating of the loose fault gouge indicates a major movement along the fault around 430 43 ka BP (Rao et al., 2002). Based on the mineralogical changes in different gouge zones (distinguished through magascopic and microscopic observations) and based on the cross cutting relations exhibited by different fracture fills, John and Rajendran (2009) identified four episodes of brittle deformation in this fault zone (Figs. 5 & 6).Thin section studies also identified inclusions of primary and secondary nature.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 18

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

Fig. 5 Photomicrograph showing clinoptilolite bearing fracture cutting both host rock and gouge zone (G1). The contact zone between consolidated gouge (G1) and host rock is shown by blue dashed line.

Fr3

Fr2 1mm
Fig. 6 Photomicrograph showing two generations of fractures (Fr2 and Fr3) in plane polarized light. Fr2 is filled with chlorite and in hand specimen it shows a dark green colour. Fr2 is filled with a white mineral clinoptilolite. It should be noted that the fracture bearing chlorite further opened up during the development of the next set of fractures facilitating the deposition of clinoptilolite. Strike slip fault near Parlikad Geomorphic studies in this area identified a drainage divide at the centre of a wide channel south of Bharathapuzha (John and Rajendran 2008). Spatially it aligns with the N-S trending abrupt turn of the Bharathapuzha at Desamangalam. Further, south the lineament is
A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 19

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

associated with two narrow valleys. The continuity of this lineament further north of the Bharathapuzha is marked by a third order stream. Along this lineament, zone brittle fault is identified in a charnockite quarry near Parlikad (Fig.7). The fault plane is observed dipping steep and showing a dextral strike slip movement indicated by slickensides. The fault core and damage zone are very thin (15-10 cm). Upward branching of fractures is observed in the foot wall at the tip of the fault. Secondary minerals are observed in the fault zone indicating its association with fluid activity.

Fig. 7 A steeply dipping strike-slip fault observed near Parlikad. Normal fault near Tayyoor An E-W trending normal fault is observed near Tayyoor (Fig. 8). Studies did not find any regional association of this fault with identified lineaments. The main fault is dipping towards North. The fault zone appears as a wedge shaped feature due to a south dipping fracture that joins the main fault below 10 m from the surface. Closely spaced fractures (Fig. 9) parallel to the main fault mark the damage zone (2 m). The slip is accommodated in the narrow zone of 20 cm. Chlorite is present in the fault gouge. At the surface there is no laterite cover in the foot wall block whereas the hanging wall shows thick laterite.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 20

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

Fig. 8 Normal fault and associated wedge shaped structure observed near Tayyoor. Note the absence of laterite cap in the foot wall. Close up view of the area marked in rectangle is shown in figure 9.

Fig. 9 The damage zone at the Normal fault near Tayyoor (Fig. 8) showing closely spaced fractures

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 21

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GPR survey was carried out across this fault using 100 Hz antenna to study the extension of the fault in the subsurface. GPR survey clearly delineated the laterite rock contact and also showed the extension of the fault up to a depth of 5-6 m. However, reflections from the deeper part of the fault could not be differentiated. Near the surface the fault could be picked up from the strong reflections from the moisture in the fault core. Poor reflection from the fault below the depth of 6 m may be due to the near vertical orientation of the fault or due to the tightness of the contact plane. In the present case the study reveals that the normal faults observed are confined to the upper few meters of the surface (Fig 10).

Fig. 10 GPR profile across the normal fault at Tayyoor. Conclusions It is well known that the deformations in Precambrian rocks are also associated with fluid activity. The brittle deformations at depth are invariably filled with pegmatite veins or quartz veins. At shallower condition where the deformation creates fine grained material from the crystalline rocks, the fluids alter the composition of the product or leach out the components from the host rock to produce new secondary mineral. Ongoing studies in the Precambrian rocks of Peninsular India in the vicinity of Palghat Gap identified deformations ranging from ductile to semi-ductile to brittle. Fault zones are identified which bear consolidated and unconsolidated gouge zones. The reverse and strike slip fault identified in the area appears to be mimicking the present day regional stress conditions. Multiple gouge generation and fluid activity were identified in these fault zones through cross cutting relationship. The studies identified presence of the Chlorite, Muscovite Montmorillonite and Clinoptilolite in the gouge zone and fracture fills with a deformation time clocked at 430 43 ka BP (ESR Dating; Rao et al., 2002). However, with the present

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 22

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knowledge, earlier events cannot be dated and a dedicated work is required to understand the exhumation rate from the host rock as well as the nature of fluids present at various depths of deformation from the fault rocks. The sealed nature of earlier deformation observed in the fault zone indicates the role of fluids in sealing the faults even at the shallower level. These fluids are trapped in the minerals as secondary inclusions within the fault rocks. Occurrence of such inclusions are reported elsewhere in the fault zones (e.g. Boullier, and Robert, 1992). These inclusions may give vital information on the temperature and composition of fluids present during the faulting. Such studies are expected to provide insight into the recurrence of faulting in crystalline rocks of shield areas. Acknowledgements We thank the Director NIRM for his support, encouragement and the facility provided for the study. We also thank the financial assistance from DST SERC project award no SR/S4/ES434/2009. References
Arogyaswami, R.N.P ., 1962. The origin of the Palghat Gap. Rec. Geol. Sur. India 93, 129-134. Bhaskar Rao, Y.J., Chetty, T.R.K., Janardhan, A.S., Gopalan, K., 1996. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr ages and P-T history of the Archaean Sittampundi and Bhavani layered meta-anorthosite complexes in Cauvery shear zone system, South India. Evidence for Neoproterozoic reworking of Archaean crust. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 125, 237-250 Bouller, A-M., Fujimoto, K., Ohtani, T., Roman-Ross, G., Lewin, E., Ito, H., Pezard, P ., Ildefonse, 2004. Textural evidence for recent co-seismic circulation of fluids in the Nojima fault zone, Awaji Island, Japan. Tectonophysics 378, 165-181. Boullier, A.-M., and Robert, F., 1992 Paleoseismice vents recorded in Archean gold-quartz vern networks, Val d'Or, Abitibi, Quebec, Canada. Journal of Structural Geology, 14, l6L-179. Caine, J.S., Evans, J.P ., Forster, C.B., 1996. Fault zone architecture and permeability structure. Geology 24, 1025-1028. Chester, F.M., Chester, J.S., 1998. Ultracataclastic structure and friction processes of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas System, California. Tectonophysics 295, 199-221. Chester, F.M., Evans, J.P ., Biegel, R.L., 1993. Internal structure and weakening mechanisms of the San Andreas Fault. J. Geophys. Res. 98, 771-786. DCruz, E., Nair, P .K.R., Prasannakumar, V ., 2000. Palghat gap- A Dextural shear zone from the south Indian granulite terrain. Gondwana Research 3, 21-31. De Caritat, Hutcheon, I., Walshe, J.L., 1993. Chlorite geothermometry: a review. Clays and Clay Minerals, 41, 219-239. Drury, S.A, Harris, N.B.W., Holt, R.W., Reeves-Smith, G.J., Wightman, R.T., 1984. Precambrian tectonics and crustal evolution of south India. J. Geology 92, 3-20. Ghosh, J.G., De Wit, M.J., Zartman, R.E., 2004. Age and tectonic evolution of Neoproterozoic ductile shear zone in the Southern Granulite Terrain of India, with implications for Gondwana studies. Tectonics 23, TC3600 138. Gowd, T.N., Srirama Rao, S. V ., Chary K. B., 1996. Stress field and seismicity in the Indian shield: Effects of the collision between India and Eurasia. PAGEOPH 146, 503-531. Gowd, T.N., Srirama Rao, S.V ., Gaur, V .K., 1992. Tectonic stress field in the Indian subcontinent. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 11,87911,888. GSI, 1992. Quadrangle Geological Map 58B. John, B. and Rajendran, C.P . 2009. Evidence of episodic brittle faulting in the cratonic part of the Peninsular India and its implications for seismic hazard in slow deforming regions Tectonophysics,Vol. 471. 240-252. John, B., 2003. Characteristics of near surface crustal deformation associated with shield seismicity: two examples from peninsular India. Unpublished PhD thesis.

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Brittle fault zones in the southwestern terminus of PalghatCauvery Shear Zone

John, B., Rajendran, C.P ., 2008. Geomorphic indicators of Neotectonism from the Precambrian terrain of Peninsular India: A study from the Bharathapuzha Basin, Kerala. J. Geol. Soc. India 71, 827-840. Karlsson, H.R., 2001. Isotope geochemistry of zeolites. In: Natural zeolites: occurance, properties, application. Rev. in Minerlogic and Geochemistry 45, 163-205. McGrath A.G. and Davison, I., 1995. Damage zone geometry around fault tips. J. Struct. Geol. Vol 17, 1011-1024. Molnar, P and Tapponnier, P ., 1977. Collision between India and Eurasia. Scientific American, Vol 236, 30-41. Radhakrishna, T., Dallmeyer, R.D. and Joseph,. M., 1994 Palaeomagnetism and 36Ar/40Ar vs. 39 Ar/40Ar isotope correlation ages of dyke swarms in central Kerala, India: Tectonic implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Vol. 121, 213-226. Rajendran, C. P ., Rajendran, K., 1996. Low- moderate seismicity in the vicinity of Palghat Gap, South India and its implications. Current Science 70, 304-307. Rajendran,K., Talwani, P ., Gupta, H.K., 1992. State of stress in the Indian subcontinent: A review. Current Science 62, 86-93. Rao, T.K.G., Rajendran, C.P ., Mathew, G., John, B., 2002. Electron spin resonance dating of fault gouge from Desamangalam, Kerala: Evidence for Quaternary movement in Palghat gap shear zone. Proc. Indian Acad. of Sciences (Earth and Planetary Sciences), 111, 103-113. Ray, L., Senthil Kumar, P ., Reddy, G. K., Sukanta Roy, Rao, G. V ., Srinivasan, R., Rao, R. U. M., 2003. High mantle heat flow in a Precambrian granulite province: Evidence from southern India. J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B2) 2084 Doi:10.1029/2001JB000688. Santosh, M., Yokoyama, S., Biju-Sekhar, S., Rogers, J.J.W., 2003. Multiple tectonothermal vents in the granulite blocks of Southern India revealed from EPMA dating: implications on the history of supercontinents. Gondwana Research 6, 2963. Sleep, N.H., Blanpied, M.L., 1992. Creep compaction and week rheology of major faults. Nature 359, 687-692. Soman, K., Tara, K.G., Arakelyants, M.M., Golubyev, V .N., 1990. Mineral ages of pegmatites from the Palghat Gap region in Kerala and their tectonic significance. J. Geol. Soc. India 35, 82-86. Subramaniam, K.S., Muraleedharan, M.P ., 1985. Origin of the Palghat Gap in South India A synthesis. J. Geol. Soc. India. 26, 28-37. Vermilye, J.M., Scholz, C.H., 1998. The process zone; a microstructural view of fault growth. Journal of Geophysical Research. 103, 12,22312,237.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39 p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 24

C Sreejith and G R Ravindra Kumar

Origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India

From arc to highlands: the story of origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India
C. Sreejith and G. R. Ravindra Kumar
Geosciences Division, National Centre for Earth Science Studies, Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695011, India

Present address: Department of Studies and Research in Geology, MES Ponnani College, Ponnani South PO, Malappuram., Kerala 679586, India E-mail: sreejithedapal@gmail.com, grrkumar@gmail.com

Introduction Precambrian shields of the most continental fragments comprise high-grade terranes represented by granulite-facies mineral assemblages (see, Harley, 1989). The ubiquitous presence of granulites suggests that high-grade metamorphism as one of the key processes in the origin and evolution of Precambrian deep crust. The formation of regional granulite-facies terranes represents major crustal formation or tectonic episodes in varying extents on all continents. Therefore, comprehensive studies on such rarely preserved, regional granulite-facies terrains provide an opportunity to understand the processes of origin and evolution of continental crust, that otherwise remain as a fundamental paradox in intriguing areas of Earth science research. The granulite blocks of southern India (Fig. 1), well known as the southern granulite terrain (SGT), are classic examples of such a deeply eroded continental basement. In this paper, we evaluate the geochemical and thermo-mechanical characteristics of magmatic pattern preserved in the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), a Proterozoic orogenic component and address the problem of magma differentiation, high-grade metamorphism and exhumation of the lower crust in the KKB. Geology of the Kerala Khondalite Belt The KKB (Fig. 1) occupies southernmost part of the southern Indian granulite terrain. It is bounded on the north by charnockite massifs of the Cardamom Hills and on the south by Nagercoil massive charnockite unit (Ravindra Kumar and Chacko, 1986). The lithological architecture shows three distinct domains in the KKB. The central and northern parts of the KKB are mainly composed of migmatitic garnet-biotite gneisses and pelitic (garnet + biotite + sillimanite cordierite) granulites (Chacko et al., 1987). Later studies (e.g., Cenki et al., 2004) substantiated this observation, identifying varying Nd model ages across the KKB, and recognised three distinct lithotectonic units; viz., north-eastern Achankovil (AU), southern Nagerkovil (NU) and central Ponmudi (PU) units. Compositional and structural signatures of polymetamorphism are established in many lithological units of the KKB, which was accompanied by intense migmatization attaining granulite-facies (Chacko et al., 1987; Cenki et al., 2002). The key metamorphic minerals in the KKB gneisses include garnet, orthopyroxene cordierite and sillimanite, and are products of the high- to ultra-high temperature metamorphism during Pan-African (c. 550 Ma) orogeny (Chacko et al., 1987).

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 26

C Sreejith and G R Ravindra Kumar

Origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India

Fig. 1. Simplified geological and tectonic framework of south India showing crustal blocks and major shear zones: (Ia) Western Dharwar Craton (WDC); (Ib) Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC); (II) Salem Block; (III) Madras Block; (IV) Nilgiri Block; (V) Madurai Block; and (VI) Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB). MBSZ= Moyar (MSZ)-Bhavani (BSZ) shear zones; PCSZ= Palghat-Cauvery shear zone; KKPT= Karur-Kambam-Painavu-Trichur shear zone. EGMB= Eastern Ghats mobile belt. The portion within the box, comprising the KKB is the area of interest in the present study. Very recently, subductionaccretioncollision associated geochemical signatures are inferred from granitic rocks of the KKB (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2013). These authors presumed this as a product of terrane assembly of the Proterozoic supercontinent fragments associated with demise of the Mozambique Ocean. High-grade metamorphism and PTt paths The metamorphic evolution of the KKB is characterised by a clockwise PT path with postpeak isobaric cooling followed by isothermal decompression (Cenki et al., 2002; Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2012). Estimated peak pressure are lower (67 kbar; Chacko et al., 1996; Cenki et al., 2002) compared to the northerly lying Madurai Block of SGT, where maximum pressures of ca. 1012 kbar have been reported (Raith et al., 1997). However, two feldspar thermometry (Braun et al., 1996) in rocks from the central and northern KKB and calc-silicate assemblages (Chacko et al., 1996) have documented imprints of UHT metamorphism (>900

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 27

C Sreejith and G R Ravindra Kumar

Origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India

C). Charnockites and migmatitic gneisses in the NU have recorded PT estimates of 670720 C and 51 kbar (Srikantappa et al., 1985). Thermobarometric calculations on arrested charnockites and associated gneisses have shown that the incipient charnockitization in the PU occurred at 5.5 kbar and 700750 C (Chacko et al., 1987; Raith et al., 1997). Multiple episodes of biotite dehydration melting, inferred in various lithologies, have caused migmatisation and melt extraction of the KKB rocks (Chacko et al., 1987, 1996; Braun et al., 1996). Recent studies (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2012, 2013) suggested the crustal anatexis within KKB as a consequence of crustal thickening producing high geothermal gradient during a collisional orogenic event. Applications of MnNCKFMASH phase relation modelling on cordierite-orthopyroxene migmatitic gneisses of the AU substantiated the clockwise isothermal decompression PT path and yielded a low-pressure (3.2 kbar) regime for the equilibration of melt-bearing assemblages (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2012). Further, these authors advocated a model of change in lower crustal rheology due to extensive melt production leading to rapid erosional exhumation and corresponding clockwise isothermal decompression PT path. The inferred PT path for migmatitic cordierite gneisses follow two-fold post-peak PT evolution, characterized by an initial cooling stage with limited decompression followed by a strong decompression with further drop in temperature. The timing of tectono-metamorphic evolution of the KKB is well constrained only for the Neoproterozoic, largely because most of the previous metamorphic records have been obliterated during the Pan-African orogeny. Available UPb zircon and monazite, SmNd mineral and whole rock, and EPMA monazite dating clearly point towards the prevalence of Pan-African (560516 Ma) metamorphism (Braun and Kriegsman, 2003). Braun et al. (1996) reported protracted events of melt generation and crystallization in the KKB based on PbPb isochron ages from fluorapatite and monazite of leucogranites. This is further substantiated by UPb monazite dating of granitic gneisses (Braun and Brcker, 2004). Apart from this, few studies were able to document an early thermal event in the early Proterozoic (~1800 Ma), reaching upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies (Braun et al., 1998). All these studies are suggestive of multiple stages of thermal evolution within the KKB. Geodynamic evolution of KKB granulites The geodynamic model based on metamorphic phase relations of melt-bearing assemblages of the KKB proposed a two-stage process for the crustal evolution initiated with thickening of the crust in relation to a continental-arc setting, followed by exhumation along a hightemperature stable geotherm (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2012). A very recent contribution discussing the production of voluminous high-K metagranites within the KKB modified and extended the early view proposing the crustal evolution as a product of magmatic accretion followed by intracrustal differentiation in an episodic manner (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2013). Reported model ages (TDM and Hfc) for the central Ponmudi (PU) and southern Nagerkovil (NU) units of the KKB indicate crustal accretion as a prolonged process initiated as early in Meso-Archaean (~3 Ga.) and extended till Palaeoproterozoic (ca. 2.1 Ga.) age. This was followed by collisional orogenesis attaining high geothermal gradients leading to intracrustal melting and differentiation process generating high-K metagranites in the Palaeoproterozoic (~1800 Ma). The crystallization of high-K metagranites is highly comparable with the doubted Palaeoproterozoic granulite-facies metamorphic age (Braun et al., 1998) and indicating intracrustal melting as a consequence of this high thermal event formed in a collisional setting (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2013).

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 28

C Sreejith and G R Ravindra Kumar

Origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India

Fig. 2. Cartoon showing the simplied and generalised evolution of the arc-accretion along Achankovil suture zone. The younger magmatic crystallization ages (ca. 1.56 Ga) of K-feldspar megacryst granites (Krner et al., 2012) are correlated in terms of subduction cessation of the convergent continental margin in a continent-arc setting. The latest phase of crustal addition is the felsic magmatism occurred in the form of granites, syenites, and pegmatites throughout the east Gondwana province during Pan-African time (Braun and Kriegsman, 2003). These are essentially alkaline in nature and are interpreted as a product of post-collisional rifting indicating a phase of orogenic collapse and extension tectonics. Though the geochronological data represent a wide time span for crustal growth in the KKB from the Mesoarchaean era and continuing to the Pan-African, each event is restricted to a distinct period representing a complex tectono-metamorphic history of KKB. The reported magmatic and/or metamorphic ages of KKB are, therefore, comparable with the major global orogenic cycles and crustal growth events (Condie, 2000). Calculations based on molar volumes of major oxide concentrations using methods and data of Bottinga and Weill (1970) indicate that the density of the original, hydrous granitic magma would have been 2460 kg/m 3 (SiO2 = 63.30 wt.%) at P=0.1 Mpa and T=1200C with ~1 wt.% H2O in the melt. At these conditions the granitic magma has an effective viscosity of 105.60 Pa s. These observations ascertain gravitational instability in the newly accreted crust, owing to phase transformations that produce dense minerals like garnet as (eclogite or garnet amphibolite) residue. The density difference in the granite liquid might have induced rheological reequilibration in the continental-arc root, as melt buoyancy considerably decreased the bulk density of the lithosphere. Therefore, the final stages of the orogeny will lead to rapid exhumation along a high-temperature stable geotherm with sufficient pressure release associated with syn- to post-convergence transpression and transtension. This remark supports the rheological (thermal and mechanical) reequilibration and rapid erosional exhumation model proposed for the final stages of orogeny obtained by phase relations models (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2012). Our study demonstrates intracrustal melting and differentiation in continental arcs as one of the possible mechanisms

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 29

C Sreejith and G R Ravindra Kumar

Origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India

for magma diversification for the formation of granitic to granodioritic magma and rapid exhumation of rheologically modified continental crust. Summary The KKB is a unique terrane representing polyphase magmatic and/or metamorphic process In recent years, the understanding of crustal evolution within the KKB have been much evolved from the earlier view of entirely supracrustal origin for the terrain to the discovery of major magmatic crust forming events and subductionaccretioncollision tectonics (Fig. 2). The geodynamic model based on metamorphic phase relations of melt-bearing assemblages of the KKB proposed a two-stage process for the crustal evolution initiated with thickening of the crust in relation to a continental-arc setting, followed by exhumation along a hightemperature stable geotherm (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2012). A very recent contribution discussing the production of voluminous high-K metagranites within the KKB modified and extended the early view proposing the crustal evolution as a product of magmatic accretion followed by intracrustal differentiation in an episodic manner (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2013). References
Bottinga, Y. and Weill D.F., 1970. Densities of liquid silicate systems calculated from partial molar volumes of oxide components. Amer. Jour. Sci., 269, 169182. Braun, I., Brcker, M., 2004. Monazite dating of granitic gneisses and leucogranites from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: implications for Late Proterozoic crustal evolution in East Gondwana. Int. Jour. Earth Sci., 93, 1322. Braun, I., Kriegsman, L.M., 2003. Proterozoic crustal evolution in southernmost India and Sri Lanka. Spec. Publ., Geol. Soc., London, 206, 169202. Braun, I., Raith, M., Ravindra Kumar, G.R., 1996. Dehydration-melting phenomena in leptynitic gneisses and the generation of leucogranites: a case study from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India. Jour. Petrol., 37, 12851305. Braun, I., Montel, J.M., Nicollet, C., 1998. Electron microprobe dating of monazites from high-grade gneisses and pegmatites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India. Chem. Geol., 146, 6585. Cenki, B., Kriegsman, L.M., Braun, I., 2002. Melt-producing and melt-consuming reactions in the Achankovil cordierite gneisses, South India. Jour. Meta. Geol., 20, 543561. Cenki, B., Braun, I., Brcker, M., 2004. Evolution of the continental crust in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southernmost India: Evidence from Nd isotope mapping combined with U-Pb and Rb-Sr geochronology. Precam. Res., 134, 275292. Chacko, T., Ravindra Kumar, G.R., Newton, R.C., 1987. Metamorphic PT conditions of the Kerala (South India) Khondalite Belt: a granulite facies supracrustal terrain. Jour. Geol., 96, 343358. Chacko, T., Lamb, M., Farquhar, J., 1996. Ultra-high temperature metamorphism in the Kerala Khondalite Belt. In: M. Santosh, M. Yoshida (Eds), The Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains in Southern India within East Gondwana. Mem., Gond. Res. Group, 3, 57165. Condie, K.C., 2000. Episodic continental growth models: afterthoughts and extensions. Tectonophy., 322, 153162. Harley, S.L., 1989. The origin of granulites: a metamorphic perspective. Geol. Mag., 126, 215247. Krner, A., Santosh, M., Wong, J., 2012. Zircon ages and Hf isotopic systematics reveal vestiges of Mesoproterozoic to Archaean crust within the late NeoproterozoicCambrian high-grade terrain of southernmost India. Gond. Res., 21, 876886. Raith, M., Karmakar, S., Brown, M., 1997. Ultra-high temperature metamorphism and multistage decompressional evolution of sapphirine granulites from the Palni Hills Ranges, southern India. Jour. Metamorph. Geol., 15, 379399. Ravindra Kumar, G.R., Chacko, T., 1986. Mechanisms of charnockite formation and breakdown in southern Kerala: implications for the origin of the southern granulite terrain. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 28, 277288.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 30

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Origin and exhumation of granulite-facies rocks in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India

Sreejith, C., Ravindra Kumar, G.R., 2012. MnNCKFMASH phase relations in cordieriteorthopyroxene migmatitic gneisses, southern India: implications for low-pressure crustal melting under granulitefacies. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 80, 613627. Sreejith, C., Ravindra Kumar, G.R., 2013. Petrogenesis of high-K metagranites in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: a possible magmatic-arc link between India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar. Jour. Geodyn., 63, 6982. Srikantappa, C., Raith, M., Spiering, B., 1985. Progressive charnockitization of a leptynite-khondalite suite in southern Kerala, IndiaEvidence for formation of charnockites through decrease in fluid pressure? Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 26, 849872.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 31

V J Rajesh et al.

Neo-Archaean Alaskan-Type Ultramafic Rocks in Palghat-Cau ery !uture "one# southern $n%ia

Petrology and Tectonic Significance of Probable Neo-Archaean Alaskan-Type Ultramafic Rocks in Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India
V . J. Rajesh1*, S. Arai2 and M. Santosh3
1Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology,

Thiruvananthapuram 695-547, India


2Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192,

Japan
3School of Earth Science and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Xueyuan Road,

Haidian District, Beijing 100-083, China * Email: rajeshvj@iist.ac.in; rajeshvj2000@gmail.com Abstract Suture zones in high-grade metamorphic terrains exert major control over the exhumation history of continental deep crust, emplacement tectonics of igneous intrusives and transfer of fluids from various depths. The spatial association of magmatic intrusives with suture zones is considered to indicate partial melting and/or melt transport favored by pre-existing structures. The proximity and alignment of the intrusions along suture zones suggest that the orientation of these intrusions are controlled by the suture and rate of the melt or magma injection and heat loss into the country rock. The diverse emplacement styles, deformational patterns and metamorphism may lead to the preservation of structurally dismembered ultramafic complex in many suture zones. Detailed characterization of various lithological units within the ultramafic complex and the timing and geodynamic setting of the emplacement are vital as they offer windows into processes within the upper mantle, deep crust and crust-mantle interface. The Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) in southern India has figured prominently in the reconstructions of Late NeoproterozoicCambrian Gondwana supercontinent assembly. Recent geological, geochronological and geophysical studies on various crustal blocks and suture zones in the SGT have provided important evidences for subduction and arc magmatism which accompanied the final collision and amalgamation of the Gondwana supercontinent. Two major zones of Mozambique oceanic closure are identified in the SGT, one in the north at the southern margin of the Dharwar Craton designated as the PalghatCauvery Suture Zone (PCSZ), and the other in the south termed as the Achankovil Suture Zone (ACSZ). The boundary between the Archean Dharwar Craton in the north and the Neoproterozoic Southern Granulite Terrane in the south in southern Peninsular India is marked by the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone (PCSZ). This zone is considered as the trace of Mozambique Ocean closure where subduction-accretion-collision processes were operated when the Gondwana supercontinent was finally assembled. The PCSZ extends westwards into Madagascar as the Betsimisaraka suture that divides the Archaean Antongil craton to the east from the Antananarivo granulite-facies orogenic belt to the west and continues eastwards into Antarctica. Close association of eclogites and ultramafic rocks were considered as one among the critical petrological indicators to locate a suture zone. Numerous ultramafic- rocks occur in close association with eclogites in the PCSZ. The origin of most ultramafic rocks in the
A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 32

V J Rajesh et al.

Neo-Archaean Alaskan-Type Ultramafic Rocks in Palghat-Cau ery !uture "one# southern $n%ia

PCSZ has not been determined, despite their importance in tectonic interpretation of this significant suture zone. We used petrography, mineral chemistry and geochemistry to understand the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of ultramafic rocks having Alaskan-type geochemical signatures in this suture zone. Alaskan-type intrusives are commonly zoned maficultramafic complexes dominated by dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite and clinopyroxenite/websterite. They represent roots of island-arcs and indicate the position of a suture zone in the plate tectonic context. They also serve as host rocks for a range of platinum group mineralization. Therefore, their identification is vital in orogenic belts in reconstructing the paleoplates and plate boundaries, and also for economic mineralization. The Alaskan-type intrusives in the PCSZ are represented by cumulate-textured dunite with minor hornblende-bearing websterite intruded into the deformed mafic granulites, enderbites and hornblende-bearing gneisses. Dunite is dominated by olivine (mostly altered) with minor disseminated subhedral to anhedral chromite and interstitial primary amphibole. Websterite is characterized by an assemblage of clinopyroxene- orthopyroxene-hornblende with magnetite as accessory phase. Alteration rims developed around chromite grains suggest post-magmatic alteration. Chromites in dunite have high Cr# ((Cr/Cr+Al) in the range of 0.77 to 0.80 towards core), high Fe3+# ((Fe3+/(Al3++Cr3++Fe3+) ~ 0.3) and low Mg# ((Mg/ Mg+Fe2+)) of ~ 0.2). Major, trace and rare earth element systematics of whole rock (websterite) and silicate phases in dunite and websterite show LREE-enrichments with a small negative Eu anomaly and prominent negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. These chemical features signify the involvement of subduction components in their magma genesis. Our data further point towards a common parental magma of hydrous tholeiitic basalt in a subductionrelated (island-arc) tectonic setting for the genesis of these intrusives in the PCSZ. The mineral compositions are similar to other Neo-Archaean Alaksan-type complexes reported elsewhere. We infer that these Alaskan-type intrusives represent remnants of a Neo- Archaean arc-root complex associated with the development of the PCSZ. This study has important implications for interpreting the subduction tectonics of the PCSZ within the Gondwana supercontinent. Key words: Alaskan-type ultramafics, dunite, websterite, Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone, South India

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 33

Y Anilkumar and S C Patel

Rutile exsolution in garnet in Mg-Fe-Al granulites from Karur, Madurai Block, southern ndia

Rutile exsolution in garnet in Mg-Fe-Al granulites from Karur area, Madurai Block, southern India: an indicator of decompression P-T path
Y. Anilkumara, * and S.C. Patela
*

Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400076, India Present Address: Geological Survey of India, State Unit: Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695013, Kerala, India, Email: anilgeol@gmail.com

Abstract Exsolution of rutile in garnet is a potential indicator for high pressure metamorphism. Titaniumrich phases such as ilmenite and rutile have been reported as exsolved phases in olivine, clinopyroxene and garnet from ultra-high pressure (UHP) peridotites and eclogites (e.g. Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 1996; Zhang and Liou, 1999; Zhang et al., 2003). If rutile is exsolved, it may occur as needles, preferentially oriented and regularly spaced in garnet (McGetchin and Silver, 1970; Hunter and Smith, 1981; Smith, 1987). Experimental studies indicate that Ti solubility in garnet increases with bothpressure and temperature, but is mainly pressure dependent (Fett, 1995). Apart from the exsolution origin of rutile needles in garnet, there are views that the needles form as inclusions during the growth of garnet. In this case, it is expected that the crystallographic orientations of rutile and the host garnet would not match. Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) is an established technique, based on automatic indexing of Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) patterns of crystalline phases, to study crystallographic orientation in microscopic scale. In this method the electron beam in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is allowed to strike the sample mounted at an inclination of 70o with respect to horizontal. Diffraction of the beam produces a pattern of intersecting bands called Kikuchi bands or EBSD pattern. Kikuchi bands are directly related to the crystal structure of the sample under investigation. Mg-Fe-Al granulites are found as isolated patches within hornblende gneiss at Panangad and Sevitturanganpatti located north of Karur (Fig. 1a & b). At Panangad, the granulites vary from gedrite-garnet-kyanite-rich domains to kyanite-gedrite-rich domains with minor amounts of cordierite and biotite in all samples. Cordierite locally forms segregations. Garnet is reddish pink in colour and dodecahedral in form. It is commonly 12 cm in size, but can grow as large as 8 cm. Both kyanite and gedrite form stubby prisms, which can be up to 12 cm long. Few sillimanite needles growing into kyanite can be noticed. Tiny needles of rutile within garnet are present in coarse grained Mg-Fe-Al granulites from Panangad and Sevitturanganpatti of Karur area. Garnet commonly contains microscopic triangular arrays of fine needles (< 1 m wide) of rutile which are apparently parallel to the isometric form {111} consistent with an origin by exsolution (Fig. 2a & b). OIM analysis of a garnet was performed with a FEI QUANTA 200 SEM at the Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Material Science, IIT Bombay. The study was aimed at identifying rutile needles and the crystallographic relationship between rutile and garnet.
A. P. Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 34

Y Anilkumar and S C Patel

Rutile exsolution in garnet in Mg-Fe-Al granulites from Karur, Madurai Block, southern ndia

Fig. 1a. Field photographs of Mg-Fe-Al granulite at Panangad. (a) garnet-kyanite-rich domain and cordierite segregation in the left, and weathered garnet-rich rock in the right; (b) garnet-gedritekyanite assemblage

Fig. 2a. Photomicrographs showing fine needles of rutile in garnet (Mg-Fe-Al granulite sample AK140C). (a) Triangular arrays of rutile needles. (b) Optical mismatch of rutile needles and garnet host evidenced by rutile gains showing interference colour in the host at extinction.

Fig. 3. False colour, orientation microscopic images showing rutile in red colour and garnet host in green colour.

A. P. Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 35

Y Anilkumar and S C Patel

Rutile exsolution in garnet in Mg-Fe-Al granulites from Karur, Madurai Block, southern ndia

The SEM was operated at an accelerating voltage of 20 kv and scanning step size of 0.4 micron. Scan was performed with reference to known crystal structures (space group and lattice parameter) of garnet [Ia 3d, and (a,b,c) 11.459] and rutile [P1 and (a) 4.59 (b) 4.59 (c) 2.96] respectively. The resultant image of one scan is given in Fig. 3. Comparison of several such images shows a parallel crystallographic pattern of needles from different parts of garnet which supports crystallographic-controlled exsolution of rutile. Recent experiments have shown that Ti solubility in garnet depends on P-T conditions. Zhang et al. (2003) reported increasing solubility of TiO 2 (0.8 to 4.5 wt%) in garnet with increasing P and T in the experimental conditions of 50-150 kbar and 10001400oC. On the other hand Kawasaki and Motoyoshi (2007) observed that TiO 2 content of garnet increases with temperature and decreases with pressure in the P-T range of 7-20 kbar and 850-1300oC. The results of these studies show that rutile exsolution in garnet can be the result of decompression and/or cooling. In the Karur area, the exsolution of rutile most likely occurred during decompression that is indicated by other rock types. References
Dobrzhinetshaya, L., Green, H.W. and Wang (1996) Alpe Arami: a peridotite massif from depths of more than 300 kilometers, Science, v. 271, pp. 1841-1846. Fett, A. (1995) Partitioning of Ti between garnet and clinopyroxene in high pressure experiments and high pressure rocks a comparison, Ph.D. thesis, John Gutenberg-universitat, Mainz, Germany. Hunter, W.C. and Smith. D. (1981) Garnet peridotite from Colorado Plateau ultramafic diatremes: hydrates, carbonates, and comparative geothermometry. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., v. 76, pp. 312320. Kawasaki, T. and Motoyoshi, Y. (2007) Solubility of TiO 2 in garnet and orthopyroxene: Ti thermometer for ultrahigh-temperature granulites. USGS Open-File Report 2007-1047, Short Research Paper 038; doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.srp038. McGetchin, T.R. and Silver, L.T. (1970) Compositional relations in minerals from kimberlite and related rocks in the Moses Rock dike, San Juan County, Utah. Amer. Mineral., v. 55, pp. 1738-1771. Smith, D. (1987) Genesis of carbonate in pyrope from ultramafic diatremes on the Colorado Plateau, southwestern United States. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., v. 97, pp. 389-396. Zhang, R.Y. and Liou, J.G. (1999) Exsolution lamellae in minerals from ultrahigh-P rocks. Int. Geol. Rev., v. 41, pp. 981-993. Zhang, R.Y., Zhai, S.M., Fei, Y.W. and Liou, J.G (2003) Titanium solubility in coexisting garnet and clinopyroxene at very high pressure: The significance of exsolved rutile in garnet. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 216, pp. 591-601.

A. P. Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 36

E Shaji and A P Pradeepkumar

Protolith constraints of garnetiferous biotite gneiss of Kerala Khondalite Belt

Protolith constraints of garnetiferous biotite gneiss of Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB)


E. Shaji and A.P . Pradeepkumar
Department of Geology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum - 695 581, India shajigeology@gmail.com, geo.pradeep@gmail.com Abstract The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) at the southernmost tip of Peninsular India is made up of granulite-facies supra-crustal rocks (Chacko et al., 1987; Cenki et al., 2004; Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2013) which experienced their last metamorphic overprint during the PanAfrican orogeny. The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) includes garnet-biotite gneisses (GBG), garnetiferous charnockite, khondalite (garnet-biotitecordierite+sillimanite+graphite orthopyroxene) and less abundant calc-silicates, pyroxene granulites and quartzites. Its central portion is mostly underlain by khondalites and leptynites (quartz+feldspar+ sporadic garnet and biotite). Earlier workers believed that metasediments constitute a major part of the KKB and interpreted the granulite-facies banded garnet bearing quartzo-feldspathic gneisses as a sequence of psammitic, psammopelitic and pelitic metasedimentary rocks (Santosh 1996, Collins et al., 2014 and references therein). Although there is some consensus on the metasedimentary origin of sillimanite bearing rocks there are disagreements about the protoliths of garnetiferous gneiss and lucogranites (Sreejith and Ravindra Kumar, 2013). The present investigations on the leptynite/GBG quarries have suggested that at least some of the leucogranites are derived from melting of khondalitic material and GBG could have been derived from a granite. The three main evidences for interpreting these rocks as having metasedimentary protoliths are the presence of migmatitic character in many quarries of Trivandrum, the garnetiferous biotite gniess with pockets of restite containing sillimanite, cordieritegraphite, and the well-layered nature of most garnetiferous gneisses. At several localities the GBG contains large K-feldspar porphyroclasts and there are many intrusive relationships preserved in the field between GBG/leptynite and khondalites. The geochemical signatures and field evidences indicate that these GBG are derived from granitoid precursors and resemble the augen-gneisses and granitic gneisses. The leucogneisses are classified as alkali calcic peralumious metagranites. Acknowledgments. This paper is based on field work that is being carried out as part of the project envisaged under the UGC-SAP-DRS II thrust area References
Cenki, B., Braun, I., Brcker, M., 2004. Evolution of the continental crust in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southernmost India: evidence from Nd isotope mapping combined with UPb and RbSr geochronology. Precambrian Research 134, 275292. Chacko, T., Ravindra Kumar, G. R. and Newton, R. C. 1987 Metamorphic P-T conditions of Kerala (South India) Khondalite Belt, a granulite facies supracrustal terrain. Journal of Geology 95, 343-358. Collins, A.S., Clark, C., Plavsa, D., 2014. Peninsular India in Gondwana: The tectonothermal evolution of the Southern Granulite Terrain and its Gondwanan counterparts. Gondwana Research 25, 190-203 Santosh, M., 1996. The Trivandrum and Nagercoil granulite blocks. Gondwana Research Group, Memoir 3, 243277 Sreejith, C., Ravindra Mumar, G.R., 2013. Petrogenesis of high-K metagranites in the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: a possible magmatic-arc link between India, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar. Journal of Geodynamics 63, 69-82.

A. P . Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 37

T R Deeju and S N Kumar

A chemico-mineralogical study of dolerites of Perinthalmanna, Kerala, India

A chemico-mineralogical study of dolerites of Perinthalmanna area, Malappuram district, Kerala, India


Deeju T. R. * and S. N. Kumar
Department of Geology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, India *Email: deejugeology@gmail.com

Abstract The study area, forming part of the Precambrian terrain of South India, is located north of Achankovil Shear Zone. The present study pertains to an area of 51.78 Sq.km between North latitudes 105710 and 105913 and East longitudes 7610 and 761711. Systematic geological mapping of the area have shown that the major rock types of the area are biotite gneiss, charnockite, dolerite and granite. The texture and mineral paragenesis in the metamorphic rocks point to granulite and amphibolite facies metamorphism. The overall fabric of the rocks reflects intense polyphase deformation and metamorphic recrystallisation. The gneisses and some charnockites exhibit deep penetrating foliations and well-developed joints. Both varieties of granites (pink and grey) have concordant relatioship with the country rocks. The texture and mineralogy suggest igneous parentage for granites. Dolerite in the study area occurs as highly jointed dykes of varying widths striking NE-SW. It is easily identified in the field in its bouldery form.The dolerite dykes have discordant contact with all the rock types in the study area except with granite. The granites in the nearby areas are of Late proterozoic to Early Palaeozoic age. In the absence of geochronological data, the lack of crosscutting relationship with granite indicates older proterozoic age for the dolerite. Basic Mesozoic intrusives in Kerala, mainly represented by NNW-SSE to NW-SE striking dyke swarms also supports this view. The higher anorthite content in the plagioclase (An range 45-55) of the rock is suggestive of its formation at high P-T condition. The various chemical discrimination diagrams for the dolerites indicate sub-alkaline to calc-alkaline nature and gabbroic composition of the magma. Key words: granulite facies, amphibolite facies, pink granite, grey granite, dolerite, dyke.

A. P. Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 38

S Rajesh and A P Pradeepkumar

Mechanism of formation of dehydration patches in the Munnar granite

Mechanism of formation of dehydration patches in the Munnar granite, southwestern India


S. Rajesh and A. P. Pradeepkumar
Department of Geology, University of Kerala, Trivandrum, India E-mail: georajeshmunnar@gmail.com Abstract Munnar granite is an E-W trending irregular body which is emplaced within the migmatite and the surrounding gneisses. The geochronologic data put the age of the Munnar granite between ~640 and 550 Ma. There are three types of granite are recorded in the study area: foliated granite, coarse pink granite and medium grey granite. The foliated granite consists of biotite, hornblende, quartz and potash feldspar (orthoclase) and the foliations are closely spaced, but discontinuous. The foliated granite shows more percentage of orthoclase than the other two granites. Further, the alkali granite locally preserves small-scale dehydration patches (incipient charnockites). The presence of the relict patches of pyroxenes as well as biotite flakes within the migmatites suggests a charnockitic country rock, intruded by a granitic body in and around Munnar. The charnockites present in some places are felsic in appearance and shows highly deformed foliated nature. Hypersthene is found recrystallized to hornblende in many places and is visible even in hand specimens. In some areas small veins of charnockite are found within the migmatitic gneiss, with relict pyroxenes and the appearance of newly formed hornblende. The felsic veins cut across the gneissosity. The geological history that can be traced out from these petrological relations is that the parent charnockite has been migmatised and retrogressed by the granitic intrusion and a later generation of incipient charnockite was formed as veins. Towards the eastern part of the Munnar granite the reappearance of non-migmatised charnockites confirms that the original country rock of the area was massive charnockite. Field relations indicate that the gneissic fabric of the Munnar granite cross cuts those in the surrounding charnockites and gneissic rocks. The dehydration zone patches which overprints the granite gneiss is enigmatic because no evidence for any fluid sources are available and the investigation to decipher the mechanism is ongoing. Key words: migmatite, dehydration zone, gneissosity, foliated granite

A. P. Pradeepkumar and E .Shaji (eds) Shear Zones and Crustal Blocks of Southern India Proc of the UGC-SAP-DRSII seminar, Dept of Geology, University of Kerala, India, 29 March 2014, 39p. ISBN 978-81-923449-1-1 39