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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

GROUP ASSIGNMENT PANIPAT CE00306-2-HCIU HUMAN COMPUTER INTERCATION AND USABILITY PT1181/82
HAND OUT DATE HAND IN DATE WEIGHTAGE 21 AUGUST 2013 11 NOVEMBER 2013 50%

INSTRUCTION TO CANDIDATES: 1. Students are advised to underpin their answers with the use of references (cited using the Harvard Name System of Referencing). 2. Late submission will be awarded zero (0) unless Extenuating Circumstances (EC) is upheld. 3. Cases of plagiarism will be penalized 4. The assignment should be in both hardcopy and softcopy: The hard copy of the assignment should be bound in an appropriate style (comb bound ) The softcopy of the written assignment and source code where appropriate should be on a CD in an envelope /CD cover and attached to the hardcopy.

Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

GROUP ASSIGNMENT PANIPAT CE00306-2-HCIU HUMAN COMPUTER INTERCATION AND USABILITY In-Course Assignment Topic- Interface Design Assignment LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Group Number-..
HAND OUT DATE HAND IN DATE Submitted By: Aakash Bathla(GL) PT1182214 Kawal Deep Singh Shubham Sharma PT1183306 PT1181138 21 AUGUST 2013 11 NOVEMBER 2013 Submitted To: Mr. Ravi Sachdeva(Module Lecturer)

Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Marking Scheme (CE00306-2 HCIU Assignment) Marks will be accorded to the team members for all work carried out in their respective section. The following are the marks that are to be awarded to each team member for the work done by the entire group. Student Name: Intake No.: Marks (70%) 10 15

Group Plan Walkthrough Critical Discussion and Application of User Requirements: To include the selection of data gathering methods the actual user profiling process performed discussions on task analysis conducted the impact of user profiling and task analysis on the design Critical Discussion and Application of Usability Goals and Competitive Analysis: To include the selection of design principles the selection of usability goals competitive analysis the impact of the activities on the design Critical Discussion and Application of Design and Prototype: To include parallel design, peer to peer evaluation and its impact on the design. each screen purpose and strategy behind its design Critical Discussion and Application on Testing: To include details on heuristic evaluation performed details on the formative testing performed details on the impact of the results to the final prototype Individual Research and Reference Use of research to support decision making (appropriate use of citations and references) in relevant to: User Profiling Usability Goals and Competitive Analysis Design and Prototype Testing Each member will be responsible for documenting the research section for one chosen usability engineering section identified above Note: A group of three will only choose the first three sections for the individual component. Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

15

15

15

Marks (30%) 20

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU 5

Group Assignment

Presentation: Demonstration of the final prototype/ability to explain the whole usability engineering process undertaken Overall achievement of the learning outcome: Understanding of the overall HCI consideration for the project

Performance Criteria:

Criteria:

Remarks

Distinction Outstanding, comprehensive and clear explanation or implementation of the A: 70%+ criteria A quality piece of work giving full coverage of the criteria Credit Effective and well standard of criteria used with some minor limitations B: 60-69% Credit C: 50:59% Acceptable and sufficient of criteria used with some severe limitations

Pass Some criteria used with major limitations D: 40-49% Marginal Fail E: 30-39% Fail F: 0-29% Insufficient and unclear of criteria used.

Major sections of criteria missing

Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

BE (HONS) IN COMPUTING In-course Assignment Information Sheet CE00306-2 Human Computer Interaction & Usability Assignment Interface Design Assignment Subject Intakes Date Assigned Date Due Lecturer Submission : : : : : Human Computer Interaction & Usability PT1181/82 21 August 2013 11 November 2013 Ravi Sachdeva

: Softcopy & Hardcopy

LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of this assignment, you should be able to: 1. Show fundamental issues of human computer interaction and cost effective assessments of usability. 2. Apply common techniques in HCI to plan, investigate, model, synthesis and evaluate a small-scale prototype.

Assignment Overview You are to complete one piece of intensive course work for the module HCIU which is worth 50% of the module overall marks. The incourse work is to be completed as a piece of cooperative and collaborative group work. You need to work in a team of 4/3 members.

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Level 2(Computing) Topic of the Assignment:

HCIU

Group Assignment

You are required to develop an interface of a Library Management System. The design should be made with respect to the HCI design guidelines. It should be an interactive application which can be developed using an authoring tool of your choice. Do note that the purpose of this assignment focuses on the user interface and what goes into the entire design process that will give it a certain look and feel. A fully functional system is not expected to be produced. However, some limited functionality (such as dummy output) is expected in order to demonstrate the ability of the system. Database backend are not necessary. First Stage At the initial stage of this project, the team members are to meet together and brainstorm for this project. As a team, you are required to submit your proposal which includes the following requirements: You need to draw a scheme of work that shows how and when your team will perform the usability engineering activities (as identified on page 3 of this document) Your plan should include details of the tasks (including meetings) that will be involved and what deliverables you will produce as the usability project proceeds, including the final report itself. You are advised to include some spare time in your plan for unforeseen events e.g. one or more team members being absent for short periods. Deliverable: You will be expected to walk through your plan with a module tutor during week 5 of the module (for up to 10% see the Marking Scheme in page 4). You will need to make a 10-minute appointment to do this, normally during one of the usual timetabled slots. Once this proposal is approved then you and your team can move on to the second stage of the project where design, implementation, documentation and presentation will be scheduled.

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Level 2(Computing) Second Stage

HCIU

Group Assignment

Your team will work through the following usability engineering activities: User Requirement User Profiling/Stakeholder analysis Task analysis Usability Goals and Competitive Analysis Identifying usability principles used in the system Competitive Analysis Prototype and Walkthrough Parallel design Storyboarding and description of each screen purpose and strategy behind its design Testing of Design Heuristic evaluation Formative Testing General Implementation Final presentation References Complete documentation (maximum 10000 words) must be produced to contain all the activities that the development team went through in producing the system. Complete and detailed research is required for each activity. As this is a group assignment, it is expected that the usability engineering activities are to be carried out together as a team. Each member must demonstrate knowledge and ability to explain each activity and the justifications of any decision made. This will contribute to the individual marks during the presentation. Each member will be responsible for documenting the research section of one chosen usability engineering section. Throughout the development cycle, the team is required to discuss the progress of the project every two weeks. Documentation of the discussions is to be included as part of the submission together with a detailed workload matrix to show the participation of all group members. The workload matrix is to be signed off by each team member.

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Level 2(Computing) Marking scheme

HCIU

Group Assignment

Marks will be accorded to the team members for all work carried out in their respective section. The following are the marks that are to be awarded to each team member for the work done by the entire group. Group Plan Walkthrough Critical Discussion and Application of User Requirements: To include the selection of data gathering methods the actual user profiling process performed discussions on task analysis conducted the impact of user profiling and task analysis on the design Critical Discussion and Application of Usability Goals and Competitive Analysis: To include the selection of design principles the selection of usability goals competitive analysis the impact of the activities on the design Critical Discussion and Application of Design and Prototype: To include parallel design, peer to peer evaluation and its impact on the design. each screen purpose and strategy behind its design Critical Discussion and Application on Testing: To include details on heuristic evaluation performed details on the formative testing performed details on the impact of the results to the final prototype Individual Research and Reference Use of research to support decision making (appropriate use of citations and references) in relevant to: User Profiling Usability Goals and Competitive Analysis Design and Prototype Testing Each member will be responsible for documenting the research section for one chosen usability engineering section identified above Note : A group of three will only choose the first three sections for the individual component. Presentation: Demonstration of the final prototype/ability to explain the whole usability engineering process undertaken Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Marks (70%) 10 15

15

15

15

Marks (30%) 20

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU 5

Group Assignment

Overall achievement of the learning outcome: Understanding of the overall HCI consideration for the project

Performance Criteria:

Criteria:

Remarks

Distinction Outstanding, comprehensive and clear explanation or implementation of the A: 70%+ criteria A quality piece of work giving full coverage of the criteria Credit Effective and well standard of criteria used with some minor limitations B: 60-69% Credit C: 50:59% Acceptable and sufficient of criteria used with some severe limitations

Pass Some criteria used with major limitations D: 40-49% Marginal Fail E: 30-39% Fail F: 0-29% Insufficient and unclear of criteria used.

Major sections of criteria missing

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Acknowledgement
-

Around a period of two months we were working hard to achieve our goal. We are strived hard to complete our assignment. Now after the completion of our group assignment we are happy to see the best results. Our goal was to give an outstanding and appreciating performance. Though there were lots of problems we had to face but we all worked together and moved on and on. Today we are out with flying colours. First, we would like thank to APIIT INDIA to provide us the opportunity to do such an assignment. We are very much grateful to our Module Lecturer Mr. Ravi Sachdeva for her continuous support in the development of the assignment and have enabled us to complete our assignment on time. He was always there to listen and to give advice and He also taught us how to express our ideas. We greatly acknowledge the working contribution of Director Sir, who encouraged us and provided us with all kinds of facilities including Ultra modern Library and computer Lab. We would also like to thank all our friends, family and everybody else who helped us anyways in our assignment. Last and but not the least, I want to acknowledge all my friends and colleagues who supported us in our assignment.

Group Members Name:


Aakash Bathla(Group Leader) Kawal Deep Singh Shubham Sharma PT1182214 PT1183306 PT1181138

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Certification:
This is to Certify that Group Consisting of Aakash Bathla (Group Leader) Kawal Deep Singh Shubham Sharma (PT1182214) (PT1183306) (PT1181138)

Has Successfully Completed their Project named LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM of the Module Human Computer Interaction and Usability As Per Staffordshire University Guidelines and Under my Guidance.

Mr. Ravi Sachdeva (Module Lecturer) APIIT SD INDIA

Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Table of Contents
Acknowledgement .. 10 Certification . 11

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Introduction:
The Term HCIU stands for Human Computer Interaction and User Interface .It is the study of interaction between user and Computer. HCIU is concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interaction computing Systems for human is and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. HCIU is a very broad discipline that encompasses different specialties with different concerns regarding computer development. As a group we are decided to develop an attractive and user friendly LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. It is one of the popular sites that can be seen by everyone. It has become the necessity of every college and school. As this site is mainly used by student and library faculties, we are going to introduce a new interface which will be helpful to every computer user and it would not provide the majorfunctionalities but would also provide the user with the simplest interface and easily navigation to menus and sub-menus. The Site is being developed by keeping the following considerations in mind such as: Effectiveness, Efficiency, Usability and Simplicity. Understanding the key issues in the field of Human-Computer Interaction. A System that can be easily understandable and navigated by the kids. Designing and evaluating interfaces on the basis of relevant knowledge and appreciation of human capabilities.

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Level 2(Computing) Workload Matrix:

HCIU

Group Assignment

Aakash Bathla

Kawal Deep Singh

Shubham Sharma

1. User Requirement 1.1. User Profiling and data gathering 1.2. Stakeholder analysis 1.3. Task analysis 1.4. Documentation 2. Usability Goals and Competitive Analysis 2.1. Identifying usability goals 2.2. Design principles 2.3. Competitive Analysis 2.4. Documentation 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.4 33.3 33.3 33.3 100 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.4 33.4 33.4

33.3

33.4 33.4 100

33.3 33.3

33.4 3. Prototype and Walkthrough 3.1. Parallel design 3.2. Storyboarding 3.3. Software prototyping 3.4. Documentation 33.4

33.3

33.3

33.4

33.3

33.3

33.3

33.3

100

4. Testing of Design 4.1. Heuristic evaluation 4.2. Formative Testing 4.3. Documentation 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.4 33.4 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

5. General 5.1. Implementation 5.2. Documentation 33% 33% 34%

Group Member Aakash Bathla(PT1182214)

Signature ____________________

Kawal Deep Singh(PT1183306)

____________________

Shubham Sharma(PT1181138)

____________________

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

1.0

User Requirements 1.1 User Profiling


1.1.1 What is User Profiling?
The Process or act of establishing and collecting the knowledge about the users related to any specific system of all the users who are expected to use the system and also of what these users want to do can be termed as user profiling. In other words we can say that the user profiling is the activity of gathering data regarding intended user, either individuals, novice or casual or expert ones. Just designing appropriate would not help, since, users attribute may vary from place to place and may other factors too. User Profiling involves identifying user attributes like physical proximities, background, preferences and skills, which may help in co-coordinating and prioritizing user requirements.

1.1.2 Why we user Profiling?


The purpose of user profiling is to gather information about the requirements from the users. We do user profiling to identify the interest of all the stakeholders who may affect or be affected by the system. Another Purpose of user profiling is to give adequate feedback or just to make the system enjoyable and satisfaction. We need to find out the demands from the user to achieve the goal of the system, because the system will fail if it; Doesnt do what the users needs. Is inappropriate to the user. So that the system must match the users task and must meet the user requirements

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

User profiling plays a vital role in framing the system usable which is easy to learn, remember and easy to use. User Profiling is done so that it can aspire to the system to match the users tasks and to meet the user requirements. Without proper User Profiling, the interface will fail if it does not know what the actual user require. The system will fail if it is not as per the requirement of user. In order to make the system, it is important to understand the capabilities and limitations of those we are designing for our users. User Profiling consists of three main things:

User Profiling

Users

Goals

Tasks

1.1.3 Process of User Profiling


To know who are the users? To know where is the task performed? To know the relationship between the user and the data? To know how often the tasks are performed? To know what are the Time Constraints?

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Level 2(Computing) 1. To know who are the users?

HCIU

Group Assignment

Under this we have all the features related to the user like how the user look like, their background, skills and all. Identify attributes of users -Physical Characteristics: It is related to the outer appearance of the user, like how the user looks like. It also signifies the age of the user. The users ability and users disabilities like is the user is having any eye sighted problem for which he/she uses glasses. Its all related to the user outer appearance. -Background: Here it means the educational background of the user which shows upto what extent the user can understand the things, the social and religious background of the user which helps a lot in making the system. -Skills: In this we get a fair idea about the skills and task experience of the user. We get to know what the user knowledge and experience is and what kind of task the user can perform. -Preferences: Under this we can get to know how efficient the user is and how efficiently he/uses the system to meet his/her requirements. 2. To know where is the task performed? Under this we will have an idea about the place and the situation where the system has to work and according to which the system has to design because surrounding environment matters a lot in working of a system. While standing, while sitting, in a crowded place, where the system is going to be used. Are users under stress or they are in absolutely light mood while using the system. Is there confidentiality required or need to hide some information The working space of the user, what kind of lighting do they work under, the kind of place they sit and work .All the things related to their surroundings. Surrounding noise

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

3. To know the relationship between the user and the data? Under this we can collect the information about relationship between the user and the data: Personal Data: Is the data always accessed at same machine and personal to the user or not. Can anyone else use the same data or not. Do users move between or work on the same particular machine. Common Data: Is the data being used is personal to a user or common to all the users. Is the data passed sequentially between the users? 4. To know how often the task are performed? Under this we get to know the about the frequency of using the system to perform any task: Frequent users remember more details so no much assistance is required for them. So the System is designed in same manner. Infrequent users may need more help even for simple operations. So more and more steps and guidance is given for such types of users in the system. 5. To know what are the time constraints? Mainly time constraints deal with these Points: What functions will users be in a hurry for and which functions can wait, positioning of functions as in the same manner so that will easy for the user to perform his/her task as per his/her need. Is there any timing relationship between the tasks like if this task is performed then within this much of time span the another task has to be done otherwise there will be time out or the page will expire. This all have to decide while designing the system.

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Classification of user on the basis of domain knowledge and expertiseThe entire user domain can also be divided on the basis of knowledge possessed by the intended users. They can be categorized as under-

Novice User- These are the users who has either no or limited knowledge of the occupational
task to be performed, and of computers and interface concepts. They are very new to the system and will need a simple and basic interface. They may include that domain of users that has no prime knowledge of basic computer handling and software handling. But this domain will constitute very less numbers of users involved in present era of technology. Guidelines for Novice User: 1. All initiative should come from the computer- the novice may not know what is to be done. 2. Each required input should be brief- the shorter it is more likely it is to be remembered. 3. Input procedures should be consistent with user expectations-humans search for patterns and will generalize. 4. Help should always be available-online. 5. I here should be sufficient feedback-closure.

Knowledgeable Intermittent Users- These are the users who understand the main
concept of the task. They also have a broad knowledge of computers and interface concepts. These users may have problem in maintaining the system as they dont have a deep knowledge of the system. The users in the group come under the less frequent users group and hence may sometimes feel some problems in dealing with the system.

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Expert Frequent Users- These Users may include computer geeks. This user force may
include the developers and engineers who all are often involved in developing computer applications. They are termed as frequent users, due to their tendency of maintaining close relations to computer world. These mostly use shortcuts to accelerate the works faster.

1.2 Human FactorsConsidering Human Factors is a potent part of constructing a design of any system. Knowing users capability and restrictions is important for guiding the arrangement of controls and components of any system. Certain human factors effecting interface working are: 1. Physiology:- It mainly deals with physical build up or body parts of the users. It deals with the physical abilities and disabilities of the users. The design of system or interface is many a time affected by human physiology or built up factors. Hence, designers must take care of various techniques for users to access input and output modules. Physiology can be covered under three points:-

Reaction Time: It is the response which an user takes to response for a action or
an activity. It vary from one user to another one.

Movement: It is related to the displacement of controls in any specific system. Or it


may be termed as the speed of accessibility of different components across the screens of game by the user.

Disability: User may also possess some disability which may restrict them to make
full use of system. Disease like Rheumatoid arthritis often restrict user from accessing interface containing too many buttons and splash screens. Hence, paper use of mouse

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

control has been considered and tools like arrows keys will be used to handle input modules.

2. Cognition: Cognition is the scientific term for The Process of thought and it is
basically related to brain of human body. It is related with the aspect that how many things we can understand at a same time. It mainly deals with the human understanding, thinking, reasoning, problem solving capabilities, memory. It also deals with time span for which an individual can pay attention to a specific task. According to George Millers (1956) theory, 72 chunks of information can be held in short-term memory at any time. This concept must be followed while designing the interfaces for any system. 3. Perception: It describes perceiving power of users. It is the capabilities and limitation of visual processing and understanding how users perceive size and depth. While designing the system, care should be taken about all the human cognition ane perception factors which could affect the output of the sytem.

It can be measured by mainly three laws: Law of proximity: Describes that object near each other tend
to be grouped together.

Law of Closure: Describes objects together are seen as a


whole.

Law of Similarity:- Items that are similar tend to be grouped


together.

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Stakeholder Analysis: Person, group or organization that has direct or indirect stake in an
organization, because it can affect or affected by the Organisations actions, objectives, and policies. Stakeholder analysis is a technique we can use to identify and access the importance of key people, groups of people, or institutions that may signifies influence the success of our activity or project. The technique can be used alone or with team members. The Stakeholder concept was first used in a 1963 internal memorandum at the Stanford research institute .It defined stakeholders as those groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist The four main categories of stockholders affecting are listed below: Primary Stakeholder : Users who directly uses the system are known as primary stakeholder. These users actually use all the resources of the system. They are the persons who are affected either positively or negatively due to the project. Secondary Stakeholder: Those who dont work on the system but need reports regarding system at regular interval of time or in other words we can say that who are interested in progress reports of system are kept under the category of secondary stakeholders. This may include project managers, system managers etc. Tertiary Stakeholder: Those who are the owner of the system and who are investing money and their capital in development of the system comes under the category of tertiary stakeholders. i.e all who are interrelated with loss and profit of system comes under tertiary stakeholders or those who help in managing the system comes under this category. Facilitating Stakeholder: Those persons who are involved in designing, developing and maintaining the products are known as Facilitating stakeholders.

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Selection and Justification of the Stakeholder:


I already discussed above that stakeholders are the people that are directly or indirectly affected by the organization action, objective and policies. Following are the steps we took to analyze our stakeholders 1. Identifying the stakeholders In this step we determined all the people who are affected by our work, who have influence or power over it, or have an interest in its successful or unsuccessful conclusion. The identified stakeholders are librarian, students, teachers. Prioritize our stakeholders All the above mentioned people are somehow linked with our system in one way or the other. We can divide them into smaller groups on the basis of the power they have over the system and the interest these people have in our system. This way we created 4 groups with people having low power-low interest, low power-high interest, high power-low interest and high power-high interest. Thus the system can have following prioritization for their stakeholders:

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

The stakeholders can be prioritized more precisely as follow: 1. Primary stakeholder: These are those who directly use the system and here the primary stakeholders are the librarian, student and faculty as they for whom the whole system is going to be developed. 2. Secondary stakeholder: These are the people who dont use or work on the developed system but they want the reports after every certain period of time and here for library management system the secondary stakeholders are director and accountant. 3. Tertiary stakeholder: These are the people who tell the developers to develop the system and here APIIT SD INDIA, Panipat is the owner of the system who is paying the developers to develop the system. 4. Facilitating: These are the developers who develop the system and maintain the system and here the students namely aakash bathla, shubham Sharma, kawal deep singh are the developers.

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Level 2(Computing)

HCIU

Group Assignment

Data Gathering Technique:


Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypothesis and evaluate outcomes. Data gathering is also defined as a type of tool that is used to gather information from particular company, organization or any sort of a resource. Data gathering techniques can be divided in to two categories, qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative research is used to explore and understand peoples benefits experiences, attitudes and behavior and interactions. It is the most efficient and must be used whenever possible. Quantitative methods are most used in focus group and observation, where direct reference to the people is required. Quantitative research refers to the data that can be represented with numerical values. It generate numerical data or data that can be converted into numbers. for example the national census, which counts people and households.
Qualitative All research grounding. ultimately has Quantitative a qualitative There is no such thing as Qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0.

Recommended during early phases of research Recommended during latter phases of research projects. projects.

Qualitative data is more rich, time consuming, Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test and less able to be generalized. Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. hypothesis, but may miss contextual details. Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.

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Level 2(Computing)

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Group Assignment

Why do data collection:


1. To decide appropriate method of data collection to use. First we must know; What data we need to achieve the objectives? From whom do you need to collect it? What is the most appropriate way of collecting data in the organization? 2. Develop clear objective Know what we want to achieve Know the organization Identify the stakeholder 3. Determine scope and resource allocation Coverage of the organization Estimate the level of human, financial, physical and technical resources. 4. Choose methodology Data Gathering(Questionnaire) Data analysis and evaluation 5. Develop communication strategy Communication before, during and after Communication of findings and recommendations Communication of implementation of recommendations.

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Level 2(Computing)

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Group Assignment

Steps in data gathering:


1. Schedule initial visit to user site. 2. Gather and read background materials 3. Establish data gathering objectives. 4. Determine what data gathering techniques to use 5. Identify contact persons 6. Schedule data gathering activities. 7. Assign to data gathering teams. 8. Identify deliverables.

Data Gathering Techniques:


There are various ways of data gathering techniques. We discussed about four techniques which are; Interview Questionnaire Observation Focus Group

Interview
Interview is one of the most important ways to gather information and create contents for a story. Interviews are conducted on one-on-one or small group of people. The purpose of an interview are to become familiar with different types of interviews, To understand when interviews might be useful for the evaluation, and to identify the components of a good interview.

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Level 2(Computing) Types of Interview: 1. Structured Interview 2. Open-Ended Interview 3. In-Depth Interview

HCIU

Group Assignment

Structured Interview: Sometimes referred to as patterned interview. Interviews that use predetermined categories of answers. The main purpose of the structured interview is to pinpoint job skills that are essential to the position. Open- Ended Interview: Broad Questions area asked in a predetermined manner allowing for free-flowing conversation. Can be used both to give and receive information. In-Depth Interviews : An In-depth Interview is a conversation with an individual conducted by trained staff that usually collects specific information about one person. When to use Different Types of Interviews: Structured Interviews Suitable for short, non-sensitive topics Can address program processes and subjective response to program outcomes. May be useful for needs assessments and satisfaction surveys. Open-Ended and In-Depth Interviews Used to gather detailed information, opinions and experiences and to thoroughly document processes. Help to make connections between the program impact and other aspects of participants lives.

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Level 2(Computing) Advantages Of Interviews:

HCIU

Group Assignment

1. Enables us to learn about things that can-not be directly observed. 2. Add an inner perspective to outward behaviors. 3. Increase Accuracy of response. 4. Respondents can raise concerns 5. Enables Modification to lines of inquiry 6. The interviewer can probe deeper into a response given by an interviewee. Disadvantages of Interviews: 1. It is time consuming. 2. The Interviewer may be biased and ask close questions. 3. Quality of information obtained is largely dependent upon the interviewer.

Questionnaire /Survey:
Questionnaire is a document containing a set of questions regarding the information that needs to be gathered, and it allows the analyst to collect information and opinion from respondents. The purposes of a questionnaire are to understand the survey would be useful for the evaluation and to learn about the components of a good questionnaire/survey. Closed-Ended Questions: Question that give the respondent a choice of answers to select from. Open-Ended Questions: Questions that allow the respondent to write an answer in his/her own words.

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Level 2(Computing) Advantages of Questionnaire:

HCIU

Group Assignment

1. The responses are gathered in a standardized way, so questionnaires are more objective, certainly more so than interviews 2. Generally it is relatively quick to collect information using a questionnaire. However in some situations they can take a long time not only to design but also to apply and analyze. 3. Potentially information can be collected from a large portion of a group. This potential is not realized, as returns from questionnaires are usually low. However return rates can be dramatically improved if the questionnaire is delivered and respond to in time. Disadvantages: 1. Questions may be misunderstood by respondents. 2. Responses to closed-ended questions provide limited depth. 3. Quantitative analysis is less meaningful when the sample size is small. 4. Survey use requirements an understanding of survey design and statistics.

Observation
Observation method is a technique in which the behavior of research subjects is watched and recorded without any direct contact. It is a qualitative method that provides descriptive information about what happens in a program event, Including the environment or context, activities, processes and discussions.

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Level 2(Computing) Types and Using Observation methods

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Group Assignment

This method can be independently or in combination with other methods of a job analysis. There are three methods of job analysis based on observation, which are: Direct observation: This method observes employees in the performance of their duties, recording observation as they are made. Work Method Analysis: This method is used to describe manual and repetitive production jobs and is used by industrial engineers to determine standard rates of production, to set pay rates. It includes time and motion study and micro-motion system. Critical Incident Technique: Though they employ the same method, these methods differ in terms of who the observing, Advantages of Observation: 1. Firsthand observation 2. Simple to use 3. Verifies data from other sources 4. Useful for manual and psycho-motor tasks. Disadvantages of Observation: 1. Time Consuming 2. May bias worker performance 3. Small sample size 4. Requires skilled observer 5. Validity and reliability may be problematic. 6. Not useful for jobs consisting on mostly mental tasks.

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Focus Group:
Focus groups present a unique opportunity to a group of end-users to discuss their needs, objectives and perceptions in an interactive environment. The opinions and statements of the respondents enable one to derive strategic information and draw interesting conclusions. Conducting a Focus Group The seven basic steps for conducting a focus group are: 1. Determine research objectives 2. Develop a discussion format 3. Choose and screen participants 4. Select a moderator 5. Convene the focus group meeting 6. Collect and analyze the data 7. Make a presentation To improve the effectiveness of the focus group, a special facility, consisting of a meeting room with a round or oval table to enhance communication among the respondents, should be used. Desirable Qualities of moderator The moderator must lead the discussion and ensure that all the predetermined objectives of the interview are met, while making sure that no personal bias affects the course of the interview. Some of the desirable qualities are: Must be well-informed in the nuances of the industry being discussed for a better understanding of the discussion. Must be able to encourage members of the group to discuss concepts in greater detail.

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Must be able to encourage a debate among the respondents to generate deeper discussions. However, he/she must not allow the interview to degenerate into an argument. Must encourage the involvement of all the members in the group. Must be adaptable. The moderator should commit the sessions questionnaire to memory and allow the session to flow smoothly without enforcing an arbitrary question order. Must exhibit significant degrees of empathy with the group, while maintaining control over the interviews. Advantages of focus group 1. Opinions or ideas of the individual group member can be taken and defined by the group, resulting in more accurate information. 2. A snowballing effect can occur, causing the ideas of individual members of the group to be passed around the ground, gathering both momentum and detail. 3. Focus group interviews are generally more interesting to the respondent than individual interviews. As a result, answers are likely to be longer and more revealing. 4. As the questions of the moderator are directed at a group rather than individuals, the degree of spontaneity of resultant answers is often greater in a focus group interview. Disadvantages of focus group 1. Structuring a random sample is a complicated task. The responses of the participants in the interview are likely to be different from those that did not participate. Therefore, nonresponse can be a serious problem. 2. Focus group is generally costlier than other end-user interview alternatives.

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3. The moderator can introduce significant biases into the proceedings, should he/she fail to ask certain questions or delve deeply into specific areas. 4. Skilled moderators are difficult to find, and when their services are available, they are often expensive. Selection and justification of a chosen data method Any project or task requires a healthy amount of data. Based on this data, the team can induce its work on the project. Data gathering is simply collecting information is related to a project or task from the user or any other sources. Mainly there are five techniques for collecting or gathering information. Questionnaires Interviews Workshops/Focus Group Naturalistic observation Studying documents The requisites of system being developed significantly depend upon the targeted users and the conditions provided to the system of online library management system when is embryo stage. Moreover, when it comes to the interface designing, It becomes all the more potent to consider user expectations to make the system a popular entity among user community. Hence in order to determine the user requirements and considering the market demands, designers often follow various data gathering techniques.

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Level 2(Computing) Data Gathering techniques we chose:

HCIU

Group Assignment

Since we have to design a online library management system project for College, Our project includes large number of users from places which are geographically as well as culturally apart. In this situations questionnaire s can be good option for collecting valuable data. We will prepare printed as well as online questionnaires in order to reach large community. Heres a small sample of our questionnaire 1. For how many years are you using your current Library management system? a.) 0 year b.) < 1 year c.) 1-5 year d.) > 5 Year 2. How do you grade performance of your present Library management system? a.) 100% b.) 50%-70% c.) 70%-99% d.) Cant say 3. In the Past 10 Years, How many times did your library go through LMS Migration? a.) 0 time b.) 1 time c.) More than once 4. Why did your library take a decision to migrate from earlier Library Management System? a.) Cost Factor Maintenance

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Level 2(Computing) b.) Quality Improvement c.) Administration reasons d.) Economic Reasons e.) New Feature if any_________

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5. Which background color will be best for the online library management system? a.) Colorful b.) Colorless c.) Not sure 6. Are you agree, that there must be some facility for the disable person in Library management system? a.) Yes b.) No c.) Not Sure 7. Which language is suitable for library management system? a.) English b.) Hindi c.) France d.) Any Other please specify___________________________ 8. Which font you like most? a.) Times new Roman b.) Georgia c.) Arial Black d.) Other

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9. How often do you visit your college library? a.) Daily b.) Thrice Weekly c.) Weekly d.) Monthly e.) Rarely 10. Are you comfortable with the library catalogue system? a.) Most comfortable b.) Comfortable c.) Comfortable to a little extent d.) Not at all comfortable 11. Do you always use the internet? a.) Yes b.) No c.) Sometime

Questionnaire Analysis Conclusion on questionnaire


After analyzing the resultant data of the user we find that we should create the online library management system for the students and the faculty. The language of the online library management system should be in English and the user must want their personal account in which they can easily view the details of him/her. In online library management system there must be something for the disable person through which they can easily use the online library

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management system, like as for a blind person there must be sound. We change the current library management system from older to newer one only because of Quality Improvement.

Impact on Design
Question 1 For how many years are you using your current Library management system? Analysis Impact 0 Year-10%, <1 Year- 60%, 1-5 Year-15%, >5 Year-60% Most of the users are under 1Year

15%

10%

0 Year 15% < 1 Year 1-5 Year >5 Year

60%

Question 2

How do you grade performance of your present Library management system?

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Analysis Impact

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100%-(10%),50%-70%-(10%),70%-99%-(70%),Cant say(10%) Grade performance of our system is

10%

10% 10% 100% 50%-70% 70%-99% Can't say

70%

Question 3

In the Past 10 Years, How many times did your library go through LMS Migration?

Analysis Impact

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10%

10%

0 time 1 time more than once

80%

Question 4

Why did your library take a decision to migrate from earlier Library Management System?

Analysis Impact

5%

5%

15%

Cost Factor Quality Improvement Economic Reasons Administration reason Any Other 70%

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Level 2(Computing)
Question 8

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Group Assignment

Which background color will be best for the online library management system?

Analysis Impact

10%

Colorful 30% 60% Colorless Not sure

Question 9

Are you agree that there must be some facility for the disable person in Library management system?

Analysis Impact

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10%

30%

Yes No Not sure 70%

Question 10 Analysis Impact

Which language is suitable for library management system?

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5%

5%

20%

English Hindi France Any Other 70%

Question 11 Analysis Impact

Which font you like most?

20%

Times New Roman 10% 60% 10% Georgia Arial Black Any Other

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Question 12 Analysis Impact

How often do you visit your college library?

8% 10% Daily Thrice Weekly Weekly 60% 30% Monthly Rarely

Question 13 Analysis Impact

Are you comfortable with the library catalogue system?

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8% 10% Most Comfortable Comfortable Comfortable to a little extent 30% 60% Not at all Comfortable

Question 14 Analysis Impact

Do you always use the internet?

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10%

Yes 30% 60% No Sometime

Knowledge about user


Students:Librarian:-

Task Analysis
Task analysis is the process of way people performing their jobs: The things they do, the thing they act on and the things they need to know. It is process in which task structure is analyzed. Critical elements and potential usability issues are identified. It is a method/set of methods for understanding the tasks, user carry out with a product/system. The key terminologies involved in task/analysis are goal and task. Goal: The state that the human wishes to achieve.

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Task: The activities required in order to bring about the state the human wishes to achieve (the goal). Purpose of task analysis 1. Determine the goals and objectives 2. Define and describe in detail the tasks and sub tasks to be performed. 3. Specify the knowledge type(declarative, structural and procedural knowledge) that characterize a task. 4. Select outcomes that are appropriate for the development. 5. Prioritize and sequence tasks. 6. Determine activities and strategies. 7. Select appropriate media environments. 8. Construct performance assessments and evaluation. Three potential uses of task analysis in the design process

Existing system

Task Analysis

New System

Related system Task Analysis Related system Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Page 48 New System

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Related system

Task Analysis Task synthesis

New System

Hierarchical Task analysis HTA is a task analysis technique which involves some form of task decomposition to express a whole task into different subtasks. HTA is a commonly used means of breaking tasks down into a hierarchy of goals Operations and plans. The sub-task are then further divided into sub-tasks when are then grouped as plans that specifies how the tasks might be performed in an actual situation. The output of HTA are a hierarchy of tasks and subtasks and also plans describing in what order and under what conditions subtasks are performed. Goal: It describes what the user wants to achieve Metaphors:Metaphors are the conceptual model that has been developed to be similar in some way to the aspects of a physical entity. A metaphor is a figure of speech that constructs an analogy between two things or ideas; the analogy is conveyed by the use of metaphorical word in place of some other word. Benefits of using metaphor Easier to learn because it is familiar to user. Enables learning by building upon existing knowledge.

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Provides the powerful way of learning the complexity of a system. A short cut of complete tasks.

Selection and justification of task analysis Goals: We have to keep this thing in our mind that the design should be interactive and the users will not get distracted, confused while accessing the online library management system. Goals of our system when librarian uses the system: 1. Login 2. Add/Remove Books 3. Add/Remove Members 4. Issue Books 5. Renewal Books 6. Return Books 7. Search Books 8. Logout Goals of our system when student uses the system 1. Login 2. Search books 3. Display status of books borrowed by him 4. Logout

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Level 2(Computing) When student uses the system

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HTA OF LOGIN

0.0 LOGIN

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for Login as Student

3.0 Fill the form

4.0 Click submit button

3.1 Enter Username

3.2 Enter Password

3.3 Forgot Password

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.1, 3.2, 3 randomly do 1.4 Plan 3.0 If user forgot 3.1 and 3.2 then go to 3.3. Task Analysis of Login
Task Open Website Click on Login Fill form Submit Critically H H H H Difficulty L L M L Frequency H H H H

Assumptions for Login Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Page 51

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The person who logged in should have little idea about the online library management system. HTA OF SEARCH

0.0 Search Books

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as student

3.0 Login form

4.0 Click Search books

3.1 Enter username

3.2 Enter Password

3.3 Forgot Password

4.1 Click on search by book id

4.2 Click on search by book name

4.3 Click on search by author name

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 3.1 and 3.2 then do 4.0 then 4.1 or 4.2 or 4.3. Task Analysis of Search Book
Task Open Website Click on Login Fill form Search Book Submit Critically H H H H H Difficulty L L M M L Frequency H H H H H

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Level 2(Computing) Assumptions for Search Book

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The person who logged in should have idea about the book name or book id or author name. HTA OF DISPLAY STATUS

0.0 Display Status

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as student

3.0 Login form

4.0 Click Display Status

5.0 Logout

3.1 Enter username

3.2 Enter Password

3.3 Forgot Password

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 3.1 and 3.2 then do 4.0 then do 5.0. Task Analysis of Display Status
Task Open Website Click on Login Fill form Display Status Submit Critically H H H H H Difficulty L L M L L Frequency H H H H H

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Level 2(Computing) When librarian use the system HTA OF LOGIN

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Group Assignment

0.0 LOGIN

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for Login as Student

3.0 Fill the form

4.0 Click submit button

3.1 Enter Username

3.2 Enter Password

3.3 Forgot Password

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.1, 3.2, 3 randomly do 1.4 Plan 3.0 If user forgot 3.1 and 3.2 then go to 3.3. Task Analysis of Login
Task Open Website Click on Login Fill form Submit Critically H H H H Difficulty L L M L Frequency H H H H

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Level 2(Computing) Assumptions for Login

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The person who logged in should have little idea about the online library management system. HTA OF ADD/REMOVE BOOK

0.0 ADD/REMOVE BOOK

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as Librariant

3.0 Click Add/Remove Book

4.0 Add/Remove Book Form

5.0 Logout

4.1 Fill Basic details of book

4.2 Click Add Book

4.3 Enter Book Id

4.4 Click Remove Book

For add Book Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 4.0 then do 4.1 then do 4.2 then do 5.0. For Remove Book Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 4.0 then do 4.3 then do 4.4 then do 5.0. Task Analysis of Add/Remove Book
Task Open Website Do Login Fill Add/Remove Book Form Critically H H H Difficulty L L M Frequency H H H

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Level 2(Computing)
Submit H

HCIU
L

Group Assignment
H

Assumptions for Add/Remove Book The librarian know the book id of the book which he want to delete the book. HTA OF ADD/REMOVE STUDENT

0.0 ADD/REMOVE STUDENT

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as Librariant

3.0 Click Add/Remove Student

4.0 Add/Remove Student Form

5.0 Logout

4.1 Fill Basic details of Student

4.2 Click Add Student

4.3 Enter Student Id

4.4 Click Remove Student

For add Student Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 4.0 then do 4.1 then do 4.2 then do 5.0. For Remove Student Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 4.0 then do 4.3 then do 4.4 then do 5.0. Task Analysis of Add/Remove Book
Task Open Website Do Login Critically H H Difficulty L L Frequency H H

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Fill Add/Remove Book Form Submit H H

HCIU
M

Group Assignment
H

Assumptions for Add/Remove Student The librarian know the book id of the book which he want to delete the book. HTA OF SEARCH BOOK

0.0 Search Books

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as student

3.0 Login form

4.0 Click Search books

5.0 Logout

3.1 Enter username

3.2 Enter Password

3.3 Forgot Password

4.1 Click on search by book id

4.2 Click on search by book name

4.3 Click on search by author name

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 3.1 and 3.2 then do 4.0 then 4.1 or 4.2 or 4.3 then do 5.0. Task Analysis of Search Book
Task Critically Difficulty Frequency

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Open Website Click on Login Fill form Search Book Submit H H H H H

HCIU
L L M M L

Group Assignment
H H H H H

Assumptions for Search Book The person who logged in should have idea about the book name or book id or author name. HTA OF ISSUE BOOK

0.0 ISSUE BOOK

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as Librarian

3.0 Click Issue Book

4.0 Fill Issue Book Form

5.0 Logout

4.1 Fill Basic details of book

4.2 Fill Basic Details Of Student

4.2 Click Issue Book

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 3.1 and 3.2 then do 4.0 then 4.1 or 4.2 or 4.3 then do 5.0. Task Analysis of Issue Book
Task Open Website Do Login Click Issue Book Critically H H H Difficulty L L L Frequency H H H

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Fill Requirements for Issue Book Submit H H

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M

Group Assignment
H

Assumptions for Issue Book The librarian knows the book details to be issued and the student details to whom the book is to be issued. HTA OF RENEW BOOK

0.0 RENIEW BOOK

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as Librarian

3.0 Click Reniew Book

4.0 Fill Reniew Book Form

5.0 Logout

4.1 Fill Basic details of book

4.2 Fill Basic Details Of Student

4.2 Click Submit

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 3.1 and 3.2 then do 4.0 then 4.1 or 4.2 or 4.3 then do 5.0. Task Analysis of Renew Book
Task Open Website Do Login Click Issue Book Fill Requirements for Renew Book Critically H H H H Difficulty L L L M Frequency H H H H

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Submit H

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L

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H

Assumptions for Renew Book The librarian knows the book details to be Renew and the student details to which the book is to be renewed. HTA OF RETURN BOOK

0.0 RETURN BOOK

1.0 Open the website

2.0 Click for login as Librarian

3.0 Click Return Book

4.0 Fill Return Book Form

5.0 Logout

4.1 Fill Basic details of book

4.2 Fill Basic Details Of Student

4.2 Click Submit

Plan 0.0 Do 1.0 then 2.0 then do 3.0 then 3.1 and 3.2 then do 4.0 then 4.1 or 4.2 or 4.3 then do 5.0. Task Analysis of Return Book
Task Open Website Do Login Click Return Book Fill Requirements for Return Book Submit H L H Critically H H H H Difficulty L L L M Frequency H H H H

Assumptions for Return Book Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Page 60

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The librarian knows the book details to be Returned and the student details who returned the book.

Design and Prototype: Description:


Designing is achieving goals within constraints. It helps us tp focus on certain things. the main goal of designing to get the overview of what we are trying to develop, for whom we are trying to develop and do we want to develop. The constraints that are kept in mind while designing could how designing should be done, what should be done, what would be the cost and timing of designing and other issues. There are two types of design: 1. Conceptual Design: It is a basic foundation that defines the structure of the system, including the functional elements of the product, their relationship and the system behavior. Conceptual design tells us what and how the system is going to behave. 2. Physical Design: It shows the actual look of the screen and details of the designing example: Screen, Icons, Graphics, menus.

Card Sorting: Introduction:


Card sorting is a technique that many designers use as a design method to structure the product or the system. This technique increases the systems finding capability. It is a way to involve users in grouping similar elements under a single category Card sorting is quick, inexpensive and a reliable method to structure our website. There are basically two types of card sorting techniques. 1. OPEN- CARD SORTING: It is grouping similar elements under one category. The participants are given cards showing the site contents. Then, they are asked to sort/ group cards Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Page 61

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in the order in which they find it easy to handle. This sorting is usually done, when the system is wholly new, the designer and doesnt have any pre- requisites for it. This technique is generative, exploring new ideas.

2. CLOSEDCARD SORTING: The best design is searched not a particular element. The
participants are given cards with pre grouped site contents. They are than asked to find the best among those groups. This sorting is usually done, when the similar kinds of design are available to us. This technique is evaluative, it is basically used to judge whether a given set of category provides an effective way to organize a given collection of content.

Activity of Card Sorting:


It is open card sorting. The design team has conducted the card sorting for the menus of our website. Here 4 menus/cards were distributed among the users and were asked to group them logically.

a.) Home b.) Administrator c.) Library Member d.) Book Details e.) About Us f.) Contact Us Result of Card Sorting(Menus): Sorting by user 1 Sorting by user 2 Sorting by user 3 Sorting by user 4 Sorting by user 5 Sorting by user 6

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C

HCIU B A D E C F A B C D E F

Group Assignment A C B E D F

D E F

Here, from the above sorting of menus, designers has found that the maximum no. of user has selected the sorting like A, B, C, D, E, F. So, from the above Card Sorting Technique designer has Selected A, B, C, D , E, F Sorting. Activities of Card Sorting 2(Header)
Here, four sketches of headers have been made and shown to six users, to understand their likes, dislikes and needs. The user will choose the best design among these sketches, which user wants to be implemented into the website on the basis of background, color, font, menu location and many others. The design team has done card sorting for the header of our website. Here we have shown 4 headers/ cards. (A) (C) Results Of Card Sorting (Header): Sorting By User1 D Sorting By User2 A Sorting By User3 D Sorting By User4 C Sorting By User5 B Sorting By User6 D Sorting By User7 D (B) (D)

Here, from the above sorting for the header, designer has found that the maximum number of users has selected the Card D for design. So, from the above Card Sorting Technique designer has selected Card D. Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Page 63

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10.3. Parallel Design Sketches 10.3.1. Introduction


In parallel design technique, several people or the members of the project create an initial design from the same set of requirements. Each member works independently, and when finished, shares his concepts with the group. These designs work because: The designer is able to get variety of solutions (ideas and concepts) of the problem. It also gives some extent of assuredly that best design and concept is going to be integrated into our system. It gives last views in a short span of time. Parallel design can be broken down into different steps: Design independently Present all the designs Evaluate the designs Implementing the design

Parallel Design 1 Parallel Design 2 Parallel Design 3 Parallel Design 4 Participatory Design
The design which is based on user requirements or user preferences .It is also defined as an approach to design that attempts to actively involve all stakeholders (e.g. employees, partners, customers, citizens, end users) in the design process to help ensure that the product designed Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology Page 64

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meets their needs and is usable. Participatory Design is an approach which is focused on processes and procedures of design and is not a design style. Here the final design is chosen after discussion between all team members. From each of the parallel sketches, best features are taken and implemented into the final design. From parallel sketch one, menubar has been taken, from design 2, background color has been selected, from design 3, slideshow has been chosen and from design4, header has been chosen .The final design is fulfilling all the major design principles. The home page is achieving visibility here the designer has placed the name of shop at the top middle position. So that whenever any user opens the website, he gets to see what this website is all about. An appropriate colour combination, colour contrast, font size and tooltips is used, to enhance the visibility of the controls as well as make the interface consistent. In this design, changes in the colour/ pointer of the buttons on the click or hover event has also been suggested, so this design will also be able to achieve feedback. The metaphors used in the menu bar are also giving the feedback, that what is the use of particular menu option. In the top-left corner of the screen, there will be the login information about the user, so that whenever he wants to login/ logout, he can do it instantly. So through this design designer is able to achieve mapping also. The designer has provided the help option, if the user (novice) wants to know what exactly the controls are meant for. Hence affordance is achieved (know the properties of the object by just looking at it).

Prototyping:
It is another kind of method which is used to acquire feedback from the users. Prototype is a partial representation of a design that allows users to interact with it and to explore its suitability. Prototyping reduces development time and development costs. It also includes user
satisfaction. So there are fewer chances of website degradation/ unapproved.

It increases the communication between the team members as they discuss what exactly they
want in their system.

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Very useful for user testing as prototyping act as a dummy model that defines the system so
the user is able to tell their needs.

It makes it possible to get a formal approval of the design from both programmers and the
client before we proceed to the development stage

There are two types of prototyping: 1.) Low-Fidelity Prototyping 2.) High- Fidelity Prototyping
Low-Fidelity prototyping: It is done at the early stages of the design process and hence it reveals very little features of the final product. It provided limited or no functionality. They are cheap and quick to produce. They are good for considering early design issues. Examples of Low-fidelity prototypes are storyboarding and index cards.

Storyboarding:
It is a sketch or a graphical representation of the outside system, which shows how a user wants a screen to appear after being developed. It is designed by the designer itself without the use of any computer aids on a white sheet of paper. It basically tells the whole story of our website in the graphical form. The whole story is divided into different screens.

In low fidelity prototyping, storyboarding is selected because:


It requires team work. It gives a genuine feedback, so that designer can enhance its features. It is cheap, easy to design, less time consuming, Easy to make changes It provides a way for high fidelity prototyping.

The storyboards made before designing the online library management system are as follows. 1. Homepage

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2. Login Page

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3. About us

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Level 2(Computing) 4. Contact Us

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Group Assignment

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5. Student/Faculty

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6. Librarian

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Level 2(Computing) 7. Feedback form:

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High Fidelity Prototyping: It is fully interactive, functional detail of the system. This prototype can also be said as sample final design. It is an expensive prototype and it good for sales and marketing of the product for future. Users can operate on the prototype, or even perform some real tasks with it; they faithfully represent the interface to be implemented in the product. They enable wide range of usability issues, quality attributes and impress management. It will include screen designs. Example of high- fidelity prototypes is software prototyping, solid form models.

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Conclusion:
Design and prototype is an important phase while designing websites. The story boarding serves as a low-fidelity prototyping while the screen designs serve as a high fidelity prototype. Both helps in removing the communication gap between the user and the developer. The design team has drawn the rough sketches in the form of storyboard and screen designs have been used for representing high-fidelity one. With the help of prototype, users suggestions can be taken and then the final implementation may be changed accordingly to design according to the needs of the user.

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