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FOUNDATION ANALYSIS
AND DESIGN S G
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
SETTLEMENT AND ALLOWABLE
BEARING CAPACITY BEARING CAPACITY
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Settlement of Foundation
Theultimatebearingcapacityq
u
isrealizedatasettlement
levelofS
u
.
IfthefactorofsafetyagainstbearingcapacityfailureisFS,
thentheallowablebearingcapacityisq
safe
=q
u
/FS.The
settlementcorrespondingtoq
safe
isS.
IfS
all
istheallowablelevelofsettlementfortheproposed
foundationthenq
all(S)
bethecorrespondingallowable
Inthedesignofanyfoundation,onemustconsiderthesafetyagainstbearingcapacityfailureas
wellasagainstexcessivesettlement ofthefoundation.
Loadperunitareaq versus
settlementSforafoundation
q
all(S)
p g
bearingcapacity.
ForfoundationswithsmallerwidthsofB,S
all
maybemore
thanS;however,forlargervaluesofB,S
all
<S.Hence,for
smallerfoundationwidths,thebearingcapacitycontrols;
forlargerfoundationwidths,theallowablesettlement
controls.
However,itisalwaysnecessarytoestimatethetotal
settlementunderstructuralloadandthenarriveatthe
allowablebearingcapacity.
Settlement of Foundation
Duringsettlementthesoiltransitionsfromthecurrentbody(orselfweight)stress
statetoanewoneundertheadditionalappliedload.
Thestresschangeqfromthisaddedloadproducesatimedependentaccumulation
ofparticlerolling,sliding,crushing,andelasticdistortionsinalimitedinfluencezone
beneath the loaded area
Foundationsettlementsmustbeestimatedwithgreatcare forbuildings,bridges,
towers,powerplants,andsimilarhighcoststructures.
Forstructuressuchasfills,earthdams,levees,bracedsheeting,andretainingwallsa
greatermarginoferrorinthesettlementscanusuallybetolerated.
beneaththeloadedarea.
Thestatisticalaccumulationofmovementsinthedirectionofinterestisthe
settlement.IntheverticaldirectionthesettlementwillbedefinedasH.
TheprincipalcomponentsofHareparticlerollingandsliding,whichproducea
changeinthevoidratio,andgraincrushing,whichaltersthematerialslightly.
OnlyaverysmallfractionofH isduetoelasticdeformationofthesoilgrains.Asa
consequence,iftheappliedstressisremoved,verylittleofthesettlementHis
recovered.EventhoughHhasonlyaverysmallelasticcomponent,itisconvenient
totreatthesoilasapseudoelasticmaterialwith"elastic"parametersE
s
,G', andk
s
toestimatesettlements.
Major Problems with Soil Settlement Analysis
Obtainingareliablestressprofile
fromtheappliedload
Obtainingreliablevaluesofthe
elasticparameters(E
s
and )
Correlations are commonly
Undisturbedsoil?
Improperestimateofinsitu
test..Anisotropyisneglected
TheoryofElasticityequationsareusually
used for the stress computations with
Stressdistribution?
Effectivedepthofinfluence?
Correlationsarecommonly
used,particularlyforpreliminary
designstudies
usedforthestresscomputations,with
theinfluencedepthHbelowtheloaded
areatakenfromH=0to(butmore
correctlyfrom0toabout4Bor5B).
Estimatedvaluesarethenusedinanequationofthegeneralform
}
= A
H
dH H
0
c
Where= strain=q/Es; but
q=f(H,load),E
s
=f(H,soilvariation),andHistheestimated
depthofstresschangecausedbythefoundationload.
Settlement of Foundation
Total
Settlement
S=S
e
+S
c
+S
s
Elastic/
Immediate
Settlement
S
e
Consolidation
Settlement
S
cs
=S
c
+S
s
ImmediateSettlement:Occurs
immediatelyaftertheconstruction.Thisis
computedusingelasticitytheory
(ImportantforGranularsoil)
PrimaryConsolidation:Duetogradual
dissipationofporepressureinducedby
externalloadingandconsequently
expulsionofwaterfromthesoilmass,
hencevolumechange.(Importantfor
Inorganicclays)
Primary
Consolidation
SettlementS
c
Secondary
Consolidation
SettlementS
s
SecondaryConsolidation:Occursat
constanteffectivestresswithvolume
changeduetorearrangementofparticles.
(ImportantforOrganicsoils)
Settlement Clayeysoil Sandysoil
Shortterm/
Immediate
Distortion Distortionand
consolidation
Longterm/
delayed
Pri.andsec.
consolidation
negligible
Forthecalculationoffoundation
settlement,itisrequiredtoestimatethe
verticalstressincreaseinthesoilmass
duetothenetloadappliedonthe
foundation.
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Verticalstressincreaseinasoil
masscausedbyfoundationload
maybedeterminedusing
Vertical Stress Increase due to Applied Load
Boussinesqs
Analysis
Westergaards
Analysis
Newmarks
Analysis
2:1Method
Newmarks chart
Pressurebulb
Verticalstressdistributioninhorizontal
andverticalplane
Analysis
Approximate
methods
Equivalentpoint
loadmethod
Equivalent
pointload
method
BasicAssumptions:
Soilmediumishomogeneous,elastic,isotropicandextendstoa
greaterdepth
Loadisappliedatthegroundsurface
Theloadedareaisflexible
2:1Method
Uniformlydistributedloadonrectangulararea
Theverticalstressatapointbeneaththecentreofauniformly
loadedrectangularareamaybefound
(a)usingtheinfluencevalueforacornerbytheprincipleof
superposition,dividingtherectangleintofourequalpartsby
linesparalleltothesidesandpassingthroughthecentre(Eq.
givenbelow)
(b)Equivalentpointloadmethod
(c)2:1method
I II
IV III
A
A
S T
) (
IV III II I Z
I I I I q
o o o o
o + + + =
VerticalstressatPointA
Byprincipleofsuperposition
Vertical Stress Increase due to Applied Load
I
M N
O
Q
R P
) (
IV III II I Z
I I I I q
o o o o
o + =
ZoneI=MQAT,ZoneII=PRAT
ZoneIII=NQAS,ZoneIV=ORAS
SincezoneIVisdeductedtwice,its
influencehastobeaddedonce
Flexible and Rigid Foundations
Contactpressureandsettlementsforaflexiblefoundations
Elastic/Clayeysoil Granular/Sandysoil
Clay
Contactpressureandsettlementsforarigidfoundations
Elastic/Clayeysoil Granular/Sandysoil
Clay
Elastic Settlement of Foundation
}
=
H
z e
dz S
0
c
Elasticsettlementofashallowfoundationcanbeestimatedbyusingthetheoryofelasticity
dz
E
y s x s
H
z
s
) (
1
0
o o o A A A =
}
(FromHookeslaw)
Forflexiblefoundation f
s
s
e
I
E
qB S
(


=
2
1
For rigid foundation 93 0 S S ~
B I
E
q S
f
s
s
e (


=
2
1
;
where,
S
e
= Elastic settlement
q = Net applied pressure on the foundation
B = Width of the foundation
E
s
= Average modulus of elasticity of soil (measured from Z = 0 to 4B)

s
= Poissons ratio of the soil
I
f
= Influence factor depends on rigidity and shape of the foundation
H = Thickness of the soil layer

x
,
y
,
z
, are the stress increase due to the net applied foundation
load in the x, y and z directions resp.
Forrigidfoundation ) , ( ) (
93 . 0
centre flexible e Rigid e
S S ~
(limitedtoZ=4B)
Harr (1966)fordetailedderivation
Elastic Settlement of Foundation
Influencefactor,I
f

s
E
s
Usingtriaxial test
ForNCclay:
E
s
=250c
u
to500c
u
Forsettlementatcornersofloadedarea(
s
=0.5)
s u u
ForOCclay:
E
s
=750c
u
to1000c
u
Elastic Settlement of Foundation
Depthcorrectionfactor byFox(1948)
Forfoundationsplacedatsomedepthbeneaththe
groundsurface,adepthcorrectionmaybeappliedto
theelasticsettlementcomputed.
Depthcorrectionfactordependsonthedepthtowidth
ratioandlengthtowidthratioofthefoundation.
Fox (1948) has developed a chart for depth correction factor I
surface at foundation for settlement Calculated
D depth at foundation for settlement Corrected
factor Depth =
Fox(1948)hasdevelopedachartfordepthcorrectionfactor,I
d
Correctedsettlementfor
foundationatanydepthD
d f
s
s
e
I I
E
qB S
(


=
2
1
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qB
Elasticsettlementoffoundationonsaturatedclay(Janbu etal.1956)
Janbu etal.(1956)proposedanequationforevaluatingthe
averagesettlementofflexiblefoundationsonsaturatedclay
soils.(undrained E
u
and
s
=0.5)
ChristianandCarrier(1978)modifiedthevaluesofA
1
and
A
2
andpresentedinthechartform
Thismethodcanbeusedwhenthethicknessoftheclay
layerisknown.
Variation of A
1
an A
2
Elastic Settlement of Foundation
s
e
E
qB
A A S
2 1
=
where,
S
e
= Elastic settlement
q = Net applied pressure on the foundation
E
s
= Average modulus of elasticity of soil
A
1
= correction factor depends on H/B, L/B
A
2
= correction factor depends on D
f
/B
Use the Christian and Carrier chart to get A
1
and A
2
*Elastic settlement of clay will be determined only when design warranties
Elastic Settlement of Foundation

A = z
E
I
q q C C S
s
z
e
) ' (
2 1
ElasticsettlementofgranularsoilsStraininfluencefactor(Schmertmann andHartman,1978)
(semiempiricalmethod)
where,
S
e
= Elastic settlement
q = stress at the level of the foundation, q = overburden pressure
E
s
= Modulus of elasticity of soil (for various depth, z)
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
'
'
5 . 0 1
1
q q
q
C C
1
= a correction factor for depth of foundation
. \
q q
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
1 . 0
years in time
log 2 . 0 1
2
C C
2
= a correction factor for creep in soil
I
z
= Strain Influence factor
Variation of I
z
can be determined from the chart or can be developed
using the following guidelines
For Square and circular footing
I
z
= 0.1 at z = 0
I
z
= 0.5 at z = z
1
=0.5B
I
z
= 0 at z = z
2
= 2B
For Foundation with L/B 10
I
z
= 0.2 at z = 0
I
z
= 0.5 at z = z
1
=B
I
z
= 0 at z = z
2
= 4B
It gives total settlement for
sandy soil. This method is
primarily used when field test
like SPT or SCPT test are done
(to get E
s
at various depth).
Empirical relation based on SPT
TotalsettlementfromSPTNvalue
SettlementofafootingofwidthBunder
unitintensityofpressureresting
(1kg/cm
2
)ondrycohesionless deposit
withknowncorrectedpenetrationvalue
(N)canbereadfromthechart.
Thesettlementunderanyotherpressure
maybecomputedbyassumingthatthe
settlementisproportionaltotheintensity
ofpressure.
Ifthewatertableisatashallowdepth,
IS:8009recommendation
Forcohesionless soil
thesettlementreadfromthechartshall
bemultipliedbycorrectionfactorw
showninfigure
Consolidationsettlementisatimedependentprocessthat
occursduetotheexpulsionofexcessporewaterpressurein
saturatedclayeysoilsbelowthegroundwatertableandis
createdbytheincreaseinstresscausedbythefoundationload
Primary Consolidation Settlement
Samplecollectedfor
consolidationtest
elog
| |

=
2 1
e e
C
Theslopeoftheeversuslogplotforthe
normallyconsolidatedportionofthesoilis
referredtoascompressionindexC
c
Theslopeoftheeversuslogplotforthe
over consolidated portion of the soil is
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
'
3
'
4
4 3
log
o
o
e e
C
c
Recompression Compression
e log
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
1
'
2
log
o
o
C
s overconsolidatedportionofthesoilis
referredtoasswellindexC
s
(

+
A
=
A
) 1 (
o o
e
e
H
H
ConsolidationsettlementS
c
=
o
o
H
e
e
H
) 1 ( +
A
= A since
C
s
foragivensoil=(1/4to1/5)C
c
C
c
=0.009(Liquidlimit 10) ForNCclay
Forremouldedclay C
c
=0.007(Liquidlimit 10)

c
=preconsolidation
pressure
OCR<1,NCclay
Primary Consolidation Settlement
Fornormallyconsolidatedclay,
o

c
OCR=1
|
|
.
|

\
| A +
+
=
'
'
log
1
o
o
c
o
c
c
H
e
C
S
o
o o
UseC
c
Foroverconsolidatedclaywith(
o
+)
c
OCR>1
|
|
.
|

\
| A +
+
=
'
'
log
1
o
o
c
o
s
c
H
e
C
S
o
o o
UseC
s
Foroverconsolidatedclay,
o
<
c
<(
o
+)OCR>1
|
|
|

| A +
+
|
|
|

|
=
'
'
'
'
log log
o
c
c c
c
s
c
H
C
H
C
S
o o o
MethodI

Method2
Dividetheclaylayerintoseveralthinlayershaving
thicknessesofH
c
(1),H
c
(2)
Findtheinsituaverageeffectivestresses(i.e.the
effectivestressatthemiddleofeachclaylayers)
Findtheaveragestressincreaseatthemiddleofeach
layer
CalculatetotalS
c
asthesummationofalllayers
|
.

\
+
|
.

\
+
' '
g
1
g
1
c
c
o o
c
o
c
e e o o
Forstress<
c
,useC
s
; beyondwhich,useC
c
( )
b m t avg
o o o o A + A + A = A 4
6
1
Findaverage usingthisrelation
Tolerable Settlement of Buildings
Inmostinstancesofconstruction,thesubsoilis
nothomogeneousandtheloadcarriedby
variousshallowfoundationsofagiven
structurecanvarywidely.
Asaresult,itisreasonabletoexpectvarying
degreesofsettlementindifferentpartsofa
givenbuilding.
Thedifferentialsettlementofthepartsofa
buildingcanleadtodamageofthesuper
structure structure.
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Permissible Settlement for Shallow Foundation
Influenceofstructuralrigidityondifferentialsettlement
Flexiblestructure
Ithasaverylittletendencyforload
transferandthuscouldhavelarger
differentialsettlements
Rigidstructure
Ithasagreatercapacityforloadtransfer
andthusprovidesmoreresistanceto
excessivedifferentialsettlements
Ifthecommuteddifferentialsettlement
ismorethanpermissiblevalue,the
design(i.e.dimensionsoffootings)
needstobemodifiedeventhoughthe
magnitudeoftotalsettlementis
acceptable
Permissible Settlement for Shallow Foundation
Angulardistortion Bjerrum (1963)
RecommendationsofEuropeanCommitteeforstandardizationon
Skempton andMcDonald(1956)
differentialsettlementparameters
Permissible Settlement for Shallow Foundation
IS19041986
Allowable Bearing Capacity (Settlement consideration)
StandardPenetrationTest
2
2
) (
2
3 . 0
) 3 ( 35
w corr settlement all
R d
B
B
N q
|
.
|

\
| +
=
TerzaghiandPeck(1948)
B1.2m
ModifiedMeyerhofsequation
2 ) (
20
w corr settlement all
R d N q

=
Allthementionedequationsare
forthesettlementof25mm.
Allowablebearingcapacity
(settlementconsideration)forany
settlementcanbedetermined
InkPa
InkPa
( ) 2 1 s + =
B
Df
d

( )
B
D
w
w
R
2
1 5 . 0
2
+ =
corr c
N q 4 =
2
2
) (
3 . 0
5 . 12
w corr settlement all
R d
B
B
N q
|
.
|

\
| +
=
usingthefollowingequation
) ( ) (
25
'
'
settlement all settlement all
q
S
q =
B>1.2m
StaticConePenetrationTest
Coneresistanceq
c
inkq/cm
2
butq
all(settlement)
inkPa
2 ) (
7 . 2
w c settlement all
R q q =
ModifiedMeyerhofsequation
Allowable Bearing Capacity using Plate Load Test
Forc=0soil
Ultimatebearingcapacityandultimate
settlement
p
f
p u uf
B
B
q q * =
2
) 3 . 0 (
) 3 . 0 (
(
(

+
+
=
f p
p f
p f
B B
B B
s s
p u uf
q q =
p
f
p f
B
B
s s =
For=0soil
Immediate settlement
Thismethodcanbeusedforthedesignofa
shallowfoundationforagivensafesettlement.
Minimumtwoplateloadtestsareconductedwith
varyingplatesize(B
1
,B
2
)
Theloadcorrespondingtosafesettlements
1
,s
2
..
(i.e Q
1
,Q
2
..)areobtainedfromloadsettlement
curvesobtainedfromalltests.
HouselsMethod
Plateconfiguration
Q
1
= A
1
m+P
1
n ; Q
2
= A
2
m+P
2
n
Immediatesettlement
f
s
s
e
I
E
qB S
(


=
2
1
f
s
s e
I
E
m
qB
S
(


= =
2
1
S
qB
f
s
s
I
E
m
(


=
2
1
;
Q
1
A
1
m+P
1
n;Q
2
A
2
m+P
2
n
Findmandn
where,A
1
andA
2
aretheareaofplates;
P
1
andP
2
aretheperimetersofplates
Footingconfiguration
SubmandnforfootingandgetQ
Q=Am+Pn (samesettlementasplate)
Q=(Q/s
1
)*s

(forothersettlements

)
AandPareareaandperimeterofproposedfooting;
s
1
safesettlementoffooting(sameasplate)
Allowable / Safe Bearing Capacity of Soil (NBC, 1983)
Caution:
Thevaluesarejustguidevalues.Thiscannot
substitutedetailedgeotechnicalinvestigationofany
proposedprojects
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5
Case Studies
Transcona Grain Elevator
http://www.cgs.ca/pdf/110916%20Skaftfeld%20
photos%20Transcona%20Grain%20Elevator_MI
NIMISED.pdf
Leaning tower of Pisa
Costanzo,D.;Jarniolkowski,M.,
Lancellotta,R.,andPepe,M.C.(1994),
LeaningTowerofPisa:Descriptionof
theBehavior,Settlement94Banquet
Lecture,TexasA&MUniversity
SOIL-STRUCTURE
INTERACTION INTERACTION
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
ConventionalDesignofFoundation
Intheconventionalanalysisanddesignof
footings,tipofthecolumnisfixedand
assumesthesoilpressureisassumedto
beuniformorlinearlyvarying.The
centroidofthesoilpressureiscoincident
withthelineofactionoftheresultant
columnloads.
StructuralAnalysis&Design
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Generalassumption
Assumefoundationasrigid
Soilreactionasconstant
Designasinvertedbeamsorslabs
Noconsiderationtothetypeofsoil
Inreality,footingisneitherperfectlyrigidnorperfectlyflexible.Soilreaction/
contactpressuredistributiondependsonsoiltypeandrigidityofthestructure
ContactPressureDistribution
Contactpressureandsettlementprofilesforfoundationonsand
Theassumptionofuniformpressuredistributionwillgiveaconservativedesignforrigidfooting
onsandysoilsasthemaximumbendingmomentisoverestimated
Rigidfooting
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Flexiblefooting
ContactPressureDistribution
Contactpressureandsettlementprofilesforfoundationonclay
Theassumptionofuniformpressuredistributionwillresultinaslightlyunsafedesignforrigid
footingsonclaysasthemaximumbendingmomentatthecentreisunderestimated.
Rigidfooting
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Flexiblefooting
Realisticdistributionofcontactpressureneedstobeconsidered
SoilFoundationStructureInteraction
Structures
Foundation
Response of
any structure
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Underlying
Soil / rock
y
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6
Soil StructureInteractionStudies
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Soil StructureInteractionStudies
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Theproblemofsoilfoundationstructureinteractionisgenerallysolvedby
incorporatingthereactionfromthefoundation,intotheresponsemechanismofthe
structure,byidealizingthefoundationbyasuitablemathematicalmodel.
Soil StructureInteractionAnalysis
Evenifthefoundationmediumhappenstobecomplexinsomeproblems,inamajority
ofcases,theresponseofthestructureatthecontactsurfaceisofprimeinterestand
hence,itwouldbeofimmensehelpintheanalysis,ifthefoundationcanbe
representedbyasimplemathematicalmodel,withoutforegoingthedesiredaccuracy.
To accomplish this objective, many foundation models have been proposed and a
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Itisgenerallyobservedthatthemodeling ofthesuperstructureandfoundationare
rathersimplerandstraightforwardthanthatofthesoilmediumunderneath.
However,soilishavingverycomplexcharacteristics,sinceitisheterogeneous,
anisotropicandnonlinearinforcedisplacementcharacteristics.
Thepresenceoffluctuationofwatertablefurtheraddstoitscomplexity.
Toaccomplishthisobjective,manyfoundationmodelshavebeenproposedanda
comprehensivereviewpertainingtothesehasbeengivenbymanyauthors.
CriticalAspectsofSSI
Theproblemofsoilfoundationstructureinteractionisgenerallysolvedby
incorporatingthereactionfromthefoundationintotheresponsemechanismofthe
structure,byidealizingthefoundationbyasuitablemathematicalmodel.
Soil
CriticalaspectsofSSIisthe
conceptualmodellingof
Foundation
Simplifiedmodels
Canbemodelled as
beam/plate/shell
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Thefootingcanbemodelledasabeamoraplateorashellandclassicalbending
theoriescanbeusedforrepresentingtheirresponse.
Thesoilreactionhastobeincorporatedintheintegratedanalysisofsoilstructure
interactionequationbymodellingthesoilappropriatelyusingdifferentmodels
Structure Canbeeasilymodelled
Inertia=>baseshear
andmoment
CriticalAspectsofSeismicSSI
Relativefoundationrotation
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Relativefoundationdisplacement
TheoryofElasticFoundation
Theresponseoffoundationsoilsystemsubjectedtoexternalloadsdependsonthe
geometryofthefoundation(beamoraplate)andidealisationofsoil.Mostofthefootings
canbeconsideredaseitherbeams(onedimensional)orplates(twodimensional:
rectangular,squares,circular,annularorothershapes).
Plateonanelasticfoundation
q(x)
z (y)
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Beamonanelasticfoundation
q(x, y)
z
y
(y)
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BeamonElasticFoundation
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
BeamonElasticFoundation
R(x)-q(x)
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Aimshouldbetoincluderealistic
valueofsoilreaction/contact
pressure[modelidealizedsoil
behavior,i.e.R(x)]asfaras
possibletogettheactual
responseof
soilfoundationinteraction
R(x)-q(x)
Idealised SoilBehavior/ModelingSoilMedia
Themechanicalresponseofnaturallyoccurringsoilscanbeinfluencedbyavarietyof
factors.
Shape,sizeandmechanicalpropertiesoftheindividualsoilparticles
Theconfigurationofthesoilstructure
Theintergranularstressesandstresshistory
Presenceofsoilmoisture,degreeofsaturationandsoilpermeability
Thesefactorsgenerallycontributetostress strainphenomenonwhichdisplay
markedly non linear irreversible and time dependent and to soil masses which
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
markedlynonlinear,irreversibleandtimedependent,andtosoilmasseswhich
exhibitanisotropicandnonhomogeneousmaterialproperties.
Hence,anyattempttosolveasoilfoundationinteractionproblem,takinginto
accountallsuchmaterialcharacteristics,isclearlyanimpossibletask
Inordertoobtainmeaningfulandrealizableinformationforpracticalproblemsofsoil
foundationinteractionitbecomesnecessarytoidealise thebehaviour ofthesoilby
takingintoaccountspecificaspectsofitsbehaviour.
Idealised SoilBehavior/ModelingSoilMedia
Thesimplesttypeofidealised soilresponseassumelinear
elasticbehaviour ofthesupportingsoilmedium
Assumptionoflinearityandreversibilityofdeformationsimplicitin
linearelasticbehavior,ofcoursenotalwaysrigorouslysatisfiedby
naturallyoccurringsoilmasses
Assuminglinearelasticbehaviour ontheotherhandconsiderably
reducestheanalyticalrigorexpendedinthesolutionofaparticular
boundaryvalueproblemandprovidesusefulinformationtomany
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Basedonthecomplexity;soilmodelsareclassifiedas
practicalproblemsofsoilmechanicsandfoundationengineering
whichwouldotherwisebeintractable.
Oneparametermodel
Twoparametermodel
Threeparametermodel
Fourparametermodeletc
WinklerModel
Z
Structure
Foundation
Soil
Structure
Foundation
Idealisedspringtorepresentsoil
Z
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Theearliestformulationofthesoilmodel
wasduetoWinkler,whoassumedthe
soilmodeltoconsistofcloselyspaced
independentlinearsprings
Oneparametermodel
Surfacedisplacementdueto:
Nonuniformload
Concentratedload
Z
X
Uniformflexibleload
WinklerModel
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
x
z
Rigidload
Responseofactual
foundation
3/21/2013
8
WinklerModel
Theloaddeflectionrelationatany
pointisgivenby
R(x)=q=kw,
where
According to the Winklers idealization, deformation of foundation due to applied load is
confined to loaded regions only. If such a soil model is subjected to a partially distributed
surface loading, q, the springs will not be affected beyond the loaded region. For such a
situation, an actual foundation is observed to have the surface deformation.
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
k isthespringconstantandisoften
referredtoasthefoundation
moduluscanbeequatedto
modulusofsubgradereactionof
soil.
w istheverticaldeflectionofthe
contactsurface.
Discrete,independent,linearelasticsprings
Simpletouse
Soilbehaviourislinearingeneral
Anumberofstudiesintheareaofsoil
structureinteractionhavebeenconductedon
thebasisofWinklerhypothesisforits
simplicity.
Coefficientofsubgradereaction
Thecoefficientofsubgradereactionistheunitpressurerequiredtoproduceaunit
settlement.ItcanbeobtainedfromPlateloadtest
Inclayeysoils,settlementundertheloadtakesplaceoveralongperiodoftimeandthe
coefficientshouldbedeterminedonthebasisofthefinalsettlement.
Onpurelygranularsoils,settlementtakesplaceshortlyaftertheloadapplication.
Assumptions
q
k
s
= =
pressure bearing
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Thevalueofk
s
isindependentofthemagnitudeofpressure
Thevalueofk
s
hasthesamevalueforeverypointonthesurfaceofthefooting
p
w
s
settlement
Boththeassumptionsarestrictlynotaccurate.Thevalueofks decreaseswiththe
increaseofthemagnitudeofthepressureanditisnotsameforeverypointofsurfaceof
thefootingasthesettlementoftheflexiblefootingvariesfrompointtopoint.However,
themethodissupposedtogiverealisticvaluesforcontactpressuresandissuitablefor
beamormatdesignwhenonlyaloworderofsettlementisrequired
Coefficientofsubgradereaction
Plateloadtest
Theplateshouldobviouslybeaslargeaspossible,consistentwithbeingabletoexertthe
verticalforcesrequired.
Thestandardplateiseitheracircularshapeof760mmdiameterorasquareshape760x
760mm,16mmthick,andrequiresstiffeningbymeansofothercircular/squareplates
placedconcentricallyaboveit.
Invariably a large plate does not settle uniformly The settlement must therefore be
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Invariably,alargeplatedoesnotsettleuniformly.Thesettlementmust,therefore,be
monitoredbymeansofthreeorfourdialgaugesequallyspacedaroundtheperimeterin
ordertodeterminethemeansettlement.
Supportsforthesedialgaugesshouldbesitedwelloutsidethezoneofinfluenceofthe
jackingloadwhichismeasuredbyaprovingring.Whenchoosingadiameterofplateto
useforthetest,dueconsiderationshouldalsobegiventothelimitedzoneofinfluenceof
theloadedplate.Typically,thesoilwillonlybeeffectivelystressedtoadepthof1.25
1.50timesthediameteroftheplate.
Coefficientofsubgradereaction
Thesubgradereactionatany
pointalongthebeamis
assumedtobedirectly
proportionaltothevertical
displacementofthebeamat
thatpoint,i.e,soilisassumed
tobeelasticandobeys
Hookes Law
Plateloadtest
k
s
Coefficientofsubgrade
reactionorcoefficientof
elasticuniformcompression
qbearingpressureatapoint
alongthebeam
w verticaldisplacementof
the beam at that point
w
q
k
s
= =
settlement
pressure bearing
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Hooke s Law. thebeamatthatpoint
Infoundationdesign,thevalueofk
s
isthesecant
modulusofthegraphovertheestimatedworking
rangeofbearingpressure.
Thevalueofthemodulusofsubgradereaction(k
s
)
obtainedfromthetestvariesaccordingtothesizeof
plateused.
Coefficientofsubgradereaction
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
k
s
dependsnotonlyonthedeformationcharacteristicsofthesoilbutalsoonthesizeofcontactarea
betweenplateandsubgrade.
Thevariationofk
s
withplatesizecreatesanobviousdifficultyindecidingwhichplatesizeshouldbe
usedasthestandardorreferencefordefiningvaluesofk
s
foranalysis.
Coefficientofsubgradereaction
Forc=0soil
Ultimatebearingcapacityandultimate
settlement
p
f
p u uf
B
B
q q * =
2
) 3 . 0 (
) 3 . 0 (
(
(

+
+
=
f p
p f
p f
B B
B B
s s
p u uf
q q =
p
f
p f
B
B
s s =
For=0soil
2 2
( (
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
ForCohesionless soil
Determineksp fromplateloadtestor
fromestimate(0.3mdia)
Findk
sf
usingtherelation
2 2
) 3 . 0 (
) 3 . 0 (
) 3 . 0 (
) 3 . 0 (
* *
(
(

+
+
=
(
(

+
+
=
p
f
f
p
p
p u
p f
f p
p
f
p
p u
f
uf
B
B
B
B
s
q
B B
B B
B
B
s
q
s
q
2
) 3 . 0 (
) 3 . 0 (
(
(

+
+
=
p
f
f
p
sp f s
B
B
B
B
k k
ForCohesivesoil
Determinek
sp
fromplateloadtestorfrom
estimate(0.3mdia)
Findk
sf
usingtherelation(forwidth)
Findk
sf
usingtherelation(forlength)
(

+
=
L
L
k k
sp f s
5 . 1
152 . 0
3 . 0 ,
5 . 1
3 . 0 , sp
f s
k
k =
f
p
p
p u
f
uf
B
B
s
q
s
q
* =
f
p
sp sf
B
B
k k =
Forlargerlength
(mat/raft)
3/21/2013
9
Coefficientofsubgradereaction
Applicationofcoefficientofsubgrade
reactiontolargermats/rafts
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Portionofthematthat
experiencemoresettlement
producemorecompressionin
thespring
Sumofthesespringsmustequal
theappliedstructuralloadsplus
theweightofthemat
NosinglevalueofKstruly
representstheinteraction
betweenthesoilandthemat
WinklerModels
Basic limitations of Winkler hypothesis lies in the fact that this model cannot account
for the dispersion of the load over a gradually increasing influence area with increase
in depth.
Moreover, it considers linear stressstrain behaviour of soil.
The most serious demerit of Winkler model is the one pertaining to the independence
of the springs. So the effect of the externally applied load gets localized to the
subgrade only to the point of its application
LimitationsofWinklers hypothesis
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
subgrade only to the point of its application.
This implies no cohesive bond exists among the particles comprising soil medium.
The deficiency of the Winkler's Model in describing the continuous behavior of real
soil masses and the mathematical complexities of the elastic continuum has lead to
the development of many other simple soil behaviour models. These models posses
some of the characteristics features of continuous elastic solids.
The term "Two Parameter signifies that the model is defined by two independent
elastic constant.
TwoParameterElasticModels
First approach is to eliminate the discontinuity
of Winkler spring by providing mechanical
interaction between the individual spring
elements by either elastic membranes, elastic
beams or elastic layers capable of inducing
purely shear deformation (i.e. Filonenko
Borodich, Hetenyi, Pasternak and Kerr).
Twoapproaches
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
The Second approach proceeds from the elastic
continuum model and introduces constraints or
simplifying assumptions with respect to the
distribution of displacements and stresses
(Reissner, Vlazov and Leontiev).
FILONENKO&BORODICHMODEL(1945)
Basic Model
T T
ThemodelproposedbyFilonenkoBorodich (1940,1945)acquirescontinuity
betweentheindividualspringelments intheWinklermodelbyconnectingthem
toathinelasticmembraneunderaconstanttensionT.
Byconsideringtheequilibriumofthe
membranespringsystem,itcanbeshownthat
for3Dproblems(eg.Rectangularorring
foundation),thesurfacedeflectionofthesoil
mediumduetoapressureqisgivenby
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Z
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2
y x w T y x kw y x q y x R V = =
2
2
2
2
2
y x c
c
+
c
c
= V
Inthecaseof2Dproblems
(eg.stripfoundation)
2
2
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
dx
x w d
T x kw x q x R = =
FILONENKO&BORODICHMODEL(1945)
Surfacedisplacementofthemodel:
Basic Model
Concentrated load
T T
T
P
x
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Z Z
FILONENKO&BORODICHMODEL(1945)
Surfacedisplacementdueto:
Rigid load Uniform flexible load
T
X T
T
q
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Z
T
Z
3/21/2013
10
HETENYIMODEL(1946)
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
4
y x w D y x kw y x q y x R V = =
Where,
Inthismodel,interactionbetween
theindependentspringelementsis
accomplishedbyincorporatingan
elasticplatein3Dproblemsoran
elasticbeamin2Dproblems.
3
h E
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
,
D istheflexuralrigidityoftheplate
E
p
&
p
areyoungsmodulusandpoisonsratioofplate
material;
h
p
isthethicknessofplate.
2 2
4
4
4
4
4
4
2
y x y x c c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
) 1 ( 12
2
p
p p
h E
D
v
=
4
4
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
dx
x w d
D x kw x q x R = = For2Dproblems
PASTERNEKMODEL(1954)
X
q (x,y)
Shear layer with
shear modulus G
Stressesintheshearlayer
ThemodelforsoilbehaviorproposedbyPasternakassumestheexistenceofshearinteraction
betweenthespringelement.Thiscanbeaccomplishedbyconnectingthespringelementstoa
layerofincompressibleverticalelementswhichdeformintraverseshearonly.
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Z
) , ( ) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2
y x w G y x kw y x q y x R
p
V = =
The continuity in this model is characterized by the consideration of the shear layer.
A comparison of this model with that of FilonenkoBorodich implies their physical equivalency
(T has been replaced by G).
For3Dcase
3Parametermodel
Kerr (1964) proposed a 3 parameter soil model where in a shear layer is
sandwiched between two Winkler layers to represent the substances which can be
represented neither by Winkler foundation nor by isotropic elastic continuum.
A shear layer is introduced in the Winkler foundation and the spring constants
above and below this layer is assumed to be different as per this formulation.
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
ViscoelasticFoundationModel
Theexpressionviscoelasticsignifiesthedualnatureofamaterial:ontheone
handitbehavesinaviscousway,asaliquid,ontheotherhandelastically,asa
solid.
Foranidealsolid,Hookes lawholds:the
stress,,appliedisproportionaltothe
deformation,,andtheproportionalityconstant
isthemodulusofelasticityE,so =E. Besides
Ealsootherquantitiesplayarole,suchasthe
Responseofanidealspring
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
shearmodulus,G,inashearingdeformationor
torsion,whichisrelatedtoE.Forthesakeof
simplicityweshallmainlyuseEasa
representativequantityfortheelasticstiffness
inanygeometryofloading.
AsamodelforE,helicalspringwithstiffnessEisassumed.
Theresponseisinstantaneous,withoutanytimedependency,andtherecoveryafter
releaseofthestressisalsoinstantaneousandcomplete
ViscoelasticFoundationModel
ForanidealliquidNewtonslawholds:
Thestressisproportionaltotherateofdeformationd /dt ;theproportionalityconstantis
theviscosity,so = . d /dt.
Asamodelwechooseadashpot;withinacylinderfilledwithafluidapistoncanmove
withsomeclearance.Thereisnoinstantaneousresponse;thedeformationisproportional
totime,andnorecoverytakesplace.Thedashpotischaracterizedby.
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
Responseofanideal
fluid/liquid
ApplicabilityofViscoelasticFoundationModel
Contrarytotheelasticfoundations,viscoelastic foundationbedsexhibittime
dependentresponsewhensubjectedtoexternalloading,i.e.suchfoundations
haveanimmediatesettlementdirectlyaftertheloadingisappliedandan
additionalsettlementincreasingnonlinearlywithtimeduetogradualoutflow
ofporewater.
Modellingoftimedependentresponseofsuchfoundationbedsisachievedby
usingmechanicalelementssuchasWinklersprings,viscousdashpotsandtheir
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
g p g , p
combinations.
Severalresearchershaveusedvarioustypesofviscoelastic lumpedparameter
modelstorepresentthebehaviourofviscoelastic soilbeds.
3/21/2013
11
MaxwellViscoelasticFoundationModel
TheMaxwellViscoelastic foundationModel(ME)consistsofaHookean elasticelement
(HE)andNewtonianviscouselement(NE)connectedinseries.
ThecorrespondingstructuralformulaisexpressedME=HE NE
where istheappliednormalstress,
tistheelasped time,
EisthemodulusofHokean elasticelement,
isthecoefficientofnormalviscosityofthe
Newtonian viscouselement
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
ItisobservedthattheMaxwellmodelcanreciprocatetheinstantaneousdeformationand
theinstantaneousrecoveryduetotheapplicationandremovalofloadingrespectively.
However,theviscousstrainduetoaconstantstressincreaseslinearlywithtime.
Further,afterremovalofstress,theviscousstrainremainsconstantwithtime.Thus,this
particularmodelisfoundunsuitableforproperrepresentationofthetimedependent
behaviourofthesoil,however,itrightlycapturestheinstantaneousdeformation
behaviour.
Thus,Maxwellmodelissuitableforsimulatingshorttermbehaviourofaviscoelastic
subgrade,butisunsuitableforlongtermbehaviour.
KelvinVoigtViscoelasticFoundationModel
TheKelvinVoigtViscoelastic Model(KV)consistsofaHookean elasticelement(HE)anda
Newtonianviscouselement(NE)connectedinparallel.
Thismodeliscapableofpredictingthetimedependentsettlementbehaviour,creep
phenomenonandthequasiviscousflowofaviscoelastic medium.However,itisnot
capableofpredictingtheinstantaneoussettlementandtheinstantaneouspartialrecovery
ofthemediumduetosuddenloadingandunloadingrespectively.
Hence,theKelvinVoigtmodelissuitablefortherepresentationofthelongterm
behaviourofthesoil.
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
ThecorrespondingstructuralformulaisexpressedKV=HE+NE
Thefirstpartcorrespondstothepurelyelasticstresswhichis
independentofthestrainrate
Thesecondpartcorrespondstotheviscousstresswhichislineraily
proportionaltothestrainrate.Thusforazerostrainrate,apure
elasticstateisobtainedwhereasfornonzerostrainrates,the
elasticstateisaddeduponbyamagnitudeequaltotheviscous
partofthestress
ResponseofMaxwellandKelvinFoundationModel
Maxwellmodel
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
KelvinVoigt
model
PoyntingThompsonViscoelasticFoundationModel
ThePoyntingThompsonViscoelastic model(PTh)isathreeparametermodelwhichisa
combinationofHookean elasticspringattachedinserieswithaviscoelastic KelvinVoigt
element.
Itiscapableofidealizingthestresstimeandthecorrespondingstraintimebehaviourofa
viscoelastic subgrade.However,thismodelfailstopredictpermanentdeformation
obtainedasaresultofloadingofaviscoelastic subgrade.
ThecorrespondingstructuralformulaisexpressedPT
h
=HE
1
(HE
2
+NE)=HE
1
KV
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur
BurgerViscoelasticFoundationModel
ThefourparameterBurgerModelisacombinationofMaxwellelementconnectedin
serieswithaKelvinVoigtelement.
Thismodeliscapableofexpressingthecomplexphenomenaassociatedwithlongterm
reversibleandirreversibledeformation,alongwiththemodellingofinstantaneousstrain
andrecoveryduetosuddenloadingandunloadingoftheelement.
Burgermodelisthemostgeneralisedmodelandallotherviscoelastic modelscanbe
obtainedfromtheburgermodelbyomittingoneoftheelementsfromtheburger
element.
CE632N Dr. Rajesh Sathiyamoorthy, IIT Kanpur