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Ch 5 Energy in Steady Flow

The fundamental equations of fluid dynamics The continuity equation (principle of conservation of mass) The energy equation (Bernoulli equation) Application of the energy equation

Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation Use of the Bernoulli Equation Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids

5.1 Energies of a Flowing Fluid

kinetic energy

= volume mass = m = weight = W = = g

1 1 2 2 Kinetic energy , KE = mV = V 2 2

Kinetic energy per unit weight

1 2 2 1 2 2 2

KE mV V V = = = Weight g 2g

5.1 Energies of a Flowing Fluid (Con)

Potential energy Due to gravity

P.E = mgh = gh
P.E. P.E gh = = =h Weight W gh

5.1 Energies of a Flowing Fluid (Con)

Pressure head Fluids have energy in the form of pressure.


p Pr essure Energy p = h h = = length r Weight

5.2 Equation for Steady Motion of An Ideal Fluid Along A Streamline

Deriviation of Bernoulli equation Pressure forces:
upstream end downstream end +pdA -(p+dp)dA

Gravity force: (Streamline dir)

dG cos a = gdAds cos a = gdAds dz = gdAdz ds


F = ma
( p + dp ) dA gdAdz

= dAds

du dt

For steady flow ,velocity (u) only varies with distance(s)

du du ds du d u2 = =u = ( ) dt ds dt ds ds 2

Substituting for du/dt

pdA ( p + dp ) dA gdAdz = dAds du dt

d p u2 (z + + )=0 ds g 2 g

p u2 z+ + =C g 2 g

Bernouillis equation (Along the streamline)

Assumption () = 0 ( Inviscid fluid )

= const. ( Incompressible fluid ) Along the streamline (1-D) Steady flow

Bernoulli Equation

The Bernoulli Equation is a statement of the conservation Mechanical Energy of ____________________

p u2 + z + = C 2g g

Bernoullis eqn. is a useful relationship between p, V and z

p g

= Pressure head
Elevation head

z= 2 u = Velocity head 2g

p g

+ z =

Hydraulic Grade Line Piezometric head Energy Head Line

p u2 + z + = g 2g

Total head

5.3 Energy line (EL) and Hydraulic Grade line(HGL)

It is often convenient to plot mechanical energy graphically using heights. Hydraulic Grade Line P HGL = + z g Energy Line (or total energy)

Energy Grade Line

Fig Energy Grade Line (EGL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) for an one-dimensional flow

Energy Grade Line (EGL)= Total head line

p u2 ( + z + ) g 2g

Hydraulic grade line (HGL) = Piezometric head line (Piezometer )

p + z


For the two cross- sections

2 p1 u12 p2 u 2 z1 + + = z2 + + g 2 g g 2 g


the constant in the Bernoulli equation?

Apply at two points along a streamline.


equation does not include

Mechanical energy to thermal energy Heat transfer

Solving Steps with Bernoulli Equation

Three selections of steps for solving problems and one solving-method . 1.Selecting the datum plane. 2.Selecting computation cross sections: It should be the cross-section in uniform or gradually varied flows with variables already known as many as possible. 3.Selecting the computed point : For the tube flow, it is usually on the tube axis; while for the open channel flow, it is usually on the free surface. 4.Listing the energy equation and solving the problem.

Bernoulli Equation: Simple Case (V = 0)

Reservoir (V = 0)
Put one point on the surface, one point anywhere else

z Pressure datum

1 2

p u2 +z + =C 2g g

Elevation datum

p2 p 1 +z1 = +z2 g gp
z1 z 2 =

We didnt cross any streamlines so this analysis is okay!

Same as we found using statics

Hydraulic and Energy Grade Lines (neglecting losses for now)

V2 z g + z + 2g = C p
V2 2g

Mechanical Energy The 2 cm diameter jet is Conserved 5 m lower than the


surface of the reservoir. V 2 What is the flow rate 2 g (Q)?

z Elevation datum Atmospheric pressure Pressure datum? __________________

How do we compensate for energy losses?

We add an energy loss term! On which side?

Energy Equation in Steady Total Flow

Real fluid steady total flow energy equation ( per unit weight fluid ) In which, zspecific elevation energy elevation head specific pressure energy pressure head, piezometric weight ) 2
z+ p g

p g

specific kinetic energy velocity head) specific potential energy piezometric head) total specific energy total head

p v 2 H = z+ + g 2 g

hw average specific energy loss (head loss).

Kinetic Energy Correction Factor

We have assumed in the derivation of Bernoulli equation that the velocity at the end sections (1) and (2) is uniform. But in a practical situation this may not be the case and the velocity can very across the cross section. A remedy is to use a correction factor for the kinetic energy term in the equation.

= u dA / V A
3 3





Total head line


Piezometric head line

p2 2

z1 1 0

z 2

z2 0

2g 1

Total head line

Water surface
Piezometric head line

2g 2

v1 z1 1

v2 2



By integrating F=ma along a streamline we found

That energy can be converted between pressure, elevation, and velocity That we can understand many simple flows by applying the Bernoulli equation

However, the Bernoulli equation can not be applied to flows where viscosity is large or where mechanical energy is converted into thermal energy.

A diffuse pipe locates horizontally, as is shown in the figure. If the head loss is neglected, then the character of the pressures exerting on the crosssection's center is:

A. p1>p2 C. p1<p2

B. p1=p2 D. uncertain.

Applications of Bernoulli Equation

Stagnation tube Pitot tube Free Jets Orifice Venturi Sluice gate Sharp-crested weir

Applicable to contracting streamlines (accelerating flow).

Pitot Tubes

Can connect a differential pressure transducer to directly measure V2/2g Can be used to measure the flow of water in pipelines

Point measurement!

Pitot Tubes
Static pressure tube
H. De Pitot (1675-1771)

Total energy at A = Total energy at B

2 B


pB pA = g g
p A = g ( H 0 + h)

p B = gH 0
B =

( p A p B ) = 2 gh

The Venturi Meter

Example Venturi Tube

Given: Water 20oC, V1=2 m/s, p1=150 kPa, D=6 cm, d=3 cm Find: p2 and p3 Solution: Continuity Eq. D d
2 1

V1 A1 = V2 A2 A D V2 = V1 1 = V1 A2 d
Bernoulli Eq.
p1 V2 p V2 + z1 + 1 = 2 + z2 + 2 2g 2g

3 Diffuser: velocity decreases, pressure increases

Nozzle: velocity increases, pressure decreases

Similarly for 2 3, or 1 3

p2 = p1 + = p1 +

p3 = 150 kPa
Pressure drop is fully recovered, since we assumed no frictional losses Knowing the pressure drop 1 2 and d/D, we can calculate the velocity and flow rate
V2 = 2( p1 p2 )

2 (V12 V2 )

[1 (D / d )4 ]V12

= 150,000 +

1000 [1 (6 / 3)4 ]22 Pa 2 p2 = 120 kPa

[1 (d / D )4 ]

Given: Velocity in outlet pipe from reservoir is 6 m/s and h = 15 m. Find: Pressure at A. Solution: Bernoulli equation
p1 V12 p A VA2 + z1 + = + zA + 2g 2g 0 pA VA2 +h+ = +0+ 2g 2g 0 18 VA2 ) p A = (h ) = 9800(15 2g 9.81 p A = 129.0 kPa
Point 1

Point A