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Air Entrainment Rate Calculations using Baum s Fire Induced Flow-field Formulation

J. P. Gore Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering Purdue University W. Lafayette, IN 47907 - 1003
Acknowledgment: Work Supported by Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland, with Dr. Howard Baum serving as NIST Scientific Officer. The work summarized here is a result of MS and PhD dissertations by Dr. X. C. Zhou

P U R D U E

Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications University of Minnesota October 11-13, 1999

OUTLINE
P 1. MOTIVATION 2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 3. THEORETICAL METHOD 4. LDV MEASUREMENTS AND DISCUSSION 5. PIV MEASUREMENTS AND DISCUSSION 6. THERMAL EXPANSION SOURCE TERM AND VORTICITY DISTRIBUTION 7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

U R D U E

MOTIVATION
P
1. Air entrainment of accidental fires influences gas temperatures, radiation properties, fire growth rate and toxicity of smoke. 2. Existing correlations of air entrainment show a large scatter due to different measurement techniques and boundary conditions. 3. In many numerical simulations an entrainment constant is assumed. 4. Recent optical techniques provide an opportunity to measure the instantaneous and mean entrainment velocity field.

U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

DEFINITION OF ENTRAINMENT
P Local Air Entrainment Rate:
ment 2 d Ri r ux dr dx 0 2 R i ur

U R D U

Total Air Entrainment Rate:


& ent 2 m
Ri r 0

ux dr mf
x u dx 0 r

2 Ri

ment ,0

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

PAST MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES ( I ) P U R D U E


McCaffrey (1979)

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

PAST MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES ( II ) P U R D U E


Ricou and Spalding (1961)

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

PAST MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES ( III ) P U R D U E

Zukoski and Coworkers (1980)

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Air Entrainment Correlations


Author(s) Year Correlation Formula Dependent Dependent on Burner on Heat size? Release Rate?
No Yes No Yes

P U R D U E

Yih
Thomas et al. McCaffrey

1952
1963

2 & ent = 0.153( g &f m Q 0 / C p T )1 / 3 x 5 / 3 m 1/ 3 5 / 3 & ent = 0.153( g 2 &f m x m 0 Q 0 / C p T )

1979

& ent = 0.055xQ 01 / 2 m &f m & ent = 0.008 x1 / 2 Q 0 4 / 5 m &f m & ent = 0.043Q( x / Q 0 0.4 0.037 ) m & ent = 0.053x 1.3Q 0 0.48 m &f m & ent = 0.070 D1 / 2 Q 0 ( x / Q 0 0.4 0.0337) m & ent = 0.073( x + 0.06)1.25 m
2 & ent = 0.21( g m Q0

No

Yes

Cox and Chitty Hasemi

1980

No

Yes

1982

No

Yes

McCaffrey and Cox Tokunaga et al. Beyler

1982

No

Yes

1982

Yes

Yes

1983

Yes

No

Cetegen et al. Delichatsios and Orloff

1984

/ C p T )

1/ 3

(x x v )

5/ 3

No

Yes

1984

& ent = 0.034 g1 / 2 x 5 / 2 m & ent m x Fr = 0.086 &f f (S + 1) m D & ent m x Fr = 0.093 &f f (S + 1) m D & ent m x Fr = 0.018 &f f (S + 1) m D
1/ 2

No

No

Delichatsios

1987

Yes

No, but dependent on fuel type

3/ 2

5/2

Koseki and Yumoto

1988

& ent = 3.26( 2 x / D ) 0.56 S m

Yes

No, but dependent on fuel type

Zukoski

1994

& ent = 0.62xD m &f m

Yes

Very weakly

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

An Example of Application of Some Air Entrainment Correlations


0.22 Predicted air entrainment rate by different correlations 7.1 cm toluene pool fire, no floor, mf = 0.083 g/s Q = 3.4 kW, X A= 90%, XR=30%, S=13.5, Frf=0.109 Delichatsios and Orloff (1984) McCaffrey (1979) Cox and Chitty (1980) McCaffrey and Cox (1982) Delichatsios (1987) Zukoski (1994) Beyler (1983)

P U R D U E

0.20

0.18

0.16

0.14 f 0.12 / (S+1) mm ent f Fr 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 x/D 0.8 1.0 1.2

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
P
1. Consider air entrainment as a fire induced flow field using Baum s kinematic model, which involves flow components induced by vorticity and thermal expansion. 2. Develop and utilize techniques to measure the fire induced flow field for model validation. 3. Develop and utilize techniques to measure the vorticity and thermal expansion that induce the fire induced flow, to avoid uncertainties of combustion models. 4. Compare the measured and predicted fire induced flow field to validate the overall model.

U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Decomposition of the entrainment flow field:

r ~ V V V

where

and

V 0 ~ V 0

, the irrotational thermal expansion,

, the incompressible flow caused by vorticity

P U R
x x e r r e
): ,

r V

1. THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW


Q and

r V

~ (V V)

the governing equation of the

irrotational component:

V Q
Written is terms of a potential function (

D U

x2

1 (r ) r r r

(a)

2. THE INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

r V

p and

r V

~ (V V)
imcompressible component is:

~ V

E
1 r e r r
):

the governing equation of the

~ V
Written is terms of a stream function

p
(

~ V

1 x e r x
(b)

2 2

r2

1 r r

r p

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Correlations of Buoyant Diffusion Flame Structures (McCaffrey, 1983)


Centerline Axial Velocity and Excess Temperature
U* ( x * ) A ( x* ) n T T T

P U R

( x* )

B( x* ) 2n 1

D U E

Assuming Gaussian profiles, the axial velocity and excess temperature distributions are
r ux (r ) U( x ) exp{ [r / R ( x )]2 }

r (r )

( x ) exp{ [r / R ( x )]2 }

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

The Source Terms based on Correlations


P The Flame Radius as a function of x from analysis of the advected energy balance:
R(x) { 1 XR }1 / 2 Ld * * U ( x )[1 I ( )]

U R D U E

Thermal Expansion Source Term Distribution:


r Q( r ) H( x ) exp{ [r / R ( x )]2 } x (1 X R )R 2 ( x )

Vorticity Distribution:
p(r)

2U ( x ) r { exp{ [ r / R ( x )]2 }} R(x) R(x)

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Boundary Conditions: with Floor


P Floor and Axis:
x

U R D U E

at x = 0 for all r at r = 0 for all x

Free Boundaries:
1 XR 2
r(i) The Pool Burner The Floor
5/3

r2

x2

F( )

r2 ( )

x2

cos

d 2F d
2

10F 9(1
2

F(0) = F(1) = 0

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Boundary Conditions: without Floor


P On inner boundaries:

U R D U

at r = 0 for all x

On outer boundaries:
r(i)

1 XR 4 r2
5/3

x2

Pool Burner

F( )

r2 ( )

x2

E
cos

d 2F d
2

10F 9(1
2

F(-1) = F(1) = 0

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Numerical Discretization: a typical element


r(p)

P U R D U E

2 2 re rw ( n 2 x

s)

(r

w ) xp

2 r r 2 rw ) xp Q( r )( e 2

aP P
n x(p) W w P e E x (p) s x (p) n

aE E a W W

aN N

aS S

dP

aE aW aN aS aP dP

r x( e ) re r x( w ) rw
2 2 re r w 1

xn(p) xp(p)

xs(p)

xn xs aN aS

r (p) w r (p) w r (p) p r (p) e

r (p) e

2 2 re r w 1

2 aE a W

2 r r 2 rw ) x Q( r )( e 2

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Multigrid Scheme
P
~ ci, j i, j ~ ~ ~ c ip, j ip, j c im, j im, j c i , jp i , jp ~ c i , jm i , jm Di, j

U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

The Velocity Field


P The irrotational velocity field:
ux ( i, j) ( i, j 1) x n ( j) ( i 1, j) re ( i ) ( i, j 1) x s ( j) ( i 1, j) rw ( i )

U R D U E

ur ( i, j)

The incompressible velocity field:


~ ( i, j) u x ( i 1, j) re ( i ) ( i, j 1) x s ( j) ( i 1, j) 1 rw ( i ) rp ( i ) ( i, j 1) 1 x n ( j) rp ( i )

~ ( i, j) u r

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Comparison of the predictions and the correlations of the axial velocities at x = 42.5 cm

P U

300 250 200 150 100 50 Axial Velocity, cm/s 0 0 5 10 Radial Position, cm 15 20 Numerical Modeling Correlations of McCaffrey (1983)

R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Effect of the Computational Domain Size


P
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 0 10 20 Radial Position, cm 30 40 Axial Velocity, cm/s at x=0.5 cm, r= 1 cm, x= 1 cm Prediction Computational Domain 1 m by 4 m 1 m by 5 m 1 m by 2 m 2 m by 4 m 0.5 m by 4 m

U R D U E

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 Radial Position, cm 30 Axial Velocity, cm/s

at x= 42.5 cm, r= 1 cm, x= 1 cm Prediction Computational Domain 1 m by 4 m 1 m by 5 m 1 m by 2 m 2 m by 4 m 0.5 m by 4 m

40

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Effect of the Grid Spacing Size


P
30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 0 5 10 Radial Position, cm 15 20 Axial Velocity, cm/s The predicted axial velocity at x=0.5 cm 1 m by 4 m conputational domain Prediction Grid size r= 1 cm, x= 1 cm r= 0.5 cm, x= 1 cm

U R D U E

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 Radial Position, cm The predicted axial velocity at x=42.5 cm 1 m by 4 m computational domain Prediction Grid size r= 1 cm, x= 1 cm r= 0.5 cm, x= 1 cm

Axial Velocity, cm/s

20

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

The Enclosure
P U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

The Fuel Supply System


P U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV)


P U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Measureed Mean Velocity Field P U R D U E

Zhou and Gore (1995)


Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Entrainment Rates Based On LDV Measured Mean Velocity Field


1000
Author Present Year 1995 Fuel Toluene Burner Method Symbol

P U R D U E

100
Weckman Beyler Thomas Cetegen 1989 1983 1965 1984 Acetone Propane Ethanol Nat. Gas

10

Toner

1987

Nat. Gas

7.1 cm LDV, Ri=11.5 cm LDV, Ri=6.5 cm LDV, Ri=4.5 cm LDV, Ri=flame 30 cm LDV(Axial Velocity) 19 cm Hood 91 cm Particle Tracking 19 cm Hood 19 cm Hood 50 cm Hood 19 cm Hood

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

f fm Fr ent / (S+1)m

0.1 Delichatsios(1987) Correlation 0.01 0.1

1 x/D

10

Vorticity Distributions
P
30 25 20 15 10 POOL EDGE 5 0 20 15 10 5 0 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Radial Position, cm Average Visible Flame Boundary Farthest Visible Flame Boundary x = 1 cm x = 5 cm x = 9 cm D=7.1cm, Toluene . mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm Lip Height=0.2cm Dfloor= 51 cm

U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Vorticity, 1/sec

Probability Density Function (PDF) of Radial Velocities at r = 3.5 cm


0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 -20 -15 -10 x = 1 cm ur = 12.2 cm/s ur' = 5.5 cm/s Probability Density Function, s/cm x = 5 cm ur = 6.3 cm/s ur' = 5.6 cm/s D = 7.1 cm, Toluene . mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm r = 6.5 cm x = 9 cm ur = 5.0 cm/s ur' = 7.9 cm/s

P U R D U E

-5

10

15

20

25

30

Radial Velocity, cm/s

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Probability Density Function (PDF) of Axial Velocities at r = 3.5 cm


0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 -20 x = 1 cm ux = 6.44 cm/s ux' = 9.37 cm/s Probability Density Function, s/cm x = 5 cm ux = 22.71 cm/s ux' = 28.18 cm/s D = 7.1 cm, Toluene . mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm r = 3.5 cm x = 9 cm ux = 42.72cm/s ux' = 42.04 cm/s

P U R D U E

-10

10

20

30

40

50

Vertical Velocity, cm/s

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Power Spectral Density (PSD) of Radial Velocities at r = 4.5 cm


101 100 10-1 x = 9 cm 10-2 10-3 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 10 Power Spectrum Density of Radial Velocity
0

P U R D U

. D = 7.1 cm, Toluene, mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm, Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm, r = 4.5 cm

x = 5 cm

10-1 x = 1 cm 10-2 10-3 0.1

1 Frequency, Hz

10

100

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Power Spectral Density (PSD) of Axial Velocities at r = 4.5 cm


101 100 10-1 x = 9 cm 10-2 10-3 100 10-1 10-2 10-3 100 Power Spectrum Density of Vertical Velocity 10-1 x = 1 cm 10-2 10-3 0.1 . D = 7.1 cm, Toluene, mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm, Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm, r = 4.5 cm

P U R D U

x = 5 cm

1 Frequency, Hz

10

100

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Measurements and Predictions of Axial Velocities around a 7.1 cm Toluene Pool Fire
80 60 40 20 0 -20 60 40 20 0 Vertical Velocity, cm/s Vertical Velocity, cm/s -20 60 40 20 0 -20 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 Radial Position, cm
x = 1 cm x = 6 cm D = 7.1 cm, Toluene, mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm, Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm x = 12 cm

P U R D

80 60 40 20 0 -20 60 40 20 0 -20 60 40 20 0 -20 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 Radial Position, cm
x = 1 cm x = 6 cm D = 7.1 cm, Toluene, mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm, Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm x = 12 cm

U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Measurements and Predictions of Radial Velocities around a 7.1 cm Toluene Pool Fire
40 30 20 10 0 30
x = 6 cm D = 7.1 cm, Toluene, mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm, Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm x = 12 cm

P U R D

40 30 20 10 0 30
x = 6 cm D = 7.1 cm, Toluene, mf = 83 mg/s Hinterface = 64 cm, Lip Height = 0.2 cm Dfloor = 51 cm x = 12 cm

20 10

20 10 0 30
x = 1 cm

U E

Radial Velocity, cm/s

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Radial Velocity, cm/s

0 30
x = 1 cm

20 10 0 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 Radial Position, cm

20 10 0 3.5 5.5 7.5 9.5 11.5 13.5 Radial Position, cm

Particle Imaging Velocimetry Based on CW Laser

P U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors around a 7.1 cm Toluene Pool fire with a Floor
10 25 cm/s 9

P U R D U E

A
7

4
Axial Position, cm

0 3 Pool Edge 5 7 9 11 13 Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors around a 7.1 cm Toluene Pool fire without a Floor
10

P U R D U E

50 cm/s

4 Axial Position, cm

Pool Edge

10

11

Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors around a 15 cm Toluene Pool fire with a Floor


14

P U

12

A
10

R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Position, cm

0 Pool Edge 7 9 11 25 cm/s 13 15 17 19 21

Radial Position, cm

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors around a 15 cm Toluene Pool fire without a Floor


14

P U

12

10

R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Position, cm

0 Pool Edge 7 9 11 25 cm/s 13 15 17 19 21

Radial Position, cm

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors around a 30 cm Toluene Pool fire without a Floor


14

P U

12

R
10 8

D
A

U
C

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Position, cm

0 Pool Edge 15 17 19 25 cm/s 21 Radial Position, cm 23 25 27

Mean Velocity Vectors around a 7.1 cm Toluene Pool fire with a Floor
Mean entrainment flow field, Toluene, D = 7.1 cm, With a Floor mf = 83 mg/s, Dfloor = 51 cm, Hinterface = 64 cm, Hflame = 32 cm 10 PIV Measurements 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Pool Edge 0 2.5 4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 2.5 4.5 Pool Edge 6.5 8.5 10.5 12.5 Axial Position, cm 10 cm/s LDV Measurements

P U R D U E

Radial Position, cm

Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mean Velocity Vectors around a 7.1 cm Toluene Pool fire without a Floor
10

P U R D U E

50 cm/s

4 Axial Position, cm

Pool Edge

10

11

Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mean Velocity Vectors around a 15 cm Toluene Pool fire with a Floor


14

P U

12

10

R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Position, cm

0 Pool Edge 7 9 11 25 cm/s 13 15 17 19 21

Radial Position, cm

Mean Velocity Vectors around a 15 cm Toluene Pool fire without a Floor


14

P U

12

10

R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Position, cm

0 Pool Edge 7 9 11 25 cm/s 13 15 17 19 21

Radial Position, cm

Mean Velocity Vectors around a 30 cm Toluene Pool fire without a Floor


14

P U

12

10

R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Position, cm

0 25 cm/s 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

Radial Position, cm

Normalized Air Entrainment Rate for 7.1 cm Pool Fires with and without a Floor
0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.18 f 0.16 0.14 / (S+1) m m ent f Fr 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.0 Fuel Pool(cm) Floor(cm) mf(mg/s) Data Toluene 7.1 51 83 Methanol 7.1 51 50 Heptane 7.1 51 70 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 X/D 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 f 0.16 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.18 0.167(Z/D)0.78

P U R D U E

0.14(X/D)

0.8

0.14 / (S+1) m m ent f Fr 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.0 Fuel Pool(cm) Floor(cm) mf(mg/s) Data none none none 1.2 83 50 70 1.4 1.6 1.8

Toluene 7.1 Methanol 7.1 Heptane 7.1 0.2 0.4 0.6

0.8 1.0 X/D

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Normalized Air Entrainment Rate for 15 and 30 cm Pool Fires without a Floor
0.22 Fuel 0.20 Methanol Heptane Toluene Methanol Toluene Heptane 15 15 15 30 30 30 none none none none none none
0.78 0.135(X/D) 0.78 0.135(Z/D)

P U R D U E

Pool(cm) Floor(cm) mf(mg/s) Data 245 385 370 980 2850 2660

0.18

0.16

0.14 f 0.12 / (S+1) mm ent f Fr 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.0 0.2

0.4

0.6 X/D

0.8

1.0

1.2

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Measurements and Predictions of Mean Velocities around a 30 cm Toluene Pool Fire


ry

P U R

14
Bo

un

da

20 16 12 8 4 20 0 15 X = 9 cm X = 13 cm

12 10 8 6 4 2
Vi

sib

D=30cm, Toluene mf=2850 mg/s Hf=119cm Hinterface =120 cm

le

Fla

me

Data

10 5
0 14 12 Axial Position, cm 10 8 6 4 Prediction 2 0 6 25 cm/s 1/e width profile according to McCaffrey (1983) 10 12 14 16 18 20 Radial Position, cm 22 24 26 28 1/e width profile used in this prediction

D U

30 0

Radial Velocity, cm/s

25 20 15 10 5 30 0 25 20 15 10 5 0 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 X = 1 cm D = 30 cm, Toluene mf = 2850 mg/s, Hlip= 0.5 cm Hflame= 115 cm, Hinterface= 120 cm X = 5 cm

Radial Location, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

THE PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THERMAL EXPANSION SOURCE TERM Q


State Equation:
T t P 1 R 2 t
, and

P U

P 1 R 2

(1)

R D

The Energy Equation:


T Cp t r V r Cp V T & T Q

(2)

The Mass Conservation Equation:


t r V 0

U
(3)

Substitute eq. (1) into eq. (2) and add to TCp eq. (3):
r V 1 & (Q TC p T)

(4)

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Evaluation of Q in terms of Mixture Fraction


1. State relationship: all scalar properties are functions of mixture fraction. 2.
t

P U R D U

(Z),
d dZ
2 d

1/
Z t
2 d

dZ
Z

Z t

(5)

(6)

dZ
3. Conservation of Mixture Fraction:

Z t
4. Substitute eqs. (5)

r V

D Z
and (6) into eq. (3) :

(7)

E
0
(8)

2d

Z dZ t d dZ

r V

2d

dZ

r V

(7) + (8) yields:


d dZ D Z
(9)

r V

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Gas Sampling System


P U R D U E

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Gas Chromatography
P Column 1: H2, O2, N2, CH4, CO U R D Column 2: CO2, C2H2, C2H4 U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

7.1 cm Natural Gas / Air Buoyant Diffusion Flame at Frf = 0.109

P U

THREE REGIONS OF BUOYANT DIFFUSION FLAMES (McCaffrey, 1983):


1. Continuous Flame Region, x < 12 cm 2. Intermittent Region, 12 cm < x < 36 cm 3. Plume Region, x > 36 cm

R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Radial Distribution of Mixture Fraction in the Near Field of 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P
Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm, no floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm, Gaussian Data 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2 r, cm 3 4 = 0.5 cm = 1.0 cm X = 1.5 cm Logistic

U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mixture Fraction

Radial Distribution of Mixture Fraction in the Higher Region of 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P
Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm, no floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm, Data Gaussian 0.3 Logistic

U R D

0.2 X = 10.0 cm 0.1

0.0 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.8 = 2.0 cm 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2 r, cm 3 4 Mixture Fraction = 5.0 cm

U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mole Fraction of Reactant Species as a Function of Mixture Fraction P


1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 Mole Fraction 0.00 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 N2 Data X, cm 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Data X, cm 3.0 5.0 7.0 10.0 12.0 O2 Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm, no floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm OPPDIF Prediction

U
CH4

R D U E

0.2

0.4 0.6 Mixture Fraction

0.8

1.0

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mole Fraction of Intermediate Combustion Products as a Function of Mixture Fraction P


0.04 Chemkin Prediction OPPDIF Prediction 0.03 C2H4 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.010 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0.000 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.0 Mole Fraction Natural Gas Flame D = 7.1 cm, without floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm C2H2 Data X, cm Data X, cm 2.0 0.0 3.0 0.5 5.0 1.0 7.0 1.5 10.0 12.0

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H2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Mixture Fraction

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mole Fraction of Combustion Products as a Function of Mixture Fraction P


0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 CO2 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 Mole Fraction 0.00 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 0.0 CO Data X, cm Data X, cm 2.0 0.0 3.0 0.5 5.0 1.0 7.0 1.5 10.0 12.0 OPPDIF Prediction Natural Gas Flame D = 7.1 cm, without floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm

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H2 O 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Mixture Fraction

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Temperature Calculated Based on Species Concentration as a Function of Mixture Fraction


2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 Temperature, K 800 600 400 200 0.0 Natural Gas Flame D = 7.1 cm, without floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm 0.2 0.4 0.6 Mixture Fraction Z 0.8 1.0 Data X, cm 0.5 chemkin prediction 1.0 1.5 2.0 OPPDIF prediction

P U R D U E

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Specific Volume Calculated Based on Species Concentration as a Function of Mixture Fraction


7 Data X, cm 6 0.5 chemkin prediction 1.0 1.5 2.0 OPPDIF prediction 4
3 ,m /kg

P U R D U

2 Natural Gas Flame D = 7.1 cm, without floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm

0 0.0

0.2

0.4 0.6 Mixture Fraction Z

0.8

1.0

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Diffusivity Calculated Based on Species Concentration as a Function of Mixture Fraction


6e-4

P U

5e-4 D Data X, cm 4e-4 0.5 chemkin prediction 1.0 1.5 2.0 OPPDIF prediction 2e-4

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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

/s2 Diffusion Coefficient, m

3e-4

1e-4 Natural Gas Flame D = 7.1 cm, without floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm 0.2 0.4 0.6 Mixture Fraction Z 0.8 1.0

0e+0

0.0

Thermal Expansion Source Term as a Function of Radial Distance in the Near Field
Natural Gas Flame D = 7.1 cm, without floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm 20 15 10 5 0 -5 20 15 10 5 0 -5 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 0 1 2 r, cm 3 4 D dZ/dr)/r, 1/s /d/Z d /d/dr(r = 1.5 cm X = 2.0 cm Measured Correlations Visible Flame

P U R D U E

= 0.5 cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Thermal Expansion Source Term as a Function of Radial Distance in the Near Field
20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 0 X = 2.0 cm Natural Gas Flame D = 7.1 cm, without floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm

P U R D U E

X = 1.5 cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

D dZ/dr)/r, 1/s /d/Z d /d/dr(r

X = 0.5 cm

2 r, cm

Thermal Expansion Source Term as a Function of Radial Distance in the Higher Region
Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm no floor, Frf = 0.109 Hflame = 36.4 cm 20 X, cm 2 7 12 Data

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10

0 Potential Source, 1/s Thermal Conduction, 1/s Heat Release, 1/s

-10

-20

20

10

0 0 1 2 r, cm 3 4

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Thermal Expansion Source Term as a Function of Radial Distance in the Higher Region
Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm no floor, Frf = 0.109 Hflame = 36.4 cm 20 X, cm 2 7 12 Data

P U R D U E

10

0 Potential Source, 1/s Thermal Conduction, 1/s Heat Release, 1/s

-10

-20

20

10

0 0 1 2 r, cm 3 4

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Thermal Expansion Velocity Field P


Predicted Thermal Expansion Velocity Field Natural Gas Flame, D = 7.1 cm, no floor Frf=0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm 18 4 cm/s 16 14 12 10 8 Axial Position, cm 6 4 2 0 0.5 Measured Source Theoretical Source 10 cm/s

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2.5

4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 12.5 14.5 0.5 Radial Position, cm

2.5

4.5 6.5 8.5 10.5 12.5 14.5 Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Particle Imaging Velocimetry


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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors in the Near Field with a Toroidal Vortex P


8 Buoyant Diffusion Flame No Floor 7 2.0 m/s 6 Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, Hflame = 36.4

U R D

5 B 4 A

U E

3 Axial Position, cm

0 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors in the Near Field of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P
8 Buoyant Diffusion Flame No Floor 7 2.0 m/s 6 Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, Hflame = 36.4

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3 Axial Position, cm

0 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors in the intermittent Region of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P
31 Buoyant Diffusion Flame Diffuser Burner 4.0 m/s 30 Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, without floor

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29

28

27 Axial Position, cm

26

25

24 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Instantaneous Velocity Vectors, minus the spatial average velocity vector, 1m/s. P
31 Buoyant Diffusion Flame Diffuser Burner 4.0 m/s 30 Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, without floor

U R

29 C 28

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27 Axial Position, cm

26

25

24 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mean Velocity Vectors in the Near Field of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame
8 Buoyant Diffusion Flame No Floor 7 2.0 m/s 6 Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, Hflame = 36.4

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3
Axial Position, cm

0 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Mean Velocity Vectors in the Intermittent Region of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame
Buoyant Diffusion Flame Diffuser Burner Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, without floor

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31

30

29

28

27 Axial Position, cm

26

25

24 -4 -3 -2

4.0 m/s -1 0 1 2 3 4

Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Radial Profiles of Mean Axial Velocities in the Near Field of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P
Buoyant Diffusion Flame Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, without floor 200 160 120 80 40 0 120 80 40 0 x = 4 cm x = 6 cm First measurement Second measurement

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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Velocity, cm/s

60 40 20 0 30 20 10

x = 2 cm

x = 1 cm 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Radial Position, cm

Radial Profiles of Vorticities in the Near Field of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 80 60 40 20 0 from velocity field on 0.5 cm grid from velocity field on 0.25 cm grid from smoothed velocity field on 0.25 cm grid x = 6 cm

ur x

ux r

U R
ur ( i, j 1) x( i, j 1) u x ( i 1, j) r ( i 1, j)

x = 4 cm

-20 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 40 20 0 -20 -40 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x = 1 cm Buoyant Diffusion Flame Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, without floor x = 2 cm

ur ( i, j 1) ( i, j) x( i, j 1) u x ( i 1, j) r ( i 1, j)

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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Vorticity, 1/sec

Radial Position, cm

Vorticity Distribution in the Near Field of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P


Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm, no floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm, 8 Vorticity = dur/dx - dux/dr

U R
0 100 0 80 20 40 60 0 60 40 80 20

6
20 0 80 60 40 100 20 80 60 40

D U

4
20 0 0 80 60 40

80 20 60 40 0 0 0 20 4060 60 40 80 20

3 Axial Position, cm

E
20

2
20 40 60 40 20 0 -20 -20 0 -20

0 20 40 -20 0 -20

1
-20 20 0

0 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Radial Profiles of the Mean Vorticity in The Near Field of a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P
Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm, no floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 80 60 40 20 0 -20 40 20 0 -20 40 20 0 -20 -40 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 = 1 cm dur/dx - dux/dr correlation dur/dx x = 6 cm -dux/dr flame radii

ur x

ux r

U R
ur ( i, j 1) x ( i, j 1) u x ( i 1, j) r ( i 1, j)

( i, j)
= 4 cm

ur ( i, j 1) x ( i, j 1) u x ( i 1, j) r ( i 1, j)

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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Vorticity, 1/sec

= 2 cm

Radial Position, cm

Effect of Systematic Error in Radial Velocity Measurement on the Dilatation Rate P


40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Dilatation Rate, 1/s 0 -5 -10 -15 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 r, cm 1 2 3 4 5 Smoothed Velocity Field on 0.25 cm grid Smoothed Velocity Field + 1 cm/s Radial Velocity Smoothed Velocity Field - 2 cm/s Radial Velocity Mixture Fraction Measurement Buoyant Diffusion Flame Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, without floor x = 1.0 cm

r V

U
ux x 1 (rur ) r r

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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Measurements and Predictions of Velocity Vectors in a 7.1 cm Natural Gas Flame P


Natural Gas, D = 7.1 cm, no floor Frf = 0.109, Hflame = 36.4 cm, 7 Data 6 Mean Velocity Vectors 2.0 m/s Predictions

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3 Axial Position, cm

0 0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4 Radial Position, cm Radial Position, cm

Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Measurements and Predictions of Radial Profiles of Axial Velocities P


Buoyant Diffusion Flame Natural Gas, Frf = 0.109 D = 7.1 cm, without floor 200 160 120 80 40 0 120 80 40 0 x = 4 cm First measurement Second measurement Predictions x = 6 cm

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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

Axial Velocity, cm/s

60 40 20 0 30 20 10 0 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

x = 2 cm

x = 1 cm

Radial Position, cm

CONCLUSIONS ( I )
P
1. LDV measurements show a high level of fluctuations of velocities. The entrainment velocity field does not respond to the periodic pulsation of the pool fire. Different Choices of entrainment interface lead to qualitative as well as quantitative differences in entrainment rates. 2. PIV can be used to observe the instantaneous flow structure of the entrainment velocity field; The flow pattern becomes more irregular with increasing fire size. 3. The mean entrainment velocity fields show that a floor changes the entrainment flow pattern and makes the entrainment velocities more horizontal.

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Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

CONCLUSIONS ( II )
P
4. Satisfactory nondimensional air entrainment correlations can be obtained for different groups of fires. However, a universal entrainment correlation is not available. 5. Experimental estimate of thermal expansion source term in fires is feasible based on measurement of mixture fraction distributions. 6. With measured potential velocity source term and vorticity distribution, predictions of entrainment rate using Baum s fire induced flow field formulation agree reasonably well with measurements. 7. Application of this methodology for boundary condition specification in time dependent calculations such as LES and evaluation of the results would be interesting
Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories School of Mechanical Engineering

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