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WinTess3,RamonSastre,UniversitatPolitcnicaCatalunya,Barcelona,Spain1

HowWinTessdealswithwindloads?
v.3.116(December2013)

Preamble
WinTessisthoughttobeusedanywhere.Differentcountrieshavedifferentcodes,sounless youintroduceallthesecodesintheprogram,itisimpossibletosatisfyalluserscodes. Inthissense,WinTessprovidesthepossibilitytomodifymanuallywindloadanalysisinorder toaccomplishlocalcodesrules.

Introduction
WindloadsinWinTessaretreatedasuniformloadsforeverysingleelement(triangle).Each elementhasasurfaceareaAtandanormalN. Normalisavectorperpendiculartotheelementfacingoutwards.Outwardsmeansfromthe sidecolouredinblue.

Uniformwindloadwloneveryelementis: wl=wCpCe where wisthedynamicpressureofthewind.Thisisaknowvalueinfluidmechanics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamic_pressure).Forwindloadswecanaccept w=v/1.6 whereviswindvelocity(m/s)andw(N/m)

soforawindwithv=100km/h=27,8m/swegetavalueofw=0.482kN/m CpisavaluethatdependsontheorientationofthenormalNregardingtowinddirectionand thesituationoftheelementinthemembrane(central,border,)

WinTess3,RamonSastre,UniversitatPolitcnicaCatalunya,Barcelona,Spain2 Ceisavaluethatmodifieswindvelocityaccordingtothetypeoftheterrainwherethe membraneislocatedandtheheightformthegroundlevel.

Windvelocity
WinTessallowstheusertointroducewindvelocityintwoways:

Realvelocity ThisoptionisusefulwhenyouwanttoapplyacodethatdoesntmatchWinTessapproach.Itis necessarytogetthisvaluefromameteorologicalstationorsimilar,payingattentiontothe localmicroclimate,sincewindscanchangealotfromplacetoplace. Basicvelocity MostofmoderncodesconsideraBasicVelocityasaminimumvalue.Therealvaluewillbe foundthroughacoefficientCe,takingintoaccountthetypeofterrain,theheightofthepoint referredtogroundlevel,etc. Windvelocitymustbeenteredinthecorrectdirection.Tofacilitatethisaction,XandY directionvaluesareenteredindependently.Negativevaluescanbeused.Totalvalueofwindis automaticallyshownonthewindowaswellasdynamicpressurew.

WinTess3,RamonSastre,UniversitatPolitcnicaCatalunya,Barcelona,Spain3

Cpvalue
TocalculateCpvalueforeachelement,WinTessprovidesthreepossibilities: 1. Cpmanual ThiscanbedonebyusingmenuCalculate|Cpmanualorbytickingthecheckboxatthe loadswindow

Iftheuserchoosesthismethoditisnecessarytoselectallelements(individuallyorbygroups) andassignaproperCp. Atanymoment,byusingthemenuCalculate|Cpmanualtheusercanchangeanyofthese values.

2. Typeofbuilding WinTessprovidesometypeofbuildings.Itisveryprobablethatfromtimetotimesome newtypeofbuildingsareadded.Atthemomentwecanfindthesetypes:

WinTess3,RamonSastre,UniversitatPolitcnicaCatalunya,Barcelona,Spain4

EachtypeofbuildingfillsadifferentsetofCpvaluesinthetable:

ThisaretheCpvaluesforeachanglebetweentheelementnormalNandwinddirection. Theanglebetweentwovectorsgoesfrom0(coincidence)to180(opposite).These valuesareobtainedfromseveralsources,sotheusermustcheckifthesevaluesare appropriateforthecasethatisbeingstudied.Iftheuserdoesntlikeanyorallofthese values,theycanbechangedbyusingManualoptioninthisTypeofbuildingpopup. OncewehaveselectedManualtypeofbuilding,thenCpvaluablesareeditableandcanbe changed. 3. Bordereffect Itiswellknownthatduetotheturbulencesaroundbordersofbuildings,windloadsare biggerintheseareas.IftheuserticksthecheckboxBordereffect,WinTesswillmodify theCpvalueoftheelementsthathaveasidecoincidingwithamembraneborder.

InfactCpvaluewillbemultipliedfor1.5.Thisisaroughapproximation,soiftheuser doesntlikethisapproximation,Cpmanualmustbeusedinordertomodifymanuallythe Cpoftheelementsontheborderofthemembrane.Bydoingso,otherelementsthan thosetouchingtheborderofthemembranecanbemodifiedaswell.

WinTess3,RamonSastre,UniversitatPolitcnicaCatalunya,Barcelona,Spain5

Cevalue
CevalueforeachelementiscalculatedautomaticallybyWinTess.Ifweuserealvelocitythen Ce=1always. IfweusebasicvelocityCedependson: 1. Heightaboveground(Ze) ifwetickthecheckboxCedependsonheight,theWinTesstakesZeastheZ coordinateofthebarycentreoftheelement.Ifwedonttickthisbox,allelementsuse thesameZe.ThisvalueiscalculatedasthemeanofallbarycentreZcoordinateofall elements. SoitisveryimportanttosituatetheoriginofcoordinateswithZ=0correspondingto thegroundlevel.

2. Typeofterrain Accordingtothetypeofterrainchosen,Cewilltakeadifferentvalue.

Accordingtothetypeofterrainwedefine:k,LandZ Seaorcoastalarea: k=0.156 L=0.003 Z=1 k=0.17 L=0.01 Z=1 Flatareawithoutobstacles: Lowvegetationandisolatedobstacles: k=0.19 L=0.05 Z=2 Forestsandurbanareas: k=0.22 L=0.3 Z=5 Amonghighbuildings: k=0.24 L=1 Z=10 thenwedefine:FandCe F=k*ln(Max(Z,Ze)/L) Ce=F*(F+7*k)

WinTess3,RamonSastre,UniversitatPolitcnicaCatalunya,Barcelona,Spain6

CheckingCpandCe
AtanymomentwecancheckwhichCpandCevaluesareforeachelement.Therearethree possibilities: 1. ThroughmenuElements|Loads|Windloads

2. Clickingontheelement

3. Hoveringonanelement TousethisoptionyoumustfirstclickontherightcolumnbuttonCp.Youwillseall theelementspaintedaccordingtotheirCp.Howeverifthemousehoversonthese

WinTess3,RamonSastre,UniversitatPolitcnicaCatalunya,Barcelona,Spain7 elementsyouwillgetbothCpandCe.