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The Great Upheaval

Primary Sources
Articles:
Chicago Daily Tribune. "Railroads and the Making of Modern America." Railroads and the Making of Modern America. William G. Thomas, 2009. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. One of the major causes of the strike was wage cuts. Railroad employers decided it was necessary to cut the wages of its employees in order to make more money. Employees decided to stand up against this and start a strike. This document helped us to better understand the wage cuts and riots that took place during the strike. Chicago Daily Tribune. "Railroads and the Making of Modern America." Railroads and the Making of Modern America. William G. Thomas, 2009. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. This article from the July 23, 1877 edition of the Chicago Daily Tribune suggests that railroad corporations should adopt new policies to meet the needs of railroad workers, which will also keep many of the corporations from falling into bankruptcy. Chicago Daily Tribune. "Railroads and the Making of Modern America." Railroads and the Making of Modern America. William G. Thomas, 2009. Web. 06 Feb. 2014. This article from the July 23, 1877 edition of the Chicago Daily Tribune outlines the various causes of the strikeplacing blame on railroad workers and railroad executivesand stresses that the remedy to this situation can only be achieved once mob rule has been replace by law and order. "Claims for Good Destroyed by the Rioters." American Railroad Journal 25 Aug. 1877: n. pg. Print. This article helped us build our knowledge of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and how the road had sustained the greatest amounts of damage during the strike, and issued a statement to anyone who might have had property destroyed by the rioters while they were transporting it. Also it described how the railroad decided that it was the fault of the local county, and how it was their failure to protect private property and enforce the peace, and how that made them responsible for all damages causes as opposed to the railroad itself.

Editorial. American Railroad Journal 4 Aug. 1877: n. pg. 4 Aug. 1877. Web. 15 Oct. 2013. This article provided by the American Railroad Journal helped us understand how the workers had the right to earn fair wage, they do not have a right to strike in such a manner that it causes harm to the property of the company. The article also says that the actions of the workers "prove more or less injurious to the strikers." Hereos, Working Class. Another Forgotten General StrikeThe St. Louis Commune of 1877. 1877. Photograph. Humble. 4 Apr. 2003. This newspaper list the Railway Strike eruption on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia Amid the lingering depression set off by the Panic of 1873, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad cut wages for the second time in a year. Midnight News from the Seat of War. Baltimore American 18 July 1877: n. pag. Web. 12 December 2013. This is a news section during July 18 from seat at war, and it gives an account of workers growing strength and the amount the government can handle. Workers during the Great Railroad Strike were highly aggravated with their working conditions and every day environment during work. They created powerful strikes, in some cases causing destruction. About two hundred of the strikers and their supporters are at this hour strung along the railroad in squads, in the city and vicinity, armed with pistols and some few with guns. Perfect order prevails, and even the conversations of the strikers discussing the situation are in subdued tones. "Railroad War in Maryland." Baltimore Sun 21 July 1877: n. pag. Web. 13 November 2013. The militia and National Guard had been called to try and subdue the riot and stop the fires and bloodshed. Governor of Maryland, John Lee Carroll, gave the proclamation and order to bring in the military in an effort to stop the chaos that the strike had ignited on July 20, 1877. This article appeared in the Baltimore Sun. "Striking Everywhere," Pittsburgh Daily Post 25 July 1877: n. pag. Web. 21 December 2013. The Pittsburgh Daily Post printed a multitude of articles on July 25, 1877 stating what was happening in each city. The articles portray how the strikes are affecting railroads and communities. Some of the articles alse have proclamations by mayors of many cities and the governor.

"The Great Railroad Strike." New York Times, July 21, 1877. ProQuest. Web. 11 December 2013. This source was taken from a pro quest search done with help from an administrator. It is a brief summary explaining the Great Railroad Strike in detail with events during that time period. This gave us extra background information. The Great Strike, Harpers Weekly, August 11, 1877. Catskill Archive. Web. 10 December 2013. The mad riot started by the railroad strikers in Baltimore on Jul 16, has an unknown reason for the cause. Viewers and the surrounding saw an image of riot and bloodshed. This article is explaining Rutherford Birchard Hayes inauguration. It helped us understand how different articles and news saw the way others viewed the inauguration. "The Great Strike - The Sixth Maryland Regiment Fighting Its Way Through Baltimore." N.p., 1877. Web. 15 Oct. 2013. Locomotives lined up as workers refuse to work during the Strike of 1877. The location is possibly Martinsburg, West Virginia. "The President's Proclamation," Baltimore American, July 18, 1877. University of Nebraska. Web. 8 January 2013. This is the article where Rutherford B. Hayes on July 18, 1877 send out this article regarding the workers on strike to peacefully go back to their houses. We knew when reading this article that Rutherford was against striking and wanted workers to relax and not worry about this time period. The Strike Ended and Trains Moving." Pittsburgh Daily Post, July 30, 1877. n. pag. Web. 7 January 2014. Many newspaper articles were written detailing the strike and the events that had occurred. This article from the July 30, 1877, states that the end of the strike was a complete failure for the workers. Trouble on the Baltimore & Ohio, Baltimore American, July 17, 1877. University of Nebraska. Web. 12 December 2013. This paper article found online, from the July 17, 1877 edition of the Baltimore American gives helpful information on the Great railroad Strikes ways of doing in Baltimore, the spread to Martinsburg, West Virginia was also included in this article. We had an idea of announcements during this event because of the way and type of vocabulary used in this article.

Books:
Bal ac, Honor e, and Ellen Marriage. A Woman of Thirty (La Femme De Trente Ans); and A Start in Life. Philadelphia: Gebbie, 1898. Print. This quote has a significant meaning to the viewers of our website who volunteer to understand. This saying from Honor de Balzac, who was a major French writer who would in turn be a novelist, playwright, literary critic, art critic, essayist, journalist and even a printer, was appointed for the "Impact on U.S." page in the Great Upheaval website. Journalist, A. History of the Terrible Financial Panic of 1873 .. New York: Western News, 1873. Print. This book was a compilation of facts from the financial panic of 1873. It explained, in great detail, the events leading up to this occurrence, the events that caused the panic, and what life was like during. It was written by a journalist who wished to remain anonymous in order to provide as much detail as possible. Pepa, Barbara K., J.D. "Wages and Hours." Your Rights in the Work Place. 9th ed. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 8-94. Print. The book states that even today workers still believe that they have the right to fair hours and fair pay. This is a government hand book and contains rules on employee wages and hours. We used this book to post exact quotes on the rights and responsibilities page under workers rights to tell readers and judges that it is governmental and not just company ways.

Direct Quotes:
Arendt, Hannah (19061975). U.S. philosopher. The Human Condition, prologue (1958). This quote is used on the labor unions page to help provide the point of view of not only workers but a respected philosopher. This workers recite gives the idea of freedom and rights for all labor workers. Dacus, J. A. Annals of the Great Strikes. Chicago: C. B. Beach, 1877. This quote is from J. A. Dacus stating how the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, also known as The Great Upheaval, was a major impact on the United States. Not only for him but for every single person, including the president, that was changed because of this event. This quote is on the Impact on U.S. page.

Dickinson, Anna Elizabeth (18421932). U.S. suffragist. As quoted in History of Woman Suffrage, vol. 2, ch. 16, by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage (1882). Although Dickinson was referring to Womens Suffrage, this quote can also be applied to the panic of 1873 which caused the collapse of the stock market. We are told to maintain constitutions because they are constitutions, and what is laid down in those constitutions?... Certain great fundamental ideas of right are common to the world, and ... all laws of man's making which trample on these ideas, are null and void--wrong to obey, right to disobey. The Constitution of the United States recognizes human slavery; and makes the souls of men articles of purchase and of sale. Huizinga, Johan (18721945). Dutch historian. In the Shadow of Tomorrow, ch. 4 (1936). This quote intelligibly assisted us on comprehending the way citizens view the social relationship of workers and employees to human dependence. We specifically picked out this quote to then be placed in the "Social Impact" page for the better aim of our historical website. Rice, Alice Caldwell. (18701942), U.S. author. A Romance of Billy-Goat Hill, ch. 15 (1912). This is a quote from an official employee looking to "Pay day", because of her hard work and her point of view meaning her to deserve a fair payment. The arbitrary division of one's life into weeks and days and hours seemed, on the whole, useless. There was but one day for the me n, and that was pay day, and one for the women, and that was rent day. As for the children, every day was theirs, just as it should be in every corner of the world." Rooney, Andy. Finding a Good Job. 21 Mar. 2010. Essay. "We need people who can actually do things. We have too many bosses and too few workers." This quote was used on the "Impact on U.S." page. Although it is a recent quote, it applies to how the railroad employers felt back in 1877.

Government Document:
United States Department of Labor. "The History of Labor Day." Washington: Government Printing Office, n.d. Labor protest during the late 1990 led the legislative assembly to issue Labor Day. This writing detailed the creation of Labor Day at the federal reach. It helped us understand the impact of the Great Railroad Strike on the way citizens viewed labor in the U.S.

United States Department of Labor. Important Events in American Labor History: 17781978. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1978. This government document comprehended 200 years of important labor events. It helped us tell how the Great Railroad Strike took part of America politically, socially, and economically.

Images:
8-great-railroad-strike-1877-granger. 1877. Photograph. New York City. Fineartamerica.com. 30 June 2012. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. This picture helps us set the scene of how the guardsmen in the armory were strung out and awaiting orders during the strike. This helps us see the impact that the striking had on the troops. At Long Last, Maryland Marks 1877 B&O Railroad Strike. 2013. Photograph. Camden Yards, Maryland. Dclabor.org. Metropolitan Washington Council, AFL-CIO, 22 Mar. 13. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. This picture helped us to further our knowledge of the strike. In the picture is a plague displayed in Camden Yards, which is across the street from the Irish Railroad Workers Museum on Lemon Street, giving a brief statement of the upheaval. Burning of the Union Depot During the Railroad Riot, July 21 and July 22, 1877, Pittsburgh, PA. N.d. Photograph. Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh. www.explorepahistory.com. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. The first nationwide wildcat strike in American history, the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was most deadly and costly in Pittsburgh, where workers and their families battled with state militia sent from Philadelphia. Persuaded by Pennsylvania Railroad President Thomas Scott, Pennsylvania Governor John Hartranft requested that the federal government send troops to end the fighting. Concerned about the great power of the railroads, Hartranft later called for the recognition of labor unions. Driving The Rioters From Turner Hall. 1877. Photograph. Harper's Weekly. www.workingclassheroes.com. 3 Aug. 2012. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. This picture helped us understand what happened when they tried to drive the rioters from Turner Hall, and how the workers might have reacted when pushed too far. Workers would not give up without a fight, they were determined to acquire their fair working conditions no matter what it took.

Granger. 24-great -railroad-strike-1877-granger. 1877. Photograph. Fine Art America. 1 July 2012. Web. 25 Oct. 2013. This picture helped us understand how the strike brought tragedy upon society. It was electronically put in the Fine Art America website. This a great help while doing research on many types of sources throughout our project. Granger. 49-great-railroad-strike-1877-granger.jpg. N.d. Photograph. Fine Art America. 3 July 2012. Web. 28 Oct. 2013. This picture sets the scene of the brutal riots during The Great Railroad Strike. This helps us to get an understanding of the severity of the strike at that time. Workers created many strikes and riots during The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 to force the employers to reinforce their rightful working environment. Granger. Great Railroad Strike,1877. 2012. Photograph. Humble. Fine Art America. 2 July 2012. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. Armed strikers marching to the railroad in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, during the Great Railroad Strike, July 1877. Contemporary American wood engraving. Workers Granger. Great Railroad Strike, 1877. Digital image. FineartAmerica.com. Fine Art America, 2009. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. This image helps us understand the citizens and employees point of view during the great railroad strike of 1877. This also shows a visualizing image of how the railroads and the employees worked during the Great Strike. Granger. Great Railroad Strike,1877. N.d. Photograph. Fine Art America. Fine Art America, 1 July 2012. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. This image helps the viewers to understand the tragic deaths of rioters and how the strike truly affected the citizens everyday lives. It has a significant meaning to workers and their rights. It was a photograph taken during this made riot in 1877. Granger. The Great Railroad Strike,1877. N.d. Photograph. Fine Art America. Fine Art America, 1 July 2012. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. Great Railroad Strike, 1877 is an image of Private policemen of the Scranton Iron and Coal Company firing on a mob of striking miners on Lackawanna Avenue, Scranton, Pennsylvania, during the Great Railroad Strike.

"Great Railroad Strike, 1877." Fine Art America. Ed. D. Bendann. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2013. This picture helps understand an attack on the Maryland Sixth Regiment by rioters, sympathizers, and hooligans as they marched to Camden station from the armory in Baltimore. Great Railroad Strike of 1877. 1877. Photograph. Fine Art America. Granger, 1 July 2012. Web. 30 Oct. 2013. This picture helps us understand what happened when The Sixth Maryland militia fired into the hostile crowd of rioters. Great Railroad Strike, 1877. 1877. Photograph. Paintingandframe.com. Painting and Frame, 2013. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. This image helped us grasp some knowledge of the construction gang righting under the protection of the militia. This really helped create a visual of what went on during 1877. Great Railroad Strike, 1877. N.d. Photograph. Http://fineartamerica.com/. 9 Sept. 2012. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. This image shows how severe the strikes and riots were and how badly citizens were affected by the wrong doing of employers. Also describing how far and the significance of what this strike had on citizens life. "Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Quotes." Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, 2014. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. These quotes helped us understand how the strike affected not only the president point of view but the civilians who had to endure this tragedy. The Granger Collection. Burning of the Lebanon Valley Bridge. 1877. Photograph. The Granger Collection, 2014. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. This image helped us understand the severity of the rioters anger, that drove them to such destruction. The Granger Collection. Great Railroad Strike, 1877. 1877. Photograph. The Granger Collection, 2014. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. This image helps us understand how angry the rioters were, that they threaten the members of the ninth regiment. The rioters in this image are taking risk and creating a damaging strike. It helped us understand the intensity of violence during this period of time.

Harpers 8 11 1877 Blockade of Engines at Martinsburg W VA.jpg. 1877. Photograph. "Harper's Weekly, Journal of Civilization," Vol XXL, No. 1076, New York. It provides a visual image on what was going on during The Great Railroad Strike. There is a great train in the center of this image while there are many rioters Labor Strikes-1870-1890. N.d. Photograph. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Museum. Web. 4 Feb. 2014. This image helps identify several areas of the country where railroad strikes took place during the time period represented on this map. Neale, Thomas H. Congress Counting Votes in 1877. N.d. Photograph. IIP Digital. 5 Sept. 2008. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. Four times in U.S. history, the Electoral College system resulted in election of a candidate for president who had received fewer popular votes nationwide than another candidate. Thomas H. Neale is a specialist in American national government who produces reports for Congress at the Congressional Research Service. Ruins near the Union Depot and Hotel. 1877. Photograph. Pittsburgh, PA. ExplorePAhistory.com. Web. 12 Oct. 2013. This picture helps us understand the effects of the strike and the severity of the violent workers. Samuel J. Tilden. Digital image. Http://content.time.com/. Time News, n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2014. This image was taken from an article explaining how Samuel was associated with the "Fixed Election". The image is used on our "Fixed Election" page to give viewers a look of Samuel physical character. This image was created by times news. The Panic of 1873. Digital image. Www.lehighlodge.com. Lehighlodge, 12 Feb. 2013. Web. 3 Mar. 2014. In this digital image, citizens are panicking over the bank closures. This image also shows how the workers reacted to the bank closures and the stock market collapse.We used this in our website as a link to the bank closures page. "The Recent Railroad Damages." Jessica's Page - The Great Strike of 1877. N.p., 28 July 1877. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. This image depicts the acts that took place during the strike. It was published in the American Railroad Journal, the primary source of railroad news during the time. At the time of printing the strike was still taking place at many places throughout the country.

Thomas, William G. The Great Railway Strike of 1877 and Newspaper Coverage. 2009. Photograph. University of Nebraska Lincoln, Nebraska. Railroads and the Making of Modern America. William G. Thomas, 2006. Web. 04 Feb. 2014. This image graphs The Great Railway Strike of 1877 and Newspaper Coverage. This helps the viewer understand how the strike affected citizens point of view of view towards the strike of 1877. Thomas, William G. Strikes, Blacklists, and Dismissals--Railroad Workers' Spatial History on the Great Plains. N.d. Photograph. University of Nebraska Lincoln. Web. 5 Feb. 2014. This graph shows the changes in labor mobility patterns between 1877 and 1894 and its effect on railroad workers' social and geographical mobility.

Interviews:
Stewart, Brian D. E-mail interview. 20 Mar. 2014. Mr. Stewart worked as a railroad mechanic for five years. He was a member of the railroad union and he spoke candidly about how the union worked to protect the rights of railroad workers. He understood why the workers started the strike in 1877 and he discussed how the union works to prevent events like the Great Upheaval from occurring again.

Journals:
Hayes, Rutherford B. Diary and Letters of Rutherford B. Hayes. 11 Aug. 1890. Wars will remain while human nature remains. This quote was taken from a diary in the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center website. This quote was also used to be placed in the home page. This gives the reader an idea of the leaders response to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 also known as the Great Upheaval. Hayes, Rutherford B. Diary and Letters of Rutherford B. Hayes. 13 July 1879. Let every man.... This statement was quoted from a diary written by Rutherford B. Hayes in The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential center. This quote was placed in our website under the Historical Context page to be placed as a link to easily be transferred to another page. This quote explains the presidents point of view towards the fixed election.

Hayes, Rutherford B. Diary and Letters of Rutherford B. Hayes. 22 February 1844. The filth and the noise.... The panic of 1873 was a catastrophe to every almost every citizen, including the president. In this quote Hayes was describing the way citizens acted toward the panic of 1873. we used this quote under a link in the Historical Context page of our website. This is a saying taken from a diary written by Rutherford that was taken from the The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center.

Letters:
"Announcement of Wage Cuts on the B&O Railroad." Omeka RSS. N.p., 11 July 1877. Web. 15 Oct. 2013. The letter announcing the wage cuts helped us understand the series of wage cuts on nearly every Railroad in the Nation and it helped us to get a feel of where the strike started. It also helped us build our knowledge of what went on during the Upheaval and what caused the wage cut cast upon the workers repeatedly. Carroll, John L. "Proclamation by the Governor." Letter to Brigadier General Jas. R. Herbert. 10 July 1877. MS. Baltimore, Ohio. Governor John Lee Carroll gave the order to the Commander of the First Brigade, General Jas. R. Herbert to enter the city of Cumberland to help stop the riot along the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Then he would send further orders. Grafton, Strikers. "The Strikers at Grafton." Baltimore American 20 July 1877: n. pag. Web. 14 November 2013. This is a letter supporting the workers strikes. We learned that the workers not only thought they were correct, but they had pros from other citizens and companies. Many thought government officials overreacted and where the cause of the crisis.

Speeches:
French National Assembly. Declaration of the Rights of Man (drafted and discussed August 1789, published September 1791). We wielded this iterate to prepare the electronic website for further growth. This is a saying from the French National Assembly stating that the vindication workers and human beings have struggles and misfortunes are since the government has biased based regulations. We affixed this saying in the "Rights and Responsibilities" page to aid the spectators to advanced deciphering.

Roosevelt, Franklin D. "On Economic Conditions." Address of the President. White House, Washington, D.C. 14 Apr. 1938. Speech. President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave a presidential address broadcasted over the radio in 1938 stating the economic conditions of the United States of America. In this speech, President Roosevelt stated, Not only our future economic soundness but the very soundness of our democratic institutions depends on the determination of our government to give employment to idle men. Although, the Railroad Strike occurred in 1877 and the speech was given some 61 years later, the words still apply.

Secondary Sources
Articles:
"An Excuse To Drink May 9, 1873: Schwar er Freitag," The Panic of 1873." Reynolds, Morgan. "A History of Labor Unions from Colonial Times to 2009." Ludwig von Mises Institute, July 17, 2009. This article explained the development of labor unions from colonial times, through the Great Strike and the progressive epoch, and discussed the impact of unions today. It provided us with background information on labor unions in the U.S. Bruce, Robert W., Herbert Gutman, and David O. Stowell. "Behind The Marker." Thesis. N.d. Explorepahistory.com. 2011. Web. 01 Nov. 2013. This article gave us knowledge of the causes of the strike, and helped us better understand why the strike was caused. Dubofsky, Melvyn. Hard Work: The Making of Labor History. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000. "Dubofsky's articles continue to instruct us in our present work as labor and social historians, even as they serve as an insightful guide to critical aspects in the evolution of the field over the last four decades. Culled from a lifetime of scholarship, these essays now gathered together remind us of our debt to his pronounced historical curiosity, careful research, and innovative interpretive analysis. It is a boon to have them collected in a volume so useful for teaching at all levels."--Nick Salvatore, author of Eugene V. Debs: Citizen and Socialist. It is once again, another book read on the History of labor unions, which helped us know extra background information on them. Gillett, Sylvia. Camden Yards and the Strike of 1877." In The Baltimore Book: New Views of Local History, edited by Elizabeth Fee, Linda Shopes, and Linda Zeidman, 1-14. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999. This article was used to give general knowledge about the spread of The Great Railroad Strike through quotes from laborers, militiamen, and others involved in the protest. Gilman, Becca. "American President: Rutherford Birchard Hayes: Domestic Affairs." Nettrekker.com. Miller Center: University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 1877. This article helped us develop an in-depth analysis of the domestic policies and problems that Rutherford B. Hayes faced as president. Read about the end of Reconstruction, Hayes' economic policy, his troubles with a Democratic majority in the Congress, and his attempts at civil service reform.

Gilman, Becca. "NYSED: The Great Railroad Strike of 1877." Nettrekker.com. Maryann Malecki/New York State Library, n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2013. This provides history of the strike, student activities, documents, and bibliographies for further research, from the New York State Library and uses newspaper accounts to give a "you are there" feeling to the discussion of the Railroad Strike of 1877, which also provided us with more knowledge towards the topic. Grossman, Jonathan, and Judson Maclaury. "The Creation of the Bureau of Labor Statistics." Monthly Labor Review 98, no. 2 (February 1975): 25. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost. This article described the establishment of the Bureau of Labor which gave us knowledge on how the strike was significantly affected by this establishment such as rights of workers. This information was used on the Impact on U.S. page. Hadley, Arthur T. "Railroad Business Under the Interstate Commerce Act." Quarterly Journal Of Economics 3, no. 2 (January 1889): 170-187. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost. The Interstate Commerce Act was passed in 1887, due to resentment and protest against the railroad industry. This article helped us understand how this event changed the strike and influenced other strikes.

Harpers Weekly. THE FAST MAIL TRAIN. N.d. Www.catskillarchive.com. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. Here is a picture of one of the most perfect specimens of mechanical skill that ever came from the hands of the artisan, Engine 110. The performances of this engine are so remarkable that sheengines, like ships, are always of the feminine genderdeserves to have her portrait in Harpers Weekly, and to have the story of her exploits told. Re neck, Samuel. istress, Relief, and iscontent in the United States During the Depression of 1873-78. Journal of Political Economy 58, no. 6 (December 1950): 494-512. 14 December 2013. The Panic of 1873 produced wage cuts, great unemployment, and started dissatisfaction among workers, factors that contributed to the Strike of 1877. This article examined the economic problems during the 1870s and their impact on politics, labor and other troubles. It depended on our understanding of the economic problems that contributed to the Strike of 1877.

Schneirov, Richard. "Chicago's Great Upheaval of 1877: Class Polarization and Democratic Politics." In The Great Strikes of 1877, ed. David O. Stowell, 76-104. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. Although wage cuts may have pushed workers over the top, tensions had been boiling for a while before the Great Railroad Strike erupted. This article detailed how social, political, and economic trends contributed to the Great Railroad Strike in Chicago. It helped us completely comprehend the causes of the strike.

Books:
Bastiat, Fr d ric. The Law. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Foundation for Economic Education, 1950. Print. Frederic Bastiat, a political and economic philosopher, wrote The Law asking and seeking the answers to many different questions. We used a quote from this book, "Everyone wants to live at the expense of the state. They forget that the state wants to live at the expense of everyone." Bellesies, Michael A. 1877: America's Year of Living Violently. New York: New, 2010. Print. This book describes a time of destruction and depression during Americas time of need. It really helped us truly set the scene of what happened to not only the workers but to America. Bolden, Tonya. Cause: Reconstruction America, 1863-1877. New York: Knopf, 2005. Print. "Cause" is a book written by Tonya Bolden to inform readers about the cause that lead from reconstruction to 1877 which was the year the great railroad strike of 1877 began. We read this book and we had an interest on Reconstruction America after reading this printed material. Boyer, Paul S., and Melvyn Dubofsky. "Railroad Strikes Of 1877." The Oxford Companion to United States History. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. 650-54. Print. This particular section of the book "United States History" gives information about reconstruction era and permission to the reader to understand facts and an understanding from this time period in history. We selected this book from the Jones central library in downtown Houston as an educational book of reference. This book was written by Paul S. Boyer, and also contains the history of other historical events as said in the title, United States History.

Brecher, Jeremy. Strike! Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1997. Print. This is a book on the great railroad Strike of 1877 giving advanced information on this event. It was highly professionally written and contains greatly informational words. It has events, causes, and effects during this time event. Bruce, Robert V. 1877: Year of Violence. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1959. Print. In this book, Bruce describes the year when the great railroad strike took place. It describes the events in great detail. Bruce stated, "Since there were so many layoffs and wage cuts, many American families couldn't provide, so they suffered from starvation. Since this was Americas fourth year of the depression, the frustrated workers who were laid off had no choice but to strike. By the year of 1877, there were millions of workers who were laid off which is almost twenty seven percent of the working population. This quote summarizes the situation that was happening in America. Cohn, Robert. The Great Railroad Strike of 1877: An Ohio Perspective. Gambier, OH: S.n., 1978. Print. This book helped provide information during the great strike that helped view this time period in history through Ohio's perspective. It was published in 1978 in Gambier, OH. Robert Cohn the famous author to this book wrote it. Thanks to this book we gained more information and knowledge. Divine, Robert A. The American Story. Fifth ed. Vol. 1. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. Print. The book gives information on events leading up to the Great Railroad Strike Of 1877, like incidents such as The Civil War, and the five-year depression leading up to the Upheaval. Dubofsky, Melvyn, and Foster Rhea Dulles. Labor in America: A History. Wheeling, Illinois: Harlan Davidson Inc., 1999. Print. This book was carefully found on the internet, but later checked out at the public library. This book is on labor unions describing them and telling jobs that are daily to Labor Unions. It also tells a little bit on the Great Railroad Strike of 1877s labor unions importance and jobs. Goldman, David J. "Samuel Tilden (1814-1886) the Election of 1876." Presidential Losers. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1970. 26-30. Print. This book had a small, but informational articles on Samuel Tilden and the election of 1877. We took this information for our better knowledge and ideas. It also includes other presidents who lost the presidency from William Jennings Bryan to Samuel Tilden.

Harvey, Rowland H. Samuel Gompers: Champion of the Toiling Masses. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1935. Print. This book detailed the life of Samuel Gompers, who founded the American Federation of Labor. This book discussed the important aspects of Gompers' labor work, it briefly but detailed discussed the impact of the Great Railroad Strike on Gompers' political views and ideology. It helped us understand how the impact of the Great Railroad Strike influenced other major strikes. Russell, Jesse. Great Railroad Strike of 1877. S.l.: Book On Demand, 2012. Print. This book helped provide general information about how the strike started, ended and details that support the main idea of economic problems, government problems, and local problems. It was written by Jessie Russell who has also written many different historical books. Santella, Andrew. "His Fradulency." Rutherford B. Hayes. Minneapolis: Compass Point, 2004. 26-39. Print. Rutherford B. Hayes is book on him that tells about him and his life. On page 26-39 it is explaining the fixed election of 1877 when Rutherford B. Hayes won the presidency against Samuel Tilden. We used this article not in our website but for information on events during the great railroad strike of 1877. Sheldon, Philip Foner. "The Great Labor Uprising of 1877 - Cornell University Library Catalog." The Great Labor Uprising of 1877 - Cornell University Library Catalog. Cornell University Library, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. This book gives important information of the main events on the railroad strike of 1877. It tells more information and background story of our topic. Sioux, Tracee. "Unpopular Unions." Immigration, Migration, and the Growth of the American City. New York: PowerKids, 2004. 17-20. Print. During the early 1900s, laws were passed that improved condition for workers. For example, the average working day was reduced to eight hours" was quoted from the book. It explains how railroad unions improved conditions caused to the railroad strike. Even though it was only a few words of information we had confirmation that railroad unions improved and that wasn't an idea from any type of source. Stein, R. Conrad. The Pullman Strike and the Labor Movement in American History. Berkeley Heights, NJ, USA: Enslow, 2001. Print. This book, The Pullman strike, was a book that tells about a significant point in period that was a cause from the Great railroad strike of 1877. We read it and had greater idea about details during events that were during that time period.

Stowell, David O. "Streets, Railroads, and the Great Strike of 1877 - Cornell University Library Catalog." Streets, Railroads, and the Great Strike of 1877 - Cornell University Library Catalog. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. This book was a great source because it provided descriptive and narrow information. It also helped as a beginner to the topic, because it stood as a foundation of information. Taylor, George R. and Irene D. Neu. The American Railroad Network: 1861- 1890. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1956. Print. In the late 1800s, American industry expanded rapidly, led by the development of the railroad industry. This book detailed the growth of the railroads between 1861 and 1890 and explained the causes and effects of such swift expansion. It helped me understand the impacts of railroad business on American labor and industry. The State & Labor in Modern America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1994. Print. In this important new book, Melvyn Dubinsky traces the relationship between the American labor movement and the federal government from the 1870s until the present. We researched this book and briefly read over it and the captions included to greater understand. This is a book on Labor unions and their history, once again. Wagner, Viqi. Labor Unions. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2008. Print. This book helped give overall information about Labor Unions and how they have developed throughout the years and how they affected railroads today. This information will be used on "The Labor Unions" page to give viewers clarification on how The Labor Unions affect the railroads. Winik, Jay. The Great Upheaval: America and the Birth of the Modern World, 1788-1800. New York: HarperCollins, 2007. Print. His book helped give information about the beginning, end and how this era redefined history. Including employee rights and working conditions. This book contains a massive mount of information that helped us throughout the creation of the website, including quotes,captions,books,and our analysis information. we used word-by-word ideas included in this book to paste in the website.

Direct Quotes:
"1876 Presidential Election." Presidential Election of 1876. N.p., 2004. Web. 03 Jan. 2014. This was a link found on the context page to elaborate on the fixed election of 1877, which will help readers comprehend more of how the fixed election impacted the outcome of the strike including the worldwide spread of events.

Images:
Age, Arti. Let's Make An ATARI Monopoly Game. . . . . . . Digital image. N.p., 14 May 2009. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. This is a board game called Monopoly. It was created in the early nineteen hundreds due to the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. On the actual board game, there are four railroads that were in the midst of the Railroad Strike. Catch The B&O Railroad. Digital image. Today in America, 14 May 2000. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. This image represents one out of the four railroads included in the railroad strike of 1877. It shows how greatly the strike impacted the United States. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, 4th Ed. The Election 1876. Digital image. 2014 Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc, 2001. Web. 17 Mar. 2014. This Digital image was placed in the timeline created by Time-toast. We deposited in the Electoral College section. This was helped to interpret the locations and idea of the Presidential Election. Fraud of the Century. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Mar. 2014. This digital image was the creation of a newsletter that advertised the presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden. This was used as a link to the Fixed Election page to help this page in both viewing and understanding. History Matters. Women Garment Workers Strike. Digital image. History Matters, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. Women garment workers in the early 20th century became active organizers to improve sweatshop conditions. Many of those conditions continue in the garment industry in the 21st century. This image of a turn-of-the-century garment workers strike has been altered to include four anachronisms from the late 20th century.

May Day Parade. Digital image. Https://www.hclib.org. Minneapolis Collection, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. This picture was taken of the May Day parade. It helped us understand how the railroad strike influenced this strike. This information was used on our workers rights page to show viewers how the railroad strike affected others strikes. Neija, Bell. Worlds Most Famous Board Game. 2012. Photograph. Humble. Adeola Adeyemo, 28 Nov. 2012. Web. 6 Feb. 2014. Monopoly, the worlds most famous board game is set to launch the first African city edition in Lagos on Tuesday December 11th, 2012. Priebe, Gregory. "An Excuse To Drink May 9, 1873: Schwar er Freitag, The Panic of 1873." A History of Drinking. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2014. This image is used in our website. It was placed in the "collapse of the Stock Market" page. It shows rioters having an excuse to drink due to depression, pain and then causing commotion. Walter, Sargent. Business Activity 1876-1901. N.d. The Cleveland Trust Company. Faculty.umf.maine.edu. The Cleveland Trust Company, 25 Apr. 2013. Web. 2 Mar. 2014. This image is used on the economic impact page to show how greatly the strike affected the U.S.This graph shows the economic impact by showing the economy before the strike and after. Workers Rights Are Human RIGHTS. Digital image. Singapore Democratic Party, 20 Nov. 2008. Web. 3 Mar. 2014. This image was used on the analysis and conclusion page to better help the reader understand and interpret the idea of workers rights. We also had enjoyment when first taking a view at this digital image because of its hidden meaning.

Videos:
BCC "Now You Know" with Chris Muro - Presidential Election of 1876. Dir. Chris Muro. Perf. Chris Muro. Http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LXZSpjeL6gA. Brevard Community College, 23 July 2012. Web. 27 Mar. 2014. This video describes the events of the election of 1876 using researched material. This video is on the political impact page. This video helped us understand why the election of 1876 was known as "The Fixed Election".

Sato, Mister. "MLA Annotated Bibliography & Online Sources." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Aug. 2013. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. This video gives general knowledge on how to create an annotated bibliography. This also provided knowledge about how to document online sources.

Websites:
Kickul, Gerard. "Rail Road Strike Website." Rail Road Strike Website. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. This website helped us to understand the causes and effect of the Great Upheaval. We read about how the Railroad Strike of 1877 was a first of many in labor history. This article sets up the reasons for the strike and the mixed results. "New York State Library." Historical Background: Great Railroad Strike 1877: Teacher Guide: Ed. University of the State of New York - New York State Education Department, 11 Jan. 2012. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. This website helped us understand what happened when the stock market collapsed and the severity of the depression. Pinkerton, Allan. "Primary Sources." Primary Sources. Online Study Center, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. This website provided examples of annotations that helped improve our annotation skills. It also helped give an overview of what an annotation is. "The Great Strike of 1877." SOCIALISTWORKERS.org. International Socialist Organization, 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 01 Jan. 2014. This website helped describe the severity of the critical period in 1877 also known as, The Great Railroad Strike of 1877. This website was also used as a link on the home page to describe America's year of depression and tragic events. "The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center." The Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center. The Ohio Historical Society, 2005. Web. 28 Mar. 2014. This is a historical website based on Rutherford B. Hayes. This website contains diaries written by rutherford B. Hayes.We quoted some exact words and they were put in our website. We used this website for most Rutherford B. Hayes quotes viewed in The Great Upheaval website.

University of St. Francis. "Rail Road Strike Website." Rail Road Strike Website. University of St. Francis, n.d. Web. 06 Jan. 2014. This website helped us understand how badly the workers were mistreated and how the wage cuts played a big part in the strike. It helped us comprehend more of how the closing of the stock market impacted the outcome of the strike including the worldwide spread of events.