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Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

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Resources, Conservation and Recycling


"ournal #o$e%age& '''(elsevier(co$)locate)resconrec

*re totally recycled #ot $i+ as%#alts a sustainable alternative ,or road %aving.ugo /(R(!( Silva a, , 0oel R(/( 1liveira a , Carlos /(2( 0esus b
a b

C34*C, !e%art$ent o, Civil 5ngineering, 6niversity o, /in#o, 48003078 2ui$ar8es, 9ortugal !e%art$ent o, Civil 5ngineering, 6niversity o, /in#o, 48003078 2ui$ar8es, 9ortugal

article
*rticle #istory& Received 7 *%ril 2011 Received in revised ,or$ 22 Cove$ber 2011 *cce%ted 24 Cove$ber 2011

in,o

abstract
4#e recycling o, reclai$ed as%#alt %ave$ent (R*9) #el%s road aut#orities to ac#ieve t#eir goal o, a sustainable road trans%ort syste$ by reducing 'aste %roduction and resources consu$%tion( 4#e envi3 ron$ental and econo$ic bene+ts o, using R*9 in #ot $i+ as%#alt (./*) a%%lications could be %us#ed u% to t#e li$it, by %roducing totally recycled ./*s (100: R*9), but t#e %er,or$ance o, t#is alternative $ust be satis,actory( ;n ,act, t#ese $i+tures could %ossibly %resent %roble$s o, 'or<ability and durability, #ig#er binder aging and lo' ,atigue crac<ing resistance( 4#us, t#e ob"ective o, t#is study is to deter$ine i, totally recycled ./* $i+tures could be a good solution ,or road %aving, by evaluating t#e $erit o, so$e re"uvenator agents (co$$ercial %roduct= used engine oil) in i$%roving t#e aged binders> %ro%er3 ties and t#e recycled $i+ture %er,or$ance( Several binder sa$%les 'ere %re%ared 'it# t#e $entioned re"uvenators and c#aracteri?ed (9en, R@A and dyna$ic viscosity), in order to select t#e best re"uvenator contents( 4#e %roduction te$%eratures o, t#e corres%onding recycled $i+tures 'ere evaluated based on t#eir 'or<ability( 4otally recycled ./*s 'ere %roduced 'it# t#e best %reviously observed co$binations, and t#eir %er,or$ance ('ater sensitivity, rutting resistance, sti,,ness, ,atigue resistance, binder aging) 'as assessed( 4#e $ain conclusion o, t#is study is t#at totally recycled ./*s can be a good alternative ,or road %aving, es%ecially i, re"uvenator agents are used to reduce t#eir %roduction te$%erature and to i$%rove t#eir %er,or$ance( B 2011 5lsevier A( ( *ll rig#ts reserved(

Dey'ords& 4otal recycling Reclai$ed as%#alt %ave$ent (R*9) Re"uvenators Ainder %ro%erties *s%#alt %er,or$ance

1( ;ntroduction 4#e searc# ,or a better Euality o, li,e led t#e society to e+%lore t#e %lanet in t#e %ast ,e' decades in an uncontrolled 'ay( ;t resulted in a current ra%id reduction o, natural resources, leading t#e society to searc# ,or ne' sustainable alternatives( ;n t#e +eld o, as%#alt %aving tec#nology, t#e recycling o, %ave$ents can be seen as a sustainable o%tion, as it is a %roduction %rocess 'it# environ$ental and econo$ic bene+ts( 4#e use o, #ig# reclai$ed as%#alt %ave$ent (R*9) ratios in as%#alt $i+tures %revents t#e dis%osal o, t#e R*9 $aterial in land+lls, '#ile reduces t#e a$ount o, ne' aggregates and bitu$en e+tracted ,ro$ t#e %lanet, t#us being an e,,ective tec#nology bot# at environ$ental and energy levels, alt#oug# Fi,e Cycle *nalysis (FC*) studies (C#iu et al(, 2008= Sayag# et al(, 2010) s#ould be %er,or$ed ,or a co$%lete assess$ent o, t#e bene+ts o, suc# tec#nologies( ;n $ost countries t#e total a$ount o, reclai$ed as%#alt and t#e %roduction o, recycled as%#alt continue to gro' regularly, as 'ell as t#e %ercentage o, R*9 used in recycled $i+tures (9;*RC, 2002)( Several studies #ave been carried out in t#e %ast (Celauro et al(,

2010= 9ereira et al(, 2004= aldLs et al(, 2011) 'it# #ig# content o, recycled as%#alt (u% to 60:), '#ic# is $ainly li$ited by %racti3 cal issues related to t#e %roduction o, t#e $i+tures in t#e as%#alt %lant( 4#e study o, as%#alt recycling #as led to t#e e$ergence o, an innovative tec#niEue, called Mtotal recyclingN, '#ic# reuses 100: R*9 in #ot as%#alt recycled $i+tures( 4#is ne' tec#nology uses additives to i$%rove %er,or$ance, %articularly a co$bina3 tion o, a re"uvenator 'it# a reactivator (Riebese#l and COlting, 200J)( *n e+a$%le o, t#is tec#nology is t#e se%aration and indi3 vidual trans%ort o, t#e R*9 $aterial ,or a large dru$)dryer, '#ose di$ensions %revent direct contact bet'een t#e +a$e and t#e R*9 (Aenning#oven, 2010), $ini$i?ing t#e c#anges in t#eir %ro%erties( ;n t#e %roduction o, #ot recycled as%#alt, it is necessary to over3 #eat t#e virgin aggregates in order to %rovide indirect #eat to t#e R*9( 4#is i$%oses li$itations on t#e a$ount o, R*9 t#at can be added, '#ic# are related to %roductivity issues( 4#e li$it is around 70: ,or t#e %roduction o, #ot recycled as%#alts in conventional batc# %lants ($a+i$u$ ca%acity o, #eat and gaseous e$issions li$its), '#ile dru$3$i+ as%#alt %lants can %rocess u% to 60H0: o, R*9, 'it# a %ractical li$it o, 70: due to e$issions (.assan, 200J)( So$e $odi+cations #ave been introduced to conventional as%#alt %lants in order to reduce aging o, t#e old binder during $i+ %roduc3 tion( 4#is includes counter+o' dru$ $i+er and $icro'ave #eaters (C*9*, 1JJ6)(

Corres%onding aut#or( 4el(& G371 273 710200= ,a+& G371 273 71021H( 53$ail addresses& #ugoIcivil(u$in#o(%t (.(/(R(!( Silva), "oliveiraIcivil(u$in#o(%t (0(R(/( 1liveira), c"esusIcivil(u$in#o(%t (C(/(2( 0esus)(

0J213344J)K see ,ront $atter B 2011 5lsevier A( ( *ll rig#ts reserved( doi&10(1016)"(resconrec(2011(11(013

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

3J

P#ereas $icro'ave #eat is $ore easily absorbed by t#e aggre3 gates, it is not absorbed as easily by t#e binder, t#us reducing its susce%tibility to aging during %roduction (*l3Qadi et al(, 200H)( ;n 9ortugal, t#e %roduction o, recycling $i+tures 'it# #ig# R*9 content is not yet a reality, %artially due to t#e Cational *s%#alt S%eci+cations (59, 2011), '#ic# do not encourage t#e use o, $i+3 tures 'it# $ore t#an 70: R*9 (in binder or base courses) and 10: R*9 (in sur,ace courses)( ;n contrast, t#e study o, recycled $i+tures 'it# #ig# R*9 content is already a reality in so$e countries (es%e3 cially .olland, 2er$any, 0a%an and t#e 6S*), and so$e o, t#ese countries #ave begun to %roduce $i+tures 'it# 100: R*9 in as%#alt %lants (.arrington, 2007= .ossain et al(, 1JJ3), s#o'ing t#at it is %ossible to success,ully introduce Mtotal recyclingN in t#e %aving industry( .o'ever, t#e success o, t#is recent tec#nology is not yet seen a$ong t#e scienti+c co$$unity as a ,ull ac#ieve$ent, because it is still Euite sensitive to t#e Euality o, R*9 (origin, variability, stoc<3 ing) and t#e %roduction conditions (strict control o, te$%eratures)( ;n addition, t#e absence o, road trials 'it# su,+cient age to evaluate t#e durability o, t#ese $i+es is noticed( Regarding t#e in+uence o, t#e a$ount o, R*9 on t#e %er,or3 $ance o, t#e resulting $i+ture, in general, t#e rutting resistance and t#e sti,,ness o, t#e $i+tures increase 'it# an increase in t#e R*9 content and, usually, t#e increase in sti,,ness reduces t#e ,atigue resistance o, t#e $i+ture (Rebbec#i and 2reen, 2007)( 4#e sti,,ness $odulus o, a recycled $i+ture de%ends on t#e ty%e o, aggregate and its gradation, but t#e $ost signi+cant ,actor is t#e sti,,ness o, t#e aged binder %resent in t#e R*9 (Rebbec#i and 2reen, 2007), since t#e R*9 does not act solely as an aggregate and t#ere is a signi+cant interaction bet'een t#e virgin and t#e aged binder (C#en et al(, 200H)( 4#e $ain ob"ective o, t#e current researc# 'as to study t#e %er,or$ance o, recycled #ot $i+ as%#alts (./*) 'it# total incor3 %oration o, R*9, 'it# or 'it#out re"uvenators, in order to evaluate t#eir e,+ciency( 4#e study 'as carried out in t#e laboratory, in order to test t#e '#ole %roduction %rocess and to encourage its a%%lication in %ave$ents( 4#e laboratory study co$%rised t#e analysis o, several as%#alt $i+tures 'it# nearly 100: R*9, na$ely by using t'o di,,erent re"u3 venators( ;nitially, t#e R*9 $aterial and t#e #ard (aged) binder 'ere c#aracteri?ed( 4#en, t#e addition o, t#e re"uvenators in t#e #ard binder 'as evaluated, in order to select t#e best additive content to be used( ;n a later stage, t#e 'or<ability)co$%actability o, t#e $i+3 tures 'as studied at di,,erent te$%eratures, in order to select t#eir %roduction conditions( Rinally, a co$%arative evaluation bet'een t#e $i+tures> $ain %er,or$ance %ro%erties 'as carried out(

to one layer only, in order to assure t#at t#e $aterial 'ould be #o$ogeneous( 4#e grading o, t#e R*9 $aterial 'as evaluated according to 5C J3331 standard( 4#e R*9 $aterial 'as also incin3 erated, according to t#e 5C 126JH33J standard, in order to burn t#e bitu$en and to evaluate t#e grading o, t#e aggregates constituting t#e R*9 (according to t#e 5C 126JH32), so as to deter$ine '#et#er it +ts 'it#in t#e grading envelo%e o, a conventional sur,ace course $i+ture (*C 14 sur,), as illustrated in Rig( 1( 4#e R*9 aggregates #ave an e+cess o, +nes and a lo' %ercentage o, coarse $aterial( 4#is is due to t#e $illing %rocess or t#e 'earing o, t#e sur,ace layer ,ro$ '#ic# t#e R*9 'as e+tracted( 5+cessive +nes $ay cause %er$anent de,or$ation %roble$s, alt#oug# t#is is not e+%ected in t#is study because t#e binder o, t#e R*9 is very #ard (aging), increasing t#e rutting resistance( 4#us, t#e ,ailure to $eet t#e aggregates grading envelo%e $ay not %ose a %roble$ in t#e %er,or$ance o, t#e $i+ture( 4#e %ercentage o, bitu$en on t#e R*9 'as obtained by t#e igni3 tion $et#od (5C 126JH33J)( 4#e result o, 7(1: ,alls 'it#in t#e usual values o, a conventional sur,ace course $i+ture( !i,,erent sa$%les 'ere tested and t#e results s#o'ed lo' variation, '#ic# con+r$s a good #o$ogeneity o, t#e R*9 $aterial( 4#en, in order to c#aracteri?e t#e aged binder, it 'as se%arated ,ro$ a R*9 sa$%le by dissolving it in toluene and, a,ter re$oving all solid %articles ,ro$ t#e bitu$en solution (using +lter and tube cen3 tri,uge), t#e bitu$en 'as recovered by vacuu$ distillation using a rotary eva%orator, in accordance to t#e 5C 126JH33 standard( Fater, t#e recovered bitu$en 'as c#aracteri?ed t#roug# %enetration (5C 1426) and so,tening %oint (5C 142H) tests( 4#e results revealed a very #ard bitu$en 'it# lo' %enetration (10 d$$) and #ig# so,t3 ening %oint (H3 S C), 'it# a great consistency bet'een t#e di,,erent sa$%les tested(

2( /aterials and $et#ods 2(1( /aterials ;n t#e %resent study, reclai$ed as%#alt %ave$ent $aterial 'as used as t#e $ain co$%onent o, t#e $i+tures( .o'ever, since t#e binder usually %resent in t#is ty%e o, $aterial is too #ard ,or a con3 ventional bitu$inous $i+ture, so$e additives 'ere also used to re"uvenate t#e binder and i$%rove its %ro%erties( *s discussed later in t#is section, it 'as necessary to deter$ine t#e a$ount o, addi3 tive t#at s#ould be added to t#e $i+ture in order to $odi,y t#e bitu$en %ro%erties( 4#us, a ne' binder ('it# si$ilar %ro%erties) 'as used in t#is %articular %art o, t#e study, as it 'ould be i$%rac3 ticable to e+tract t#e necessary a$ount o, aged binder ,ro$ t#e R*9 to %er,or$ suc# study(

2(1(2( Re"uvenating agents Re"uvenation o, bitu$en is si$%le in %rinci%le, consisting on t#e re%lace$ent o, t#e oils lost during t#e aging %rocess and on t#e rebalancing o, t#e bitu$en co$%osition so it beco$es no longer brittle( .o'ever, t#is is not generally %ossible, as it 'ould reEuire so%#isticated e+traction, testing and re$odeling o, t#e binder in t#e road %ave$ent (.olleran et al(, 2007)( ;n so$e countries, re"uvenating agents are a%%lied as a ,og seal to e+tend %ave$ent li,e by restoring t#e lig#t ,ractions ($altenes) to t#e o+idi?ed and dry binder in t#e to% 710 $$ o, as%#alt sur3 ,ace course( Ror t#at %ur%ose, re"uvenating e$ulsions are nor$ally used, containing oils t#at reduce t#e viscosity o, aged bitu$ens, t#us i$%roving t#e ad#esion and co#esion %ro%erties, as 'ell as t#e +e+ibility o, t#e binder( ;n addition, re"uvenators can %ene3 trate t#e voids o, t#e %ave$ent, +lling t#e$ and $ini$i?ing t#e binder o+idation( 4#is reEuires t#e selection o, a $i+ o, $altenes, $odi+ed to ,acilitate and ensure t#e incor%oration o, t#ese ,rac3 tions in as%#alt $i+tures (Aro'nridge, 2010)( Rig( 2 s#o's t#e ty%ical c#anges in t#e c#e$ical co$%osition o, bitu$en 'it# t#e %ave$ent aging and t#e addition o, re"uvenators( *,ter a%%lying a re"uvenator, t#e aged binder reacEuires, al$ost entirely, its initial c#aracteristics( 4'o di,,erent additives 'ere used in t#is study, na$ely *CR ;ter3 lene 1000 (#erea,ter na$ed M*CRN) and a used $otor oil (#erea,ter na$ed M1;FN)( *CR is a re"uvenator agent ,or bitu$en, %roduced 'it# various c#e$icals t#at act directly on t#e aged bitu$en o, R*9, t#us being an ideal additive ,or t#is study( ;t is a bro'n +uid 'it# a density o, 0(J1 g)c$3 at 20 S C, viscosity o, 60 T 10 c9 at 27 S C and +as# %oint o, 180 S C( ;t acts as a regenerator, anti3o+idant agent, ad#esive, %lastici?er, #u$ectant, dis%ersing and diluting agent( 4#e additive can be %laced directly in t#e bitu$en tan<s or in line during %roduction (;terc#i$ica, 2010)( 4#e 1;F 'as selected ,or t#is study because a si$ilar $ate3 rial 'as already used in %revious studies (Ro$era et al(, 2006) as

2(1(1( R*9 c#aracteristics 4#e R*9 used in t#is study 'as obtained ,ro$ a /otor'ay %ave$ent, by $illing t#e t#ic<ness o, t#e %ave$ent corres%onding

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.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

Rig( 1( R*9 and its aggregates grading curves outside *C 14 sur, envelo%e(

re"uvenator( 4#us, it is a c#ea%er %roduct t#at could be used as re"uvenator also increasing t#e recycling rate to 100:(

2(1(3( Ainder used in t#e re"uvenation study Aecause it 'as i$%racticable to recover t#e a$ount o, aged bitu$en reEuired ,or t#e study o, binder $odi+cation ('it# re"u3 venation additives), a ne' binder 'it# si$ilar %ro%erties 'as care,ully selected to be used, i(e(, a 10)20 %en grade bitu$en( 4#e basic c#aracteristics o, t#e ne' 10)20 co$$ercial bitu$en (%enetration o, 13 d$$ and so,tening %oint o, 68 S C) are si$ilar to t#ose o, t#e R*9 recovered bitu$en %resented in Section 2(1(1( Cev3 ert#eless, in order to better corroborate t#e #y%ot#esis o, si$ilarity bet'een bot# binders, a co$%arison o, t#eir $ec#anical %ro%erties (Rig( 3) at di,,erent te$%eratures 'as $ade based on t'o 5uro%ean standard tests&

te$%erature and sa$%le, a,ter c#ec<ing t#at t#e sa$%les reac#ed bot# t#er$al and structural eEuilibriu$ conditions( U !yna$ic viscosity tests (5C 13302) 'ere %er,or$ed at a range o, #ig# te$%eratures (120180 S C), in order to study t#e $i+3 ing)co$%action conditions, using a rotating s%indle a%%aratus, according to a %rede+ned %rocedure (Silva et al(, 200J)(

4#e $ec#anical s%ectra (2 , 2 and tan V) o, bot# binders obtained in t#e !SR test, at te$%eratures bet'een 30 and 80 S C and ad"usted ,or a re,erence te$%erature o, 30 S C, 'ere al$ost over3 la%%ed, t#us con+r$ing t#e analogous $ec#anical be#avior at t#e tested te$%eratures( 4#e viscosities at #ig#er te$%eratures o, t#e aged binder recovered ,ro$ t#e R*9 are also si$ilar to t#ose o, t#e ne' 10)20 bitu$en( 4#us, it 'as assu$ed t#at t#is ne' bitu3 $en could be used to carry out t#e c#aracteri?ation o, t#e binder re"uvenation(

U 4#e $aster curves o, t#e elastic $odulus (2 ), viscous $odu3 lus (2 ) and %#ase angle (tan V) 'ere deter$ined, according to 5C 14HH0, using a dyna$ic s#ear r#eo$eter (!SR) eEui%%ed 'it# 40 $$ %arallel %lates and a ga% o, 1 $$ (Stresstec#3.R eEui%$ent)( S$all a$%litude oscillatory s#ear (S*1S) tests 'ere %er,or$ed to obtain t#e $ec#anical s%ectra at $ulti%le te$%er3 atures (30, 40, 70, 60, H0 and 80 S C), in t#e linear regi$e ,or eac#

2(2( /et#ods 4#e $et#odologies used to obtain t#e results %resented in Sec3 tion 3 are %resented belo'( Rirst, a %reli$inary study 'as carried out to assess t#e o%ti$al %ercentage o, re"uvenator t#at s#ould be added to t#e R*9 in order to i$%rove t#e %ro%erties o, t#e +nal recycled ./* $i+ture( 4#e %roduction conditions o, t#e $i+tures 'it# 100: R*9 'ere evaluated ne+t( ;n %articular, t#e o%ti$al te$%erature ,or t#e %roduction o, suc# $i+tures 'it# and 'it#out re"uvenators 'as deter$ined( Sa$%les 'ere %roduced in t#e /ars#all co$%actor at 110, 120, 130, 140, 170 and 160 S C, and a co$%actability study 'as carried out to evaluate t#e best conditions ,or t#e %roduc3 tion)co$%action o, t#e $i+tures( *,ter analy?ing t#e %roduction te$%erature o, t#e $i+tures and t#e %ercentage o, additives to be used, slabs 'ere %roduced ,or eac# $i+ture, 'it# and 'it#out additives( Cores 'ere e+tracted ,ro$ t#ese slabs in order to carry out %er,or$ance related tests( 4#is included t#e deter$ination o, t#e volu$etric %ro%erties o, eac# $i+ture as 'ell as t#eir 'ater sensitivity, rutting resistance, sti,,ness $odulus and ,atigue resistance( ;n order to evaluate t#e %ro%erties o, t#e re"uvenated binder a,ter %roduction o, t#e $i+tures, ,urt#er tests 'ere carried out on recovered sa$%les o, bitu$en, so t#at t#e results could be used to better understand t#e %er,or$ance o, t#e $i+tures(

Rig( 2( 4y%ical c#anges in c#e$ical co$%osition o, bitu$en a,ter aging and re"uve3 nation (Aro'nridge, 2010)(

2(2(1( Study o, t#e binder re"uvenation 1ne ob"ective o, t#is study is t#e deter$ination o, t#e o%ti3 $al a$ount o, additive t#at s#ould be used in t#e %roduction o, t#e recycled $i+tures( 4#is involves t#e $odi+cation o, t#e aged

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

41

Rig( 3( !yna$ic viscosity %ro%erties o, recovered aged binder and ne' 10)20 %en bitu$en, and corres%onding $aster curves (4 R5R W 30 S C) o, elastic $odulus (2 ), viscous $odulus (2 ) and tan V obtained in t#e !SR(

binder in order to ac#ieve a #ig#er %enetration grade o, bitu$en, i(e(, 20)30 %en( 4#e c#oice o, t#is grade 'as based on t#e ,ollo'3 ing ,actors& (i) t#e bond bet'een bitu$en and aggregates in t#e R*9 already %rovides a very good ad#esion bet'een t#ose $ateri3 als, instead o, reEuiring t#e use o, a signi+cantly so,ter bitu$en to obtain an eEuivalent ad#esion= (ii) in order to obtain an even #ig#er %enetration grade bitu$en (e(g(, 37)70) it 'ould be necessary to greatly increase t#e a$ount o, additives in t#e $i+ture, and con3 seEuently t#e binder content (aged bitu$en G re"uvenators), '#ic# could originate %er$anent de,or$ation %roble$s and rise t#e %ro3 duction cost( 4#e re"uvenation study included t#e addition o, t#ree re"uve3 nator %ercentages (3:, 6: and 12:, by $ass o, binder) to sa$%les o, t#e %reviously $entioned 10)20 %en bitu$en, '#ic# 'ere t#en c#aracteri?ed t#roug# %enetration (5C 1426), so,tening %oint (5C 142H) and dyna$ic viscosity (5C 13302) tests( 4#e latter 'ere car3 ried out at various te$%eratures, as described in Section 2(1(3(

t#e binder), t#e lo'er %ossible te$%erature t#at 'ould allo' t#e $i+ture to be 'or<able s#ould be selected( ;n t#is %articular study, t#e air voids content, '#ic# is nor$ally t#e criterion used ,or t#e te$%erature selection, 'as not considered since t#e R*9 $aterial used did not ,ollo' t#e aggregate grading envelo%e, as %resented above, resulting in lo'er voids contents on t#e +nal $i+tures(

2(2(2( /et#odology used to select t#e %roduction te$%eratures !uring t#e study o, t#e recycled $i+tures, it 'as necessary to de+ne t#eir %roduction te$%eratures( 4#ere,ore, co$%actability tests (5C 126JH310 standard) 'ere carried out at di,,erent te$3 %eratures, using t#e /ars#all i$%act co$%actor( 4#ree $i+tures 'ere studied during t#ese co$%actability tests( 4#e +rst 'as %roduced 'it#out additives, i(e(, only 'it# R*9 (na$ed R*9), t#e second 'it# *CR additive (na$ed *CR) and t#e t#ird 'it# used engine oil (na$ed 1;F)( 4#us, t#e binder content o, t#e R*9 $i+ture 'as 7(1:, '#ile t#e re$aining $i+tures #ad a slig#tly #ig#er binder content due to t#e addition o, re"uvenators( !uring t#e co$%action %rocess, t#e variation o, t#e t#ic<ness o, eac# s%eci$en 'as continuously recorded, by using a linear variable di,,erential trans,or$er (F !4), as a ,unction o, t#e cor3 res%onding nu$ber o, blo's (until reac#ing 200 blo's)( 4#ree s%eci$ens 'ere used ,or eac# studied $i+ture and te$%erature( 4#e %roduction te$%erature t#at 'ould be used ,or eac# $i+ture 'ould corres%ond to t#e te$%erature t#at results in a co$3 %action resistance, 4 (5C 126JH310), si$ilar to t#at observed ,or t#e R*9 $i+ture, at t#e te$%erature at '#ic# 4 started to signi+cantly decrease (t#at great reduction o, 4 $eans a better 'or<ability o, t#e $i+ture, '#ic# #a%%ens ,or #ig#er %roduction te$%eratures)( /oreover, as #ig#er te$%eratures are not desirable ,or t#e %ro3 duction o, t#is ty%e o, $i+tures (it 'ould result in ,urt#er aging o,

2(2(3( /et#ods used to evaluate t#e %er,or$ance o, t#e totally recycled $i+tures P#en studying as%#alt recycled $i+tures, t#e evaluation o, t#eir 'ater sensitivity is essential, since t#is %ro%erty is directly related to t#e %er,or$ance and durability o, t#ese $aterials during t#e road %ave$ent li,e( 4#e evaluation o, t#is %ro%erty is deter3 $ined in 5uro%e by t#e 5C 126JH312( *ccording to t#is standard, t'o grou%s o, t#ree s%eci$ens are tested ,or t#e indirect tensile strengt# (;4S) a,ter a di,,erent conditioning %eriod( ;n t#at %eriod, one grou% is <e%t dry and t#e ot#er is i$$ersed in 'ater, in order to deter$ine t#e in+uence o, t#e 'ater on t#e 'ea<ening o, t#e bond bet'een aggregates and binder and, conseEuently, on t#e strengt# o, t#e $i+ture( Rollo'ing t#e deter$ination o, t#e ;4S o, eac# s%eci$en, it is %ossible to calculate t#e average value o, eac# grou% and t#e indi3 rect tensile strengt# ratio (;4SR), '#ic# corres%onds to t#e ratio bet'een t#e ;4S o, t#e 'et grou% (;4S') and t#e dry grou% (;4Sd) o, s%eci$ens( ;n t#e %resent study, t#e indirect tensile test 'as car3 ried out according to t#e 5C 126JH323 standard, a,ter a volu$etric c#aracteri?ation o, t#e s%eci$ens (to deter$ine t#e voids content, '#ic# signi+cantly in+uences t#e results)( *dditionally, t#e de,or3 $ation o, t#e s%eci$ens at t#e %ea< stress observed in t#e indirect tensile tests 'as recorded, in order to understand t#e ty%e o, ,ailure o, t#e $i+tures, '#ic# can be $ore brittle or ductile( 4#en, t#e rutting resistance o, bot# ty%es o, $i+ture 'as assessed by $eans o, t#e '#eel trac<ing test, according to t#e 5C 126JH322 standard, using t#e s$all device and t#e %rocedure A (in air)( 4#ere,ore, t'o slabs 'ere %re%ared ,or eac# $i+ture ('it# t#e di$ensions o, 30 X 30 X 4 c$3 ), and tested u% to 10 000 cycles( 4#e $ain %ara$eters obtained ,ro$ t#is test are t#e '#eel trac<3 ing slo%e in air (P4S*;R ), calculated bet'een t#e 7000t# and t#e 10 000t# cycles, t#e /ean 9ro%ortional Rut !e%t# in air (9R!*;R ), according to t#e t#ic<ness o, t#e s%eci$en, and t#e /ean Rut !e%t# in air (R!*;R ) o, bot# slabs( Aased on t#e su$$er cli$atic condi3 tions o, t#e region, a 70 S C te$%erature 'as selected ,or t#e test, as

42

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

Rig( 4( 9enetration and so,tening %oint (R@A) test results o, bitu$en 'it# di,,erent %ercentages o, re"uvenator(

being re%resentative o, t#e #ot su$$er days t#at 'ould in+uence t#e resistance to %er$anent de,or$ation o, t#e $i+tures( 4#e sti,,ness $odulus o, bitu$inous $i+tures is one o, t#e $ost i$%ortant %ro%erties ,or t#e design o, +e+ible %ave$ents( 4#e 5C 126JH326 standard de+nes eig#t ty%es o, test to deter$ine t#e sti,,3 ness $odulus o, as%#alt s%eci$ens( ;n t#e %resent 'or< t#e test 'as carried out on %ris$atic s%eci$ens, using t#e ,our3%oint bending con+guration (49A39R)( 4#e test 'as carried out ,or a range o, te$3 %eratures (bet'een 0 and 40 S C) and ,reEuencies (0(1, 0(2, 0(7, 1, 2, 7, 8 and 10 .?), in order to cover a 'ide variety o, loading conditions( 4#e re%resentation o, t#e results 'as $ade by t#e use o, $aster curves, '#ere sti,,ness $odulus, tan V (%#ase angle), stor3 age $odulus and loss $odulus 'ere ad"usted ,or a re,erence te$%erature (4R5R ) o, 20 S C( 4#e curves 'ere dra'n based on t#e ,reEuencyte$%erature su%er%osition %rinci%le o, bitu$inous $aterials, na$ely by using t#e *rr#enius eEuation( Rinally, t#e ,atigue resistance o, all studied $i+tures 'as also deter$ined using t#e ,our3%oint bending test %rocedure, according to t#e 5C 126JH324 standard( 4#e tests 'ere carried out at 20 S C and using a ,reEuency o, 10 .? and in strain control $ode( 4#e ,atigue resistance o, a bitu$inous $i+ture is generally e+%ressed by a relations#i% bet'een t#e tensile strain (Yt ) a%%lied to a s%eci$en and t#e nu$ber o, cycles (C) a,ter '#ic# t#e s%eci3 $en reac#es ,ailure (reduction o, sti,,ness to #al, o, its initial value), as %resented in 5E( (1)(

4#e co$%arison bet'een t#e results obtained be,ore and a,ter t#e %roduction and)or co$%action o, t#e $i+tures allo'ed t#e analysis o, t#e $odi+cations t#at t#e binder 'as sub"ected during t#e $ost signi+cant aging %eriod (t#e $i+tures %roduction %rocess) to be $ade( Aased on 5C 1260H31 standard, t#e corres%onding aging inde+es (%ercentage o, retained %enetration, ring and ball te$%er3 ature increase and dyna$ic viscosity ratio) 'ere also calculated(

3( Results and discussion 3(1( Selection o, re"uvenator contents 4#e %enetration and ring and ball test results o, binder sa$3 %les %re%ared 'it# 10)20 %en bitu$en and di,,erent %ercentages o, re"uvenator are s#o'n in Rig( 4( *s e+%ected, t#e binder %enetration increases and its so,tening %oint decreases '#en increasing t#e re"uvenator additive content (,or bot# additives)( 4#ese c#anges caused by t#e re"uvenator are #ig#er at $ediu$ service te$%eratures (27 S C) t#an at elevated service te$%eratures (R@A)( 4#e e,,ect o, *CR and 1;F re"uvenators on t#e binder %ro%erties is si$ilar, even t#oug# t#e 1;F see$s to be $ore e,+cient '#en using lo'er Euantities o, additive( *s $entioned above, t#e selection o, t#e re"uvenator contents necessary to $odi,y t#e aged binder 'as $ade in order to ac#ieve a #ig#er %enetration grade bitu$en (20)30), '#ose li$its o, %en3 etration and so,tening %oint (s%eci+ed in 5C 127J1) corres%ond to t#e s#aded areas in Rig( 4( /oreover, t#is analysis intended to %re,erably select t#e sa$e Euantities o, *CR and 1;F in order to reduce t#e variables under study( 4#us, it 'as ,ound t#at t#e rec3 o$$ended %ercentage o, additive to use in bot# cases (*CR and 1;F) is 7:, since it +ts 'it#in t#e li$its o, t#e ne' bitu$en grade 20)30( 4#e dyna$ic viscosity test results o, t#e sa$e binder sa$%les ('it# 10)20 %en bitu$en and di,,erent a$ounts o, re"uvenators) obtained at various #ig# te$%eratures are s#o'n in Rig( 7( 4#e re"uvenators #ave also a signi+cant e,,ect on t#e reduction o, viscosity at #ig# te$%eratures ty%ically used during t#e %ro3 duction)co$%action stages, '#ic# is %ro%ortional to t#e a$ount o, additive added to t#e 10)20 %en grade bitu$en( Co$%aring t#e t'o re"uvenators, it a%%ears t#at t#e *CR #as a slig#tly #ig#er e,,ect on reducing t#e dyna$ic viscosity o, t#e binder( Rinally, by observing t#e viscosity reduction a,ter adding t#e re"uvenators, it could be con+r$ed t#at t#e Euantity o, bot# additives %reviously selected to continue t#e study (7:) allo's reducing t#e $i+ing te$%erature o, t#e totally recycled ./* $i+tures (*CR and 1;F) by a%%ro+3 i$ately 1017 S C in co$%arison 'it# t#e sa$e $i+ture 'it#out re"uvenators (R*9)(

C WaX

1 Yt

(1)

'#ere C, no( cycles corres%onding to t#e ,ailure o, t#e $i+ture ,or a strain Yt = Yt , tensile strain a%%lied to t#e $i+ture= a, b, laboratory deter$ined coe,+cients( Aased on t#e ,atigue li,e eEuation (5E( (1)), t'o $ain ,atigue %er3 ,or$ance c#aracteristics 'ere deter$ined to co$%are t#e studied $i+tures, '#ic# are t#e nu$ber o, cycles corres%onding to a ten3 sile $icrostrain o, 100 (C100 ) and t#e strain level corres%onding to a ,atigue resistance o, 1 $illion cycles (Y6 )(

2(2(4( 5valuation o, aging during t#e %roduction o, totally recycled $i+tures *,ter t#e conclusion o, t#e $i+tures> %er,or$ance study, t#e +nal binder %resent in t#e $i+tures 'as c#aracteri?ed, in order to assess '#et#er t#e re"uvenators 'ould #ave c#anged t#e in+u3 ence o, t#e %roduction %rocess on t#e aging o, t#e binder( 4#is 'as carried out by recovering t#e binder using a rotary eva%orator (by vacuu$ distillation), in accordance to t#e 5C 126JH33 standard( 4#en, t#e binder 'as c#aracteri?ed t#roug# %enetration (5C 1426), so,tening %oint (5C 142H) and dyna$ic viscosity (5C 13302) tests(

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

43

Rig( 7( !yna$ic viscosity o, binders ,or di,,erent %ercentages o, additive(

3(2( Selection o, %roduction te$%eratures based on co$%actability tests ;n order to study t#e %roduction te$%eratures o, t#e totally recycled ./* $i+tures 'it#out (R*9) and 'it# 7: o, bot# re"u3 venators (*CR and 1;F), several co$%actability tests 'ere carried out at di,,erent te$%eratures, in t#e /ars#all i$%act co$%actor( So$e ty%ical results o, t#ose tests, na$ely t#ose obtained at 120 and 140 S C, are %resented in Rig( 6( Co$%aring t#e co$%action curves o, t#e di,,erent $i+tures obtained at t#e sa$e test te$%erature, it 'as observed t#at t#e $i+tures 'it# re"uvenators #ave clearly lo'er air voids contents t#an t#ose o, R*9 $i+ture( ;n addition, '#en co$%aring bot# additives, 1;F $i+tures %resent slig#tly lo'er air voids contents, and t#us t#ey s#ould #ave t#e lo'est co$%action resistance and #ig#est 'or<ability (,or t#e sa$e nu$ber o, co$%action blo's)( Rinally, it can be seen t#at t#e c#ange o, t#e %roduction te$%er3 ature (bet'een 120 and 140 S C) #as a signi+cant e,,ect on t#e co$%actability and on t#e volu$etric %ro%erties o, all studied $i+3 tures( /ean'#ile, t#e various co$%action resistance values, 4, 'ere deter$ined according to 5C 126JH310 standard( SubseEuently, t#ese results (relating t#e co$%action resistance 'it# t#e $i+ing te$%erature o, t#e studied $i+tures) 'ere %lotted in Rig( H, in order to evaluate di,,erences bet'een t#e co$%actability o, t#e totally recycled ./* $i+tures( 4#e analysis o, t#e co$%action resistance curves o, eac# $i+3 ture %rovides in,or$ation on t#eir 'or<ability at di,,erent $i+ing te$%eratures( 4#e $i+ture 'it#out additives (R*9) %resented a

constant and #ig# co$%action resistance bet'een 110 and 140 S C, '#ic# indicates t#at R*9 $i+ture does not #ave su,+cient 'or<3 ability belo' 140 S C( 4#e co$%action resistance o, R*9 $i+ture #as greatly decreased a,ter 140 S C, and t#us t#e te$%erature o, 147 S C 'as selected to %roduce t#is $i+ture as being t#e $ini$u$ te$%erature at '#ic# R*9 s#ould be #eated to ensure a suitable 'or<ability( 4#e selection o, t#e %roduction te$%erature o, t#e totally recy3 cled $i+tures 'it# additives (*CR and 1;F) 'as $ade in order to obtain a co$%action resistance si$ilar to t#e $i+ture 'it#out addi3 tives (R*9), as %resented in Rig( H( 4#us, t#e use o, bot# re"uvenators led to t#e use o, lo'er $i+ing te$%eratures (127 S C ,or *CR and 120 S C ,or 1;F $i+tures) due to t#e lo'er viscosity o, t#e re"uve3 nated binders and #ig#er binder content o, t#e resulting $i+tures(

3(3( 9er,or$ance o, t#e totally recycled ./* $i+tures 3(3(1( Pater sensitivity and indirect tensile strengt# 4#e results o, t#e indirect tensile strengt# and 'ater sensitivity tests are %resented in Rig( 8, as 'ell as t#e $ean air voids content o, t#e tested s%eci$ens( 4#e results o, t#e indirect tensile strengt# tests s#o' a #ig#er de,or$ation on ,ailure (#ig#er +e+ibility) o, bot# $i+tures 'it# additives in co$%arison 'it# t#e $i+ture 'it#out additives, alt#oug# t#is #as occurred due to a reduction o, t#e ;4S( 4#ere3 ,ore, *CR $i+ture %resented t#e best co$bined ,racture resistance c#aracteristics (#ig# de,or$ation and ;4S values)( Concerning t#e volu$etric %ro%erties, t#e $i+tures 'it# re"uve3 nators %resented lo'er air voids content t#an t#at o, R*9 $i+ture,

Rig( 6( Co$%action curves o, totally recycled ./*s at di,,erent te$%eratures(

Rig( H( Co$%action resistance obtained ,or di,,erent %roduction te$%eratures(

44

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

Rig( 8( Results o, (a) tensile strengt# (;4S vs( de,or$ation on ,ailure) and (b) 'ater sensitivity tests (;4SR vs( air voids content)(

due to t#eir reduced viscosity (increased 'or<ability) and increased binder content (a,ter adding t#e re"uvenator)( 1verall, it 'as ,ound t#at all $i+tures #ad very good 'ater sen3 sitivity results, alt#oug# t#e $i+ture 'it#out additive (R*9) 'as slig#tly $ore sensitive to t#e %resence o, 'ater (lo'er ;4SR due to its #ig#er voids content)( 4#e re$aining $i+tures 'it# re"uve3 nators #ad a better %er,or$ance (durability), 'it# t#e 1;F $i+ture s#o'ing t#e best result(

3(3(2( Resistance to %er$anent de,or$ation 4#e resistance o, as%#alt $i+tures to %er$anent de,or$ation (usually re,erred to as rut resistance), $ay be assessed, in co$3 %arative ter$s, by t#e visual analysis o, t#e '#eel trac<ing test results, '#ic# consists o, a gra%# '#ere t#e de,or$ation o, t#e $i+tures is %lotted against t#e nu$ber o, cycles( Rig( J re%resents t#e results o, eac# studied $i+ture, toget#er 'it# t#e result o, a test carried out on a conventional $i+ture %roduced 'it# a 37)70 %en bitu$en( 4#e conventional $i+ture and t#e t'o $odi+ed $i+tures s#o'ed a si$ilar be#avior( 4#us, it can be concluded t#at t#ose $i+3 tures #ave a rut resistance eEuivalent to a conventional $i+ture( 4#is co$%arison is i$%ortant to con+r$ t#at t#e %er$anent de,or3 $ation o, totally recycled ./* $i+tures 'it# t#e incor%oration o, re"uvenators is not #ig#, and t#at any %er$anent de,or$ation %roble$ 'it# suc# $i+tures is not e+%ected( ;n ,act, t#is could ulti3 $ately be an issue since a #ig#er binder content is obtained in t#ese $i+tures a,ter t#e addition o, t#e re"uvenators( 4able 1 s#o's t#e t#ic<ness o, t#e slabs used in t#e '#eel trac<ing tests and t#e results obtained ,or t#e studied $i+tures, according to t#e $ain %ara$eters t#at c#aracteri?e t#e rut resis3 tance o, as%#alt $i+tures(

4#e $i+ture 'it# t#e best %er$anent de,or$ation %er,or$ance 'as t#e R*9 $i+ture( 4#is can be e+%lained by t#e #ig#er sti,,ness o, t#e binder ('it#out re"uvenation) and by t#e increased aging e,,ect o, t#e %roduction %rocess, since t#is $i+ture 'as $anu,ac3 tured using #ig#er te$%eratures( Aesides, t#e #ig#er te$%eratures also i$%roved t#e coating o, t#e aggregates by t#e binder, $a<3 ing t#e $i+ture %ractically unde,or$able( Regarding t#e $odi+ed $i+tures, t#e *CR $i+ture s#o'ed a slig#tly #ig#er %er,or$ance t#an t#e 1;F $i+ture, alt#oug# bot# $i+tures #ave ,ollo'ed si$ilar trends( ;n su$$ary, t#e introduction o, re"uvenators in t#e R*9 resulted in an increase in t#e binder content o, t#e $i+tures and a reduction in its viscosity, '#ic# increased t#e de,or$ation o, t#e resulting $i+tures in co$%arison to t#e R*9 $i+ture ('it#out additive)( .o'ever, t#e $odi+ed $i+tures still s#o'ed a de,or$ation si$ilar or even lo'er t#an t#e conventional $i+ture(

3(3(3( Sti,,ness $odulus 4#e re%resentation o, t#e sti,,ness test results 'as $ade by t#e use o, $aster curves ,or a re,erence te$%erature o, 20 S C( 4#e curves are dra'n based on t#e ,reEuencyte$%erature su%er%osi3 tion %rinci%le, na$ely by using t#e *rr#enius eEuation ,or a ty%ical linear viscoelastic be#avior o, an as%#alt $aterial( 4#ere,ore, it 'as %ossible to ad"ust and dra' t#e $aster curves ,or sti,,ness $odu3 lus (5Z), tan V (%#ase angle), storage $odulus (51) and loss $odulus (52) c#aracteristics, %resented in Rig( 10( 4#e di,,erent $aster curves con+r$ t#at t#e R*9 $i+ture ('it#3 out additives) clearly #as t#e #ig#est sti,,ness $odulus and lo'est %#ase angle at di,,erent te$%eratures and ,reEuencies( Ay decreas3 ing t#e sti,,ness $odulus and increasing t#e %#ase angle, bot# additives (*CR and 1;F) guarantee a #ig#er %revalence o, t#e vis3 cous co$%onent o, t#e sti,,ness $odulus (52) at #ig#er ,reEuencies (or lo'er te$%eratures), t#us i$%roving t#e +e+ibility o, t#e totally recycled $i+tures( 4#e $i+tures 'it# re"uvenators %resent si$ilar sti,,ness %ro%3 erties, as already observed '#en evaluating ot#er %ro%erties t#roug#out t#e study o, t#e totally recycled ./* $i+tures( ;n ,act, t#e 1;F additive 'as eEuivalent or even slig#tly $ore e,+cient t#an t#e co$$ercial additive *CR in t#e ob"ective o, increasing t#e +e+3 ibility o, t#e recycled $i+tures( 4#is ,urt#er con+r$s t#at t#e 1;F additive can be used as a re"uvenator '#en %roducing recycled ./* $i+tures(

Rig( J( P#eel trac<ing test results obtained ,or t#e studied $i+tures, in co$%arison to a conventional $i+ture(

3(3(4( Ratigue crac<ing resistance 4#e ,atigue li,e eEuations at 20 S C o, totally recycled ./*s 'it# (*CR, 1;F) or 'it#out (R*9) re"uvenators are %resented in Rig( 11( 4#e sa$e result is also %resented ,or a conventional *C 14 Sur, 37)70 $i+ture (C1C ) in order to evaluate t#e di,,erence bet'een

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848 4able 1 4#ic<ness o, t#e s%eci$ens and results obtained in t#e '#eel trac<ing tests( 9ro%erty evaluated 4otally recycled ./* $i+tures Conventional ./* (C1C ) *CR 41(3J 0(11 6(32 2(62 1;F 41(17 0(14 H(H8 3(20 41(60 0(16 8(62 3(7J

47

R*9 *verage t#ic<ness ($$) P#eel trac<ing slo%e (P4S*;R ) ($$)103 cycles) 9ro%ortional Rut !e%t#, $a+( (9R!*;R ) (:) Rut !e%t#, $a+( (R!*;R ) ($$) 41(J0 0(03 2(3J 1(00

t#e ,atigue resistance o, totally recycled and Mne'N as%#alt $i+3 tures( 4#e ,atigue crac<ing resistance o, totally recycled ./*s, 'it# bot# additives, is visibly t#e #ig#est a$ong t#e studied $i+tures( ;n ,act, t#e addition o, re"uvenator agents to t#e R*9 #as increased t#e +e+ibility and t#e ,atigue resistance o, t#e totally recycled $i+ture( /oreover, by adding so$e a$ount o, re"uvenator during t#e %ro3 duction o, t#e recycled $i+ture, t#e binder content o, t#e ./* is increased, '#ic# also i$%roves t#e +e+ibility and t#e ,atigue resistance( 4#e co$%arison bet'een t#e ,atigue resistance o, t#e t#ree totally recycled $i+tures and t#at o, t#e Mne'N conventional ./* s#o'ed t#at all recycled ./*s %resented a better %er,or$ance, including t#e one 'it#out additives( 4#e #ig# ,atigue resistance o, t#e totally recycled ./*s can result ,ro$ t#eir #ig# content o, +nes (t#e Euantity o, $astic +lling $aterial increases), '#ic# are %resent in t#e R*9 due to t#e $illing o%eration o, t#e bitu$inous $i+ture ,ro$ t#e road %ave$ent( 4#is ,act could also #ave led to rutting %roble$s i, t#e #ardened bitu$en o, t#e recycled $i+tures 'as not so sti,,( 4#is

une+%ected #ig# ,atigue resistance result o, recycled ./*s #as already been noted (Silva, 2007) '#en as%#alt $aterial is aged during a signi+cant %eriod o, ti$e in a laboratory oven at Euite #ig# te$%eratures (i(e(, $i+ing te$%erature), because t#e #ard3 ened binder #as enoug# contact ti$e 'it# t#e aggregates to create a stronger bond bet'een t#e ./* co$%onents, t#us increasing t#e ,atigue li,e( 1t#er aut#ors (.uang et al(, 2007) also investi3 gated t#e blending o, R*9 into virgin ./* $i+tures, and t#ey concluded t#at t#e aged binder in R*9 ,or$ed a sti,,er layer coat3 ing t#e R*9 aggregate %articles( 4#is layered syste$ #el%ed to reduce t#e stress concentration 'it#in t#e ./*s and t#e aged binder $astic layer 'as actually serving as a cus#ion layer in bet'een t#e #ard aggregate and t#e so,t binder $astic( 4#ey sug3 gested t#at t#is $ay e+%lain t#e i$%roved ,atigue resistance o, $i+es containing R*9 re%orted in so$e laboratory studies( .o'3 ever, t#e di,,usion o, binder over ti$e 'ill reduce t#e e,,ect o, t#e layered syste$, t#us reducing t#e long3ter$ ,atigue %er,or3 $ance( 4#e %ara$eters s%eci+ed in 5C 126JH324 (C100 and Y6 ) and %re3 sented in 4able 2, '#ic# s#ould be used to evaluate t#e ,atigue

Rig( 10( /aster curves o, t#e totally recycled ./* $i+tures ,or a re,erence te$%erature o, 20 S C(

46

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

Rig( 11( Ratigue li,e eEuations o, totally recycled ./*s vs( conventional ./*, at 20 S C(

4able 2 C100 and Y6 %ara$eters esti$ated ,ro$ t#e ,atigue li,e eEuations( *s%#alt $i+ture 4otally recycled (only R*9) 4otally recycled (*CR additive) 4otally recycled (1;F additive) MCe'N *C 14 Sur, 37)70 (C1C ) C100 1(345G0H 3(115G08 3(H85G08 1(305G06 Y6 177(1 24H(6 222(1 106(8

3(4( Ainder aging during t#e %roduction o, totally recycled ./* $i+tures ;n order to Euanti,y t#e binder aging t#at occurred during t#e %roduction o, t#e di,,erent totally recycled ./* $i+tures, %enetra3 tion at 27 S C and so,tening %oint tests 'ere carried out on recovered binders be,ore and a,ter t#e $i+ing)co$%action %#ase( 4#e results o, t#ese tests are %resented in Rig( 12, as 'ell as t#e corres%onding aging inde+es (%ercentage o, retained %enetration and ring and ball te$%erature increase)( *s e+%ected, a,ter aging ($i+ing and co$%action %#ases) all binders %resented lo'er values o, %enetration and #ig#er so,ten3 ing %oint te$%eratures, including t#e R*9 binder 'it#out additive( /oreover, t#e %ro%erties o, t#e re"uvenated binders, be,ore and a,ter aging, de$onstrate t#at bot# additives (*CR and 1;F) 'ere able to interact and $odi,y t#e R*9 binder, t#us increasing t#e $altenes content and t#e %enetration value o, t#e $odi+ed binders( 4#e results o, t#e %enetration test s#o'ed t#at t#e recycled $i+tures 'it# bot# re"uvenators are $ore in+uenced (retained %enetration o, H0:) by aging t#an t#e un$odi+ed R*9 $i+ture (retained %enetration #ig#er t#an J0:), because t#e MunagedN R*9 binder is already signi+cantly #ardened and is not able to c#ange its %ro%erties at $ediu$ in3service te$%eratures( .o'ever, t#e s#ort ter$ aging in+uence on t#e results o, t#e ring and ball test 'as di,3 ,erent, because t#e variation o, t#e so,tening %oint te$%eratures o, R*9 and *CR binders (J S C) are #ig#er t#an t#at o, 1;F binder (6 S C)( ;n ,act, t#e as%#alt binder aging %#eno$enon is caused by& (i) t#e increase o, t#e as%#altenes content= (ii) t#e agglo$eration o,

%er,or$ance o, t#e studied $i+tures, 'ere esti$ated ,ro$ t#e ,atigue li,e eEuations %resented in Rig( 11( 4#e totally recycled ./* $i+tures 'it# *CR and 1;F additives %resented t#e #ig#est values ,or C100 and Y6 %ara$eters( *s $en3 tioned above, t#e re"uvenators increased t#e ,atigue li,e o, t#e recycled $i+tures due to t#e co$bined e,,ect o, t#e reduction on t#e %enetration grade o, t#e binder and t#e increase on t#e binder content o, t#ese $i+tures( 4#ese ,actors greatly en#anced t#e +e+ibility o, t#e recycled ./* $i+tures, t#us increasing nearly 27 ti$es t#e ,atigue crac<ing resistance (C100 )( P#en co$%aring t#e studied re"uvenators, t#e $i+ture 'it# *CR additive %resented t#e best ,atigue c#aracteristics at t#e benc#$ar< o, 1 $illion cycles (Y6 ), but bot# additives assure a si$ilar ,atigue %er,or3 $ance at lo'er strain levels (C100 ) ty%ically observed in road %ave$ents( 5ven t#oug# t#e re"uvenators signi+cantly increase t#e ,atigue %ro%erties o, t#e $i+tures, t#e R*9 $i+ture ('it#out additives) also #ave a good ,atigue crac<ing resistance, since its C100 value is 10 ti$es greater t#an t#at o, a conventional ./* $i+ture(

Rig( 12( C#ange on t#e %enetration and so,tening %oint %ro%erties (including aging inde+es) o, binders recovered ,ro$ t#e studied $i+tures be,ore and a,ter %roduction(

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

4H

Rig( 13( ariation o, t#e dyna$ic viscosity (including aging inde+es) o, binders recovered ,ro$ t#e studied $i+tures be,ore and a,ter %roduction(

resins into bigger $olecules= (iii) t#e eva%oration o, lig#t ,ractions o, $altenes (9eralta et al(, 2010)( 4#ese aging c#anges are $easured di,,erently '#en testing t#e binder at di,,erent te$%eratures, t#us "usti,ying t#e dissi$ilar results obtained in t#e %enetration and R@A tests( 1ne o, t#e $ain %roble$s o, aging is t#e #ig#er tendency to observe ,atigue crac<ing %roble$s in situ, and t#ese %roble$s are critical at $ediu$ (or lo') in3service te$%eratures, $ainly related 'it# t#e %enetration test( 4#e results o, t#e R@A test can essentially "usti,y t#e slig#tly lo'er %er$anent de,or$ation resistance o, t#e 1;F recycled $i+ture( Rinally, in order to Euanti,y t#e e,,ect o, t#e binder aging at #ig# $i+ing)co$%action te$%eratures, dyna$ic viscosity tests (at di,3 ,erent te$%eratures) 'ere carried out on recovered binders be,ore and a,ter $i+tures %roduction( 4#e obtained results and t#e corre3 s%onding aging inde+es (dyna$ic viscosity ratio), are %resented in Rig( 13( *s e+%ected, bet'een 120 and 180 S C t#e dyna$ic viscosity (! ) o, all binders increased a,ter aging( Quite sur%risingly, t#e dyna$ic viscosity results o, t#e un$odi+ed R*9 binder (! ratios above 1H0:) 'ere $uc# $ore in+uenced by aging t#an t#ose o, t#e recy3 cled $i+tures 'it# bot# re"uvenators (! ratios bet'een 100: and 160:)( /oreover, it 'as observed t#at t#e ! ratios $easured in t#e t#ree binders decrease 'it# t#e increase o, t#e te$%erature (,ro$ 120 to 180 S C)( Aot# results could be e+%lained based on t#e c#anges in t#e structure o, t#e binder a,ter aging, as re,erred %reviously( ;n ,act, t#e agglo$eration o, $olecules during aging is o%%osed by t#eir #ig#er dis%ersion at #ig#er te$%eratures, t#us reducing t#e ! ratios( 4#is occurs in an easier 'ay at #ig#er te$%eratures (180 S C) and in t#e binders 'it# #ig#er $altenes content (i(e(, t#e $i+tures 'it# re"uvenators)( P#en co$%aring t#e results o, bot# re"uvenators, t#e recycled $i+ture 'it# 1;F is clearly t#at 'it# $inor c#anges in viscosity a,ter aging, t#us "usti,ying t#e lo'er %roduction te$%erature used during t#is 'or< and con+r$ing t#e tendency observed in t#e R@A test(

out in t#e ,uture( Cevert#eless, it is %ossible to conclude t#at t#e use o, 100: R*9 'it# t#e addition o, a re"uvenator is a very co$3 %etitive solution in econo$ic and environ$ental ter$s, es%ecially '#en t#e used oil is a%%lied as a re"uvenator, since it is %ossible to $aintain an adeEuate %er,or$ance o, t#e $aterials ('#ic# $ust be con+r$ed in real %ave$ent trials) '#ile reducing t#e environ3 $ental i$%acts caused by t#e virgin $aterial e+traction ('it# its associated e$issions) and by t#e 'aste dis%osal( !i,,erent solutions #ave been tested 'it# so$e success (.arrington, 2007= .ossain et al(, 1JJ3= Riebese#l and COlting, 200J) 'it# t#e ob"ective o, i$%le$enting t#is ty%e o, tec#nology in %ractice( .o'ever, ne' solutions 'ill be develo%ed in interac3 tion 'it# t#e industry t#at s#ould result in ,e'er $odi+cations to t#e e+isting as%#alt %lants (reducing t#e invest$ent needed ,or t#e %roduction co$%anies) and in %roductivity levels si$ilar to t#ose obtained 'it# conventional $i+tures( 4#e use o, re"uvenators, na$ely t#e 1;F, is a contribution to ,acilitate t#e i$%le$entation o, t#ese solutions, since it is %ossible to ac#ieve adeEuate volu$et3 ric %ro%erties 'it# a $i+ture %roduced at lo'er te$%eratures( ;n addition to t#at, t#e use o, P/* additives and)or t#e selective se%3 aration o, t#e R*9 ,or #eating 'it# di,,erent conditions (to avoid aging t#e binder $ostly bond to t#e +ne %articles) 'ill be ,urt#er investigated, in order to i$%rove t#e %roduction conditions to allo' con+dent a%%lication o, totally recycled $i+tures in t#e +eld 'it# si$ilar %ro%erties to t#ose studied in t#e laboratory(

4( Conclusions 4#is %a%er essentially deals 'it# t#e conservation o, $ineral and %etroleu$ based resources, by %resenting a laboratory study to assess t#e sustainability o, using 100: R*9 in recycled ./* $i+3 tures( 4#is study allo'ed t#e de+nition o, t#e o%ti$u$ %roduction conditions (R*9 #o$ogeneity, $i+ing te$%eratures, content and ty%e o, re"uvenators) to be used in a ,urt#er investigation, na$ely in t#e trans%osition o, t#ese totally recycled $i+tures to t#e as%#alt %lant and, ulti$ately, build real %ave$ent trial sections( 4#e $ain conclusions t#at can be dra'n ,ro$ t#is study o, an innovative $i+ture, totally recycled ,ro$ old and distressed road %ave$ents, are t#e ,ollo'ing&

3(7( !iscussion 4#e results obtained in t#e %resent study s#o' t#at totally recy3 cled as%#alt $i+tures $ay be used in real %ave$ents, as could be seen ,ro$ t#e ,atigue and %er$anent de,or$ation results( 4#e si$3 ilar or even slig#tly i$%roved be#avior o, t#is ty%e o, $i+ture, in co$%arison to t#e conventional $i+ture studied, associated 'it# a #ig#er sti,,ness $odulus result in a better %er,or$ance on t#e %ave$ent, assu$ing t#at t#e sa$e t#ic<nesses are used( ;n ter$s o, Fi,e Cycle *nalysis, a co$%re#ensive study 'ill #ave to be $ade in order to assess t#e '#ole contribution o, t#is ty%e o, solution to t#e sustainable develo%$ent, '#ic# 'ill be carried

U 4#e criteria de+ned o, obtaining a 20)30 %en grade binder in order to %roduce t#e recycled $i+tures and t#e $et#od used to c#arac3 teri?e t#e binders (%enetration, R@A and dyna$ic viscosity tests) resulted in a o%ti$u$ content o, re"uvenator o, 7:( U 4#e resistance to co$%action obtained in t#e co$%actability tests is a good %ara$eter to select t#e adeEuate $i+ing te$%erature o, totally recycled $i+tures(

48

.(/(R(!( Silva et al( ) Resources, Conservation and Recycling 60 (2012) 3848

U 4#e re"uvenators i$%rove t#e %er,or$ance o, t#e totally recy3 cled ./* $i+tures (i(e(, longer li,e cycle) and reduce t#e $i+ing te$%erature (i(e(, lo'er energy consu$%tion) necessary to #ave an adeEuate 'or<ability, 'it# t#e used engine oil being a good econo$ical and environ$ental alternative to t#e co$$ercial additive( U *ll %ro%erties o, t#e totally recycled ./*s evaluated in t#is 'or< ('ater sensitivity, rutting resistance, sti,,ness and ,atigue resis3 tance) s#o'ed better results t#an t#ose o, a conventional ./*, and t#is sur%risingly good result could #ave risen ,ro$ bot# t#e #ig#er content o, +nes and t#e #ig#er sti,,ness o, t#e binder( U 4#e %er,or$ance based analysis carried out in t#is 'or< allo'ed to obtain totally recycled ./* $i+tures t#at can be i$%le$ent in real %ave$ents, even 'it#out co$%lying 'it# t#e e$%irical s%ec3 i+cations (e(g(, grading envelo%e) usually a%%lied in road 'or<s( U ;n su$$ary, t#e Mtotal recyclingN tec#nology can be used to %roduce as%#alt $i+tures 'it# a %er,or$ance as good as con3 ventional ./*s, %rovided t#at adeEuate storing and #andling conditions are assured during t#e %roduction stage(

*c<no'ledg$ents 4#e aut#ors 'ould li<e to ac<no'ledge t#e su%%ort given by t#e 9ortuguese Roundation ,or Science and 4ec#nology (RC4) t#roug# t#e 9ro"ect 95st315)5C;)6;404H)2011( 4#an<s are also due to t#e /Sc students and t#e tec#nicians ,ro$ t#e 6niversity o, /in#o ,or t#eir essential su%%ort in t#e develo%$ent o, t#is researc# 'or<, and to t#e co$%anies 2abriel Couto S*, ,or su%%lying t#e R*9 $aterial, and Ce%sa and ;terc#i$ica (t#roug# t#eir re%resentative, 9etrocerco) ,or su%%lying t#e bitu$en and t#e ;terlene *CR 1000 additive, res%ectively(

Re,erences
*l3Qadi ;F, 5lsei+ /, Car%enter S.( Reclai$ed as%#alt %ave$entca literature revie'( ;F, 6S*& Rederal .ig#'ay *d$inistration= /arc# 200H, Re%ort Co(& R.P*3;C43 0H3001( Contract Co(& ;C4 R2H311( Aenning#oven( /dl#ei$)/osen& Aenning#oven 2$b. @ Co( D2( *s%#alt recycling %lants( *vailable ,ro$& #tt%&))'''(benning#oven(co$)inde+(%#%-o%tionW co$ content@tas<Wvie'@idW34@;te$idW74 `accessed 10(10(10a( Aro'nridge 0( 4#e role o, an as%#alt re"uvenator in %ave$ent %reservation& use and need ,or as%#alt re"uvenation( ;n& R.P*, editor( 1st int con, on %ave$ent %reservation( Ce'%ort Aeac#, 6S*& Rederal .ig#'ay *d$inistration= 2010( Celauro C, Aernardo C, 2abriele A( 9roduction o, innovative, recycled and #ig#3%er,or$ance as%#alt ,or road %ave$ents( Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2010=74(6)&33H4H(

C#en 0S, .uang CC, C#u 9[, Fin D[( 5ngineering c#aracteri?ation o, recycled as%#alt concrete and aged bitu$en $i+ed recycling agent( 0ournal o, /aterials Science 200H=42(23)&J86HH6( C#iu C34, .su 43., [ang P3R( Fi,e cycle assess$ent on using recycled $aterials ,or re#abilitating as%#alt %ave$ents( Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2008=72(3)&74776( \59( ol( &03 9avi$entac8o Ca%( 14( 03 Caracter]sticas dos /ateriais( ;n& 59, editor( Caderno de 5ncargos 4i%o 1bra( Fisbon, 9ortugal& 5stradas de 9ortugal= 2011( .arrington 0( Recycled road'ays( 9ublic Roads Rederal .ig#'ay *d$inistration /aga?ine 2007=68(4)&J1H( .assan R( Reasibility o, using #ig# ra% contents in #ot $i+ as%#alt( ;n& **9*, edi3 tor( 13t# international +e+ible %ave$ents con,erence( Queensland, *ustralia& *ustralian *s%#alt 9ave$ent *ssociation= 200J( .olleran 2, Pieringa 4, 4ailby 0( Re"uvenation treat$ents ,or aged %ave$ents( ;n& C^4*, editor( Ce' ^ealand trans%ort agency con,( Ce' ^ealand& C^ 4rans%ort *gency= 2007( .ossain /, /etcal, !2, Sco+eld F*( 9er,or$ance o, recycled as%#alt concrete over3 lays in Sout#'estern *ri?ona( 4rans%ortation Researc# Record 1JJ3=142H&30H( .uang AS, Fi 2Q, u<osav"evic !, S#u _, 5gan AD( Faboratory investigation o, $i+3 ing #ot3$i+ as%#alt 'it# reclai$ed as%#alt %ave$ent( 4rans%ortation Researc# Record 2007=1J2J&3H47( ;terc#i$ica( Aerga$o ;terc#i$ica srl( ;nterlene *CR 1000( *vailable ,ro$& #tt%&))'''(iterc#i$ica(it)%rodotti(as%-t$W9R1!6C4S@ctgW62@detailW 434@arr urbW0@titleWiterlene3ac, `accessed 17(08(10a( C*9*( Recycling #ot $i+ as%#alt %ave$ents( Fan#a$, /!, 6S*& Cational *s%#alt 9ave$ent *ssociation= 1JJ6( 9eralta 0, .illiou F, Silva ., /ac#ado * , 9ais 0C, 1liveira 0R/( R#eological Euan3 ti+cation o, bitu$en aging& de+nition o, a ne' sensitive %ara$eter( *%%lied R#eology 2010=20(6)( 9ereira 9**, 1liveira 0R/, 9icado3Santos F2( /ec#anical c#aracterisation o, #ot $i+ recycled $aterials( ;nternational 0ournal o, 9ave$ent 5ngineering 2004=7(4)&21120( 9;*RC( Recycling o, e+isting +e+ible %ave$ents( 9aris, Rrance& 4ec#nical Co$$ittee 8 Rle+ible Roads o, Porld Road *ssociation (9;*RC)= 2002( Rebbec#i 0, 2reen /( 2oing green& innovations in recycling as%#alt( ;n& **9*, edi3 tor( **9* %ave$ents industry con,erence( Queensland, *ustralia& *ustralian *s%#alt 9ave$ent *ssociation= 2007( Riebese#l 2, COlting /( 6nloc<ing t#e ,ull tec#nical %otential o, R*9( ;n& PR;, editor( 9etersen as%#alt researc# con,erence( Fara$ie, 6S*& Pestern Researc# ;nsti3 tute= 200J( Ro$era R, Santa$aria *, 9ena 00, /uno? /5, Aarral /, 2arcia 5, et al( R#eological as%ects o, t#e re"uvenation o, aged bitu$en( R#eologica *cta 2006=47(4)&4H48( \Sayag# S, entura *, .oang 4, Rrancois !, 0ullien *( Sensitivity o, t#e FC* allocation %rocedure ,or ARS recycled into %ave$ent structures( Resources, Conservation and Recycling 2010=74(6)&34878( \\Silva, ./R!( Caracteri?ac8o do /astiEue Aetu$inoso e da Figac8o *gregado \/astiEue& Contribuic8o %ara o 5studo do Co$%orta$ento das /isturas Aetu3 $inosas( 9#! t#esis( 2ui$ar8es, 9ortugal& 6niv( /in#o= 2007 `in 9ortuguesea( Silva ./R!, 1liveira 0R/, 9eralta 50, Rerreira C;2( 5valuation o, t#e r#eological be#aviour o, 'ar$ $i+ as%#alt (P/*) $odi+ed binders( ;n& Foi?os *, 9artl /C, Scar%as 4, *l3Qadi ;F, editors( Ht# int R;F5/ sy$% advanced testing and c#arac3 terisation o, bitu$inous $aterials( R#odes, 2reece& R;F5/= 200J( %( 661H3( aldLs 2, 9Lre?30i$Lne? R, /irb R, /art]ne? *, Aotella R( 5+%eri$ental study o, recycled as%#alt $i+tures 'it# #ig# %ercentages o, reclai$ed as%#alt %ave$ent (R*9)( Construction and Auilding /aterials 2011=27(3)&128JJH(