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MATERIAL FOR DISCUSSION I.

Study the text and retell it: GOING ON A HIKE If you want to get the maximum pleasure and the minimum shocks and heartaches when going on a hike, leave as little as possible to chance. Everything should be planned in detail. Plan, plan, and plan some more-and you'll enjoy every moment of it. After you've carefully chosen your route, you must ruthlessly cut down both on the weight and the amount of the articles you take. You'll need as lightweight a tent as possible for your hiking, though it is essential that it should be absolutely damp-proof. Next you'll need a sleeping-bag and a plastic bag in which to put it so as to keep it dry in all weather. Unless your rucksack is water-proof, put your spare clothes in a plastic bag too. Now you'll need something to cook on. My advice is to get a gas burner which is light and compact. A "must" is a water-container, preferably a plastic bucket, a light metal tea-kettle and a saucepan with a lid and with detachable handles. If you don't want to fry up in the lid, get a frying-pan. You'll also need plastic containers for milk, tea-bags, butter, salt and washing-up liquid; cup, knife, spoon and fork. All can be in plastic, but I prefer a metal knife. Don't forget to take a torch-you never know when circumstances will force you to pitch your tent in the dark. Now as to what you're going to eat. For breakfast I suggest eggs and bacon, which are easy to cook, tea, bread and butter, and jam. For lunch biscuits, cold meat, bread and butter and jam again, and for dinner and supper combined tinned meat and fish. Thus adequately equipped and lightly dressed in water-proof clothing suitable for a wide variation in temperature, you can now set off on your hiking expedition, and hope for the best. III. Complete the following sentences: 1. Oh, bother! I've dropped a plate and ... .2. Sculling a boat is quite an undertaking if ... . 3. I don't think it necessary to plan our trip, we'll just ... . 4. We followed a winding path going up ... . 5. When the hikers came to a puzzling choice of routes, they ... . 6. It was more like autumn than summer, it ... . 7. The three friends got together to plan ... and to choose ... . 8. To see the real country one must travel ... . 9. The rain had been ... all night and our things were ... . 10. There is hardly ... the heat is ... . II. "Do you happen to have anything to open the tin with?" - "Oh, yes. Here is ... ." 12. Stop leaning over ... the boat may ... . 13. The current is very strong here, it's no use trying to ... . 14. None of us had any experience in cooking and the porridge ... but the fresh air ... . 15. I wish we had not believed the ... and had stayed home on Sunday. 16. Do you call this ... ? Who will carry it, I wonder? 17. We'd better hurry up, it's beginning ... . 18. Why on earth did you put tomatoes on the bottom of the rucksack? Now they are ... . 19. The wind is sure to bring rain. Let's be quick ... . 20. I should never have thought so many things could be ... . 21. I wish the wind rose and drove ... . 22. It was 35 above and the heat was ... . 23. When at last we squatted down to supper we were so hungry that ... .24. I think it only fair to make him wash ... . 25. She is too fond of comfort to display any enthusiasm about ... . 26. here were some cracked eggs left and we decided to have ... . IV. Use the vocabulary of ex. II in answering the questions: 1. What do you call a long walk in the country, a book of information for travellers, a canvas bag carried by hikers on the back, a large basket with a cover, plants of all kinds as a whole, a small wood, a

statement about what the weather will be like, a fine rain, pots and pans, a metal vessel with a spout, the front and the back parts of a boat, a light boat moved by a paddle, a light sailing vessel, equipment needed for fishing? 2. What adjectives may come in handy to describe a meal, a landscape, a hill, rain, wind, fog, heat, weather? 3. What will you say if your friend wants to take too many things when going on a hike, the wind is beginning to blow, it's too hot for your liking, you enjoy your meal, you don't like either the sight or the taste of a dish, your friend complains that he is doing more than his fair share of the work? 4. What will you do before going on a hike, boiling potatoes on a camp-fire, going to bed when camping out, leaving the camping-site? 5. What may happen if you're caught in the rain, you drop an egg, put something heavy on a tomato, overfill a pot, fidget in a boat? 6. What do you do to set afloat a canoe, a rowing-boat, a yacht, a raft?

How nice, to be free of household chores!

Always nagging!

I like out-of-the-way places. VI. Make up dialogues between: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Two inexperienced hikers trying to pack lots of things into a rucksack. Two tired walkers who still have some 10 miles to cover in a hilly countryside. Two irritated persons trying to make a fire in the drizzling rain. Two hungry girls trying to open a tin without a tin-opener. Young men washing their clothes in the river. Two lazy hikers, each thinking that he is doing more than his fair share of the work. You and a friend of yours who is just back from a hiking tour.

VII. Speak of your (or your friend's) hiking experience. VIII. Comment on the pictures on p. 46.

Camping is the Ideal Way of Spending a Holiday In the past camping was considered to be a poor way of spending a holiday: OK for boy scouts and diligent students but hardly suitable for comfort-loving adults. However, recently the situation has changed. If you go camping, it no longer means that you will be bitten to death by mosquitoes, have to drink lukewarm coffee, live on canned food, suffocate or freeze in a sleeping-bag and carry heavy weights in your backpack. Camping has become the dream of a holiday-maker. All the discomforts associated with it have been done away with. For a modest price you can buy a comfortable water-proof tent at the local store. You can equip your tent to your taste with portable furniture, a gas-stove and a mini-fridge to preserve food. Portable furniture is light and comfortable. Modern camping sites are wellequipped with various facilities: hot and cold running water, laundry service, even shops and dancefloors! No wonder camping has become extremely popular with so many people over the recent years. It has so much to offer. You enjoy absolute freedom, breathtaking nature and meditative silence of the morning. If you want to escape routine camping is for you. There is no booking a hotel room at the last minute, or driving round the city in search of a suitable motel room. Low-cost holidays make camping an attractive proposition. But above all, you enjoy tremendous mobility. If you dont like a place or if its too crowded you can simply get up, pack everything and go. Its up to you how long you want to stay or where you want to go next. Camping is a good choice for a family vacation. Unlike hiking, its not a solitary pursuit. Sharing every unforgettable experience with your family and friends heightens the enjoyment. Instead of being bored to death in a stuffy hotel room, you arrive at a campsite, put up a tent, make a fire and start getting a meal ready. You are active all the time and close to nature. Imagine yourself beside a clear stream with mountains in the background. Night is falling, everything is peaceful, you are in complete harmony with nature. Camping provides you with a real change from everyday living. You get up earlier, go to bed earlier, sleep in the open air, develop a hearty appetite. And, of course, there is nothing like spending evenings near the campfire singing songs to a guitar or telling ghost-stories. Together with your friends you can arrange a scavenger hunt. For a few precious weeks in the year you adopt a completely different way of life. And thats the essence of true recreation and real enjoyment.

Make a list of advantages and disadvantages of a camping holiday. IX. For some people hiking is an ideal way of spending a holiday. What do you think about it? Discuss it with a partner giving your arguments for and against hiking. Touch upon the following points: 1. 2. 3. 4. In the twentieth century people forgot how to use their legs. Walking is the best way to enjoy the beauty of nature. Camping gives people an opportunity of being in the open air all night and day. The pleasure one gets from hiking is worth the trouble taken.

Points for Discussion: 1. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a hiking (backpacking) tour. 2. Speak on the benefits and drawbacks of a camping holiday. 3. What are the necessary preparations to be made before setting off on a camping or a hiking holiday? What advice would you give to a first-time camper? 4. Describe a picnic. Do you often go on a picnic? Why are picnics popular with children? 5. Do you like travelling alone or in a big company of family and friends? Give your reasons for and against travelling with someone. 6. What was the longest journey that you undertook? Describe it. 7. Have you ever been to an open air retreat or a concert? Speak about your experience. 8. What is the difference between a traveler and a tourist?

Dramatize the situations. 1. Your friend and you decided to spend a week together. But you prefer rafting and he caving. Make your friend sure that it is more interesting to raft. 2. It happened so that you don't have enough money to spend your holidays abroad. You decided to have 2 weeks vacations camping. Prove that you'll have a good time. 3. Your friend dislikes hiking. He dreams to spend his summer vocations gambling. Talk him out of his plan. 4. Your friend wants to be a guided traveler and you are the one who thinks the best way to travel is to experience cultures and interact with local people. Make him accept your point of view. Make up a story

Pop quiz Are you a survivor? Find out whether you would survive a hiking and mountaineering expedition in the Himalayas. 1. Your rucksack has fallen in the river. You: fish it out let it float down the river ask your pal to go in and get it for you 2. You're on your own and you have lost your compass! You: look at the sun or stars and manage to orientate yourself burst into tears scream and shout until someone comes 3. You hurt your ankle on the first day. You decide to: carry on anyway, it doesn't hurt much pack it immediately wait a while and then decide what to do 4. Your instructor shouts at you to jump down the side of a steep rock face. You: do it straight away baulk this issue and conveniently wander off you ask if you can double check the rope for safety first 5. You're down to your last tin of beans. You: offer your food to the others and go without gulp it all down, after all, who knows when you'll have your next meal offer to share some of it with your mates Profile Mostly As: You are a genuine mountaineer! With your courage and determination, you can climb the highest mountain easily! Mostly Bs: Adventure in the mountains seems to be a difficult obstacle but you could always try your hand at some sport like rafting or canoeing which is less difficult. Mostly Cs: You are quite keen on mountaineering and hiking but you could be more dedicated. Try harder!