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BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E-VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES

William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon Niño Y. UY², Nathaniel Joseph C. LIBATIQUE¹, and Gregory L. TANGONAN¹

¹ Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines ² Manila Observatory, Quezon City, Philippines

ABSTRACT

As hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles rise in the interna- tional market as well as localized versions such as e-Jeepneys and e- Tricycles, their feasibility as future transport system becomes signifi- cant. Part of the deciding factor is the storage system and thus, it is imperative to have an energy management system for electric vehi- cles in the Philippines.

Dual-source storage system (lead-acid batteries and supercapaci- tors) has been of research interest because of their capability of handling voltage spikes and still have stable open circuit voltage; however, current deployments of e-tricycles in the Philippines only provide lead-acid batteries as their battery source.

Aside from this, mainstream monitoring of the batteries only ob- serve open circuit voltage but other state parameters are needed such as the state of charge, state of health, and temperature varia- tion for better feedback.

The proposed research presents a more pragmatic way of monitor- ing the energy management system through the evaluation of dual-

source systems and inclusion of additional parameters such as tem- perature for e-vehicle battery monitoring in the Philippines.

Simulations using Simulink in MATLAB suggests that hybrid system can improve the efficiency of vehicles in stop-start conditions. A lookup table has also been proposed for dynamic battery diagnostic testing of e-vehicles for additional performance tests such as two- pulse load tests for finding the state of health

BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon

METHODOLOGY

The foundation of this ongoing research involves making simulations of conventional, serial hybrid and parallel vehicles. A comparison is targeted for comparing the advantages of using hybrid vehicles with dual source system in the traffic conditions on the road in the Philip- pines. The QSS-TB from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology was used as a toolbox integrated with Simulink and MATLAB. Auto- mation and empirical validation with battery parameters such as state of charge and state of health has also been explored for e- vehicles. A lookup table for diagnostic testing has also been pro-

posed if further parameters are needed as an indication of charging and or replacement.

A third part is modeling simple battery failure in e-vehicle. The first step involves varying internal resistance is varied. As the battery de- grades, there will come point where the demanded power of the electric motor is not met. The battery also discharges at a faster rate. To accommodate the battery failure simulation, modifications were made from the QSS-TB.

BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon
BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon
BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon

RESULTS

Comparison of Conventional, Serial and Hybrid Vehicles us- ing Jeepney and the New European Drive Cycles

Comparison of Conventional, Serial and Hybrid Vehicles us- ing Jeepney and the New European Drive Cycles

Summary of average fuel consumption of a conven- tional, serial, and parallel hybrid vehicle with NEDC and Keepney drive cycle input

Energy recovery of a serial and a parallel hybrid vehicle

Comparison of Conventional, Serial and Hybrid Vehicles us- ing Jeepney and the New European Drive Cycles

Average Fuel Consumption of the Jeepney in Stop and Go Conditions

Battery State of Charge

State of Charge Definition

State of Charge Approximation
State of Charge Approximation

Battery Failure Simulation

Battery Failure Simulation
Battery Failure Simulation

In the parallel setup, the increase in efficiency is because of the use of the engine as a prime mover in addition to running the elec- tric generator.

Different drive cycle input can vary the duration the vehicle can avoid operating the internal combustion engine. Since the engine runs the vehicle while charging the battery, the amount of fuel consumed is higher than a serial hybrid vehicle with a similar effi- ciency.

The serial hybrid vehicle have the lowest average fuel consump- tion among the three when in heavy traffic condition. In terms of

energy recovered, the energy recovered in the NEDC cycle is great- er than the Jeepney driving cycle. A serial hybrid vehicle is best suited for stop and go conditions.

In terms of the battery state of charge, the Garden’s table in re- lating electrolyte temperature with state of charge has been mod- ified into a dynamic lookup table to provide a diagnosis if further test are needed such as a two-pulse load test for testing the State of Health

CONCLUSION

Given the driving cycle of the Jeepney transportation in the Phil- ippines where start and stop conditions are frequent, the serial hybrid simulation is the most efficient in terms of fuel consump- tion compared to the conventional, and parallel hybrid electric vehicles.

In determining the state of the batteries, nested test using a lookup table was also constructed for faster diagnosis of the lead -acid batteries used in e-vehicles.

Battery failure has also been explored and compared to the per- formance of a normal battery. It has been shown in the simula- tion that the recovered energy of the electric motor is also wast- ed.

RECOMMENDATION

The hybrid vehicles had simulations resulting in better efficiency especial- ly in the frequent start-stop conditions in the Philippines. For continuing this research, a modular approach prototype with dual source modules of lead-acid batteries and supercapacitors would provide empirical testing for additional validation such as the switching speeds.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon
BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon
BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon
BATTERY PERFORMANCE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF E - VEHICLES IN THE PHILIPPINES William F. INFANTE¹, Sherdon