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International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

Planeer Technologies Pvt. Ltd. Dehradun, U.K (India)-248197

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering

Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Editor-in-Chief Mr. A.K. UPADHYAY February-2014

Editorial Board
Prof. (Dr.) Dr. Sanjeev Kaushish DVSIET, Meerut Dept. of Electronics Prof. (Dr.) Mahavir Singh BCET, Dehradun Dept. of Chemical Prof. (Dr.) Jalumedi St.JECT, Kerala Dept of Mechanical Prof. (Dr.) Harvir Singh Hindu, HR Dept. of CSE Prof. Sanjay Sharma MIT, Dehradun Dept. of Civil Dr. Sheo Kumar SIET,Greater Noida Dept. of CSE Dr. Pradeep Sharma IEC,Greater Noida Dept. of CSE Dr. Rajesh Pathak GNIT,Greater Noida Dept. of CSE Dr. Mannu Vardhan MNNIT,Allahabad Dept. of Network Dr. H. R Singh AIMT,Greater Noida Dept. of IT Dr. D.K Panda JIT, Khargone,MP Dept. of Electronics Dr. S. K. Singh VIET,Dadri/G B Nagar Dept. of CSE Dr. Abhishek Mathur DBIT,Dehradun Dept. of BioTech Dr.Vuda Sreenivasarao Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia Dept. of Applied Science Dr. Pratiksha Saxena GBU,Greater Noida Dept. of ICT Dr. Vidushi Sharma GBU,Greater Noida Dept. of ICT Dr. Anurag Vidhyarathi GEU, Dehradun Dept. of EC Dr. Ranveer Singh DBIT, Dehradun Dept. of CSE Mr. B. Pandey ITM ,Gurgaon Dept. of SE Mr. Irfan Ali NIET,Greater Noida Dept. of CSE

Message from
Managing Editor

On the occasion of the Volume 2 Issue 2(February) of the International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering, ISSN No.2320-7396 a new peer-reviewed, print Journal, I extend a warm welcome to all authors. I express my thanks to the Editorial Board Members for their sustained support to make the launch of this new journal possible and their continued advice and feedback. The enthusiasm and proficiency of the professionals who serve as reviewers are essential for maintaining technical and editorial standards. In particular I would like to thanks the different contributors, whose trust at the very beginning and allows us to move the journal forward. I heartily believe that we will soon receive a growing number of quality research papers from authors around the world. I look forward to a successful and rewarding first year of the journal as Managing Editor and welcome any comments or suggestions you might have on how we can continue to improve our journal.

Mr. Rohit Goyal

Managing Editor

Table of Contents

1. Fiber-Optic Telecommunication and Empowering ICT In Bangladesh.....................................01-14 Dr. Shabbir A. Bashar, Mr. Rahat Azim Chowdhury

2. Image Quality Enhancement using Stochastic Resonance Noise Matrix .......15-23 Mr. Manish Sharma

3. Periodicity Detection Techniques in Time Series Databases........................................................24-29 Mr. Varun Sirohi, Mr. Anshul Sharma

4. Data Transmission through Illumination...........................................................30-38 Mr. Anubhaw Upadhyay , Mr.Prashant Kumar

5. Role of Decision Models in Advanced Materials Management System ..............39-48 Mr. Dheerendra Pratap , Mr.Deepak Agarwal, Mr.Neeraj Kumar

6.GSM Based Local Area Network (Lan) Monitoring And Controlling System ..........................49-55 Mr. Rahat Azim Chowdhury

7. Social and Political Issues in the Stories of Charles Dickens....................................................56-61 Dr. Sheelu Singh Bhatia

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2


#1 #2

Dr. Shabbir A. Bashar, #2Mr. Rahat Azim Chowdhury

Professor (EEE) & Technical Staff at Nova - a Silicon, Dhaka, Bangladesh Junior Researcher, Research and Development Department, Genesis Technologies Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh #2





modern and the

networks such as Optical Gigabit Ethernet are also considered in the context of a megacity like Dhaka and other highly populated areas. With respect to economic benefits, the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on globalization, its ability to act as a global market maker for Bangladeshi products and its applications in electronic commerce, electronic government and telecommuting is discussed.



evolution of microwave radio, satellite systems and various optical fiber based networks as well as the economic benefits of having a reliable telecommunication network is presented in this paper.Based on the proven superiority of fiber-optics

combined with the shortfalls of and the complexities faced by the existing satellite systems due to particularly unfavorable regional climatic conditions in and around Bangladesh, the need to link that country to a global submarine optical fiber


Satellite, Optical

Microwave Fiber,

telecommunication system as the backbone of choice for bulk information transport is underscored. In addition, novel ways of realizing cost effective land based long haul fiber-optic communications networks which use existing electric power lines to suspend optical fiber cables is cited as a viable option. Various aspects of optical fiber based wide area and metropolitan area It is said that the transistor has done for mans brain in this Information Age what the steam engine did for his brawn in the Industrial Age. Hence, it comes as little surprise that we are faced with the technological ability to communicate 1. INTRODUCTION

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conveniently with anyone, anywhere and at any time in many different ways - voice, data, facsimile, e-mail, image and video and all this at an affordable cost judging by the mushrooming number of internet cafes at every corner. Thus modern society has effectively been reduced to a global village and information exchange has experienced an enormous explosion. However, it is also said that the biggest hurdle to the full deployment of this technology is posed by the worlds fragmented telecommunications networks especially in developing countries. The colossal growth in this market has forced scientists and engineers to address the issue of the ever-increasing demand.

In Bangladesh the bulk of international telecommunication traffic still relies on the geo-stationary satellite and terrestrial

microwave link system operated by the Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB).

Unfortunately, Bangladesh is well known for its monsoon rains and the annual floods. As seen from the satellite photograph in Figure 1, the flatness combined with the large number of rivers in Bangladesh makes it particularly prone to becoming water logged during the rainy seasons.

Despite system allowances for a large rain fade margin in this region, the handling capacity of the satellite links is reduced especially under adverse conditions. Also, floods (or any other water surface) can cause signal interference due to multi-path

propagation as it travels through the microwave radio links. However, these are only the minor problems for the countrys telecommunication system. The major

natural disasters such as cyclones, high Figure 1: Satellite (obtained photograph from of winds and tidal waves originating from the Bay of Bengal that cause substantial physical damage to the towers and other equipment are by far the most significant problems. The 1991 Page 2



available through NASA in the public domain.

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cyclones knocked over the microwave tower in Chittagong thereby effectively severing the countrys international link.

followed by the successful deployment of communication satellites a decade later.

Today Thus, while appraising the countrys






capabilities have been launched to serve almost all the countries of the World. Most communication satellites are in geo-

telecommunications system requirements, optical fiber technology makes a compelling case as a solution to Bangladeshs pressing needs. Short distance optical fiber links to handle dense traffic in intracity

stationary orbits (some 35,800 km above the Earths surface) and are able to see nearly one half of the Earth from this vantage point. To provide continuous coverage to any point on Earth, only three satellites in such an orbit are sufficient [1].

communication started being used in the mid 80s in the digital telephone networks. With a view to establishing a fully optical ISDN system to link the capital with other major cities,the government has implemented

However, signals are weakened about a hundred times after traveling these large link distances, thus necessitating the usage of

several major inter-city fiber links.










introduction in the


modulated for

A more pertinent problem, however, is the delay and echo often experienced in long distance phone calls that use these satellites. The accommodation of ever increasing traffic requires the usage for of higher satellite



communication between two distant points, this technology has gone of through a




However, these links were limited to distances within the line of sight (roughly 30 kilometers). Thus, the need for orbiting satellites to relay information over long distances was realized; pilot concepts



communications. Commercial satellites have been allocated 6 GHz and 4 GHz

frequencies for up-links and down-links respectively each with about 500 MHz bandwidth. Another band with 500 or 1000
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evolved in the early 1950s and were

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MHz bandwidth has been allocated near 12GHz for down-links with corresponding up-links at 14 GHz. A third band, which has substantial potential, is the 20/30 GHz band where a 2.5 GHz bandwidth has also been allocated.


Faced with the aforementioned fundamental shortfalls of a satellite-based system, real interest in optical communication was aroused with the invention of the laser in early 1960's. Proposals for using optical

Some of the fundamental limitations on the performance of satellite communication systems at frequencies greater than 10 GHz result from a strong interaction of radio waves with rain and ice in the lower atmosphere. demands Thus, system reliability these

fibers to avoid degradation of the optical signal while propagating were through the




simultaneously in 1966 [2]. Early systems exhibited high attenuation (1000 dB/km). Today, less than 40 years on, attenuation of less than 0.2 dB/km is easily achieved for a carrier wavelength of 1.55 m as shown in Figure 2.

detailed knowledge of

interactions. Rain attenuation dominates the power margin for systems operating above 10 GHz; hence multiple sites are required to meet high availability objectives. Also, in satellite communication systems the

capacity per beam is strongly affected by rain. For example, to provide the same quality of transmission during a rainy period, the capacity may have to be halved. Figure 2: Loss characteristics of a silica Finally, a substantial number of terrestrial relays (microwave radio links that operate only within line of sight distances) ar e required to transmit the information to the telecommunication network exchange that may be up to a few hundred kilometers away from the satellite ground station.

optical fiber showing the three wavelengths of interest. (After Miyaet al [3])

Thus the majority of the transmission and receiver systems are geared for operation at this wavelength.Unlike some of its

predecessors, fiber optics technology has

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many unrivaled advantages, some of which are listed below: 1. Enormous potential bandwidth: the optical carrier frequency in the range 10 to 13 Hz offers the potential for a fiber information carrying capacity that is many orders of magnitude in excess of that obtained using copper cable or wideband radio systems. This enables fibers to simultaneously carry voice, data, image and video signals.

5. Low transmission loss: with losses as low as 0.2 dB/km, this feature alone has become a major advantage of optical fiber as extremely wide repeater spacings (70 to 100km) may be used in long-haul

communication links. This in turn reduces both system cost and complexity.







maintenance: due to the low loss property, system reliability is generally enhanced in comparison to conventional electrical

2. Small size and weight: an optical fiber is often no wider than the diameter of a human hair; thus even after applying protective

conductor systems. Furthermore, reliability of optical components have predicted

lifetimes of 20 to 30 years. Combined, these factors tend to reduce maintenance time and costs.

layers, they are far smaller and much lighter than corresponding copper cables. This is a tremendous boon to alleviating duct

congestion in cities.

There are three major applications of fiber optic telecommunications each one

3. Immunity to interference and cross talk: they form a dielectric and are therefore free from electromagnetic interference.

corresponding to the three low fiberattenuation windows in Figure 2: long haul backbone networks (1.55m); metro area networks (1.3m) and local area optical

4. Signal security: as light from a fiber does not radiate significantly, a transmitted optical signal cannot be obtained noninvasively, thus ensuring a high degree of signal security.





systems based on optical fibers have now been widely implemented. These use digital transmission with pulse rates ranging from a few hundred Mbit/s to about 2Gbit/s. With the usage of single mode fibers since 1984, repeater spacing of up-to 40km or more is

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achieved. Furthermore, with rapid progress in time, the distinction between local, intracity and intercity systems is blurring.

second lowest fiber attenuation window) were laid under the Atlantic Ocean (TAT-8) and the Pacific Ocean (TPC-3) respectively. TAT-8 and TPC-3 have the capacity to

3.1. Sub-marine Optical Fiber Based Long Haul Backbones:

transmit data at a rate of 280 Mbit/s per fiber pair. Thus, these formed part of the so-called first generation digital lightwave systems

Underwater cables for communications have a relatively long history. The first

[4]. The second-generation cables (TAT-9 to TAT-11 and TPC-4), with enhanced

transatlantic cable was laid as early as 1858. It was used for telegraphy and transmitted less than a few words per minute! About a hundred years later in 1956, the first analog transatlantic telephone cable (TAT-1)

capabilities such

as 560 Mbit/s per fiber

pair and using a carrier wavelength of 1.55m (corresponding to the lowest fiber attenuation window), are now in operation. The third generation cables (TAT-12 and 13 and TPC-6) are now in their

became operational. It carried 36 voice channels. The analog TAT family grew with further development in telecommunications systems and the last such cable, TAT-7, carrying 4200 channels per co-ax cable was fully operational by

installation/operation stages; these have a capacity of 5 Gbit/s transmission rate per fiber pair employing the first fully optical regeneration techniques in the repeaters. They also use dispersion shifted fibers and carriers with a 1.55m wavelength.

1983. An increasing demand in the early 1980s for reliable intercontinental

telecommunication links resulted in many proposals to introduce fiber optic undersea cable systems.

By the end of that decade high capacity optical fiber cables using a carrier Figure 3: The global route taken by SEAME-WE-3 (Optical fiber cable system-3

wavelength of 1.31 m(corresponding to the

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connecting South East Asia, Middle East and Western Europe)

information storage, web-hosting, video on demand, and other IP-centric needs as well as bandwidth flexibility at a low cost. Each

The second and third generation cables have extended digital connectivity to the South Pacific, South East Asia and other points. Two of such global submarine cable networks that are in the vicinity of Bangladesh are the South East Asia, Middle East and Western Europe (SEA-MEWE) and the Fiber Link Around the Globe (FLAG) long haul backbones respectively. For example, Figure 3 shows the 39,000 km long route taken by SEA-ME-WE-3 cable network that was started in early 1997 and took two and a half years to complete. It is an SONET cable system that uses the latest wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology and provides the platform to launch innovative wideband services.

customer will have different capacity and quality of service requirements [5]. But the creation of new data services based on SONET infrastructure has suffered major impediments due to the inherent

inefficiencies of the latter: SONET has large fixed bandwidth granularity (1.5Mb/s, 50 Mb/s, 150 Mb/s, 600 Mb/s etc.,) leading to stranded capacity. Gigabit Ethernet or Optical Ethernet, on the other hand offers bandwidth in small granular increments (1 Mb/s).

This highly attractive feature of Gigabit Ethernet has led to the formation of Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) consisting of

component and system vendors, new and established telecommunication carriers with

3.2. Optical Metro Area Networks:

the aim to accelerate the adoption of optical Ethernet and making it the technology of

Sandwiched between optical local area networks and the long haul backbones, the optical Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is evolving at a tremendous rate. It is rapidly becoming a highly competitive market driven by the rise in demand for a broad range of data communication services such as remote applications, high volume

choice in the worlds metro area networks [6]. Another one of the key capabilities of this technology is that it is cost competitive in the 40-70 km range and therefore suited to MAN applications; it is eight times cheaper than either SONET or ATM. However, since Ethernet was not originally designed with carrier grade features in mind,
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one of its pitfalls is that it suffers from network reliability issues. Although optical Ethernet is now serving a niche market, it is continually improving thus making it a serious contender for the metro application.

looking to expand a network backbone, but that is starting to change. Even a decade ago, the carriers were generally deterred from using aerial rights of way due to lack of marketing by the utilities, shortcomings of the technology and an age old habit of

3.3. Fiber Optic Cables Installed on Overhead Power Transmission Lines:

burying cables. But between 1988 and 1995, MCI worked closely with various utilities to install more than 3,800 route km of aerial

Historically regional and international power transmission lines have required modern network automation and remote control systems. To achieve this, power utilities started very early to equip their lines with reliable telecommunications connections. With deregulated telecommunications,

optical ground wire (OPT-GW). Similarly, OPT -GW has been used on a significant segment of 3,500 route km of TransSiberian Communication line passing over Russias four large power utilities. Examples exist in Britain with Energis, a subsidiary of Scottish power utility, as well as in subSaharan African countries.

opportunities have been opened up for these power utilities to lease dark fibers or data transmission capacity or indeed to become telecom operators themselves. Fiber optic cable links are the foundation of such communication systems.

Aerial construction can be as much as 40% less expensive than going the underground route. In addition, overhead fiber cable installation tends to be much quicker than buried construction. Unlike buried solutions

Given their capacity to transport high bandwidth information over long distances and being immune to electromagnetic interference makes them an ideal candidate for installation on overhead electrical power transmission lines. Stringing fibers on poles along electric utilities has traditionally been the second or third choice for carriers

along railroad or public highways, electric utility right of way includes the unique advantage of having substation facilities approximately every 40 to 50 miles [7]. In a water logged country like Bangladesh, these are the reasons which make this technology a candidate for serious consideration for expanding the existing optical fiber network
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three international gateway switches (two at Moghbazar and one at Mahakhali adjacent to the satellite Earth Station) are installed.



The Talibabad station is connected to the international switch at Moghbazar through a single hop 6 GHz microwave link. The Sylhet Earth Station is to cater for the




international trunk service to Sylhet and adjoining areas. This satellite station is directly connected to the international gateway switch of British Telecom in UK.

Relying primarily upon the IO-Inmarsat synchronous orbit satellites located above the Indian Ocean, the geo-stationary

satellite/terrestrial microwave link network in Bangladesh that is solely used for international telecommunication consists of four ground stations: the first two are standard "A" stations located in Betbunia, about 40 km from Chittagong on the Chittagong-Rangamati highway and in In addition to these, there are two more international terrestrial links: the first is the microwave link from Chuadanga near Kushtia to Krishnanagar in India while the second is an UHF link from Attari near Dinajpur to Bhadrapur in Nepal.

Mohakhali, in Dhaka City; the third one is a standard "B" station at Talibabad, about 30 km north of Dhaka on the Dhaka 4.2. Optical Fiber Network: Establishment of fiber optic links in Bangladesh began in 1986, along with the installation of new digital switches. Starting with the optical fiber link between Dhakas Maghbazar and The microwave links carry the intra-country portion of the traffic. For instance, the Betbunia station is connected to Chittagong by a 2 GHz 140 Mb/s PDH Microwave; the international channels are then transmitted through a STM-16 Optical Fiber Gulshan telephone exchanges, all intra-city inter -exchange connections are now

Mymensigh highway While the fourth one,ofstandard"F",is in Sylhet.

established through short distance fiber optic links. The inter-city portions between the major cities started with the completion of the STM-16 fiber link between Dhaka to Chittagong in 2001 (STM is a standard of
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transmission system to Dhaka, where the

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This guarantees BTTBs free landing access in Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, India,

represents 155 Mb/s) . Bogra to Joypurhat to Ragpur and Dinajpur in the north west of Bangladesh is already connected by STM-4 optical link while Dhaka to Bogra optical fiber link via the Jamuna Bridge is currently under construction. In addition, there is a plan to connect Dhaka to Sylhet and Dhaka to Khulna on the optical fiber network. These are summarized in Figure 4.

Sri Lanka, Pakistan, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Italy and France.

4.3. VSATs Users: With the intention of accelerating the growth of internet, the government licensed the use of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) satellites for data-com use about a decade ago. There are now about 120 operators consisting mostly

Moreover, to cater for the increasing international traffic, Bangladesh, having missed out on a similar opportunity a decade ago, is finally joining the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable network consortium. The 10Gbs bandwidth of this network is expected to serve Bangladeshs needs for th e next 10 years and significantly reduce costs of international calls. This link, costing approximately US$60 million [8] will use Chittagong as the landing station.

of foreign organizations such as gas companies, institutions embassies and some and internet financial service

providers. These users are linked to internet hubs located in Singapore or Hong Kong via these links. The Bangladesh Telecom is




contemplating legalizing the use of Voice Over IP on these lines as a way to further alleviate the existing acute voice channel logjam.

4.4. Cellular Phone Networks: There are about half a dozen licensed private cellularphone network operators in Bangladesh. Most of these were established in





companies. Due to the lack of availability of Figure 2: Optical Fiber Network in landbased networks in The country,they serve a major part of the total telephone
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traffic in rural and remote parts of Bangladesh as well as business users in large cities. One of these operators has leased dark fibers from the Bangladesh Railway to serve as the backbone for their domestic mobile phone communication network.

less savory aspects of globalization so as to be able to negotiate a fairer deal. For example, the major contracts to lay fiber optic cables to establish sophisticated

exchange networks generate substantial business for manufacturers and suppliers in the developed world. In reality the global expansion of telecommunication and the



aid giving motives of rich

industrial nations transcends humanitarian The impact of globalization has been felt in all parts of our society. The Internet took only four years to reach 50 million users, compared to 13 years for television and 16 years for computers. International tourism doubled between 1980 and 1996, to 590 million travelers a year. International Communication Technology as a Global Market Maker motives to rather more subtle objectives that are motivated by self-interest This must and be



replaced with business ethics based on fair trade .

brands, sporting heroes and movie stars are recognized in the poorest countries and the most remote regions of the world whilst the plight of such regions is carried by satellite into the homes of the first world. In the finance and business sector, international bank lending grew 16 times in 20 years to $4.2 trillion in 1994 while Foreign Direct Investment expanded 20 times in 25 years, from $21.5 billion in 1972 to $400 billion in 1997.

Communication technology also serves as a Market economic missed maker. Given the intense nations, lack of


among due to


communications access will have more dire consequences in the future [10]. To be successful, Bangladesh as a developing country must be prepared to compete in a global economy in which production takes place around the world on a decentralized





and flexible basis. For example, a small business that serves a single niche market in
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Bangladesh also needs to be aware of the

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a developing country can increase its size by using communication technologies like the internet to identify similar niche markets in other countries. This means deploy that if

example from the developed world, in Californias Silicon Valley, academics,

business executives, government officials and private citizens are working together to build an advanced information




communication technologies in tandem with developed countries, they can also compete in the expanding global services market on a more equal basis. Deployment of a better communication system encourages catalytic social, economic and political interaction, which in turn stimulates further network development and deployment. Specific

infrastructure and the collective ability to use it. Many business applications are envisioned, including desktop

videoconferencing, rapid delivery of parts designs to fabrication shops, design of chips on remote supercomputers, electronic

commerce and telecommuting. Electronic commerce (e.g. on-line parts catalogues, multi-media mail, electronic payment and banking, brokering services, collaborative engineering) can dramatically reduce the time required to design, manufacture and market new products. Time to Market is a

examples for Bangladesh include the ReadyMade-Garments (RMG) industry as well as potential data-entry and other software related industries.

E-Commerce, Telecommuting



critical success factor in todays global and domestic marketplace.





When it comes to electronic government, the words of former US Vice President Al Gore have particular resonance, With computers and telecommunications, we need not do things as we have in the past. We can design a customer-driven electronic government that operates in ways that 10 years ago the most visionary planner could not have imagined. Moving from red-tape to results will require sweeping changes which would
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economy, in which capital and technology are increasingly mobile, the quality of a countrys information infrastructure will help determine whether companies invest there or elsewhere. Therefore countries like Bangladesh development need of to recognize that



infrastructure is key to creating jobs and attracting new businesses. To cite an

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

take time and need partnerships between local and central government, the ICT industry and other development agencies. These would involve putting customers first, empowering employees and reengineering how government agencies do their work. Specific ways in which e-government can improve the quality of government services include (a) a nationwide system to deliver government benefits electronically (e.g. retirement funds, ration cards etc.,), (b) develop integrated electronic access to government information and services, (c) establish a national law enforcement/public safety network and (d) provide governmentwide electronic mail to breakdown barriers to information flow.

vehicles, wider employment and work opportunities as well as access to work for people with specific difficulties such as those who need to be at home with young children/elderly relatives or those with disabilities. There are also significant cost savings to the individual given that in Bangladesh the cost of a trip to the city ranges between 2 to 8 times the cost of a phone call [11]. Of particular significance to businesses in Bangladesh is the resilience to face external disruption (e.g. hartals and natural offers. disasters) which telecommuting


A better ICT infrastructure has the potential Telecommuting is the ability to do ones office work from home or other remote location via audio/video phone or a to make a country (a) work smarter, (b) enjoy efficient - less costly - government, (c) be guided by a well informed population, (d) produce high quality jobs and

computer connected to the Internet; for example, a specialist doctor located in Dhaka can be easily consulted from a remote location via a phone. It offers significant benefits to employers,

educated citizens to fill them, (e) pave a road away from poverty and (f) promote life-long learning. Needless to say, ICTs are not a magic pill, nor an alternative to other development investments, but if applied in conjunction with other initiatives, they are a crucial enabling factor for

employees, self-employed individuals and entrepreneurs and in developing the local economy. Some of the social and economic benefits include reduced traffic congestion, reduced pollution from cars and other motor

development in Bangladesh.

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[1] D. Reudink, Advanced Concepts and Technologies Satellites in for Communications Advanced (Editor: K. Digital Feher;

[6] R. A. Skoog, Gigabit Ethernet: Is it a Disruptive Technology? Meeting IEEE/LEOS Conference Nov.



Proceedings, Vol. 1, pp. 287-288, 2001

Publisher: Prentice Hall, NJ, USA), 1987, Chapter 11.

[7] K. Brown, Advantages of Aerial [2] J. M. Senior, Optical Fiber Network Construction, Xchange Mag, Sept., 2000.

Communications, Principles and Practice, (Publisher: Prentice Hall International,

Hertfordshire,UK), 1992; 2nd Edition

[8] A. S. Khan, Sub-marine Cable Debate: Govts Belated But Correct Decision, The

[3] T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka and T. Miyashita, Ultimate Low Loss Single Mode Fiber at 1.55mm, Electronic Letters, Vol. 15, pp. 106-108, 1979

Daily Star, 2 September 2002.

[9] Y. Utsami, The Rise of the Information Society, speech at the UN General

Assembly, New York, 17-18 June, 2002. [4] P. K. Runge, Undersea Lightwave Systems, AT&T Technical Journal, Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 5-13, 1992 [10] D. L. Garcia, Opportunities for Developing Information [5] L. G. Kazovsky, K. Shrikhande, I. M. White, M. Rogge and D. Wonglumson, Optical Metropolitan Area Networks, IEEE Optical Fiber Communication [11] D. Richardson, R. Ramirez, M. Haq, Grameen Telecoms Village Phone University, Washington DC, 2002 Countries in the Global



Conference, pp. WU1-1 WU1-3, Mar. 2001

Programme in Rural Bangladesh: a MultiMedia.

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#1 #1

Mr. Manish Sharma

Assistant Professor (CSE), Dev Bhoomi Group of Institute, Saharanpur, UP, India #1


Here we investigate the problem of image processing based on stochastic resonance (SR) noise, where several novel frameworks for image enhancement are present there. Here, We develop a framework and

influence of the new model to the input signals. The result shows that the proposed model is effective for improving image quality with reasonable parameter.

algorithm to enhance the image using SR noise, where we add a suitable dose of noise into the original image data and obtain the performance improvement. The comparative experiments with a large number of images verify the efficiency of the presented approach.

KeywordsStochastic resonance-SR


In Digital world, Image is sampled into small unit called pixel. Digital image is represented and manipulated as matrices containing the light intensity or color

Here, we put forward a new piecewise hybrid system, and explore the methods for processing image data with the principle of stochastic resonance so as to improve the quality of images with noise. We focus on studying the influence caused by model parameters on the output histogram of the system, we put the periodic signal, image signal without noise and image signal with noise into the new stochastic resonance system respectively to find the changes and

information at each sampled point (pixel). Color image contains three planes [Red Green Blue]. The combinations of the intensities of RGB represent the color and intensity at each pixel. Therefore a color image can be represented by 3 dimensional matrices. Size = (no of rows X no of columns X 3 colors).

If f represents an image, x represents number of rows, y

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represents number of columns and z represents the RGB plane, then f(x, y, z) is used to represent intensity at position (x, y, z). If we use 8 bits to represent intensity of each color, then we can represent 28 intensities (levels), i.e. from 0 to 255 levels. Therefore the value of f(x, y, z) lies in between 0 to 255 (0 to L-1), where L represents number of levels.

processing of the image data before sending them to the original processing system. In our work, we propose a novel preprocessing approach to improve the system performance via stochastic resonance (SR) noise, where system performance is

improved by adding some suitable noise to the input image signal but the original image processing system is kept unchanged.





RESONANCE NOISE The objective of the paper is to give a new better, faster and efficient solution for removing the noise from the corrupted images. The main point under consideration is that the noise-free pixels must remain unchanged. The main focus will be on: Three types of SR noises are investigated here. They are Gaussian SR noise (GaSR), uniformly distributed SR noise (UnSR), and two peak SR noise (TwSR). The adjustable parameters of the GaSR and UnSR are means () and variances (2) Probability 1. Removal of the noise from the test image. 2. Noise free pixels must remain unchanged. 3. Edges must be preserved. 4. Improve the contrast. mass function (pmf) of TwSR has the form Pn-Twopeak(n)=(n-n1)+(1)(n-n2)


Basically, there exist two approaches to improve the performance of an image processing redesign of system. the One existing involves systems the or Fig 1: SR noise refined Image Enhancement System
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algorithms, while another involves the

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

Where and (1-) are the occurrence probabilities of the suitable constants n1and n2, 0<=<=1 . Its adjustable parameters are , n1and n2. The SR noise is introduced in the degraded image by point-wise addition.

brightness values in some neighborhood m x n and replaces the gray level with an average value. Smoothing or averaging operation blurs the image and does not preserve the edges. These are not used in removing noise spikes. For a 3 x 3neighborhood the convolution masks is used as


1 1 1

1 1 1

1 1 1

When the images are transmitted over channels, they are corrupted with impulse noise due to noisy channels. This impulse noise consists of large positive and negative spikes. The positive spikes have values much larger than the background and thus they appear as bright spots, while the negative spikes have values smaller than the background and they appear as darker spots. Both the spots for the positive and negative spikes are visible to the human eye. Also, Gaussian type of noise affects the image. Thus, filtering for both impulse noise and Gaussian noise is required before processing. There are lots of classical and fuzzy filters in the literature to remove noise. The classical filter are the mean filter, the weighted filter, the adaptive weighted filter, the adaptive Wiener filter, the Gaussian filter, the median filter, the adaptive median filter, and the extended mean filter.

Adaptive weighted mean filter is similar to mean filter where the gray level is replaced by a weighted average of the gray values. Weights are calculated from the gray-level difference. If this difference exceeds a certain threshold, then the pixel is a noise pixel. Adaptive Weiner filter replaces the center value of the pixel by sum of the local mean value and a fraction of contrast, where this fraction depends on the local estimation of the variance .


A. Motivation: Many techniques of contrast enhancement have been listed in literature but most of them manipulate the spatial domain pixel values. Spatial domain

techniques include point to point mapping of The mean filter or the average filter helps in smoothing operations. It suppresses the noise that is smaller in size or any other small fluctuations in the image. It involves in calculating the average

pixel values between the original and the enhanced images (contrast stretching), mask processing, histogram equalization etc.

Since most of the spatial domain coefficients

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of an image have non-zero values the total number of computations to be performed is directly related to the image size. However, in portable devices energy consumption is a key issue and reducing the number of computations at the algorithmic level will result in substantial energy savings. Many images are compressed using the JPEG standard which uses Discrete Cosine


Enhancement based on a contrast

measure defined in the DCT domain. 3. The algorithm proposed in was

implemented in this project since it has a wide application domain (JPEG and MPEG use DCT) and it is energy efficient. Many advanced post-filtering techniques exist to remove blocking artifacts in JPEG images. 4. A selective enhancement technique is

Transform (DCT) for image compression. Manipulating data in the DCT domain is an energy efficient image enhancement

used in this project to counter the side effects of contrast enhancement using minimum resources.

technique since a large number of DCT coefficients are 0.

6. OUR APPROACH TO SOLVE THE B Background work and State of Art techniques: Enhancement methods for contrast improvement range from simple contrast stretch techniques to filtering and image transforms. The most common technique includes global histogram Stochastic Resonance - An Outline: The term stochastic resonance (SR) is given to a phenomenon that appears in non-linear systems whereby the addition of noise to a system enhances its performance. The effect requires three basic ingredients: a form of threshold, a source of noise and generally a week or sub-threshold input signal. It is fundamentally a threshold phenomenon. The deterministic transition of the signal either to high (one) or low (zero) depends on the value of threshold. Threshold is taken as the 1. Minimum mean brightness error bihistogram equalization.


equalization and histogram specification which try to make the histogram of an image uniform over all intensity levels or follow a specific pattern. A number of variants of the above have come up recently which include dynamic histogram specification.

mean of the noise added input noisy image. It is used to quantize the signals. For
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Copy the input matrix into the pre-

satisfied, it is necessary that the amplitude of the signal or the intensity of an image must be less than the threshold so that no transition of signal can take place in the presence of the signal alone. When noise is added, some of the pixels of an image increase and becomes greater than the threshold D value. So the required condition for transition of signal is . [(x,y)+x(t) D] where x( t) is the Gaussian white noise.

allocated matrix. 4. Form a window matrix of size 3 by 3 with the elements of input matrix

5. Copy the window matrix (3 by 3) into an array and sort it. 6. Find the median element. Here 5th element(the total element are 9.The middle element will be 5). 7. Place the 5th element into the output

matrix .Do the procedure for the complete input matrix.

where A0 is the signal amplitude and . is the modulation frequency. Here, we assume that the noise (t) is zero mean, Gaussian white noise with an autocorrelation function given by [(t)(0)]=2D(t).V(x) V(x)=-(a/2)x2+(b/4)x4 The potential minimas are located at with .The V=(a2/2b). height of the denotes a

8. Convert the image into an Image of 0 255 color range type. 9. Display the image without noise.

Algorithm for noise addition: Consider an array of N noisy images, subject to the same continuously valued input noisy signal, I(x,y). The ith (i = 1::::: N) device is subject to independent continuously valued additive noise x. The output image (noise added in noisy image) from noisy image I(x,y), is white if the sum of the input noisy signal

symmetric bistable potential

potential barrier between the two minima is


and the added noise is greater than the threshold D and otherwise it is zero. The

2D Median Filtering: 1. Input a 2D image(m by n) 2. Pre-allocate another matrix of size(m+2 by n+2) with zeros

outputs after thresholding, are summed and averaged to give the overall output signal. Hence IR(x,y) is a discrete signal taking on integer values from zero to 255. The SSR method totally depends on the number of

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noisy frames added to the input image. Thus the output of the image after noise addition and thresholding is Inwt(x,y). Step-1 Noisy image I(x,y) is taken as the input image. Step-2 Gaussian noise of different standard deviation I, 1<=i<=N is added to the

individual pixel of the noisy image. Step-3 Each and every pixel of the noise added input noisy image I ni(x, y)=I(x, y)+,(for all 1<=i<=N) get thresholds using threshold value given below.
M N I M* N



Fig 1 (a) Image with Gaussian noise density(0.00025) , (b) Image after noise removal.

i =
X= 0 Y= 0

Above first image is noisy image in which we add additional noise and after that we use medfilt2() on our first image.

Step-4 All threshold images are summed and averaged to get the final de-noised image.


Testing is done to make sure the generated output of the proposed idea, is according to the requirements. So we test our

implemented concept in which we use different density parameter for the image

[A] Testng in gray pixel images: (a) Fig 2 Histogram for fig 1 Page 20


International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

Above Histogram shows that how noisy image is converted into cleared image (a) shows a noisy image histogram (b) shows a cleared image histogram.


We have presented here the image denoising of noisy image using stochastic resonance. Noisy image is taken as the input

[B] Testing in RGB(colored) images:

signal. The output response image contains better image information. We can see from figures that if the input signal is binary image, results becomes more satisfactory than the gray scale image. Results of our proposed method are prelim and need quite improvement as compared to other existing techniques. However, it gives good results for binary image. Although this area is seemingly motivated to address different



aspects of image processing applications, yet stochastic resonance can be used in future for many practical applications.

Fig 3 RGB images with (a) dirty(noisy) pixels in which we add Gaussian noise with density(0.0050). (b) Cleared image after noise removal.

In the gray pixel image we already easily see that the histogram for the input image contains the noise after adding user defined noise like Gaussian noise into the input image and use of the filtering we remove the noise from our input image and make a correct noise free image.


Fig 4- MatLab Plateform that shows how this reads image pixel information.

In our experiments, we investigated the effect of SR noise on different distortion

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situations, such as image noise reduction showed some of the results in this dissertation. The very encouraging results indicate that we may achieve significant performance improvement when applying the presented SR noise refinement scheme to other enhancement and restoration methods, such as super-resolution. Moreover, the extension to video enhancement may also be very promising. In this dissertation, we introduced independent SR noise in the image, but the performance may be further improved if correlated SR noise is

Engineering, University of Pune, Pimpri Chinchwad Pune, College of

Engineering, special issue.


2) A Hybrid Method for Enhancement of Plant Leaf Recognition volume 2011 3) International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics -

Volume 2, Number 1, 2010 Review on Image Enhancement Methods of Old Manuscript with Damaged

Background. 4) A Hybrid Image Enhancement

employed. An investigation on other types of SR noises will be a very interesting topic to improve the quality of the enhanced image. Future research on ameliorating the weighting scheme may also improve the enhancement performance. Finally, the SR noise-refined image enhancement scheme may also be useful in color images, which could be an excellent extension of our work to more real world applications.

Technique for Noisy Dim Images Using Curvelet and Morphology Muthu Selvi1 Roselin2 and

Dr.Kavitha3 vol-2010. 5) A Comprehensive Review of Image Enhancement Techniques VOLUME 2, ISSUE 3, MARCH 2010. 6) Research on Artificial Target Image Matching Zhanli Li, Yue Xi College of Computer Science & Technology


Xian University of Science and Technology Xian, 710054, China

1) Image Enhancement Techniques for Improving the Quality of Colour and Gray scale Medical Images Mrs. Preethi S.J #1, Prof. K. Rajeswari#2 # Department of Computer; m.IEEE 2009. 7) Research on Fusion Algorithm

Based on Wavelet Transformation in SAR Image Identification Jun2011.

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8) Image Enahancement by Fusion Countourlet Transform, International Journals vol-2010. 9) Stochastic resonance Luca

Gammaitoni Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita` di Perugia, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare,

Sezione di Perugia, VIRGO-Project, I-06100 Perugia, Italy

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International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2


#1 #2

Mr. Varun Sirohi, #2Mr. Anshul Sharma

Research Scholars (CSE), Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, UP, India Assistant Professor (CSE), Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, UP, India #1 ,


In recent years, periodic patterns are gaining much importance, so various periodicity detection algorithms were developed. Time series database is a collection of data gathered at certain intervals to reflect certain behaviour of an entity. By analysing time series database we can find how frequent a particular pattern is present and the number of occurrences can be counted. Temporal regularity of a pattern can be found using periodic pattern mining technique. Periodic pattern mining can be used to find periodicity of many real life problems and can be used for prediction. Various are

databases. It is a computational process which can be used to discover patterns from large datasets and can be from any area. The mining technique can convert the extracted data to understandable format. Data mining task can be either automatic or semiautomatic. This technique helps in extracting previously unknown interesting patterns, unusual behaviour and other dependencies. Several data mining techniques are available and are emerging today.

In this paper we deal various periodicity detection in time series database. Time series database is a collection of data gathered at regular intervals of time. The data will be a sequence of data values which

periodicity compared.







were measured and marked at proper intervals of time. Generally time series data will have a natural temporal ordering.

detection, Periodic pattern mining


Different types of periodicity like symbol, sequence and segment periodicity can be

Data mining is the process of extracting knowledge or patterns from very large

determined. Periodicity detection is useful in making various predictions. Based on the

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type of periodicity the behaviour of the patterns can be understood. Partial

et al., [1] proposed efficient periodicity mining in time series databases using suffix tree. Time series database is a collection of data values stored at uniform interval of time. Periodicity of several real life time

periodicity can be detected from a portion of time series database [8].

This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 includes key concepts in this paper; section 3 gives related works, section 4 gives conclusion and section 5 gives references.

series databases like weather conditions, stock growth, power consumption etc. can be found. Periodicity detection algorithm is used for detecting temporal regularities within the time series. This algorithm works


well even in the presence of noise. The objective of time series database analysis is

The periodicity detection algorithms are compared on the following metrics and are given as follows: 1. Complexity in computation. 2. Performance in presence of noise. 3. Patterns of users interest.

to find the periodic patterns present in the dataset. Three different types of periodicity can be detected in this analysis: they are symbol, sequence and segmentperiodicity. This paper works accurately on both synthetic and real data sets. In this paper, STNR as a suffix-tree based algorithm is

Periodicity detection is used to find whether the given pattern is periodic in nature. It searches for temporal regularity. The various algorithms used for periodicity

used to detect periodicity in time series data. STNR is a noise-resilient algorithm. The worst case time complexity is O (kn2).

determination in time series database are given as follows.

2. Efficient method for de-duplication and periodicity mining in time series

databases: Drishya et al., [2] proposed 3. PERIODCITY DETECTION efficient method for de-duplication and periodicity mining in time series databases. In this paper, an algorithm which can detect 1. Efficient periodicity mining in time series databases using suffix tree: Rasheed


symbol, sequence and segment periodicity which works well in presence of noise is
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explained. Noise may be due to replacement, insertion, deletion or a combination of these. Two phases are involved in periodicity detection algorithm: (i) build the suffix tree for time series database and (ii) periodicity of time series database is calculated. To find periodicity the difference between two characters are determined. In presence of noise, a time tolerant concept is introduced. Redundant periods are handled by pruning approach.

WARP is it requires more processing time, than other periodicity detection algorithms.

4.Mining partially periodic event patterns with unknown periods: Sheng Ma et al., [4] proposed mining partially periodic event patterns with unknown periods proposed an algorithm to find the period using ChiSquared test to test in the presence of noise. Two other algorithms are used to discover ppatterns which are based on periods or associations and tradeoff between these two

3.WARP: Time Warping for Periodicity Detection: Elfeky et al., [3] proposed a Time Warping for Periodicity Detection (WARP). In this paper, a time warping

are studied. The effectiveness of this algorithm gets reduced immediately when the noise-to-signal ratio exceeds 1. The robustness can be increased by considering n-order inter-arrivals.

algorithm which can detect periodicity in the presence of noise is explained. To efficiently handle different types of noise, WARP can be extended or shrinked on the time axis at various locations and this helps in removing the noise efficiently. Another important achievement is that an online version of WARP that fits the data stream model is also developed by them. A study on this algorithm shows that there is a tradeoff between noise resiliency and time

5. Periodicity detection method for smallsample time series data sets: Daisuke Tominaga [5] proposed periodicity detection method for small-sample time series

datasets. This paper explains the periodic behaviour of gene expression under the influence of signal pathways. It also represents a model which incorporates noise and harmonics. Two conventional methods are used in periodicity detection. One is Quantile method, in this DFT is applied and power of harmonic is determined. Quantile points and IQR are calculated. These are

performance. Advantage of WARP is that it is more noise resilient,accurate even under low memory resources. But disadvantage of

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then compared with outlier bound. If the power is a large value when compared with the outlier bound then we can conclude that the given time series database is a periodic one. Dixons Q test is used for outlier detection and it ignores redundant data. The critical is found out. The computational cost of these test increases as the data length increases.

that this is more effective for partial periodic patterns.

7. Effective periodic pattern mining in time series database: Nishi et al., [7] proposed an effective periodic pattern mining in time series database. The goal of this paper is to find the periodicity of the patterns in time series database. The user can generate patterns of users interest by

6. Periodicity detection in time series databases: Elfeky et al., [6] proposed an efficient algorithm for detecting various types of periodicity. In this paper two types of periodicities for time series databases has been defined. The periodicity of the symbols or single characters in the time series is called as symbol periodicity. If the entire segment is periodic, then it is called as segment algorithm periodicity. is scalable, The proposed

skipping intermediate or dont care events. Algorithm can detect different types of periodicity i.e. symbol, sequence and

segment periodicity. The processes involved in this are: discretization, mining process and joining of two patterns. Confidence function is calculated to filter the patterns according to the users preference. The parameters controlled are: alphabet size, data size and period size. Maximum event skipping threshold plays an important role to skip the events. The experimental results explains that this algorithm can be used for real life time datasets. This algorithm can be used to find periodicity of real life data like road transport survey, weather prediction, stock market predictions etc. by skipping unwanted or dont care events which are of less interest or of no interest. This algorithm is best to find periodicity and is userfriendly and user can interactively mine
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efficient algorithm for detecting each type of periodicity. The computational time

complexity is O(nlogn), for a time series database of length n. When compared with symbol periodicity, segment periodicity detection takes less time for execution but symbol periodicity can detect more periods. An important fact on this algorithm is that for symbol periodicity iterations are not possible. A study on this algorithm reveals

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2 mining in time series database.

patterns of users interest which works well in presence of noise. Effective periodic pattern mining in time series database.

Table 1 Comparison of performance metrics




High computational complexity

Performanc e

User interested patterns

Pattern mining is an important way of mining the interested pattern. Periodicity of the mined pattern can be can be determined by using various periodicity detection algorithms. Different periodicity detection algorithms are compared and it is concluded that effective periodic pattern mining is the best among them. As this algorithm is fast and can generate patterns in which the users are interested.

Efficient periodicity mining in time series databases using suffix tree

Efficient method for deduplication and periodicity mining in time series databases. Time for Warping Periodicity


Detection (WARP) Mining partially periodic patterns unknown periods Periodicity detection method small-sample time series data sets Periodicity detection time databases Effective periodic pattern in series for event with

[1] Faraz Rasheed, Mohammed Alshalalfa, and RedaAlhajj, Efficient periodicity

mining in time series databases using suffix tree, 2011.

[2] S. Drishya, I. Nancy Jeba Jingle, Efficient method for de-duplication and periodicity mining in time series databases, 2012.

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[3] M.G. Elfeky, W.G. Aref, and A.K. Elmagarmid, WARP: Time Warping for Periodicity Detection, 2005.







Hawthorne, Hellerstein. J. L, Mining partially periodic event patterns with

unknown periods, 2001.

[5] Daisuke Tominaga Periodicity detection method for small-sample time series data sets, 2010.

[6] Mohamed G. Elfeky, Walid G. Aref, Ahmed K. Elmagarmid, Periodicity

detection in time series databases, 2005.





Farhan Ahmed, Md. Samiullah, ByeongSooJeong Effective periodic pattern mining in time series database, 2012.

[8] Chang Sheng Wynne Hsu Mong Li Lee, Mining Dense Periodic Patterns in Time Series Data,2006.

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Mr. Anubhaw Upadhyay , #2Mr.Prashant Kumar

#1, 2

Assistant Professor (CSE), BCET, Dehradun, India,


This latest Technology LI-FI describes transmission of data through illumination taking the fibre out of fibre optic by sending data through an LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow. Its the same idea band behind infrared remote controls but far more powerful. Harald Haas says his invention, which he calls D- LIGHT, can produce data rates faster than 10 megabits per second, which is speedier than your average broadband connection. He envisions a future where data for laptops, smart phones, and tablets is transmitted through the light in a room. And security would be snap if you cant see the light, you cant access the data.

associated with refractory metal electrodes. The results are projection-display

applications that have long stable lifetimes (without re-lamping) plus wide color

gametes and fast start times. This article outlines the basic high-intensity-discharge (HID) physics and chemistry that enable high-brightness wall-stabilized plasma

sources with excellent colour rendition in fused-silica envelopes. The LIFI technology has opened the door to structurally reliable plasma light sources without the degradation mechanisms related to conventional lamp electrodes. It has also enabled a much-improved light-source

chromaticity not limited to the high-pressure 1. INTRODUCTION mercury or high-pressure xenon spectrum. This new light-source technology enables A new light source developed for projection displays utilizing radio-frequency (rf) the use of high-efficacy metal halides in high-brightness electrode-less lamps in

electrode-less plasma technology makes possible low-tendue light sources utilizing metal halides without the adverse chemistry

compact arc applications. The result is a lamp operating at 170 W that delivers 5500 lm into an tendue of 27 mm2-sr.

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It was observed that the data can be transmitted through LED light. If there will be an LED, there will be data. Whether you are using wireless internet in a coffee shop or trying to steal it from the guy next door or competing for bandwidth at a conference, you have probably gotten frustrated at the slow speeds you face when more than one device is tapped into the network. As more and more people increases then speed of network gets decrease. What if the speed

He envisions a future where data for laptops, smart phones, and tablets is transmitted through the light in a room. And security would be snap- if you cant see the light, you cant access the data. So in a near future you will see that the street lamps are transmitting data, the headlights of car will be also able to transmit data.


gets constant through the user increases in the place? Normally we transmit the data through EM waves in the sky, what we use the other part which is like? Data illumination. Through this technique has taken the optical part of fibre optics and sending data through light bulbs [1]. It was called D-light, can produce data rates faster than 10 megabits per second which is speedier than your average broadband connection.

LiFi is transmission of data through illumination by taking the fiber out of fiber optics by sending data through a LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can follow.Li-Fi is the term some have used to label the fast and cheap wireless-communication system, which is the optical version of Wi-Fi. The term was first used in this context by Harald Haas in his TED Global talk on Visible Light Communication. At the heart of this technology is a new generation of high brightness Harald light-emitting from the diodes, says


University of

Edinburgh, UK,Very simply, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if its off you transmit a 0,Haas says, They can be switched on and off very quickly, which gives nice opportunities for transmitted data.It is possible to encode data in the Fig. 1: Schematic of the electrode-less lamp. Page 31

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s.The LED intensity is modulated so rapidly that human eye cannot notice, so the output appears constant. More sophisticated techniques could dramatically increase VLC data rate. Terms at the University of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh are focusing on parallel data transmission using array of LEDs, where each LED transmits a different data stream. Other group are using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the light frequency encoding a different data channel.Li-Fi, as it has been dubbed, has already achieved blisteringly high speed in the lab. Researchers at the Heinrich Hertz Institute in Berlin, Germany have reached data rates of over 500 megabytes per second using a standard white-light LED.

exchange data using light of varying intensity given off from their screens, detectable at a distance of up to ten metres.


The LED bulb will hold a microchip that will do the job of processing the data. The light intensity can be manipulated to send data by tiny changes in amplitude. This technology uses visible spectrum of light, a part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is still not greatly utilized. In fact the technology transfers thousands of streams of data simultaneously, in parallel, in higher speed with the help of special modulation using unique signal processing technology.


This brilliant idea was first showcased by Harald Haas from University of Edinburgh, UK, in his TED Global talk on VLC. He explained, Very simple, if the LED is on, you transmit a digital 1, if its off you transmit a 0. The LEDs can be switched on and off very quickly, which gives nice Fig. 2: LI-FI environment The technology was demonstrated at the 2012 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas using a pair of Casio smart phones to

opportunities for transmitting data. So what you require at all are some LEDs and a controller that code data into those LEDs. We have to just vary the rate at which the
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LEDs flicker depending upon the data we want to encode. Further enhancements can be made in this method, like using an array of LEDs for parallel data transmission, or using mixtures of red, green and blue LEDs to alter the lights frequency with each

Fi. Light-emitting diodes can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect, causing the light source to appear to be on continuously.






frequency encoding a different data channel. Such advancements promise a theoretical speed of 10 Gbps meaning you can download a full high-definition film in just 30 seconds. Simply awesome! But blazingly fast data rates and depleting bandwidths worldwide are not the only reasons that give this technology an upper hand.

annoying, but has turned out to have its upside, being precisely what makes it possible to use light for wireless data transmission. Light-emitting diodes

(commonly referred to as LEDs and found in traffic and street lights, car brake lights, remote control units and countless other applications) can be switched on and off faster than the human eye can detect,

Since Li-Fi uses just the light, it can be used safely in aircrafts and hospitals that are prone to interference from radio waves. This can even work underwater where Wi-Fi fails completely, thereby throwing open endless opportunities for military operations.

causing the light source to appear to be on continuously, even though it is in fact 'flickering'. This invisible on-off activity enables a kind of data transmission using binary codes: switching on an LED is a logical '1', switching it off is a logical '0'. Information can therefore be encoded in the light by varying the rate at which the LEDs flicker on and off to give different strings of 1s and 0s. This method of using rapid pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly is technically referred to as Visible Light Communication (VLC), though its potential to compete with conventional Wi-Fi has inspired the popular characterisation Li-Fi. As WI-FI hotspot and cloud computing are
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Imagine only needing to hover under a street lamp to get public internet access, or downloading a movie from the lamp on your desk. There's a new technology on the block which could, quite literally as well as metaphorically, 'throw light on' how to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-speed wireless connectivity. Radio waves are replaced by light waves in a new method of data transmission which is being called

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

rapidly increasing reliable signal is bound to suffer. Speed and security are also major concerns. They are vulnerable to hackers as it penetrates through walls easily. LI-FI is said to overcome this. This new technology is comparable to infrared remote controls which send data through an LED light bulb that varies in intensity faster than the human eye can see. In near future we can see data for laptops, smart phones and tablets transmitted through the light in a room.

rate of the LED. To be clearer, by modulating the LED light with the data signal, the LED illumination can be used as a communication source. As the flickering rate is so fast, the LED output appears constant to the human eye. A data rate of greater than 100 Mbps is possible by using high speed LEDs with appropriate data multiplexing can be

techniques. VLC increased by



data transmission

using LED arrays where each LED transmits a different data stream. There are reasons

Li-Fi (Light Fidelity) is a fast and cheap optical version of Wi-Fi, the technology of which is based on Visible is a Light data

to prefer LED as the light source in VLC while a lot of other illumination devices like fluorescent lamp, incandescent bulb etc. are available .

Communication (VLC).VLC

communication medium, which uses visible light between 400 THz (780 nm) and 800 THz (375 nm) as optical carrier for data transmission and illumination. It uses fast pulses of light to transmit information wirelessly. The main component of this communication system is a high brightness white LED, Which acts as a communication source which and a silicon p h o t o d i o d e good response to visible


wavelength region serving as the receiving element? LED can be switched on and off to generate digital strings of 1s and 0s. Data can be encoded in the light to generate a new data stream by varying the flickering

Fig. 3 Data transmission using LI-FI

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semiconductor rapidly be






device LED light

bulb that

communication. It acquired this name due to the similarity to WI-FI, only using light instead of radio.WI-FI is great for general wireless coverage within buildings, and li-fi is ideal for high density wireless data coverage in confined area and for relieving radio interference issues, so the two technologies complimentary. can be considered

develops binary signals which can

manipulated to send data by tiny changes in amplitude. Using this innovative

technology 10000 to 20000 bits per second of data can be transmitted simultaneously in parallel using a unique and signal special

processing modulation.



The table also contains the current wireless technologies that can be used for

transferring data between devices today, i.e. Technology Speed Data Density Wireless(Current) WI-FI IEEE802.11n Bluetooth IrDA Wireless(Future) WiGig Giga-IR 2 Gbps 1 Gbps ** *** 6. APPLICATIONS OF LI-FI 3 Mbps 4 Mbps * *** 150Mbps * Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and IrDA. Only Wi-Fi

currently offers very high data rates. The IEEE 802.11.n in most implementations provides up to 150Mbit/s (in theory the standard can go to 600Mbit/s) although in practice you receive considerably less than this. Note that one out of three of these is an optical technology.

6.1 You Might Just Live Longer: For a long time, medical technology has lagged behind the rest of the wireless world. Operating rooms do not allow Wi-Fi over

Table 1. Comparison between current and future wireless technology

LI-FI is a term of one used to describe visible light communication technology

radiation concerns, and there is also that whole lack of dedicated spectrum. While
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Wi-Fi is in place in many hospitals, interference from cell phones and computers can block signals from monitoring

sensitive areas. Like those surrounding power plants. But power plants need fast, inter-connected data systems to monitor things like demand, grid integrity and (in nuclear plants) core temperature. The

equipment. Li-Fi solves both problems: lights are not only allowed in operating rooms, but tend to be the most glaring (pun intended) fixtures in the room. And, as Haas mentions in his TED Talk, Li-Fi has 10,000 times the spectrum of Wi-Fi, so maybe we can, I dunno, delegate red light to priority medical data. Code Red!

savings from proper monitoring at a single power plant can add up to hundreds of thousands of dollars. Li-Fi could offer safe, abundant connectivity for all areas of these sensitive locations. Not only would this save money related to currently implemented solutions, but the draw on a power plants

6.2 Airlines : Airline Wi-Fi. Ugh. Nothing says captive audience like having to pay for the "service" of dial-up speed Wi-Fi on the plane. And dont get me started on the pricing. The best Ive heard so far is that passengers will "soon" be offered a "highspeed like" connection on some airlines. United is planning on speeds as high as 9.8 Mbps per plane. Uh, I have twice that capacity in my living room. And at the same price as checking a bag, I expect it. Li-Fi could easily introduce that sort of speed to each seat's reading light. Ill be the guy WoWing next to you. Its better than listening to you tell me about your wildly successful son, maam.

own reserves could be lessened if they havent yet converted to LED lighting.

6.4 Undersea Awesomeness: Underwater ROVs, those favourite toys of treasure seekers and James Cameron, operate from large cables that supply their power and allow them to receive signals from their pilots above. ROVs work great, except when the tether isnt long enough to explore an area, or when it gets stuck on something. If their wires were cut and replaced with light say from a submerged, high-powered lamp then they would be much freer to explore. They could also use their headlamps to communicate with each other, processing data autonomously and referring findings

6.3 Smarter Power Plants: Wi-Fi and many other radiation types are bad for

periodically back to the surface, all the while obtaining their next batch of orders.
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6.5. It Could Keep You Informed and Save Lives: Say theres an earthquake in New York. Or a hurricane. Take your pick its a wacky city. The average New Yorker may not know what the protocols are for those kinds of disasters. Until they pass under a street light, that is. Remember, with Li-Fi, if theres light, youre online. Subway stations and tunnels, common dead zones for most emergency communications, pose no obstruction. Plus, in times less stressing cities could opt to provide cheap high-speed Web access to every street corner.


The possibilities are numerous and can be explored further.If this technology can be put into practical use, every bulb can be used something like a Wi-Fi hotspot to transmit wireless data and we will proceed toward the cleaner, greener, safer and brighter future.The concept of Li-Fi is currently attracting a great deal of interest not least because it may offer a genuine and very efficient alternative to radio-based wireless. As a growing number of people and their many devices access wireless







increasingly clogged, making it more and It Can be used in the places where it is difficult to lay the optical fiber like hospitals. In operation theatre LiFi can be used for modern medical instruments. In traffic signals LiFi can be used which will communicate with the LED lights of the cars and accident numbers can be decreased. Thousand and millions of street lamps can be transferred to LiFi lamps to transfer data. In aircraft LiFi can be used for data transmission. It can be used in petroleum or chemical plants where other transmission or frequencies could be hazardous. [1] [2] REFERENCES more difficult to get a reliable, high- speed signal. This may solve issues such as the shortage of radio-frequency bandwidth and also allow internet where traditional radio based wireless is not allowed such as aircraft or hospitals. One of the

shortcomings however is that it only work in direct line of sight.

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[3] t-is-lifi.html [4]technopits.blogspot.comtechnology.cgap. org/2012/01/11/a-lifi-world/ [5] [6] speed-of-light/ [7] [8] d/entries/Li-Fi.html.

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Mr. Dheerendra Pratap , #2Mr.Deepak Agarwal, #3Mr.Neeraj Kumar

#1, 2, 3

Assistant Professor (ME), SBCET, Jaipur, Rajstan, India #1


Materials are one of the areas that require very special concentration while creating a project's master plan as well as during the daily manufacturing & fabrication process. The absence of materials when needed is one of the main causes of loss of productivity at a jobsite. Inefficient





involved. This fragmentation builds gaps in information flow, which affects the

decision making process and lead to delays in material ordering and receiving, among other problems. The material manager wants to realize that decisions taken at one stage in the process will certainly impact other activities and processes in the supply chain, a problem not realized due to this fragmentation.

materials management can lead to an increase of 50% in work hours, financial losses and bad name to any industry . As a result, a detailed plan for the materials management of each Manufacturing

industry is necessary. A lot of material management solutions are available for big Manufacturing and fabrication industries, however same is not the case with small scale manufacturing Because of and contracting inherent

The framework developed is precious in two fundamental ways. First, the frame work identifies and describes all phases of materials management for an integrated, holistic view of all factors that affect the total cost of materials and material



characteristics of small scale industry.

shortages. The research created detailed mappings of the essential decisions,

Existing materials management practices in the small scale industries are performed on a fragmented basis with unstructured communication and no clearly established

decision models and data that are required to support supply-chain contractors activities throughout of a


project life cycle.

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International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

Second, the framework discriminates those steps in the materials management process that are straightforward applications of methods from those steps that are decisions. For these decisions, that are critical to the performance of the materials management process, the research introduces the concept of a decision model and describes how such models can be incorporated into an advanced materials management system. This phase of the research developed a structured systems design of distributed, integrated decision support systems for materials management of the electrical contractor. The research derives the most approving integration of people, decision processes, decision support systems and data that are required to support efficient and effective systems for acquisition, procurement, transport, storage and






parameters that need to be considered on the supply chain decision making process for the small scale electrical Industry.




Benefits, Cost Optimization, SCM.







management of a network of interconnected businesses concerned in the provision of product and service packages required by the end customers in a supply chain. Supply chain management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of source to point of consumption.

allocation of material in the construction industry.

Supply chain management may be defined in terms of the managerial decisions that produce and regulate the supply chain.

The development of SCFCS (Supply Chain Factor Categorization Scheme), is a major contribution of this study. SCFCS is a hierarchical structure for parameters for classifying

Amongst these decisions are sourcing, forecasting, batch sizing, safety-stock

setting, order timing and locating stock. During recent years, supply chain

material supply chain,

management (SCM) has appeared as a vitally significant aspect of the business viability of a small scale Industry.

specifically for the electrical Manufacturing & contracting industry. Up to the

development of SCFCS, there was no Page 40

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

Competitive advantage can be achieved through:Reducing shortages or that shunning delay material and





comprise dealing with suppliers, on site materials handling, storage, and handling of material surplus.


degrade the reputation of the industry 2. MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Reducing or shunning surplus material stock that is costly to store, transport and finance. Efficient and Stream-lined processes are required to remain competitive in today's marketplace. Material flow, distribution, Although material management logistics, purchasing and planning are all important factors for success and

tribulations extremely impact Big Players, they are more serious for specialty small scale industries The including majority electrical electrical

competitiveness. Inventory Solutions can help you by optimizing your material flow. Materials component comprise for any a major Industry. cost The


fabrication & manufacturing Companies are small in size. Therefore, they have to efficiently administer their materials to lower cost in order to remain in business. Owing to the risk that electrical contractors undertake in every construction job, they are constantly tracking their resources particularly their material. This tracking is useful to shun losing material due to theft, misplacement or damage, to productivity, and to compare improve actual

advantages of material management are as follows: Capturing materials requirement Determining source of supply by selecting vendors Creating and processing purchase orders Monitoring purchase orders Receiving goods in the warehouse Verifying accuracy and validity of purchase invoices against orders and goods received Post-invoice processing of sales tax forms and waybills

resource and labor usage against planned values. In addition, tracking permits

materials for identifying when materials need to be ordered, based on actual usage of materials on site and progress of the

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productivity, cash flow and reductions in inventory. The benefits identified by Bell and Stukhart are: Improved labor productivity Reduced Bulk Materials Surplus Reduced Manpower Improved Vendor Performance Other benefits Timely materials procurement Materials Management

The Construction Industry Institute (CII) created a materials management task force in the middle 1980s. This task force was comprised by owners, contractor people from the academy. and

The first

research conducted was to examine the attributes of a materials management system. Bell and Stukhart (1986) presented the attributes of a materials management system that they identified as part of a research work. The attributes identified were: Planning and communications,

results in reduced requirement for physical warehouse facilities Other benefits are those associated with timely material purchases

Some of the factors that might impact the benefits of a materials management system were also identified. Among these factors, inadequate training, inadequate, insecure, or poorly designed warehouse and laydown areas are included. Wong and Norman (2007) stated that benefits of implementing software

Material takeoff and engineering interface, Vendor Purchasing, Warehousing, distribution, Inquiry and and and Evaluation, Shipping, material and

Expediting receiving, Material


Computer Systems.

Bell and Stukhart (1986) completed another study to identify the costs and benefits of a materials stated that materials management system. They the development of some management systems that

materials packages in

planning the


industry include labor savings,stock reduction, purchase ordering time, when to schedule delivery. They identified the major costs such as acquisition cost, start-up costs and annual operating costs. Benefits
Page 42

combine takeoff, expediting, purchasing, and vendor can evaluation, produce among benefits other in


International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

identified include labor savings, stock savings, cost control savings, purchase savings, earnings






decision making process. A parameter could remain constant throughout the analysis or could be an

generated from extra contracts. Tuffour (1987) performed some research in materials management for construction He in developing the

uncontrollable variable. Uncontrollable variables refer to those parts of the decision that although having an effect in the decision taken, is not controlled by the decision maker; its values are given by factors external to the model.



following as benefits of a materials management system and these

include the following:Reduction in paper work,

coordination or cooperation among departments, improvement in

relations with suppliers, reduction in double handling of materials, assurance of materials availability, and increase in productivity at the job site. Warehousing Personnel Computer system development and application 5. COST OPTIMIZATION NOVEL BY USING 4. MODELING APPROACH DECISION
Figure1: Framework for Decision Models




the different

Materials management problems, highly impact small scale industry, but are more critical for specialty industries including small scale electrical industries The

courses of action that a decision maker could exercise for a particular decision node or possibilities from where the decision maker chooses. Parameters

electrical industry needs to establish an

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effective materials management system to minimize problems that might arise if the activities related to materials management are not handled properly. Among these problems, the following are encountered: material shortages, misplacements, loss, and theft, which might result in

In such a case, failure to effectively manage materials could result in decrease in profit or even a monetary loss. This chapter describes the supply chain

management related decisions considered in the study, a graphical description of the processes related to such decisions, which includes the parameters and

increases in crew idle times, loss of productivity and delay of activities.

alternatives for each decision.

Electrical industry should implement an efficient material management system due to the fact that in most of the cases they are asked to squeeze their bids in order to keep the costs of project under budget. 6. SCFCS: SUPPLY CHAIN FACTOR CATEGORIZATION SCHEME

Figure2: The SCFCS Model for Decision on How Much to Buy

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Figure2: SCFCS for What Material to Buy Decision

Figure 3: SCFCS for the Where to Deliver Decision

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Figure 4: SCFCS for the Where to Store on Site Decision

Figure 5: SCFCS for the When to Deliver Decision

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Figure 6: SCFCS for the When to Buy Decision







material management to avoid material shortages, misplacements, loss, and theft which might result in increases in crew idle times, loss of productivity and delay of activities. Small scale Electrical industry should implement an efficient material management system due to the fact that in most of the cases they are asked to squeeze their bids in order to keep the costs of project under budget. In such a case, failures to effectively manage materials could result in decreases in profit or
Page 47

management is crucial for the success of any small scale manufacturing &

fabrication project and can be the deciding factor between a successful project and a project full of delays and claims. Better material management methods and

decision models are needed to improve the electrical industry current practices, thus increasing efficiency and minimizing costs. An effective supply management system is essential for managing efficient

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

even a loss. The primary goal is to have the material needed, in the amounts needed, with the quality required, and the time that they are needed. Most electrical companies have a material management system that serves their






(1994), the


What is it, Charting

Course to the-Year 2000- Together!, A Landmark International Multidisciplinary Conference on Dispute Avoidance and


Resolution in the Construction Industry, Lexington, Kentucky October 16-l


Abdul-Malak, G.



N., and

9,1994.pp 124-131.



Purchasing for

PaymentsPolicies Construction Materials,


[6] Arnold, J.R. (2001), Introduction to


6 Construction

Materials Prentice-Hall,

Management, Englewood

6 Cliffs,

edition New

Congress, Germany, pp 574-583.

Jersey. pp 241-253 [2] Agapiou A., Clausen, L.E., Flanagan, R., Norman, G., Notman, D. (1998) The role of logistics in the materials flow control process, Materials and Economics, 351-361. Management

No. 16, pp 131-137,

[3] AIM Frequency


(1998) A

Radio Basic


Primer, AIM International, Pittsburgh, PA, pp 45-62.

[4] Ammer, Dean S. (1999) Materials


Management Ed,Richard Homewood,

and D. Illinois.


Irwin, Publication. pp 154-162,231Page 48

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2


Mr. Rahat Azim Chowdhury

Junior Researcher, Research and Development Department, Genesis Technologies Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh #1

ABSTRACT The project aims to develop various network utilities which are required to effectively monitor a LAN network.It aims to develop an integrated software solution that allows a network administrator to remotely monitor his LAN by his cell. In a concern, computers are grouped together to form a network to manage and control activities of network while in office is an easy task, but while you are outstation/away from office to monitor and controlling of network instead of depending on third party information you can always have your cell phone serve the purpose login anytime to application and see who is busy with what in the office. This project is to provide the maximum details about the network to the administrator on their mobile phone, when administrator when administrator is away from office/goes out station. Sitting at home you want to learn the LAN status. You can do so by storing this project in your cell phone and executing the same. In the era of project mobile devices, wireless devices are widely used and it has penetrated every part of our life,but remote monitoring of network through mobile device is still a mirage, this project is an effort to make this mirage a reality, and this is where the genesis of this of this project lies. Consider a LAN setup with the server machine connected to GSM service provider via a GSM modem. The interaction between the clients and the wireless media happens 1. INTRODUCTION through this server. A small text file residing any of the client or server machine can be Today the world is rapidly changing the statement We are in the world to world is Page 50

in our hand. The main aim our project is to control and monitor the network from our wireless handheld device i.e. cell phone from anywhere irrespective of distance. say you have a LAN setup at your setup at your office.

opened in your cell phone.

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2





1.7 NEW FILE: Create a new document in the cell phone and save the same in either the server or client machine.


1.1 NET VIEW: Get in your cell phone, the list of entire clients in LAN. Keep 1.8 SHUT DOWN: Shut down the client machine from mobile.

pinging every time to check the latest status of the PCs.

3. ARCHITECTURE OF PRAPOSED 1.2 PROCESS VIEW: Get the list of all processes running in the remote machine. Administrator sends his request through 1.3 ACTIVATE PROCESS: Activate through SMS using his phone via GSM modem to the server.Server then recognizes the client machine which administrator is supposed to monitor and extract data from 1.4 KILL PROCESS: Kill the desired processes in either the server or clients. locally cached data buffer where latest 15 sec data of every machine is updated or stored 1.4 READ: You can read the drives, folders, files of any of the client machines/ the server machine from cell. Administrator is provided with a GUI based application in J2ME to send command 1.5 OPEN FILE: A small text file residing in any of the client or the server machine can be opened in your cell phone. message instantly without the need to retype message every time. Server sends command to the clients like start process, shutdown process, kill process, create, delete, send 1.6 BROADCAST MESSAGES: task list, compile code. Through the GSM service provider the communication is done with the GSM modem which communicates with the server and the server communicates with the client. All clients are controlled and Page 51


different processes in either the server machine or any of the clients.







administrator as response.

Broadcast messages to clients, server from cell.

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

monitored by administrator via a series of SMS.

monitoring using GSM technology can be used in offices, malls as well as college or university level.

The administrator controls the LAN through his mobile even he is at the remote place. The clients cannot to the send back or the



communication is unidirectional it is not two way.The mobile used can be any mobile having GSM facility in it. Also the administrator can check the network load on the LAN by typing only a command. In this also serial USB interface and set of commands is used for administrator to communicate to clients. Fig.1: Architecture of mobile(GSM) Based LAN monitoring and control.

The efforts that have been made regarding developing a LAN monitoring system are increasing every day. But a lot of them are still in their initial stages. One of the softwares that are available inthe market is ActiveXperts SMS Messaging Server but it has quite different application from our project. Active SMS messaging server is windows based software package that enables you to send, receive and process SMS and email messages.


From the block diagram of proposed system we see that from mobile SMS is send to server through GSM modem. In SMS there is mobile number of the user, client name and operations to be perform on the client. That SMS is send to server then server recognizes the client from all clients.

By using SMS parser we recognize the SMS User can use his/her mobile phone to query a database in his computer via SMS.LAN fully, by process builder class we perform that process on that client.

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Then after completion of that requested operation n the client, client send the response to the server. Then server send response to the administrator through GSM modem again SMS parsing is used to send SMS to administrator that specify that operations on the client is performed.

1. SERVLET: By using servlet in these system we communicate with client and server.

2. NET BEANS: For better programming we use net beans for designing this system.

3. PROCESS BUILDER: There is no any database maintained there is only one temporary database or we can say file.Through database we get the data we needed. There is many clients connected to server all clients have name given to it. Below we see the block diagram of GSM based LAN monitoring.

This class is

used in this system which is very important to create operating system processes.

4. ABSTRACT WINDOW TOOLKIT: This is javas toolkit used for wi ndowing ,graphics and user interface creation for this system.

5. J2EE:

It is collection of java

programming APIs used for java platform programs. It is used to program this system.

6. APPLICATIONS OF PROPOSED SYSTEM Fig 2: Block diagram of proposed system

1. LAN monitoring at the university/college level can be used for monitoring, logging IN




and retention of network packets that traverse university networks. The goal of this project is to maintain confidentiality,


In GSM Based LAN monitoring system we use technology like

integrity and availability of the university network assets. infrastructure and information

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2. LAN monitoring at the office level can be used to monitor the office LAN by the administrator at any time if at a particular point he/she cannot be present there. He/she does not have to depend on any third party information regarding the LAN and can instead check the LAN status himself using his mobile.






Biomedicine, vol.5, no. 1, pp. 1315, March. 2001.

[2] Jinwook C., Sooyoung Y., Heekyong P., and Jonghoon C, MobileMed: A PDA-based mobile clinical information system, IEEE Trans. on Information Technology in

Biomedicine, vol. 10, no.3, July 2006. 3. LAN monitoring at the malls is used to monitor all information of malls by [3] Md.Asdaque Hussain and Kyung Sup Kwak, Positioning in Wireless Body Area Network using GSM, IEEE trans. On International Journal of Digital Content 7. CONCLUSION Technology and its Applications Vol 3, Number 3, September 2009. This paper explains the basics of GSM based LAN monitoring.SMS remains the most efficient communication system for pushing the content on to the mobile devices. The software developed is a server based software application that provides ability to send and receive SMS messages through GSM network and communicates through standard TCP/IP protocol. [5] Collesei, S., Di Tria, P., Morena, G. Short Message service based applications in the GSM network, 5th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile REFERENCE Radio Communications, 1994. [4] Peersman, G., Cvetkovic, S., The Global System for mobile Communications Short Message Service, IEEE Personal

administrator at any time

if at particular

time he/she cannot be present there.

Communications, , June 2000

[1] B. Woodward, R. S. H. Istepanian, and C. I. Richards, Design of a telemedicine system using a mobile telephone, IEEE

[6] Coskun and H. Ardam, A Remote Controller for Home and Office Appliances

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by Telephone, IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. , vol. 44, no. 4, November 1998.

[7] Daldal Nihat, GSM Based Security and Control System, M.Sc. Term Project, Gazi University, Ankara, 2003.

[8] Ren Fengyuan, Huang Haining, Lin Chuang, Wireless sensor network, Journal of Software,Vol. 14, No. 7, March, 2003.

[9] Hegering ,Heinz-Gerd, Sebastian Abeck, Bernhard Neumair , Integrated Management of Networked Systems:concepts, Application



Networking (Morgan Kaufmann, 1999).

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Dr. Sheelu Singh Bhatia

Assistant Professor, Jazan University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, India #1

Charles Dickens novels and short stories basically deal with the social and the political issues of the Victorian age. They are related to the problems of the people during the reign of Queen Victoria and some of his novels are inspired by the personal life of Charles dickens.

Through this story, Dickens perhaps wanted to highlight the excessiveness of antisocial element presents in the society. They are so prominent in the society that they cover all the evils with their forcefulness. They think that money is the supreme power in todays life and they can get everything with money. Dr. Alexander Manette MS, was called to

Dr. Manettes MS., is one of the tragic stories written in melancholy in doleful cell in the Bastille, during the last month of the year, which is an extracted piece of A Tale Of Two Cities. Dickens himself writes in his story,

attend two patients, a young peasant of seventeen years and his beautiful sister. Both of them were near to the last moment of their lives. Dr. Manette talk to them and was surprised to see their critical conditions. He describes the critical condition of the lady,

These words are formed by the rusty iron point with which I write with difficulty in scrapings of soot and charcoal from the chimney, mixed with blood, in the last month of the tenth year of my captivity. And that I write the truth as I shall answer for these my last recorded words, whether they be ever read by men or not, at the Eternal Judgment seat. Dr. Manette found this lady in a high brain fever. She lost her consciousness and constantly uttered piercing shrieks. She Page 56

The patient was a woman of great beauty, and young; assuredly not much past twenty. Her hair was torn and ragged, and her arms were bound to her sides with sashes and handkerchiefs.

International Journal of Research Fellow for Engineering Volume 2, Issue 2

repeated the words, my husband, my father and my mother and then counted up to twelve and said Hush , and cried in high fever. Her brother, the young peasant lay on some hay on the ground, who was dying of a wound from a sharp point by a sword thrust. The two rich gentlemen behave very rudely to them, call them their dogs and treat them as their slaves. Both the brother and sister died. When the doctor tried to write about the secrets of those gentlemen, they tied him and torn the letter,

the riches, wherever they work. No one was there to help the poor. The story also tells us the social injustice prevailed in the society of that age.

The Bagmans Story, is one of the imaginative stories of Dickens which shows the extent of his imagination level. In this story, he tries to escape from the reality. Through this story, he tries to show his repressed desires which could not be fulfilled in his real life. He imagines himself as an experienced Bagman, who is going on

It brought me here; it brought me to my grave. When I was clear of the house, a black muffler was drawn tightly over my mouth from behind and my arms were pinioned. The two brothers crossed the road from a dark corner, and identified me with a single gesture. The Marquis took from his pocket the letter I had written, showed it to me, burnt it in the light of a lantern that was held and extinguished the ashes with his foot. Not a word was spoken, I was brought here, I was brought to my living grave.

his journey in his gig, with a clay colored body and red wheels, and the vixens, ill tempered, fast going bay mare. As Hugh Walker rightly says,

What Dickens gives us is not the bare hard fact, but the fact suffused with the glow of a rich imagination.

There is hunger for love in his personal life, his beloved get unable to accept his marriage, thats why through his

imagination, he tries to satisfy his inner self. This story clearly shows that during the Victorian Era, how the riches use to behave with the poor people. For the riches, the poor people were always like a slave. The poor were highly exploited by the hands of

In this story, he was going on his journey, on the way, he stopped and highly infatuated towards an unknown lady who was a widow. That night, he saw the dream about widow, a chair at once change into an ugly old man,
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who started talking to him and told him the easy way to get married with the widow. But the widow was already engaged with a tall man which irritated him. He wanted to marry the widow and with the help of an ugly man, he succeeds in marrying the widow and thus fulfilled his hunger of love.

this story Dickens expresses his own repressed childhood desires. The story is based on the childs psychology. He was very fond of books in his childhood but due to circumstances he was unable to get complete education. He received the

rudiments of education from his mother. He himself says, I know how all these things

Dickens another story is The Poor Relations Story which is one of the autobiographical stories of Dickens.

have worked together make me what I am, I never can forget, that my mother was warm for my being sent back. These words

Through this story, he shows his dejection in life. The central character, Michael was very disappointed and unsatisfied with his life. Throughout his life, whatever he wanted or desired, he never got at ease. He did not succeed as a businessman as his friend John Spatter deceived him, he did not succeed in his love affair because his beloveds mother disliked him due to his poverty and finally he was disappointed from his uncle due to his greedy nature, he beat him with a stick. He wandered here and there aimlessly. He loved Little Frank, a diffident boy by nature, but due to poverty, he was not able to give him a single toy, which hurt him internally. This story highlights Dickens poor relations with his family member.

display Dickenss secret agony of soul. The story revolves around two children, a boy of eight years and a girl of seven years; and a person named Boots. Boots was working in a garden, under the gardener. He loved the two children very much and they also love him a lot. The children ran away from their respective homes to get married. Boots also followed them and took great care of them at the Holy Tree Inn. At last the parents of both the children found them at Inn and took them back. Through this story he tries to highlight the responsibilities of parents towards their children Dickens was an expert at drawing child characters. The story highlights the enjoyment and behavior of children. The story presents the romance of two children. As Hugh Walker remarks

The story Boots at the Holy Tree is one of the imaginative stories by Dickens. Through

about Dickens, He is the hero of romance

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of London life and his romances, are founded on reality.

a brave English man. I could respect a brave English man even as my Foe, how much more as my friend. I am also a soldier.

The Story of Richard Doubledick is a story of a brave, intelligent, courageous, handsome, respectable, dutiful and loveable person. Richard comes from Exmouth to Chatham to enlist in a cavalry regiment with an aim to shot as his beloved refused his marriage proposal. Therefore, he wanted to kill himself but after doing something for his nation. In Chatham, Captain Taunton, his only friend, helped him during training. Both of them fought bravely in the war of 1799, 1800, and 1805. One day, a French officer killed the captain which was very shocking incident in the life of Richard. After the Captains death, Richard became all alone and he decided to take revenge upon the French officer. During the battle, he was wounded very badly and admitted to the hospital where the Captains mother nursed him and Marry Marshall, his beloved, also visited him. After getting well, he again started searching that French officer. One day he found the officer in one of the celebrations at the Captains mother home, where he came to know that the officer helped the Captains mother to forgot everything about her son. There the French officer says to Richard that, it is the hand of

Richard gave up the idea of taking revenge upon French officer. He realized that both of them did their duties and thus he forgives the officer.

To be taken with a Grain of Salt is one of the pathetic stories based on Dickens own bitter experiences. It highlights the

corruption in the courts during Victorian Age. He was one of the Foremen of Jury and knew everything about the prisoner who was really an innocent person, punished by the Judge because it was already decided before. Dickens knew that the murdered man was alive but he was unable to provide any evidence for the same. He saw the murdered man many times during the ten days trial in the Court.

I saw again the murdered man. He stood grimly behind them, beckoning to me. This was the beginning of a separate series of appearances, confined to that long room in which we were confined. Whenever a knot of my brother Juryman laid their heads together, I saw the head of the murdered man among theirs. 18

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The theme of this story is to point out the injustice in the contemporary legal system of England. In fact, that time the legal rules were not properly written and explained, consequently a number of people were falling victims of that. This motivated Dickens to highlight the worse condition and the corrupted system of the judiciary. The story aims at displaying the dishonesty in the duties and the misuse of the powers by the high authorities. In fact, this story gives a bitter experience that a man, who is on the responsible and honored chair, could misuse his official powers to take revenge from his personal enemies or from the people whom he disliked.

the problems and the weaknesses of the common man.

REFERENCES [1] Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. (Weekly serial in All the Year Round, 30 April 1859, to 26 November 1859) [2]Atkinson, Paul (1990). The Ethnographic Imagination: Textual Constructions of Reality. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415-01761-9. [3] Bidwell, Walter Hilliard, ed. (July December 1870). Charles Dickens: Obituary. "Eclectic magazine: Foreign literature".Eclectic magazine: foreign literature, science and art. New Series (New York: E.R.Pelton) 12: 222224. [4] Black, Joseph Laurence (2007). "Charles Dickens". In Black, Joseph Laurence. The age of romanticism. The Victorian era. The twentieth century and beyond. The Broadview Anthology of British Literature 2. Broadview Press. pp. 735 743. ISBN 978-1-55111-869-7. [5] Bodenheimer, Rosemarie (2011). "London in the Victorian Novel". In Manley, Lawrence. The Cambridge Companion to the Literature of London. Cambridge University Press. pp. 142159.ISBN 978-0-521-72231-5.
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Charles Dickens tries to express his own sufferings, own bitter experiences of his childhood life through his stories. He tries to sketch the picture of the society of his contemporary age. No other writer was able to touch the height of pity and tenderness as Dickens expressed. He is not only a great and consummate literary artist but also the greatest writer of nation and society of the Victorian Age. He is the man of the people who wrote for the people. He is the spokesman of the masses and creator of the democratic works who tries to write about

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[6] Chesterton, G. K. (2005) [1906]. Charles Dickens: A Critical Study. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-1996-3. [7] Chesterton, G. K. (1911). Appreciations and Criticisms of the Works of Charles Dickens. J. M. DentForgotten Books. ISBN 978-1-4400-9125-4. [8] Cohen, Jane R. (1980). Charles Dickens and His Original Illustrators. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-0284-5. [8] Forster, John (2006) [18721874]. Life of Charles Dickens. London: Diderot Publishing. ISBN 978-90-77932-03-2. [9] Foxcroft, Louise (2007). The Making of Addiction: The 'Use and Abuse' of Opium in Nineteenth-Century Britain. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-5633-3. [10] Hart, Christopher (20 May 2007). "What, the Dickens World?".The Sunday Times (UK). [11] Hughes, William Richard (1891). A week's tramp in Dickens-Land: together with personal reminiscences of the 'Inimitable Boz'. Oxford: Chapman & Hall. [12] Kucich, John; Sadoff, Dianne F. (2006). "Charles Dickens". In Kastan, David Scott. The Oxford Encyclopedia of British Literature, Volume 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 154164. ISBN 978-0-19516921-8.





(1870). Life of Charles Dickens. by R. Shelton Mackenzie. With Personal Recollections and Anecdotes;--Letters by 'Boz', Never Before Published;--And ... Prose and Verse. With Portrait and Autograph. Philadelphia: T. B. Peterson & Brothers. ISBN 978-1-4255-5680-8.. [14] Marlow, James E. (1994). Charles Dickens: The Uses of Time. Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 978-0-945636-48-9.

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