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1.0 OBJECTIVES





1.1 To investigate the thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance of
different types of material.

1.2 To study on the different method of insulation of the system.

1.3 To observe unsteady conduction of heat

1.4 To understand the use of the Fourier Rate Equation in determining rate of
heat flow through solid materials for one-dimensional steady flow of heat.

















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2.0 INTRODUCTION TO LINEAR CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER



When a temperature gradient exists in either a solid or stationary fluid medium, the heat
transfer which takes place is known as conduction. When neighbouring molecules in a fluid
collide, energy is transferred from the more energetic to the less energetic molecules. Because
higher temperatures are associated with higher molecular energies, conduction must occur in
the direction of decreasing temperature.










Fig 2.1 : Rate of heat flow in a rod

2.1 Concepts



The temperature distribution in the wall can be determined by solving the heat
equation with the proper boundary conditions. For steady state conditions with no
distributed source or sink within the wall, the form of the heat equation is:








Fig 2.2 : Linear heat flow of material










0 =
|
.
|

\
|
dx
dT
k
dx
d
t
3

2.2 Principles

For one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a plane wall with no heat generation, the
heat flux is a constant, independent of x. If the thermal conductivity of the wall material is
assumed to be constant, the equation may be integrated twice to obtain the general solution:



For one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a plane wall with no heat generation and
constant thermal conductivity, the temperature varies linearly with x:




2.3 Thermal Resistance

Thermal resistance for conduction in a plane wall is given as:





2.4 Contact Resistance
Although neglected until now, it is important to recognize that, in composite systems, the
temperature drop across the interface between materials may be appreciable. This temperature
change is attributed to what is known as the thermal contact resistance.

Where q
x
= q
x
/A
2 1
) ( C x C x T + =
( )
B A
t
t x
T T
L
A k
dx
dT
A k q = =
A k
L
q
T T
R
t x
B A
cond t
=

=
,
"
"
,
x
B A
c t
q
T T
R

=
4

2.5 Linear Heat Conduction


Fig. 2.3: Layout for Linear Heat Conduction Test Specimen


Fig. 2.4: Module for Linear Heat Conduction Test Specimen

The rate of linear conduction heat transfer for this system (Fig. 3.1):



Where,
k - Thermal conductivity
A - Cylindrical area of specimen
L - Heat traveling distance
T
A
- Temperature near heater
T
B
- Temperature further heater
( )
B A
t
t x
T T
L
A k
dx
dT
A k q = =
5

3.0 COMPONENT AND EQUIPMENT









Fig. 3.1: Assembly Diagram of Linear & Radial Heat Conduction Apparatus

No. Item No. Item
1. Linear heat conduction module


9. ON / OFF switch


2. Cold water inlet & outlet port

10. 220VAC fuse


3. Thermocouple ports

11. Linear/Radial module selector switch

4. Temperature selector switch



12. Module clip

5. Temperature meter

13. Radial heat conduction module


6. Heater supply


14. Thermocouples


7. Power meter


15. Thermocouple ports

8. Power controller





***Safety Instruction:
The equipments you are using are potentially dangerous. You are strictly required to follow the
procedures outlined below. Do not make any unnecessary actions which are not stated in the
procedure. If not, an accident may occur. In case of doubt, contact the Technician or Training
Engineer immediate.
2
1
3
4 5 6
8
7
9
10
0
15
1
4
1
2
13
1
1
6

4.0 PROCEDURE

4.1 Heat Conduction on brass using Linear Module

No. Procedure

1.

Connect the cold water supply. Allow the cooling
water to flow continuously throughout the experiment
(Turn until 180)








2.

Do not connect the extra 30 mm length of brass or
stainless steel in the middle of the Apparatus.




3.

Apply some heat transfer compound on the surface of
the thermocouple to further improve the experiment
performance




4.

Place the 6 thermocouples into the holes located
directly above the linear heat conduction apparatus
according to the numberings attached



Figure
7


5.

Tighten the set screws to keep the thermocouples in
place. (do not over tighten)





6.

Connect the thermocouple to the thermocouple ports
according to the number.



7.

Connect the heater cable between the control panel
and make sure the clips properly locked



8.

Record the initial temperature values for each
measuring point by switching the selector switch.
Read the temperature value from the temperature
meter.





9.

Switch ON the selector switch to Linear and set the
power of the heater to 20 W by turning the power
regulator.


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10.

Wait for 25 to 30 minutes until the temperature
achieved stable at every measuring points.




11.

Observe and record down the respective final
temperature values at every point.




12.

Turn OFF the ON/OFF switch after finish the
experiment.






*Note:
- Re-adjust the thermocouple if the experimental result is not ideal. Make sure the
thermocouples are inserted into the holes touched on the brass or stainless steel.
- Ensure the heater selector On/Off switch is set at the correct experiment setting (linear or
radial) prior to carry out the experiment.
- For linear conduction heat transfer, the clips must be properly locked to allow the test
specimens stay in contact during the experiment for effective results.
- Take note that the maximum working temperature for this apparatus is 90C. Working higher
than 90C would not provide better experimental results.
- The water cooling supply must be running when conducting the experiment.
- Do not regulate the water cooling supply flow rate when conducting the experiment.

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5.0 RESULTS

5.1 Temperature results for different measuring point

Table 5.1: Linear Conduction for Brass (25.40mm)



Fig. 5.1 : Measuring point in Radial module test specimen


Measuring Point Position
Distance from
Heater (mm)
Initial Temperature
(C)
Final Temperature
(C)
1 Nearest to heater 15 27.0 39.0
2

25 27.0 39.3
3 35 27.0 39.0
4 45 27.0 37.8
5 55 27.0 36.8
6 Furthest to heater 65 27.0 36.0
Measuring
point 1 to 6
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6.0 DISCUSSION

6.1 Based on the formula following, do discuss on it,

Linear:





The most efficient method of heat transfer is conduction. This mode of heat
transfer occurs when there is a temperature gradient across a body. In this case, the
energy is transferred from a high temperature region to low temperature region due to
random molecular motion (diffusion). Conduction occurs similarly in liquids and gases.
Regions with greater molecular kinetic energy will pass their thermal energy to regions
with less molecular energy through direct molecular collisions. In metals, a significant
portion of the transported thermal energy is also carried by conduction-band electrons.
Different materials have varying abilities to conduct heat. Materials that conduct heat
poorly (wood, styrofoam) are often called insulators. However, materials that conduct
heat well (metals, glass, some plastics) have no special name.

The simplest conduction heat transfer can be described as one-dimensional
heat flow as shown in the following figure. The rate of heat flow from one side of an
object to the other, or between objects that touch, depends on the cross-sectional area
of flow, the conductivity of the material and the temperature difference between the two
surfaces or objects.

( )
B A
t
t x
T T
L
A k
dx
dT
A k q = =
"
"
,
x
B A
c t
q
T T
R

=
11


Fig. 6.1 : Heat flow in conductor

Mathematically, it can be expressed as :



where q is the heat transfer rate in watts (W), k is the thermal conductivity of the material
(W/m.K), A is the cross sectional area of heat path, and is the temperature gradient
in the direction of the flow (K/m).

The above equation is known as Fouriers law of heat conduction. Therefore, the
heat transfer rate by conduction through the object in the above figure can be expressed
as:

Where L is the conductor thickness (or length), DT is the temperature difference
between one side and the other (for example, DT = T
1
T
2
is the temperature difference
between side 1 and side 2).
The quantity (DT/L) in equation above is called the temperature gradient: it tells
how many 0C or K the temperature changes per unit of distance moved along the path
of heat flow. The quantity L/kA is called the thermal resistance

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Thermal resistance has SI units of kelvins per watt (K/W). Notice from Equation
above that the thermal resistance depends on the nature of the material (thermal
conductivity k and geometry of the body d/A). We realize from the above equations, we
realize the heat transfer rate as a flow, and the combination of thermal conductivity,
thickness of material and area as a resistance to this flow.

Considering the temperature as a potential function of the heat flow, the Fourier
law can be written as



If we define the resistance as the ratio of potential to the corresponding transfer
rate, the thermal resistance for conduction can be expressed as



It is clear from the above equation that decreasing the thickness or increasing the
cross-sectional area or thermal conductivity of an object will decrease its thermal
resistance and increase its heat transfer rate.







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6.2 What is the relationship between the rate and thermal conductivity?




Based on the above equation, we can see an obvious relation between the rate
and thermal conductivity. Increasing any of it would increase another. This means,
increasing the thermal conductivity will increase the rate of heat transfer.
Mathematically, it can be expressed as:

where q is the heat transfer rate in watts (W), k is the thermal conductivity of the material
(W/m.K), A is the cross sectional area of heat path, and is the temperature gradient ,
dT/dx in the direction of the flow (K/m).
The above equation is known as Fouriers law of heat conduction. Therefore, the
heat transfer rate by conduction through the object in the above figure can be expressed
as:

Where L is the conductor thickness (or length), DT is the temperature difference
between one side and for example, DT = T1 T2 is the temperature difference between
side 1 and side 2.



( )
B A
t
t x
T T
L
A k
dx
dT
A k q = =
14

6.3 What factors may concern on the thermal conductivity. Discuss it
based on:
- Transfer distance, transfer rate , transfer area and material type.

We knew that different materials have different thermal conductivity. The
dimension of thermal conductivity is M 1 L1T3t 1. These variables are (M)mass,
(L)length, (T)time, and (t)temperature. In SI units, thermal conductivity is measured in
watts per meter kelvin (Wm1K1). In Imperial units, thermal conductivity is measured
in BTU/(hrftF)
This shows that, the thermal conductivity is increase as the transfer rate, transfer
distance and transfer area is increases. This means, having a high value of these criteria
would increase thermal conductivity of the materials.
As based on material types for thermal conductivity, the heat transfer occurs at a
higher rate across materials of high thermal conductivity than across materials of low
thermal conductivity. Correspondingly materials of high thermal conductivity are widely
used in heat sink applications and materials of low thermal conductivity are used as
thermal insulation. Thermal conductivity of materials is temperature dependent .One of
example of materials of high thermal conductivity is copper whilst for the low thermal
conductivity is wood.





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6.4 How thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance concerns to any
insulating designs.


Fig. 6.2 : Thermal conductivity and the interface resistance form part of
the thermal interface resistance of a thermal interface material.


Thermal contact resistance occurs due to the voids created by surface
roughness effects, defects and misalignment of the interface. The voids present in the
interface are filled with air. Heat transfer is therefore due to conduction across the actual
contact area and to conduction (or natural convection) and radiation across the gaps.
If the contact area is small, as it is for rough surfaces, the major contribution to the
resistance is made by the gaps. To decrease the thermal contact resistance, the
surface roughness can be decreased while the interface pressure is increased.
However, these improving methods are not always practical or possible for
electronic equipment. Thermal interface materials (TIM) are a common way to overcome
these limitations. Properly applied thermal interface materials displace the air that is
present in the gaps between the two objects with a material that has a much-higher
thermal conductivity. Air has a thermal conductivity of 0.022 W/mK

while TIMs have
conductivities of 0.3 W/mK

and higher.
When selecting a TIM, care must be taken with the values supplied by the
manufacturer. Most manufacturers give a value for the thermal conductivity of a material.
However, the thermal conductivity does not take into account the interface resistances.
Therefore, if a TIM has a high thermal conductivity, it does not necessarily mean that the
interface resistance will be low.
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Selection of a TIM is based on three parameters: the interface gap which the TIM
must fill, the contact pressure, and the electrical resistivity of the TIM. The contact
pressure is the pressure applied to the interface between the two materials. The
selection does not include the cost of the material. Electrical resistivity may, or may not,
be important, depending upon electrical design details.


6.5 Gives other insulating material and method.

Other insulator material that the material having low thermal conductivity such
wool. If the home is under construction, the easiest and cleanest type of insulation to
install is in the form of a blanket, also known as batts or rolls. Installation of blanket
insulation is quick and easy. Generally the batts conform to industry standards so that
the width matches the space between uprights in a wall. Some custom cutting will be
required to go around pipes, wires, and secondary uprights or cross members.
However, you'll find that most of the work can be done by just measuring the
height of the wall and cutting the insulation. Then, using an industrial stapler, simply
apply the insulation to the wall. Blanket insulation can be manufactured from a variety of
materials: slag wool, rock wool, fiberglass, cotton, and cellulose. If we put any of this
material in between high thermal conductivity materials, the rate of heat will be
decreased.






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7.0 CONCLUSION

From this lab session, we have demonstrate how the equation can be used to relate the
temperature difference, heat flow and distance in solid material of constant cross sectional area
and thermal conductivity. Increased of heat flow produces an increased temperature gradient.
We also can see for one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a plane wall with no heat
generation, the heat flux is a constant, independent of x. we have learnt how to investigate the
thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance of different types of material by using
formula. At the same time, we have study on the different method of insulation of the system
with that we knew materials that have low thermal conductivity, such as brick, cork, glass,
granite, limestone, wool, paper, rubber and sand stone. Any of these material is applied as
insulator put in between a high thermal conductivity materials, the rate of heat transfer will be
less down . Then, for the application of this experiment this concept can be apply in a design of
a heat sink. A heat sink is designed to increase the surface area in contact with the cooling
medium surrounding it, such as the air. Approach air velocity, choice of material, fin or other
protrusion design and surface treatment are some of the factors which affect the thermal
performance of a heat sink. Heat sink attachment methods and thermal interface materials also
affect the eventual die temperature of the integrated circuit. So, this experiment is a good
exposure to student to learn and know the concept of heat transfer in conductivity mechanism
more better. As conclusion, we can see that the objectives of the experiment have achieved
and been completed.




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8.0 REFERENCES

8.1 Website

[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_transfer
[2] http://www.taftan.com/thermodynamics/FOURIER.HTM
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_sink#Heat_transfer_principle
[4] http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/conductive-heat-transfer-d_428.html


8.2 Books

[1] Heat and Mass Transfer-Fundamental and Applications.
By Yunus A. Cengel and Afshin J. Ghajar, Mc Graw Hill (2011).

[2] Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
By M. Thirumaleshwar, Pearson Education India (2006)