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AglaSem School

baQksZesfVDl izsfDVlst&1
(Informatics Practices-1)
ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ jktLFkku] vtesj }kjk

d{kk

XI

ds uohure~ ikB~;e gsrq vf/kd`r ikB~;&iqLrd

ys[kd %
MkW 'kSy sU nz dqekj xqI rk] (la
d)
la; kst d
lgk;d vkpk;Z] frd kkLk fokx ,ao mi funs'kd, baQksuVs lsVa j,
jktLFkku fo'ofo|ky;] t;iqj

fouksn dqekj vxzoky


rduhdh funs'kd
dysDVsV] cuhikdZ] t;iqj

jktdh; fo|ky;ksa es a fu%'kqYd forj.k gsr q

2012
ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ jktLFkku] vtesj

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/182

baQksZesfVDl izsfDVlst&1
(Informatics Practices-1)
ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ jktLFkku] vtesj }kjk

d{kk

XI

ds uohure~ ikB~;e gsrq vf/kd`r ikB~;&iqLrd

ys[kd %
MkW 'kSy sU nz dqekj xqI rk] (la
d)
la; kst d
lgk;d vkpk;Z] frd kkLk fokx ,ao mi funs'kd, baQksuVs lsVa j,
jktLFkku fo'ofo|ky;] t;iqj

fouksn dqekj vxzoky


rduhdh funs'kd
dysDVsV] cuhikdZ] t;iqj

2012
ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ jktLFkku] vtesj

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/183

U U U S U U -U U
U/U U fl
fl flfl U fl U U
fl U UU/U UU
-, fl S U
L/L Q CU
flUU L/L
fl fl DU U
U/U U U fl U
fl U h U U
U flU U
la L dj.k %
iz f r;ka

20
12
2012

jktLFkku ljdkj }kjk jktdh; fo|ky;ks a es a


fu%
fu%kqYd forj.k gsrq
cksMZ }kjk miyC/k djk, x;s 58 th-,l-,e- he
2007 ,oa 130 th-,l-,e1848/2007
okWo isij IS :1848
doj isij IS : 6956
6956/1973
1973 iz;qDrA

eqn zd %

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/184

U U U S U U -U U
U/U U fl
fl flfl U fl U U
fl U UU/U UU
-, fl S U
L/L Q CU
flUU L/L
fl fl DU U
U/U U U fl U
fl U h U U
U flU U
la L dj.k

iz f r;ka

ewY; vadksa esa %

2012
20
12

:i;s

kCnksa esa %
cksMZ }kjk miyC/k djk, x;s 58 th-,l-,e- he
2007 ,oa 130 th-,l-,e1848/2007
okWo isij IS :1848
1973 iz;qDrA
doj isij IS : 6956
6956/1973

eqn zd %

AglaSem School

iz k DdFku
;g iqLrd d{kk XI ds mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy;s gS tks bl fo"k; dks ,fPNd vkWI'kuy ds
:i esa ysrs gSA muds fy, ;g iqLrd uohu ikB~;ekuqlkj fy[kh x;h gSA vkt ds ;qx essa dEI;wVj
dks fdlh ifjp; dh vko';drk ugha gSA lwpuk ,oa lapkj kfUr ds bl orZeku ;qx esa dEI;wVj gekjs
thou dk ,d vko';d vax cu pqdk gSA dEI;wVj dk vkfo"dkj ekuo dh ,d egku miyfC/k gSA
Hkys gh ge dEI;wVj ls lh/ks u tqM+s gksa fQj Hkh ;g gekjs fnu&izfrfnu ds f;kdykiksa dks dgha u
dgha vo'; izHkkfor dj jgk gSA viuh vko';drkvksa ds vuq:i ge dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx djuk
pkgrs gS rks blds fy, bl fo"k; dh xgu tkudkjh gksuk vfrvko';d gSA
bl iqLrd dks pkj bdkbZ;ksa esa foHkDr fd;k x;k gSA izFke bdkbZ esa orZeku ifjos'k esa dke
vkus okys dEI;wVj flLVe (gkMZos;j ,ao lkVos;j) ds ckjs esa tkudkjh] f}rh; bdkbZ esa izkx
s zkfeax
ds fl)kar dh foLrkj ls ppkZ dh x;h gSAr`rh; bdkbZ esa MkVkcsl eSutesaV flLVe o ekbZ,lD;q,y
ds mi;ksx ds ckjs esa mnkgj.kksa lfgr foLrkj ls le>k;k x;k gSA prqZFk bdkbZ esa lqpuk izk|
S ksfxdh
ds vuqiz;ksx ds :i esa bZ&'kklu, bZ&okf.kT; rFkk bZ&yfuZax ds ckjs esa foLrkj ls ppkZ dh x;h gSA
bUgha vko';drkvksa dks n`f"Vxr j[krs gq, ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ jktLFkku us bls vius
ikB~;e esa LFkku fn;k gSA iqLrd esa rduhdh 'kCnksa dks vaxst
z h esa j[krs gq, Hkh Hkk"kk dks ljy] Li"V
,oa cks/kxE; cukus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA rduhdh Hkk"kk ds vko';drkuqlkj vaxzsth Hkk"kk esa]
dks"Bd esa Hkh fn;s x;s gSaA
vk'kk gS] dEI;wVj dk v/;;u djus okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk lkekU; ikBdksa ds fy,
Hkh ;g iqLrd mi;ksxh fl) gksxhA
la;kstd ,oa ys[kd

AglaSem School

fo"k; lwph
INDEX
bdkbZ%1-- dEI;wVj flLVe dk ifjp;
(Introduction to Computer System)
1 dEI;wVj dk ifjp; (Introduction to Computer)
2 dEI;wVj lkWVos;j (Computer Software)
3 flLVe dh lqj{kk (Security of System)

1-49
50-61
62-69

bdkbZ 2-- izksxzkfeax dk ifjp;


(Intoduction to Programming)
)kar (Programming Fundamentals)
fl)ka
1 - izksxzkfeax ds fl
2 - izksxzkfeax ekxZn'kZd (Programming Guidlines)

70-84
85-93

bdkbzZ 33. fjys'kuy MkVkcsl eSustesaV flLVe


1123-

(Relational Database Management System)


MkVkcsl eSustesaV flLVe (Database Management System)
ekbZ,lD;w,y dk ifjp; (MySQL)
MkVk eSuhiqys'ku ySXost (DML)
ekbZ,lD;w,y QaDkUl (MySQL Function)

bdkbzZ 44. lqpuk izkS|ks


|ksfxdh ds vuqiz;ksx
(Application Of Information Technology)

94-106
107-124
125-137
138-160
164-180

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/1

1
dEI;wVj dk ifjp;
(Introduction to Computer)
1-1 izLrkouk (Introduction)
dEI;wVj dk vkfo"dkj chloha lnh dh ,d egku miyfC/k gSA vkt dEI;wVj dks fdlh
ifjp; dh vko;drk ugha gSA vkt thou dk dksbZ ,slk {ks= ugha gS ftlesa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx
ugha fd;k tk jgk gksA oSKkfud vuql/a kku] O;kikj] m|ksx] i;kZoj.k] ekSle foKku] vUrfj{k vfHk;ku]
lapkj] ;krk;kr] fpfdRlk] fk{kk] euksjatu vkfn lHkh {ks=ksa esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx vifjgk;Z gks pqdk
gSA foo Hkj ds dEI;wVjksa ds ijLij tqM+ko ls cus lapkj rU= bUVjusV dk izHkko bruk tcjnLr jgk
gS Sfd blus ,d u, ;qx ^^lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ;qx^^ dk lw=ikr dj fn;k gSA vkt ds bl lwpuk
izkS|ksfxdh ds ;qx esa dEI;wVj ds fcuk thou dh dYiuk djuk vlEHko gSA
ekuork ds fodkl ds lHkh {ks=ksa es dEI;wVj dk ;ksxnku jgk gSA dEI;wVj us vusd tfVy
leL;kvksa dks lqy>k;k gS rFkk cgqr ls vlEHko dk;ksZ dks lEHko cuk;k gSA Hkkjr tSls&fodklkhy
nsk ds fy, rks dEI;wVj vR;Ur vko;d gS] D;ksfa d dEI;wVj jk"V dh vkfFkZd fLFkfr dks lq/kkjus essa
egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk ldrs gSaA

1-2 dEI;wVj D;k gS (What is a Computer)


dEI;wVj kCn dh mRifk vaxzsth ds dEI;wV (Compute) kCn ls gqbZ ftldk vFkZ gS&x.kuk
;k fxurh djukA okLro esa dEI;wVj ds vkfo"dkj dk ewy ms; kh?kz x.kuk djus okyh ekhu dk
fuek.kZ djuk gh FkkA fdUrq vkt dEI;wVj }kjk fd;k tkus okyk 80 izfrkr ls vf/kd dk;Z xf.krh;
;k lka[;dh; fr dk ugha gksrkA vr% dEI;wVj dks ek= ,d x.kuk djus okyh ;qfDr (Device)
ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr djuk blds 80 frkr dk;Z dks misf{kr djuk gSA dEI;wVj esa x.kuk djus dh
{kerk ds vfrfjDr rkfdZd kfDr ,oa eSeksjh dk Hk.Mkj gksrk gS rFkk iyd >idrs gh ;g funsZkksa dh
ikyuk dj ldrk gSA
vkt dEI;wVj dh vf/kekU; ifjHkk"kk fuEu gS %&
dEI;wVj ,d Lopkfyr bysDVkWfud ekhu gS] ftlesa ge vifj"r vkadM+s nsdj izksxzke ds
fu;U=.k }kjk mUgsa vFkZiw.kZ lwpukvksa esa ifjofrZr dj ldrs gSAa
vifj"d`r vkadM+s (Raw Data) lwpukvks]a vkadM+ksa vkfn ds :i esa dEI;wVj dks fn, tkus okys

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/2

vkxe (Inputs) gksrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy, ;fn ge fdlh d{kk esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh vad rkfydk cukuk
pkgrs gSa rks blds fy, mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds jksy uEcj] uke] d{kk] fo"k;] izkIrkad vkfn dh vko;drk
gksxhA bUgh tkudkfj;ksa dks vifj"d`r vkadM+s dgk tkrk gSA

fp= 1-1 dEI;wVj


dEI;wVj dh fdlh fofk"V Hkk"kk esa fy[ks x, funsZkksa ds lewg dks izksxzke (Program) dgrs
gSaA dEI;wVj bu izksxzkeksa }kjk fu;fU=r gksrs gSaA ;gka Hkh ge vad rkfydk dk mnkgj.k ysrs gSaA vad
rkfydk fudkyus ds fy, Hkh ,d izksxzke cukuk iM+rk gSA eku yhft, bl izksxzke esa ifgys funsZk
ds vUrxZr jksy uEcj Hkjuk gS] fQj uke] fQj d{kk vkSj fQj vxys funsZkksa ds vUrxZr fo"k; okj
izkIrkad Hkjus gSAa mlds ckn og izksxzke iyd >idrs gh fcuk fdlh ekuoh; Je ds lHkh izkIrkadks
dk ;ksx] izfrkr] Js.kh] ojh;rk ekad vkfn tkudkfj;k ns nsxkA
vFkZiw.kZ lwpuk,a (Meaning ful Information) dEI;wVj izksxzke ds ek/;e ls izkIr gksus okys
os ifj.kke gS ftuls dksbZ vFkZ fudyrk gks rFkk os mi;ksxh gksA vFkZiw.kZ lwpuk,a vO;ofLFkr] ,dkdh]
ewy vkadM+ksa dk O;ofLFkr :i gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, vad rkfydk esa tc ifj.kke ds :i esa izkIrkdksa
dk ;ksx] izfrkr] Js.kh] ojh;rk ekad vkfn fudkyrs gSa rks bUgs vFkZiw.kZ lwpuk,a dgk tkrk gSA

1-3 dEI;wVj ds fofo/k mi;ksx (Different Uses of Computer)


dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx cM+k O;kid gSA vkt thou esa dEI;wVj dh mi;ksfxrk bruh vf/kd
gks xbZ gS fd vkt dk ;qx gh dEI;wVj ;qx dgykrk gSA
dEI;wVj ds vkfo"dkj ls cgqr lh x.kuk, tks fd ekuo ds ok dh ckr ugha Fkh] vc vklku
gks xbZ gSA oLrqr% dEI;wVj dk vfo"dkj gh x.kuk dks Lopkfyr ,oa ifjkq)rk ls djus ds ms; ls
gqvk FkkA ,sls {ks= ftuesa le;c)rk ,oa ifjkq)rk dh vR;f/kd vko;drk gksrh gS dEI;wVj dk
mi;ksx vifjgk;Z gSA ekSle lEcU/kh iwokZuqeku] vUrfj{k vuql/a kku lEcU/kh izf;k,] ukfHkdh; la;=ksa

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/3

dk lapkyu vkfn ,sls dqN fofk"V {ks= gSa ftudk dEI;wVj ds fcuk fodkl gh lEHko ugha FkkA pUnzek
ij ekuo dk dne dEI;wVj dh ifjkq) ,oa rhoz xfr x.kuk ds dkj.k gh lEHko gks ik;k gSA
dEI;wVj ds mi;ksx ls lapkj {ks= esa kfUrdkjh ifjorZu vk, gSAa vkt ek= dqN cVu nckdj
foo ds fdlh Hkh dksus esa cSBs O;fDr ls lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj og Hkh cgqr de [kpZ esaA
bUVjusV rks lwpuk izlkj.k ,oa lwpuk izkfIr dk ,d cgqr lkDr ek/;e gSA ;g lwpukvksa ,oa Kku
dk vFkkg Hk.Mkj Hkh gS tgk ls dksbZ Hkh lwpuk ,oa tkudkjh iyHkj esa izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA ijh{kk
ifj.kke /kksf"kr gksrs gh bUVjusV ls ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks vius ifj.kke ,oa izkIrkadks dh tkudkjh gks tkrh
gSA

fp= 1-2 bUVjusV ij http://www.rpsc.gov.in dh osclkbV dk gkseist


bUVjusV ij miyC/k VsyhQksu Mk;jsDVh ls fdlh ds Hkh VsyhQksu uEcj Kkr fd, tk ldrs
gSAa jsy] cl] gokbZ tgkt dh le; lkfj.kh rFkk buds pyus dh okLrfod fLFkfr Kkr dh tk ldrh
gSA Hkkjrh; jsy dh ,d lkekU; iSlsUtj Vsu dh orZeku fLFkfr dh tkudkjh bUVjusV ij miyC/k
jgrh gSA bUVjusV ij foo ds lHkh izeq[k lekpkj i= miyC/k gSaA bUVjusV ls vki foo ds fdlh
Hkh dksus esa cSBs jktLFkku ds lekpkj i= ds fdlh Hkh {ks=h; ifjfk"B dks i<+ ldrs gSaA ?kj cSBs Vsu
dk fjtosZku djok ldrs gSa] VsyhQksu fcy] cSad cSyUs l vkfn dh tkudkjh ys ldrs gSaA kk;n gh
dksbZ ,slh lwpuk ;k tkudkjh gks] tks bUVjusV ij miyC/k ugha gSaA vuql/a kku dkkZvksa vkSj ys[kdksa
ds fy, rks bUVjusV ,d cgqr vPNs lUnHkZ L=ksr dk dk;Z djrk gSA bUVjusV ij miyC/k bZ&esy ds
}kjk lUnskksa dks ,d dEI;wVj ls nwljs dEI;wVj ij Hkstk tk ldrk gSAa bZ&esy ls lUnsk Hkstus esa cgqr
de [kpZ vkrk gS rFkk le; dh Hkh cpr gksrh gSA ftl {k.k lUnsk Hkstk tkrk gS og nwljs gh {k.k
foo ds fdlh Hkh dksus esa fLFkr dEI;wVj ij igqp
a tkrk gSA ,d vU; lqfo/kk ftls pSfVax (Chatting)

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/4

dgk tkrk gS ds }kjk lUnskksa dk vknku&iznku rRdky fd;k tk ldrk gSA bUVjusV ij miyC/k ,d
vU; lqfo/kk ftls usV VsyhQksuh (Net Telephony) dgrs gS] dk mi;ksx dj fdlh Qksu ls Hkh lEidZ
LFkkfir fd;k tk ldrk gSA usV VsyhQksuh esa lkeus okys O;fDr ds ikl dEI;wVj gksuk t:jh ugha
gSA usV VsyhQksuh ls fonskksa esa ckrphr djus dk [kpZ cgqr gh de vkrk gSA vc usV VsyhQksuh Hkkjr
esa Hkh oS/k gks xbZ gSA fofM;ks dkWusfa lax esa rks VsyhQksu ij ckrphr djrs gq, ,d nwljs dks ns[kk Hkh
tk ldrk gSA

fp= 1-3 bZ&esy dk izk:i


O;kikfjd txr esa Hkh dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx [kwc c<+k gSA lk/kkj.k fglkc&fdrkc ;k ys[kk
ds la/kkj.k ls ysdj jk"Vh; ,oa vUrjkZ"Vh; ks;j cktkj dk izcU/ku vkt dEI;wVjksa }kjk fd;k tk
jgk gSA dEI;wVj vkSj bUVjusV ds la;ksx ls ,d ubZ O;kikj iz.kkyh izpyu esa vkbZ gS ftls bZ&dkelZ
(E-Commerce) dgrs gSAa oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa dks bUVjusV ds tfj;s [kjhnuk ,oa cspuk gh bZ&dkelZ
dgykrk gSA blls mRikndksa ,oa fosrkvksa dks oLrqvksa ,oa lsokvksa ds fooO;kih cktkj feys gSa rFkk
O;kikfjd lwpukvksa ds vknku&iznku ds le; ,oa ykxr esa Hkkjh deh gqbZ gSA vkt x`gf.k;k bUVjusV
ds }kjk vius ?kjsyw mi;ksx dh oLrq,a ?kj cSBs [kjhn jgh gS]a ?kj cSBs flusek ds fVdV] gksVyksa dh cqfdax
,oa ;k=k fVdVksa ds vkj{k.k djk, tk jgs gSaA
bZ&dkelZ dk gh ,d Hkkx gS bZ&cSafdxA bUVjusV ds tfj;s [kkrk /kkjd vius cSad [kkrs dk
cSysUl ns[k ldrs gSa] ,d [kkrs ls nwljs [kkrs esa jkfk LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrs gSaA VsyhQksu] fctyh]
ikuh dk fcy Hkj ldrs gSa vFkok dksbZ ysu&nsu dj ldrs gSAa bZ&cSafdax ds gh vUrxZr cSadksa }kjk
,d vkSj lqfo/kk vius xzkgdksa dks miyC/k djkbZ tk jgh gS& og gS ,-Vh-,e- (A.T.M.)A ,-Vh-,edk iwjk uke gS vkWVksefs Vd Vsyj e'khu (Automatic Teller Machine) vFkkZr Lopkfyr x.kd e'khuA
,-Vh-,e- }kjk tekdrkZ fdlh Hkh le; rFkk fdlh Hkh LFkku ij jde fudyok ldrk gSA blfy,

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/5

,-Vh-,e- dks izpfyr vFkZ esa ,uh Vkbe euh (Any Time Money) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
dk;kZy;ksa esa Vkbi jkbVj dk LFkku rks dEI;wVj
us ys gh fy;k gS] blds vfrfjDr dk;kZy;ksa esa gksus
okys lHkh dk;ksZa dk ys[kk&tks[kk] laLFkkiu fooj.k]
osru fooj.k vkfn la/kkj.k dk dk;Z Hkh dEI;wVj gh
djrk gSA dEI;wVj us ^^isij ySl vkWfQl** dh vo/
kkj.kk dks tUe fn;k gSA iz'kklfud fu;U=.k ds fy,
bZ&xousZal dk lgkjk fy;k tk jgk gSA
iqLrdky; esa iqLrdksa dk lEiw.kZ C;kSjk]
iqLrdky; lnL;ksa dk iwjk fjdkMZ] iqLrdksa dks nsuk]
ykSVkuk vkfn dk vfHkys[k dEI;wVj }kjk vklkuh ls
j[kk tk ldrk gSA

fp= 1-4 ,-Vh-,eizdk'ku] eqnz.k dk;ksZa esa Hkh vc dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx gksrk gSA ;s dk;Z MsLdVkWi ifCyf'kax
(Desk Top Publishing - DTP) ds vUrxZr vkrs gSaA ijEijkxr NikbZ dk dk;Z cgqr gh nq"dj ,oa
Jelk/; gqvk djrk Fkk] fdUrq vc dEI;wVj ds mi;ksx ls ;g cgqr gh vklku gks x;k gSA

fpfdRlk ds {ks= esa jksxksa ds funku] muds bZykt] 'kY; f;k] jksfx;ksa dh xgu fuxjkuh vkfn
dk;ksaZ esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx [kwc fd;k tk jgk gSA vYVklkm.M (Ultrasound), lhVh Ldsu (CT Scan/
dEI;wVjkbTM Vkseksxkz Qh] ,e- vkj- vkbZ- (M.R.I.) vkfn dqN ijh{k.k ,sls gSa ftudk mi;ksx fofHkUu
chekfj;ksa ,oa fofr;ksa dk irk yxkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA bu ijh{k.kksa esa dEI;wVj tfur fp=ksa ds
ek/;e ls jksxksa dk funku cM+h vklkuh ls gks tkrk gSA
vfu;fer n; /kM+du okys jksfx;ksa esa /kM+du fu;fU=r djus okyk midj.k ^^islisdj** ,d
NksVk lk dEI;wVj gh gSA vkuqofa 'kd vfHk;kfU=dh (Genetic Engineering) ds {ks= esa tgk fofHkUu Mh,u-,- dh lajpukvksa dk v/;;u fd;k tkrk gS] dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx vifjgk;Z gSA Mh-,u-,- fQaxj
fizfVax ds }kjk vusd my>s gq, vijkf/kd izdj.kksa dks lqy>k;k tkrk gSA tSo&fpfdRlk foKku vkSj
dEI;wVj ds la;ksx ls foKku dh ,d ubZ 'kk[kk ^ck;ksbUQkjesfVDl* (Bio-informatics) vfLrRo esa
vkbZ gSA

fp= 1-5 vYVklkm.M Ldsu

fp= 1-6 Mh- ,u , lhD;q,fs lax ekhu

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/6

f'k{kk ds {ks= esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx cgqr gh izHkkoh :i esa gks jgk gSA d{kk (Class room)
esa foKku izk;kstukvksa ds fuekZ.k] fjiksVZ rS;kj djus] tkudkfj;k ,df=r djus rFkk vUrZf;kRed
vf/kxe iwy (Interactive Learning Pool) ds :i esa dEI;wVj dk izpyu c<+k gSA dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx
f'k{kd ds iwjd ds :i esa fd;k tk jgk gSA dEI;wVj vk/kkfjr f'k{k.k (Computer Based Teaching
- CBT) ds vUrxZr ,sls vusd lkWVos;j miyC/k gSa tks fofHkUu fo"k;ksa dh ec) tkudkjh nsrs gSAa
eYVhehfM;k /ofu] fp=] ,fues'ku ,oa ohfM;ks ls ;qDr lh-ch-Vh- lkWVos;j fdlh Hkh fo"k; dks izHkkoh
<ax ls le>kus esa cgqr mi;ksxh gSA vktdy bUVjusV ds ek/;e ls vkWuykbu yfuZx
a ,oa Vfs uax lEHko
gSA blds vUrxZr fo|kFkhZ vius ?kj esa cSBs gq, vius f'k{kd ls ckr dj ldrk gS rFkk viuh ftKklk,
'kkUr dj ldrk gSA vkt vkHkklh d{kk d{k (Virtual Class Room) okLrfodrk cu x, gSAa
vfHk;kfU=dh {ks= esa Hkh dEI;wVj us viuk deky fn[kk;k gSA fdlh Hkou] oLrq] dyiqtZs vkfn
ds fuekZ.k esa dkSu ls inkFkZ dk mi;ksx csgrj gksxk rFkk D;k os vko';d ruko o rki vkfn lgu
dj ldsx
a ]s vkfn dk fu/kkZj.k dEI;wVj ,M~M bfUtfu;fjax (CAE) ls cM+h vklkuh ls fd;k tk ldrk
gSA cMs+ Hkou] iqy] gokbZ tgkt vkfn ds fuekZ.k esa lh-,-bZ- dk iz;ksx lqj{kk n`f"V ls vfr vko';d
gSA dEI;wVj ,M~M fMtkbZfuax (CAD) ds }kjk fdlh Hkh oLrq dk Hkhrjh&ckgjh] foLr`r ,oa f=vk;keh
Lo:i rS;kj dj Lhu ij ns[kk tk ldrk gSA dkxt ij fufeZr fdlh ?kj ds uD'ks dks ns[kdj lk/
kkj.kr% ;g irk ugha pyrk fd ml ?kj dk okLrfod :i D;k gksxk rFkk iwjk cuus ij og dSlk
fn[ksxkA fdUrq CAD ds ek/;e ls ;g lc ?kj cuus ls iwoZ gh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;k
tgk ekuo ds fy, dk;Z djuk ladVe; gks ldrk gS] ogk jkscksV dk mi;ksx izkjEHk gks x;k gSA jkscksV
dEI;wVj lapkfyr ;kfU=d ekuo gksrk gSA
dEI;wVj dk euksjatu ds {ks= esa Hkh cgqr mi;ksx gks jgk gSA vkt vusd ,sls
dEI;wVj xse miyC/k gSa tks u dsoy euksjatu gh djrs gSa vfirq Kkuo/kZu Hkh djrs gSa rFkk cPpksa dh
ckSf)d ,oa rkfdZd {kerk dk Hkh fodkl djrs gSaA dEI;wVj xse brus yksdfiz; gSa fd NksVs cPpksa dks
gh ugha] cM+h mez ds yksxksa dks Hkh ;s vkdf"kZr djrs gSaA fQYeksa esa dEI;wVj dh lgk;rk ls fo'ks"k izHkko
(Special effects) ;qDr ,sls n`'; rS;kj dj fy, tkrs gSa] ftudk okLro esa dksbZ vfLrRo ugha
gksrkA vkius tqjkfld ikdZ] xksMftyk] ,ukdksaMk] fyfVy LVqvkVZ vkfn fQYesa ns[kh gksaxhA bu lHkh
fQYeksa esa fo'ks"k izHkko mRiUu djus ds fy, dEI;wVj dk gh iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA dEI;wVj dh gh
enn ls iqjkuh izfl) Hkkjrh; fQYe ^eqxy&,&vkte* o ^u;k nkSj* tks CySd ,.M OgkbV Fkh] ds jaxhu
laLdj.k rS;kj dj fy, x;s gSAa
Vh-oh- pSuyksa ds izlkj.k esa Hkh dEI;wVj us LFkku cuk fy;k gSA dEI;wVj dh lgk;rk
ls izlkj.k djus okys pSuy fMftVy pSuy dgykrs gSaA budk izlkj.k lkekU; pSuy dh rqyuk esa
csgrj gksrk gSA
laxhr dh ubZ&ubZ /kqusa cukus esa Hkh dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx gksus yxk gSA ,d dEI;wVj vusd
ok| ;U=ksa dh /ofu mRiUu dj ldrk gSA dEI;wVj }kjk laxhr jpuk djuk E;wftdy bULV;qesUV
fMftVy bUVjQsl (MIDI) dgykrk gSA
dEI;wVj vkt gekjs ?kjksa esa Hkh izos'k dj x;k gSA tgk ;g f'k{kk] euksjatu] i= ys[ku]
bZ&esy] pSfVax] bUVjusV ls fofHkUu tkudkfj;k izkIr djus vkfn fofHkUu dk;ksZa esa iz;qDr gksrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/7

bl izdkj ge ns[ksa rks ik;saxs fd dEI;wVj ls gekjs thou dk dksbZ Hkh {ks= vNwrk ugha jg
x;k gSA vkt ;g dsoy fdlh oxZ fo'ks"k ds fy, gh ugha] cfYd gj ,d O;fDr ds fy, mi;ksxh
gks x;k gSA

11-44 dEI;wVj dh fo'ks"krk, (Characteristics of Computer)


dEI;wVj vk/kqfud ;qx ds fodkl esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgk gSA vkb, ns[ksa fd
dEI;wVj esa ,slh dkSu lh fo'ks"krk, gSa tks bls bruk egRoiw.kZ cuk jgh gSaA dEI;wVj dh eq[;
fo'ks"krk, fuEu gSa %&
1- xfr (Speed) %& dEI;wVj cgqr rhoz xfr ls dk;Z djrk gSA og tfVy ls tfVy x.kukvksa
dks Hkh dqN lSd.Mksa esa gy dj nsrk gSA ,d ilZuy dEI;wVj vjcksa x.kukvksa dks ,d lSd.M
ls Hkh de le; esa dj ldrk gSA fdlh dk;Z dks ;fn dEI;wVj ,d feuV esa iwjk djrk gS
rks bl dk;Z dks ekuo }kjk iwjk djus esa mldk lEiw.kZ thou yx tk,xkA
2- 'kq)rk (Accuracy) %& dEI;wVj ls izkIr ifj.kke ges'kk 'kq) gksrs gSaA dEI;wVj dks ,d ckj
lgh funs'Z k nsus ds ckn og lkjs ifj.kke lgh fudkyrk gSA dEI;wVj dHkh xyrh ugha djrkA
dEI;wVj ls izkIr ifj.kkeksa esa gksus okyh xyfr;k ekuoh; xyfr;ksa ds dkj.k gksrh gSaA
dEI;wVj esa [kjkch vkus ls ;k okbjl vk tkus ls Hkh og xyr ifj.kke fudky ldrk gSA
3- l{kerk (Diligency) %& dEI;wVj dk;Z djrs&djrs dHkh Hkh Fkdrk ugha gS rFkk fujUrj
dbZ ?kaVs dk;Z djus ds ckn Hkh mlh ,dkxzrk ,oa xfr ds lkFk dk;Z djrk jgrk gSA
4- Lej.k 'kfDr (Power of Remembering) %& dEI;wVj esa Hkh ekuo efLr"d dh rjg
Lej.k 'kfDr (Memory) gksrh gSa] ftlesa yk[kksa&djksM+ksa vkadM+s (Data) laxgz djds j[ks tk
ldrs gSaA vko';drkuqlkj bu vkadM+ksa dks dHkh Hkh fQj ls ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
5- O;kid mi;ksfxrk (Versatility) %& dEI;wVj dk iz;ksx vusd rjg ds dk;ksZa esa fd;k
tkrk gSA Ldwy] dkWyt
s ] vLirky] m|ksx] ?kj] dk;kZy;] vuql/a kku] ekSle foKku] euksjatu
vkfn vusd {ks=kssa esa dEI;wVj dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gSA
6- Lopkyu (Automation) %& dEI;wVj esa Lopkyu dk xq.k gksus ls blds iz;ksx ls ekuo
Je ,oa le; dh cpr gksrh gSA
7- laxzg {kerk (Storage) %& dEI;wVj dh laxzg {kerk cgqr vf/kd gksrh gSA blesa
yk[kksa&djksM+ksa vkadMs+a laxzg djds j[ks tk ldrs gSaA

1-5 dEI;wVj dh lhek, (Limitations of Computer)


bruh fo'ks"krkvksa ds ckotwn dEI;wVj dh dqN lhek, Hkh gSa %&
1- dEI;wVj esa lkspus o le>us dh {kerk ugha gksrhA ;g ,d tM+ e'khu gS rFkk dsoy fn;s
x;s funsZ'kksa ij gh dk;Z djrh gSA cqf)erk dh n`f"V ls nks o"kZ dk ckyd Hkh ,d dEI;wVj
ls vf/kd cqf)eku gksrk gSA orZeku esa dqN mPp dksfV ds dEI;wVjksa esa f=e cqf) (Artificial
Intelligence) Mkyus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA lEHko gS fd dqN le; ckn ,sls dEI;wVj vk
tk;sa tks lksp Hkh ldrs gksaA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/8

2- dEI;wVj esa Lo;a =qfV lq/kkj {kerk dk vHkko ik;k tkrk gSA blesa fn;s x;s funsZ'k iw.kZ:i
ls lgh vkSj lVhd gksus pkfg,A D;ksafd dEI;wVj Lo;a mlesa lq/kkj ugha dj ldrkA og Lo;a
dqN ugha djrk mls tks funsZ'k fn;k tkrk gS ftruk dgk tkrk gS og flQZ mruk gh dk;Z
djrk gSA
3- dEI;wVj ds }kjk HkkSfrd dk;Z djuk yxHkx vlaHko gSA

1-6 dEI;wVj rU= dh bdkb;k (Units of Computer System)


dEI;wVj rU= eq[;r% rhu bdkb;ksa ls feydj cuk gksrk gSA 1- flLVe ;wfuV (System
Unit)] 2- buiqV ;wfuV (Input Unit) 3- vkmViqV ;wfuV (Output Unit)
1-

flLVe ;wfuV (System Unit) %& ;g dEI;wVj dk eq[; Hkkx gS] ftlesa dsUnzh; lalk/
ku bdkbZ (Central Processing Unit) vFkok lh-ih-;w- gksrk gSA flLVe ;wfuV ,d ckWDl gksrk
gS] ftlesa lh-ih-;w- ds vykok dEI;wVj dh dbZ vU; ;qfDr;k (devices) rFkk ifjiFk (Circuit)
yxs gksrs gSa] tks ,d eq[; ifjiFk cksMZ ;k enj cksMZ (Mother Board) ij la;ksftr jgrs gSA
bl izdkj dEI;wVj dk vf/kdrj ifjiFk flLVe ;wfuV esa gh gksrk gSA

2-

buiqV ;wfuV (Input Unit) %& dEI;wVj flLVe ;wfuV esa MkVk rFkk izksxzke fooj.kksa dh
izfof"V ds fy, iz;Dq r dh tkus okyh ;qfDr;k (Devices) buiqV ;wfuV vkxe bdkbZ
dgykrh gSaA dh&cksM]Z ekml] ykWih fMLd vkfn buiqV fMokbl ds dqN mnkgj.k gSaA budh
vkxs foLr`r ppkZ dh tk,xhA

3-

fuxZe bdkbZ (Output Unit) %& dEI;wVj flLVe ;wfuV ls izkIr fu"d"kksaZ dks fy[kus
rFkk mu fu"d"kksZa dks ekuoh; Hkk"kk esa izLrqr djus okyh ;qfDr;k vkmViqV ;wfuV fuxZe bdkbZ
dgykrh gSaA ekWuhVj] fizUVj vkfn dqN lkekU; fuxZe ;qfDr;k (Output Devices) gSaA budh
ppkZ Hkh vkxs dh tk,xhA

fp= 1-7 dEI;wVj dk CykWd js[kkfp=

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/9

1-7

dsUnzh; lalk/ku bdkbZ (Central Processing Unit) vFkok lh-ih;w- (C.P.U.)

;g dEI;wVj dk fnekx gksrk gSA ;g funsZ'kksa dk f;kUo;u (Execution) djus ds fy, mUgsa
i<+rk gS] O;k[;k djrk gS] fu;U=.k (Control) djrk gS vkSj lax.kuk (Calculation) djrk gSA okLro
esa ge dEI;wVj dks tks Hkh funsZ'k nsrs gSa oks igys lh-ih-;w- esa tkrs gSa vkSj lh-ih-;w- gekjs funsZ'kkuqlkj
fu"d"kZ ekWuhVj ij fn[kkrk gSA ;g dguk xyr ugha gksxk fd dEI;wVj esa ;fn lh-ih-;w- ugha gS rks
dEI;wVj dqN Hkh ugha dj ldrkA
ftl rjg gekjk fnekx gekjs leLr 'kjhj ij fu;U=.k j[krk gS] Bhd mlh izdkj lh-ih;w- dEI;wVj ds 'ks"k lHkh Hkkxksa tSl&
s eSeksjh] buiqV o vkmViqV fMokblst vkfn ds dk;ksZa ij fu;U=.k
j[krk gS vkSj muls dk;Z djokrk gSA izkx
s zke vkSj MkVk] blds fu;U=.k esa eSeksjh esa laxzfgr gksrs gSaA
blh ds fu;U=.k esa vkmViqV ekWuhVj ds Lhu (Screen) ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gS vFkok fizUVj ds }kjk
dkxt ij Nirk gSA lh-ih-;w- yk[kksa&djksMk+ sa x.kuk, o fu.kZ; lSd.Mksa esa dj ldrk gSA
lh-ih-;w- dks rhu Hkkxksa esa ckVk tk ldrk gS %&
1-

fu;U=.k bdkbZ (Control Unit) vFkok lh-;w- (C.U.)

2-

vadxf.krh; o rkfdZd bdkbZ (Arithmetic Logic Unit) vFkok ,-,y-;w- (A.L.U.)

3-

eSeksjh (Memory) vFkok laxzg.k bdkbZ (Storage Unit)

ekbksdEI;wVj esa lh-ih-;w- (C.P.U.) ,d NksVk lk ekbksizkl


s slj gksrk gSA vU; cM+s
dEI;wVjksa esa ,d ls vf/kd ekbksizkl
s slj gks ldrs gSA ekbksizkl
s slj ls gh dEI;wVj ds dbZ dk;Z
lapkfyr gksrs gekbksizkl
s slj dh vkUrfjd lajpuk esa fuEu eq[; Hkkx gksrs gS %&
lh-;w- (C.U.), ,-,y-;w- (A.L.U.), jftLVj (Register)] vkUrfjd cl (Internal Bus)A
ekbksizkl
s slj ds vkfo"dkj ls igys dEI;wVj dk ifjiFk dbZ Vkfa tLVjksa (Transistors) dks
la;ksftr dj cuk;k tkrk FkkA dEI;wVj dks vf/kd n{k] dk;Z&dq'ky ,oa mi;ksxh cukus ds fy, blds
izkslslj ds ifjiFk esa Vkfa tLVjksa dh la[;k esa vR;f/kd o`f) gksrh xbZA blls VkaftLVjksa dk ifjiFk
tfVy gksrk x;k vkSj ifjiFk esa vf/kd rki mRiUu gksus ls buds [kjkc gksus dh leL;k mRiUu gksus
yxhA vr% ,d ,sls iqtZs dh vko';drk gqbZ ftlesa vusd Vkfa tLVjksa ds rqY; ifjiFk gksA ,slk iqtkZ
gh ekbksizkslslj dgykrk gSA
lcls igyk ekbksikz slslj lu~ 1970 esa baVsy dkiksZj's ku (Intel Corporation) us Intel 4004
ds uke ls rS;kj fd;k] ftlesa yxHkx 2300 VkaftLVjksa ds cjkcj {kerk FkhA ekbksikz slslj yxHkx
vk/ks bap dk flfydkWu /kkrq ls fufeZr vk;rkdkj VqdM+k gksrk gS] tks ,d [kksy esa NksV&
s NksVs duSDVlZ
(Connectors) ds lkFk O;ofLFkr jgrk gSA piVk gksus ds dkj.k bls fpi (Chip) Hkh dgrs gSaA baVsy
4004 fpi ds ckn ekbksizkl
s slj dh rduhd fujUrj fodflr gksrh xbZ vkSj budh {kerk o xfr
c<+rh xbZA orZeku esa fofHkUu xfr ,oa x.ku {kerk okys ekbksizkslslj miyC/k gSa] ftuesa bUVsy
isfUV;e&4] ,-,e-Mh- (AMD), lkbfjDl vkfn ekbksizkslsljksa ds uke mYys[kuh; gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/10

1 -7 .11 fu;U=.k bdkbZ (Control Unit) vFkok lh-;w- (C.U.)


lh-ih-;w- esa dUVksy ;wfuV dh cgqr vge~ Hkwfedk gSA uke ds vuq:i ;g dEI;wVj dh
lwpukvksa ds vknku&iznku ij o dEI;wVj ds vU; midj.kksa ij iwjk fu;U=.k j[krh gSA dUVky
s ;wfuV
ds izeq[k dk;Z fuEufyf[kr gSa %&
(I)

;g dEI;w V j dh leLr vkUrfjd f;kvks a dk la p kyu djrh gSA

(II)

;g buiqV&vkmViqV fvk;ksa dks fu;fU=r djrh gSA

(III)

;g eSeksjh ls izksxkz e i<+rh gS] mudh O;k[;k djrh gS rFkk ,-,y-;w- o eSeksjh esa okafNr f;k
lEiUu djus ds fy, rnkuqlkj funsZ'k nsrh gSA

(IV)

;g ,-,y-;w- dks ;g crkrh gS fd MkVk eSeksjh esa dgk fLFkr gS] D;k f;k djuh gS rFkk
izf;k ds i'pkr fu"d"kZ@ifj.kke (Result) dgk laxzfgr gksuk gSA
;s lHkh funsZ'k fo/kqr ladrs ksa ds :i esa flLVe cl (System Bus) dh fu;U=d cl
(Control Bus) ds ek/;e ls dEI;wVj ds fofHkUu Hkkxks rd lapfjr gksrs gSaA vusd rkjks dk
lewg cl dgykrh gSA

1-7-2 vadxf.krh; rkfdZd bdkbZ (Arithmetic Logic Unit), ,-,y-;w- (A.L.U.)


;g ;wfuV vadxf.krh; f;k, rFkk rkfdZd
f;k, (Logical Operations) djrh gSA vad xf.krh;
f;kvksa esa tksM+] ckdh] xq.kk] Hkkx lfEefyr gSA ALU
esa ,d ,slk bysDVkfW ud ifjiFk gksrk gS tks vad xf.krh;
x.kuk, djus esa l{ke gksrk gSA
rkfdZd f;kvksa esa ,-,y-;w- nks la[;kvksa ;k
MkVk dh rqyuk dj] fu.kZ; ysus dk dk;Z djrk gSA
rqyuk ds ifj.kke gk vFkok ugha esa gksrs gSa] ftlls
fu.kZ; ysus esa lgk;rk feyrh gSA

fp= 1-8 ekbksizkslslj

,-,y-;w- dUVksy ;wfuV lh-;w- dh fuxjkuh esa dk;Z djrk gSA ;g eSeksjh ls MkVk izkIr djrk
gS] ml ij x.kuk, djrk gS vkSj ifj.kke iqu% eSeksjh dks gh ykSVk nsrk gSA ,-,y-;w- ds dk;Z djus
dh xfr vfr rhoz gksrh gSA ;g yxHkx nl yk[k x.kuk, izfr lSd.M dh xfr ls djrk gSA ,-,y;w- esa vusd jftLVj (Register) vkSj ,D;qey
w sVj (Accumulators) gksrs gSa tks x.kukvks ds nkSjku
{kf.kd laxgz gsrq eSeksjh dk dk;Z djrs gSaA
,-,y-;w- esa MkVk izkslsl gksus ds ckn ifj.kke dks ;k rks izn'kZu ds fy, vkmViqV midj.kks
esa Hkst fn;k tkrk gSa ;k mUgsa eSeksjh esa laxzfgr dj fy;k tkrk gSA
1 -7 -3

eSeksjh (Memory)

euq"; ds fnekx esa ;kn j[kus dh {kerk gksrh gS ftls Le`fr (Memory) dgrs gSaA blh izdkj
dEI;wVj esa MkVk rFkk funsZ'kksa dks laxzg djus dh {kerk gksrh gS] tks dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh dgykrh gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/11

dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh og bysDVkWfud LFkku gS tgk MkVk] lwpuk vkSj izkx


s zke laxfz gr jgrs gSa vkSj
vko';drk gksus ij rRdky miyC/k gks ldrs gSaA eSeksjh izR;sd dEI;wVj dk ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gSA
fcuk eSeksjh ds dEI;wVj dk;Z ugha dj ldrkA
eSeksjh esa laxzg ds fy, vusd LFkku (Locations) gksrs gSa] ftudh la[;k fuf'pr gksrh gSA
eSeksjh dh {kerk (Memory Capacity) vFkok eSeksjh dk vkdkj (Memory Size) bu LFkkuksa dh
la[;k ij fuHkZj djrk gSA eseks jh esa izR;sd LFkku dh ,d igpku la[;k gksrh gS] ftls ,Ml
s
(Address) dgrs gSA
eSeksjh dks eq[; :i ls nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gS %&
(I)

eq[; eSeksjh (Main Memory)

(II)

ck eSeksjh (External Memory)

tc eSeksjh 'kCn dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS rks mldk vk'k; eq[; eSeksjh (Main Memory)
gh gksrk gSA bls izkFkfed eSeksjh (Primary Memory) vFkok vkUrfjd eSeksjh (Internal Memory)
Hkh dgk tkrk gSA ;g lh-ih-;w- dk gh Hkkx gksrh gSA eq[; eSeksjh rhoz xfr okyh gksrh gS rFkk izkFkfed
rF;ka`s dh lax.kuk] izkx
s zke esa fyf[kr funsZ'kksa ds vuqlkj djrh gSA ;g e/;orhZ rFkk vfUre nksuksa
fu"d"kksZa (Results) dks laxzfgr djus ds fy, Hkh iz;qDr gksrh gSA eSeksjh ,d v)Zpkyd fpi
(Semiconductor Chip) gksrh gSA
eq[; eSeksjh dks lkekU;r nks Hkkxksa esa ckVk tkrk gS %&
(I) vLFkk
vLFkk;h
;h eSeksjh vFkok jsUMe ,Dlsl eSeksjh (Random Access Memory - RAM)

;g lcls T;knk iz;ksx esa vkus okyh eSeksjh gSA


dh&cksMZ vFkok vU; fdlh buiqV fMokbl ls buiqV
fd;k MkVk izf;k ls igys RAM esa gh laxzfgr gksrk gS
vkSj lh-ih-;w- }kjk ogk ls vko';drkuqlkj izkIr dj
fy;k tkrk gSA RAM esa laxzfgr MkVk ;k funsZ'k dHkh Hkh
,Dlsl (Access) fd;k tk ldrk gS rFkk dHkh Hkh i<+k
,oa iqu% fy[kk tk ldrk gS (That can be read from as
well as written to)A RAM esa lafpr lwpukvksa dks ge
ekbkslSd.M ds nlosa fgLls esa iqu% xzg.k dj ldrs gSaA

fp= 1-9 jse fpi

RAM esa MkVk ;k izksxzke vLFkkbZ :i ls laxzfgr jgrs gSaA dEI;wVj dks cUn (Switch Off)
djus vFkok fo/kqr vkiwfrZ cUn gks tkus ij RAM esa laxfz gr MkVk feV tkrk gSA blfy, RAM dks
vLFkk;h ;k vfLFkj (Volatile) eSeksjh dgrs gSaA
(II)LFkk;h eSeksjh vFkok jhM vkWuyh eSeksjh (Read Only Memory - ROM)

bl eSeksjh esa laxzfgr izkx


s zke ifjofrZr vFkok u"V ugha fd, tk ldrs gSa] mUgsa dsoy
i<+k tk ldrk gSA ;g eSeksjh LFkk;h ;k fLFkj (Non-Volatile) gksrh gSA vr% dEI;wVj dks cUn

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/12
(Switch Off) djus vFkok fo|qr vkiwfrZ cUn gks tkus ij ;g u"V ugha gksrhA bl eSeksjh dk mi;ksx
ewyHkwr funsZ'kksa (Basic Instructions) ds laxzg.k ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ROM ds mi;ksx dk lcls
vPNk mnkgj.k BIOS (Basic Input Output System) gS] ftlesa dEI;wVj dk Booting izksxzke
laxfz gr gksrk gSA tc dEI;wVj pkyw (Turn On) gksrk gS rks og blls Lor% gh lwpuk xzg.k dj Boot
gks tkrk gSA ROM dk mi;ksx Lopkfyr e'khuksa] f[kykSuksa vkfn esa Hkh gksrk gSA
ROM rhu izdkj dh gksrh gSa %&
(a)

ihjkse (PROM- Programmable Read Only Memory) %& bl eSeksjh esa dsoy ,d
gh ckj fy[kk tk ldrk gSA fdUrq ckj&ckj i<+k tk ldrk gSA

(b)

bZihjkse (EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) %& bl eSeksjh


esa vko';drk gksus ij izksxzke feVk;k tk ldrk gS] vkSj u;k izksxzke Mkyk tk ldrk gSA bl
eSeksjh dks feVkus ds fy, ijkcSaxuh fdj.kksa dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

(c)

bZbZ
i hjkse
bZ
b Zihjks
e (EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory) %& bl eSeksjh esa izkx
s zke dks vko';drk gksus ij fo|qr rjaxksa }kjk feVk;k tkrk
gSa vkSj u;k izksxzke Mkyk tk ldrk gSA

fp= 1-10 jske fpi


MkVk dks LFkk;h :i ls laxzfgr djus ds fy, ck eSeksjh (External Memory) dh
vko';drk gksrh gSA bls f}rh;d eSeksjh (Secondary Memory) Hkh dgrs gSA ;g eSeksjh pqEcdh;
(Magnetic) vFkok izdk'kh; (Optical) gksrh gSA blesa laxzfgr MkVk ges'kk lqjf{kr jgrk gS rFkk
dEI;wVj dks cUn djus ij Hkh u"V ugha gksrk gSA gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd] eSxusfVd Vsi vkfn
f}rh;d eSeksjh ds mnkgj.k gSA bUgsa f}rh;d laxzg.k ;qfDr;k (Secondary Storage Devices) Hkh
dgrs gSaA

1-8

eSeksjh dh bdkb;k (Units of Memory)

eSeksjh esa lwpuk fcV (Bit) ds :i esa laxgz dh tkrh gSA Bit ckbujh fMftV (Binary Digit)
ls feydj cuk 'kCn gSA dEI;wVj dh iwjh vkUrfjd f;k ckbujh vad iz.kkyh (Binary Nuumber
System) ij gh vk/kkfjr gSA ckbujh vad iz.kkyh esa dsoy nks gh vad ^0* o ^1* gksrs gSaA ,d fcV
dk eku 0 vFkok 1 'kwU; vFkok ,d gh gks ldrk gSA fdlh bysDVkWfud ifjiFk ij ;fn fuxZe
(Output) ds :i esa dqN foHko gks rks mls ,d rFkk foHko dqN Hkh u gks rks 'kwU; ls fu:fir fd;k

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/13

tkrk gSA dEI;wVj ds bysDVkWfud ifjiFk esa 1 dk vFkZ ^iYl (Pulse) mifLFkr* gS] tcfd 0 dk vFkZ
^iYl (Pulse) vuqifLFkr* gSA
dEI;wVj esa lHkh MkVk 0 vFkok 1 esa gh laxzfgr gksrk gSA fdUrq ekuo }kjk dEI;wVj dks lkjh
lwpuk, 0 vFkok 1 fcV ds :i esa nsuk nq"dj dk;Z gSA vr% mi;ksxdkkZ dEI;wVj dks leLr buiqV
viuh gh Hkk"kk esa nsrk gS vkSj dEI;wVj Lo;a mls viuh Hkk"kk (Bit :i) esa ifjofrZr dj ysrk gSA
mnkgj.k ds :i esa dh&cksMZ ij tc A ^dh* dks nck;k tkrk gS rks dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh esa 1000001
vafdr gks tkrk gSA
;|fi Bit eSeksjh dh izkFkfed bdkbZ gS fdUrq ;g vR;f/kd NksVh gksus ds dkj.k izk;% bldk
mi;ksx eSeksjh ds ekiu esa ugha fd;k tkrkA lkekU;r% eSeksjh ekiu esa ckbV (Byte) bdkbZ dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA vkB fcV ls feydj ,d ckbV dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA fcV vkSj ckbV ds chp dh ,d
vkSj bdkbZ fuCcy (Nibble) gSA ,d fuCcy esa pkj ckbujh vad gksrs gSA vr% ;g ckbV dh vk/kh
gksrh gSA
12345-

6-

7-

eSeksjh dh fofHkUu bdkb;k fuEu izdkj ls O;Dr dh tk ldrh gSa %&


fcV (Bit) & eSeksjh dh lcls NksVh bdkbZ ckbujh vad iz.kkyh esa bldk eku 0 vFkok 1
gksrk gSA
fuCcy (Nibble) & 4 fcV ds lewg dks fuCcy dgrs gSaA
vr% 1 fuCcy
4 fcV
ckbV (Byte) & 8 fcV ds lewg dks ckbV dgrs gSA lkekU;r% ,d djsDVj vad ;k v{kj
dks ,d ckbV ls O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA vr% vr% 1 ckbV
8 fcV
fdyksckbV (Kilobyte- KB) & 1024 ckbV dks 1 fdyksckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 fdyksckbV
1024 ckbV
esxkckbV (Megabyte- MB) & 1024 fdyksckbV dks 1 esxkckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 esxkckbV 1024 fdyksckbV
1024 X 1024 ckbV
xhxkckbV (Gegabyte- GB) & 1024 esxkckbV dks 1 xhxkckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 xhxkckbV 1024 esxkckbV
1024 X 1024 fdyksckbV
VsjkckbV (Terabyte- TB) & 1024 xhxkckbV dks 1 VsjkckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 VsjkckbV 1024 xhxkckbV
1024 X 1024 X 1024 ckbV
1024 X 1024 esxkckbV
1024 X 1024 X 1024 fdyksckbV
1024 X 1024 X 1024 X 1024 ckbV

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/14

1-9

buiqV ;qfDr;ka (Input Devices)

buiqV ;qfDr;ksa dh lgk;rk ls mi;ksxdrkZ (User) }kjk dEI;wVj esa vkadMs+] lwpuk,a rFkk
funsZ'k Mkys tkrs gSaA ;s ;qfDr;ka ekuoh; Hkk"kk esa fn, x, MkVk vkSj funsZ'kksa dks dEI;wVj ds le>us
;ksX; ladsrksa esa ifjofrZr djrh gaSA ;s v{kjksa] la[;kvksa vkSj vU; fpUgksa dk dEI;wVj dh Hkk"kk 0 ,oa
1 fcV esa vuqokn Hkh djrh gSa rkfd dEI;wVj mUgsa le> ldsA blds i'pkr gh MkVk izf;k (Data
Processing) lEHko gks ikrh gSA bl izdkj buiqV ;qfDr;ka eq[;r% nks ms';ksa dh iwfrZ djrh gSa %&
1 vkdM+ksa o funsZ'kksa dks dEI;wVj rd ys tkukA
2 vkdM+ksa o funsZ'kksa dks e'khuh Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr djukA
buiqV ;qfDr;ka mruh gh iqjkuh gSa] ftruk fd dEI;wVj] fdUrq le; ds lkFk&lkFk buesa [kwc
ifjorZu gqvk gSA vkt dh&cksM]Z ekml] LdSuj] tkW;fLVd] ykbViSu] vkWIVhdy ekDlZ jhMj]
vkWIVhdy dSjDs Vj jhMj vkfn vusd buiqV ;qfDr;k izpyu esa gSA buesa ls dqN ize[q k buiqV ;qfDr;ksa
ds lEcU/k esa vkidks ;gka crk;k tk jgk gSA
1-9-1 dh&cks M Z (Key-Board)
;g lokZf/kd iz;qDr gksus okyk ,oa egRoiw.kZ buiqV midj.k gSA ;g ,d rjg ls VkbijkbVj
dk la'kksf/kr :i gSA blesa dqfa t;ksa (Keys) dh la[;k VkbijkbVj ls vf/kd gksrh gSA lkekU;r% budh
la[;k 101 ls 108 rd gksrh gSA dh&cksMZ ij lHkh v{kj (Characters), la[;k,a (Numbers) rFkk
vU; fpUg gksrs gSa] ftuds }kjk MkVk buiqV fd;k tkrk gSA
dh&cksMZ ,d dscy ds ek/;e ls flLVe ;wfuV ls tqM+k jgrk gSA dscy dk Iyx flLVe
;wfuV ds ihNs fufeZr ,d lkWdsV esa yx tkrk gSA
dh&cksMZ esa ,d dh&cksMZ ,udksMj (Key-Board Encoder) gksrk gS] tks bldh fdlh dqath
(Key) dks nckus ij MkVk dks 8 fcV 1 vkSj 0 ds dksM esa cnyus dk dk;Z djrk gSA

11 dh&cksMZ
fp= 11.11
dh&cksMZ dh dqaft;k VkbijkbVj dh rqyuk esa vklkuh ls ncrh gSa rFkk nckus ds ckn rqjUr
vaxqyh mBk ysuh iM+rh gSA ;fn 0-5 lSd.M ls vf/kd le; rd ,d gh dqath dks nckdj j[kk tk,
rks dh&cksMZ ckj&ckj ,d gh djsDVj ds ladrs dEI;wVj esa izfo"V djrk tk,xkA blls Lhu ij ogh
djsDVj vusd ckj iznf'kZr gks tk,xkA bl f;k dks VkbieSfVd (Typematic) dgrs gSa] bl f;k
dh nj 10 ckj izfr lSd.M gksrh gSA
dh&cksMZ dh fofHkUu dqaft;ksa (Keys) dks eq[;r% fuEu izdkjksa esa oxhZdr` fd;k tk ldrk
gS %&

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/15

o.kZekyk dqaft;k (Alphabet Keys) %& VkbijkbVj dh rjg gh dEI;wVj ds dh&cksMZ


eas vaxt
sz h o.kZekyk ds lHkh 26 v{kjksa ds fy,vyx&vyx dqaft;k gksrh gSAa ;s dqft;k dh&cksMZ
dk eq[; Hkkx cukrh gSaA budk e fuf'pr gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh v{kj okyh dqath dks nckdj
ge ekuhVj dh Lhu ij ml v{kj dks ns[k ldrs gSaA vkt vaxzsth ds vykok vU; Hkk"kkvksa
ds o.kZekyk ds dh&cksMZ Hkh miyC/k gSaA

vad&dqaft;k (Numeric keys) %& ;s dqaft;k dh&cksMZ ds ijh Hkkx esa vad 0 ls 9 rd
gksrh gSaA ;s dqaft;k fuEu e esa O;ofLFkr gksrh gSaA

dk;Z dqaft;k (Function Keys) %& ;s dqaft;k dh&cksMZ ds lcls ijh Hkkx esa F1 ls
ysdj F12 rd dqy 12 gksrh gSaA ;s dqaft;k fo'ks"k dk;ksZa (Function) dks djrh gSaA tSls&
dek.Mksa dk vkoaVu (Assignment), lkWVos;j izksxzkEl esa Lhu ij ehuw (Menu) n'kkZuk
vkfnA fHkUu&fHkUu lkWVos;j esa QUd'ku dqfta;ksa dk dk;Z fHkUu&fHkUu gksrk gSA

fn'kk dqaft;k (Arrow Keys or Cursor Control Keys) %&


;s dh&cksMZ ds uhps ds nk;sa Hkkx esa gksrh gSaA bu ij
rhj (Arrow) ds fu'kku cus gksrs gSaA dlZj (Cursor)
dks ij] uhps] nk;s]a ck;sa ys tkus ds fy, bu dqaft;ksa
dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA dlZj ,d fo'ks"kk{kj
vFkok fo'ks"k fp gksrk gS tks Lhu ij mi;ksxdrkZ
(User) dh fLFkfr crkrk gS] ftlls mi;ksxdrkZ dks
;g Kkr gksrk gS fd og tks Vkbi djsxk og Lhu
ij dgka fy[kk tk,xkA
fo'ks"kk{kj dqaft;k (Character Keys) %& ;s dqaft;k fo'ks"k v{kjksa ;k fpksa dks
fy[kus ds dke vkrh gSA tSls& ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * ( ) _ + ; ' , . / : " <
> ? vkfnA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/16

fo'ks"k dqaft;k (Special Keys) %& dh&cksMZ esa dqN fo'ks"k dqaft;k Hkh gksrh gSaA buds
uke ,oa dk;Z fuEukuqlkj gSa %&
* fjVuZ ;k ,UVj dh (Return or Enter Key) %&
;g fdlh dh&cksMZ esa lokZf/kd iz;qDr gksus okyh daqth gSA dksbZ
'kCn] okD; ;k funsZ'k fy[kus ds i'pkr tc bl dqath dks nck;k
tkrk gS rks og dEI;wVj dh eseksjh esa pyk tkrk gSA
* gkse dqath (Home Key) %&
bldk mi;ksx dlZj dks Lhu ij cuk, x, fdlh MkWD;weUs V
(Document) ds izkjEHk esa ys tkus ds fy, gksrk gSA
* cSd Lisl dqath (Back Space Key) %&
bl dqath ds mi;ksx ls dlZj ds ck;ha vksj okyk v{kj feVk;k
tkrk gSA
* Lisl ckj dqath (Space Bar Key) %&
;g dh cksMZ dh lcls yEch dqath gS] bldk mi;ksx nks v{kjksa] vadksa ;k fpksa ds e/; LFkku
NksM+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

* fMyhV dqath (Delete Key) %&

;g dqath dlZj ds nk;ha vksj okys v{kj dks gVkus (Delete) ds


dke vkrh gSA
* bUlVZ dqath (Insert Key) %&
;g dqath nks v{kjksa ds e/; vU; dksbZ v{kj Mkyus ds dke yh
tkrh gSA
* VSc dqath (Tab Key) %&
;g dlZj dks ,d ykbu esa vFkok vxyh ykbu esa iwoZ fu/kkZfjr
LFkku rd ysdj tkrh gSA
* ,Ldsi dqath (Escape or Esc Key) %&
;g dh cksMZ ds ck;ha vksj ijh dksus esa gksrh gSA bldk mi;ksx
fdlh vkns'k (Command) ;k ,UVh dks jn~n djus vFkok iwoZorhZ
dek.M ;k ,UVh ij tkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/17
* ikWt dqath (Pause Key) %&

dEI;wVj ij py jgh fdlh izf;k (Processing) dks vLFkk;h


:i ls jksdus dk dk;Z djrh gSA
* dSIl ykWd dqath (Caps Lock Key) %&
bl dqath dks nckus ij lHkh v{kj dSfiVy (Capital) esa Vkbi
gksrs gSAa lkekU; v{kj Vkbi djus ds fy, bls ,d ckj iqu% nckuk
gksrk gSA ;g dqath lf; gksrh gS rks dh&cksMZ ij ijh nka;h
vksj Caps Lock bfUMdsVj vkWu gks tkrk gSA
* f'kV dqath (Shift Key) %&
dh&cksMZ dh vf/kdka'k dqaft;ksa ij ij ,oa uhps nksuksa rjQ
v{kj@vad@fp eqfnzr gksrs gSaA lkekU; :i ls fdlh cVu dks
nckus ls uhps okyk v{kj gh Vkbi gksrk gSA ij okys v{kj dks
Vkbi djus ds fy, ml dqath dks f'kV dh ds lkFk nckuk gksrk
gSA
* fizUV Lhu dqath (Print Screen Key) %&
ekWuhVj dh Lhu ij tks Hkh lkexzh iznf'kZr gks jgh gSA mls fizUV
djus ds fy, bl dqath dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
* LkWy ykWd dqath (Scroll Lock Key) %&
bldk mi;ksx Lksfyax Lhu dks ij] uhps] ck;s]a nk;sa ljdkus
izkjEHk djus ,oa cUn djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
* ist vi rFkk ist Mkmu dqaft;k (Page Up and Page
Down Keys) %&
ftl ist ij dk;Z fd;k tk jgk gS mlls igys ist ij tkus ds
fy, Page Up Key rFkk vxys ist ij tkus ds fy, Page
Down Key dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
U;wesfjd dh&iSM (Numeric Key Pad) %&
7
;g dh&cksMZ ds nk;sa Hkkx esa 17 dqaft;ksa dk lewg gksrk
gS] ftlesa 0 ls 9 rd ds vadksa dh dqfa t;k gksrh gSa] ftuesa
ls pkj dqaft;ksa ij fn'kk,a iznf'kZr djus okys rhj (Arrow) vafdr gksrs gSaA bl Hkkx dh vU; dqaft;k Num
Lock, /, *, -, +, Home, PgUp, PgDn, End, Ins, Del
vkSj Enter gksrh gSaA tc MkVk dsoy vadksa esa gks rks rhoz

xfr ls MkVk ,UVh ds fy, U;wesfjd dh&iSM dk mi;ksx


fd;k tkrk gSA
orZeku esa bUVjusV o eYVhehfM;k ds mi;ksx gsrq bUVjusV dh&cksMZ o eYVhehfM;k
dh&cksMZ Hkh yksdfiz; gks jgs gSaA buds mi;ksx ls dbZ dk;Z lh/ks muls lEcfU/kr ^dh* dks
nckdj lEiUu fd, tk ldrs gSaA vktdy dkWMZ ySl (Chordless) dh&cksMZ Hkh izpyu esa
vk x;s gSAa

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/18

1-9-2 ekml (Mouse)


dEI;wVj ds lapkyu ds fy, iz;qDr gksus okys
egRoiw.kZ midj.kksa esa ls ekml Hkh ,d gSA orZeku esa
miyC/k vkWijsfVax flLVeksa dks ns[krs gq, rks yxrk gS fd
ekml ds cxSj dEI;wVj dk lapkyu djuk Hkh vlEHko gSA
;g ,d NksVk lk midj.k gksrk gS ftldk vkdkj pwgs
tSlk gksus ds dkj.k bls ekml dgk tkrk gSA
ekml dks fdlh lery lrg ij j[ks ekml iSM
(Mouse Pad) ij j[kdj gkFk ls b/kj&m/kj ljdk;k
tkrk gSA bleas nks ;k rhu cVu gksrs gSAa ekml ds cVu dks
vaxy
q h ls nck;k tkrk gSA bl f;k dks ^fDyd* dgrs gSAa
ekml dks ekml iSM ij b/kj&m/kj ljdkus ij ekWuhVj ij
,d rhj dh vkd`fr dk fp Hkh b/kj&m/kj pyrk
fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA bl rhj ds fp dks ekml ikWbUVj (Mouse
fp= 1-12 ekml
Pointer) ;k ekml dlZj (Mouse Cursor) dgrs gSAa
vf/kdka ' k ekml ds uhps dh rjQ ,d ckW y gks r h gS tks ekml dks
b/kj&m/kj ljdkus ij ?kwerh gSA bl ckWy ds nksuksa rjQ nks ifg;s gksrs gSa] tks ckWy ds vuq:i ?kwers
gSaA ekml esa yxs lsUlj (Sensor) buds ?kweus dh xfr dks uksV dj dEI;wVj dks lUns'k Hkstrs gSaA
vktdy fcuk ckWy okys ekml Hkh izpyu esa vk x, gSa] ftUgsa vkWIVhdy ekml (Optical Mouse)
dgrs gSaA buesa QksVks fMVsDVj yxs gksrs gSa] tks ekml dh yEcor~ o {kSfrt xfr dks lsUl djrs gSa rFkk
dEI;wVj dks lwpuk Hkstrs gSaA dqN ekml esa Lhu dks LkWy djus okyk Hkh cVu gksrk gSA ,sls ekml
dks LkWy ekml (Scroll Mouse) dgrs gSaA
ekml ,d cgqr gh mi;ksxh buiqV midj.k gSA blds mi;ksx ls dEI;wVj esa funsZ'kksa dk
izs"k.k dkQh vklku gks x;k gSA ekml }kjk dEI;wVj dks cgqr rhoz xfr ls pkfyr fd;k tk ldrk
gSA fp= vkfn xzkfQDl ds fy, Hkh ;g mi;ksxh gSA
ekml dk mi;ksx lkekU;r% fuEu izdkjksa ls fd;k tkrk gS %&
* flaxy fDyd (Single Click) %& ck;sa cVu ds ,d ^fDyd* ls Lhu ij ^vkCtsDV* ;k
^vkWIlu* dk p;u fd;k tkrk gSA
* Mcy fDyd (Double Click) %& ck;sa cVu ls yxkrkj nks ckj ^fDyd* djus ls
^vkWCtsDV* [kqy tkrk gSA
* jkbV fDyd (Right Click) %& nk;sa cVu dks ,d ckj fDyd djus ij 'Context Menu'
[kqyrk gS ftlesa dbZ ^vkWIlu* gksrs gSaA
* Msx ,.M MkWi %& flaxy fDyd }kjk fdlh vkWCtsDV dks ^lsyDs V* djds rFkk ck;sa cVu
dks nck, gq, ekml dh lgk;rk ls bls Lhu ij dgha Hkh j[kk tk ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/19

1-9-3 tkW; fLVd (Joystick)


orZeku ;qx rhoz ,oa vfr okLrfod fn[kkbZ iM+us okys
3D xseksa dk ;qx gSA ftlds ikl loksZre lk/ku gSa ogh budk
lEiw.kZ vkuUn mBk ldrk gSA izkjEHk esa dsoy dh&cksMZ rFkk
ekml dh enn ls gh dEI;wVj ij xse [ksys tkrs FksA fdUrq vkt
bl dk;Z ds fy, vusd midj.k miyC/k gSa] ftuesa tkW;fLVd
lcls ize[q k gSaA tkW; fLVd esa pkjksa fn'kkvksa esa ?kweus okyk ,d
gSaMy (Handle) gksrk gS] tks fd Lhu ij fp=ksa dks fgykus o
pykus vkfn dk dk;Z djrk gSA bl gSaMy esa ,d cVu Hkh gksrk
gS] tks xsEl esa Qk;j (Fire) vkfn djus ds dke vkrk gSA

fp= 1-13 tkW; fLVd

1-9-4 ykbV iSu (Light Pen)


;g iSu dh vkd`fr dk ,d izdk'k laons h midj.k gS] tks ,d rkj dh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj
ls tqM+k gksrk gSA ;g Lhu ij lh/ks fy[kus dk dk;Z djrk gSA vr% bldk mi;ksx xzkfQDl vkfn
cukus ds dk;ksZa (Computer Aided Design) esa fd;k tkrk gSA dEI;wVj esa ykbV iSu dk mi;ksx djus
ds fy, fo'ks"k izdkj ds lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx djuk iM+rk gSA

fp= 1-14 ykbV iSu


1-9-5 vkWIVhdy djSDVj jhMj (Optical Character Reader-OCR)

vkWIVhdy djSDVj jhMj (OCR) Nis gq,] Vkbi


fd, gq, rFkk gLrfyf[kr vYQkU;wefs jd djsDVjksa (Alphanumeric Characters) dks i<+us dk dk;Z djrk gSA
OCR ,d izdk'k fo|qr ;qfDr (Photo Electric Device)
ds }kjk djsDVlZ dks LdSu djrk gS rFkk ijkofrZr izdk'k
ds MkVk dks ckbujh MkVk 1 vkSj 0 esa cnydj dEI;wVj
eas buiqV dj nsrk gSA dEI;wVj budh igpku dEI;wVj esa
iwoZ esa laxfz gr QkWUVl~ ls djrk gSA ;fn LdSu fd;k gqvk

fp= 1-15 vkslhvkj (OCR)

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/20

djsDVj dEI;wVj esa igys ls laxfz gr ugha gS rks mldh igpku ugha gks ikrhA OCR dh i<+us dh xfr
3000 djsDVj izfr lSd.M rd gksrh gS fdUrq lkekU;r% 300 ls 800 djsDVj izfr lSd.M i<+us okys
OCR gh fMtkbu fd, tkrs gSAa bl xfr ij i<+us dh ifj'kq)rk mPp dksfV dh gksrh gS rFkk ,sls
djsDVj Hkh i<+us esa vk tkrs gSa tks cukoV esa FkksM+s fHkUu gkas ;k dqN vLi"V gksaA
OCR esa izk;% nks izdkj ds ekud QkWUVl~ laxfz gr gksrs gSAa ;s QkWUVl~ gaS& OCR-A(American
Standard) rFkk OCR-B (Europian Standard)A buesa ls OCR-A QkWUVl~ vf/kd izpfyr gaSA fdUrq
vktdy ,sls OCR Hkh vk x, gaS tks fofHkUu eqfnzr ,oa Vkbi fd, gq, djsDVj ds vfrfjDr Li"V
gLrkfyf[kr djsDVj Hkh i<+ ysrs gaSA

fp= 1-16 ekud vkslhvkj QkWUVl~


OCR us igys ls eqfnzr vFkok fyf[kr MkVk dks dEI;wVj esa izfo"V djokuk cgqr gh vklku
cuk fn;k gSA blls ekuoh; Je dh rks cpr gksrh gh gS lkFk gh dk;Z dh ifj'kq)rk Hkh mPp dksfV
dh gksrh gSA ftu dk;kZy;ksa esa fcy ;k iphZ QkM+dj nh tkrh gS ogka OCR vf/kd mi;ksxh gksrk
gSA dEI;wVj }kjk Nis gq, fcy dk nwljk vk/kk iUuk ml le; iqu% MkVk ,UVh djus ds dke vk tkrk
gS tcfd miHkksDrk fcy dh jkf'k tek djokus gsrq bls izLrqr djrk gSA
11-99-66 esXusfVd bad djsDVj jhMj (Magnetic Ink Character Reader- MICR)
9bl midj.k dk iz;ksx eq[;r% cSadksa esa cM+h
la[;k esa tek gksus okys pSdksa dks tkapus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA cSd
a ds pSd esa uhps dh vksj MICR }kjk cSd
a dh
dksM la[;k,a] xzkgd dh [kkrk la[;k rFkk pSd dh jkf'k
,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh pqEcdh; L;kgh (Magnetic Ink) ls
Nkih tkrh gSA fdlh pSd dks i<+us ds fy, mls MICR
dss jhfMax gSM (Reading Head) ds uhps ls xqtkjrs gaS tks
cM+s vUrjky dks 1 ds :i esa rFkk NksVs vUrjky dks 0 ds
:i esa i<+rk gSA MICR dsoy 10 vadksa ,oa 4 fo'ks"k
djsDVj dks gh i<+ ldrk gSA
fp= 1-17 MICR
MICR ls pSd vR;f/kd ifj'kq)rk ls i<+s tk ldrs gaSA pSdksa dh izkslfs lax xfr Hkh c<+ tkrh
gSA MICR ls i<+s x, MkVk dks lh/ks dEI;wVj esa Mkyk tk ldrk gSA MICR djsDVlZ e'khu ,oa ekuo
nksuksa }kjk gh i<+s tk ldrs gSaA

fp= 1-18 MICR Fonts

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/21

1-9-7 vkWIVhdy ekdZ jhMj (Optical Mark Reader -OMR)


;g ,d ,slk midj.k gS ftldk mi;ksx dkxt ds fdlh LFkku fo'ks"k ij isfUly ;k isu
ds fp (Mark) dh mifLFkfr rFkk vuqifLFkfr tkapus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA blesa fpfr
(Marked) dkxt ij izdk'k Mkyk tkrk gS vkSj ijkofrZr izdk'k dks tkapk tkrk gSA tgka fp
ugha gksrk gS dkxt ds ml Hkkx ls iwjk izdk'k ijkofrZr gks tkrk gS fdUrq tgka fp mifLFkr gksrk
gS ogka ls ijkofrZr izdk'k dh rhozrk de gks tkrh gSA bl rduhd }kjk dsoy Nis gq, dkMZ ;k
QkeZ ij fuf'pr LFkkuksa ij cus pkSdksj] vk;rkdkj ;k xksykdkj [kkus (Boxes) fpfr gSa ;k ugha]
tkapk tk ldrk gSA

fp= 1-19 OMR Sheet

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/22
OMR cgqp;ukRed mn~ns';fu"V (Multiple choice Objective Type) ijh{kk dh mkj

iqfLrdk,a tkapus ds fy, iz;qDr gksrk gSA bu ijh{kkvksa esa iz'ukoyh ds izR;sd iz'u ds lEeq[k pkj ;k
ikap mkjksa ds fodYi fn, gksrs gS ftuesa ls lgh mkj ds fodYi dks mkj i=d (Answer Sheet)
esa lEcfU/kr iz'u ds lkeus fn, [kkuksa esa ls lEcfU/kr [kkus dks HB isfUly ;k dkys isu ls Hkj dj
pquuk gksrk gSA cktkj dk losZ{k.k rFkk tula[;k losZ{k.k lEcU/kh iz'uokfy;ksa dks tkapus ds fy, Hkh
bl rduhd dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
OMR vR;f/kd rhoz xfr ls dk;Z djrk gSA blls ,d feuV esa yxHkx 300&400 i=d
tkaps tk ldrs gaSAlkFk&lkFk ,d eksVh iqLrd dks Hkh LdSu fd;k tk ldrk gS ysfdu ;g midj.k
iksVsZcy ugha gS tcfd gSaM&gSYM LdSuj iksVsZcy gSA fdUrq gSaM&gSYM LdSuj ekuo fu;fU=r gksus ds
dkj.k bldh viuh lhek,a gSA
ySV cSM LdSujksa esa L=ksr fyf[kr lwpuk ;k vkd`fr dks lery lrg ij j[kk tkrk gS rFkk
bl ij yksjkslsaV cYc dh enn ls mPp ?kuRo okyh izdk'k fdj.ksa Mkyh tkrh gaSA LdSfuax ;wfuV
eksVj dh enn ls LdSu gsrq L=ksr ls fujUrj ijkofrZr gks jgh izdk'k fdj.kksa dks xzg.k djrk gqvk vkxs
dh vksj c<+rk gSA LdSuj dh eksVj dks fdruk ?kqekuk gS] fdl xfr ls ,oa dgka rd ?kqekuk gS] ;g
fu.kZ; dEI;wVj }kjk lkWVos;j ds ek/;e ls fd;k tkrk gSA
LdSfuax ;wfuV esa lSaflax gSM (Sensing Head) yxk gksrk gS tks ijkofrZr izdk'k fdj.kksa dks
xzg.k dj ,d vU; midj.k ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) ds ek/;e ls fMftVy :i esa
ifjofrZr dj nsrk gSA dEI;wVj esa ;g lwpuk laxfz gr gks tkrh gS ftls ekWuhVj Lhu ij iznf'kZr djrk
gSA Lhu ij iznf'kZr fp= NksVs&NksVs fcUnqvksa (Dots) ls feydj cuk gksrk gS ftUgsa fiDlsy (Pixel)
dgrs gaAS LdSuj dk vkWIVhdy jstksY;w'ku (Resolution) 300 ls 1600 fiDly izfr bap rd gks ldrk
gSA bls DPI (Dots Per Inch) ls iznf'kZr fd;k tkrk gSA jstksY;w'ku ftruk vf/kd gksxk LdSuj dh
xq.kokk mruh gh vf/kd gksxhA 'osr&';ke LdSujksa esa ,d gh izdk'k L=ksr gksrk gS tcfd jaxhu
LdSujksa esa rhu izdk'k L=ksr rhu ewy jaxksa&yky] uhys o gjs ds fy, vyx&vyx gksrs gaSA
LdSujksa dh fxurh vktdy vkerkSj ij iz;ksx fd, tkus okys ifjkh; midj.kksa esa gksus yxh
gSA MsLdVkWi ifCyf'kax esa budk [kwc mi;ksx gks jgk gSA OCR, MICR, OMR vkfn Hkh LdSujksa ds
gh mnkgj.k gSaA
1-9-8 LekVZ dkMZ jhMj (Smart Card Reader)
LekVZ dkMZ ,d NksVk lk IykfLVd dk dkMZ gksrk gS ftlesa ,d ekbksfpi yxh gksrh gSA
bl ekbksfpi esa cgqr lkjh lwpuk,a laxzfgr jgrh gSaA LekVZ dkMZ vkWu ykbu Hkxqrku O;oLFkk dk
,d lk/ku gS ftldk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh oLrq ds ; ds fy, vFkok viuh igpku crkus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA

fp= 11.20
20 LekVZ dkMZ jhMj

fp= 1-21 LekVZ dkMZ

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/23

LZ ekVZ dkMZ esa fufgr lwpuk,a LekVZ dkMZ jhMj }kjk i<+h tkrh gSaA vfkdka'k LekVZ dkMZ
jhMj esa ,d LykWV (Slot) gksrh gS ftlesa LekVZ dkMZ Mkyk tkrk gSA dqN gh {k.kksa esa tc LekVZ
dkMZ jhMj }kjk lwpuk,a i<+ yh tkrh gaS rks bls ckgj fudky fy;k tkrk gSA vc rks ,ls LekVZ
dkMZ jhMj vk x, gSa ftuesa dkMZ Mkyus dh vko';drk gh ugha gksrh vkSj os dqN nwjh ls gh
LekVZ dkMZ esa fufgr lwpuk,a i<+ ysrs gaAS
;wjksi esa LekVZ dkMZ cgqr vf/kd izpyu esa gaSA Hkkjr esa vHkh LekVZ dkMZ dk vf/kd izpyu
ugha gS fdUrq fudV Hkfo"; esa ;gka Hkh ;g viuk egRo fl) djus esa dke;kc gksxkA
1-9-9 ckj dksM jhMj (Bar Code Reader)
ckj dksM jhMj ,d gSaM&gSYM ;k fLFkj (Stationary) buiqV midj.k gS ftldk mi;ksx
fdlh ckj dksM esa fufgr lwpukvksa dks xzg.k djus rFkk i<+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ckj dksM
fHkUu&fHkUu eksVkbZ okyh dbZ /oZz (Vertical) js[kkvksa dk ,d lSV gksrk gSA js[kkvksa ds chp dh nwjh
vafdr dh tkrh gSA igpku i=ksa (Identity Card)rFkk Mkd i=ksa (Postal Mail) ij Hkh ckj dksM dk
mi;ksx e'k% O;fDr rFkk xarO; LFkkuksa dh tkudkjh ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ckj dksM jhMj esa ,d
LdSuj rFkk ,d fMdksMj gksrk gSA fMdksMj ckj dksM esa fufgr lwpukvksa dks vadksa ;k v{kjksa esa ifjofrZr
dj dEI;wVj dks Hkst nsrk gS tgka ij ;s laxfz gr gks tkrh gSa rFkk ekuhVj ds Lhu ij ns[kh tk ldrh
gSA Hkh fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA ckj dksM ds :i esa mRikndksa }kjk vius mRiknksa ij ,d fof'k"V igpku
vafdr dh tkrh gSA igpku i=ksa (Identity Card)rFkk Mkd i=ksa (Postal Mail) ij Hkh ckj dksM dk
mi;ksx e'k% O;fDr rFkk xarO; LFkkuksa dh tkudkjh ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ckj dksM jhMj esa ,d
LdSuj rFkk ,d fMdksMj gksrk gSA fMdksMj ckj dksM esa fufgr lwpukvksa dks vadksa ;k v{kjksa esa ifjofrZr
dj dEI;wVj dks Hkst nsrk gS tgka ij ;s laxfz gr gks tkrh gSa rFkk ekuhVj ds Lhu ij ns[kh tk ldrh
gSA

fp= 1-22 ckj dksM jhMj

fp= 1-23 ckj dksM dk uewuk

1-9- 10 fMftVy dSejk (Digital Camera)


fMftVy dSejs ds }kjk QksVks ysus ds i'pkr mls fMftVy MkVk esa cny fn;k tkrk gSA
fMftVy dSejs dh dk;Z i)fr ijEijkxr dSejksa ls feyrh&tqyrh gSA blesa Hkh ftl n`'; dh QksVks

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/24

ysuh gksrh gS mls ,d ySl


a dh lgk;rk ls Qksdl fd;k tkrk gS] ysfdu n`'; dks laxgz djus dk ek;e
fHkUu gksrk gSA ijEijkxr dSejksa esa bl dk;Z ds fy, ,d izdk'k laons h QksVksxzkQh fQYe dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA tc ;g fQYe izdk'k ds lEidZ esa vkrh gS rks bl ij yxs jlk;uksa esa ifjorZu gks
tkrk gSA bu ifjorZuksa dks fQDLpj (Fixture) ds }kjk LFkkbZ dj fy;k tkrk gS rFkk QksVks izkIr djus
ds fy, MoyilZ }kjk Moyi dj fy;k tkrk gSA
fMftVy dSejksa esa bl dk;Z ds fy,
pktZ diYM fMokbl (Charge Coupled
Device- CCD) dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
CCD ,d bysDVkfud fpi gS ftlesa cgqr
lkjs NksVs&NksVs QksVks VkaftLVj ,d tky ds
:i esa yxs gksrs gaSA tc ;s izdk'k ds lEidZ
esa vkrs gSa rks izdk'k dh izcyrk ds vuq:i
fo|qr mRikfnr djrs gSAa ,d Vkfa tLVj QksVks
ds ,d fiDly dk dk;Z djrk gSA vr% fiDly
ftrus vf/kd gksaxs] jstkWY;w'ku (Resolution)
Hkh mruk gh vf/kd gksxk vkSj QksVks Hkh Li"V
vk,xhA eksukskse fMftVy dSejksa esa ,d
fiDly ds fy, ,d gh VkaftLVj dk iz;ksx
fd;k tkrk gS fdUrq jaxhu fMftVy dSejksa esa
izR;sd fiDly ds fy, rhu Vkfa tLVjksa dk
iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks rhu ewy jaxksa yky]
fp= 1-24 fMftVy dSejk
gjs ,oa uhys ds fy, iz;qDr gksrs gaSA
QksVks Vkfa tLVj fujUrj fo|qr mRlftZr djrs gSa ftUgsa ,ukykWx Vw fMftVy duoVZj (ADC)
}kjk fMftVy lwpukvksa esa cny fn;k tkrk gSA ;s lwpuk,a ,d fo'ks"k midj.k fMftVy flXuy
izkslslj (DSP) dks Hksts tkrs gSa tgka QksVks ds fofHkUu ?kVd tSls czkbVusl] dkUVkWLV rFkk Li"Vrk
bR;kfn dk lek;kstu fd;k tkrk gSA rRi'pkr bu lwpukvksa dks dSejs dh vkUrfjd eSeksjh esa laxfz gr
dj fy;k tkrk gS vFkok gksLV dEI;wVj dks Hkst fn;k tkrk gSA dEI;wVj esa fofHkUu lkWVos;j dh
lgk;rk ls QksVks esa bPNkuqlkj la'kks/ku] ifjorZu] lEiknu fd;k tk ldrk gSA
lkekU;r% fMftVy dSejksa esa O;wQkbUMj ds LFkku ij LCD Lhu yxk gksrk gSA bl Lhu
ij ml n`'; dks ns[kk tk ldrk gS ftldh QksVks ysuh gksrh gSA Lhu dk mi;ksx dSejs esa laxzfgr
fdlh Hkh QksVks dks ns[kus ds fy, Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA
1-9-11 osc dsejk (Web Camera)
vkWu ykbu buiqV midj.k gS ftldh lgk;rk ls
ykbo rLohjsa (Live Picture) ns[kh tk ldrh gaAS osc
dsejksa dk mi;ksx vkWu ykbu ohfM;ks pSfVax o ohfM;ksa
dkUsfa lx esa rFkk fMikVZesUVy LVkslZ] esyks]a HkhM&HkkM+ Hkjs
LFkkuksa ,oa vU; LFkyksa ij gj le; utjsa j[kus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA
fp= 1-25 osc dSejk

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/25

1 - 9 - 12 ekbks Q ks u (Microphone)
ekbksQksu ,d buiqV midj.k gS tks /ofu dks
fMftVy :i esa ifjofrZr dj dEI;wVj dks izfs "kr djrk gSA
;|fi orZeku esa dEI;wVj ds lkFk bldk dksbZ vf/kd
mi;ksx ugha gks jgk gS fdUrq Hkfo"; esa blds dh&cksMZ ,ao
ekml dk LFkku ysus dh lEHkkouk gSA dEI;wVj esa tSl&
s tSls
ekuoh; vkokt dks le>us dh lkeF;Zrk c<+rh tk,xh]
ekbksQksu dk mi;ksx Hkh c<+rk tk,xkA
26 ekbksQksu
fp= 11.26
1- 9-13 Vp Lhu (Touch Screen)
Vp Lhu ekuo vaxfq y;ksa ds Li'kZ ds izfr laosnu'khy gksrs gaSA Vp Lhu dh lrg ij cgqr
ls Li'kZ laons h izksxkz EM Li'kZ fcUnq (Programmed Touch Points) gksrs gSaA izR;sd Li'kZ fcUnq }kjk mls
Li'kZ djus ij fof'k"V buiqV ladrs mRiUu fd, tkrs gSaA Vp Lhu ij lkekU;r% ,d ehuw iznf'kZr
gksrk gSA bu ehuw esa ftl fodYi dks pquuk gks mls vaxy
q h ls Nwuk gksrk gSA Vp Lhu cgqr gh fe=or
(User Friendly) gksrs gSa rFkk bUgas iz;ksx djus ds fy,
dEI;wVj fo'ks"kK gksuk vko';d ugha gSA Vp Lhu dk
mi;ksx mu LFkkuksa ij gksrk gS tgka vke yksxksa dks dksbZ
tkudkjh izkIr djuh gks vFkok dksbZ fo'sk"k dk;Z djuk gksA
cM+s&cM+s jsYos LVs'kuksa ij Vsu dh fLFkfr] fdjk;k vkfn dh
tkudkjh izkIr djus rFkk ATM esa ls jkf'k fudyokus ds
fy, pkgh xbZ lwpuk,a ATM dks nsus ds fy, Vp Lhu
dk gh iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

1- 9 - 14 ck;ksesfVd lsUlj (Biometric Sensor)


ck;ksefs Vd lsUlj ,d ,slk midj.k gS tks ekuo
ds fofHkUu tSfod vfHky{k.kksa tSls vaxqyh dh Nki] vk[k
ds jsfVuk ,oa vkbfjl dh cukoV] vkokt] psgjs dh
fo'ks"krkvksa vkfn dks ekirk gS vkSj mudk fo'ys"k.k Hkh
djrk gSA
ck;ksefs Vd lsUlj esa ,d jhMj vFkok LdSfuax
;qfDr gksrh gS tks fo'ks"k lkWVos;j dh enn ls] tSfod
vfHky{k.kksa dh LdSu dh xbZ lwpukvksa dks fMftVy izk:i
esa ifjofrZr dj nsrh gSA bl rjg ls izkIr MkVk dk
dWEI;wVj esa igys ls miyC/k MkVkcsl ls feyku fd;k
tkrk gSA bl rduhd ls lafnX/k O;fDr;ksa esa ls vijk/kh
dk irk yxkus vFkok fdlh O;fDr dh lgh igpku djus
ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

fp= 1-27 Vp Lhu

fp= 1-28 fQaxj fizVa LdSuj

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/26

1-10 vkmViqV ;qfDr;k (Output Devices)


vkmViqV ;qfDr;ka os lk/ku gSa ftudh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj mi;ksxdrkZ (User) ls izkIr
vkdM+ksa] lwpukvksa] funs'Z kksa vkfn ds ifj.kke izf;k (Processing) ds i'pkr mi;ksxdrkZ dks izLrqr
djrk gSA ;s ;qfDr;ka 0 vkSj 1 fcV dh dEI;wVj Hkk"kk dks ekuoh; Hkk"kk esa vuqokfnr dj ifj.kke dj
ifj.kke iznf'kZr djrh gSaA AekuhVj] LihdlZ] fizUVlZ] IykWVj vkfn vkmViqV ;qfDr;ksa ds ize[q k
mnkgj.k gSaA
dEI;wVj ls izkIr ifj.kke izk;% nks izdkj ds gksrs gSa %&
1
lkW

V
1lkW dkWih (Soft Copy) %& ;fn ifj.kke dks Lhu ij ns[kk tk lds vFkok /ofu ds :i
esa izkIr fd;k tk, rks ;g lkWV dkWih dgykrh gSA bl izdkj ifj.kkeksa dks ykWih] dkEiSDV fMLd
(C.D.) ;k ekbksfQYe vkfn ij laxzfgr fd;k tk;s rks ;g Hkh lkWV dkWih dgykrh gSA
gkMZ dkWih (Hard Copy) %& tc izkIr ifj.kkeksa dks fizUVj vFkok IyksVj }kjk dkxt ij fizUV
2
2gkMZ
fd;k tkrk gS] rks ;g gkMZ dkWih dgykrh gSA ;g ifj.kkeksa dh LFkk;h dkWih gksrh gSA
ekWuhVj] LihdlZ] fizUVlZ] IyksVj vkfn vkmViqV ;qfDr;ksa ds dqN mnkgj.k gSaA ;gka ij
ekWuhVj ,oa fizUVlZ ds ckjs esa foLrkj ls crk;k tk,xkA
1-10-1 ekWuhVj (Monitor)
;g vkmViqV ;qfDr;ksa esa lokZf/kd dke esa vkus okyk midj.k gSA mi;ksxdRkkZ (User)
ekWuhVj ds }kjk gh dEI;wVj ls vUrZf;k (Interact) djrk gSA ;g ,d Vh-oh- dh vkd`fr dk gksrk
gS] bls fotqvy fMLIys ;wfuV (Visual Display Unit - VDU) Hkh dgrs gSaA
ekbksdEI;wVj esa eq[;r% nks izdkj ds ekWuhVj dke esa fy;s tkrs gS&
a
1- lh-vkj-Vh- ekWuhVj 2- ,Q-ih-Mh ekWuhVj
lh-vkj-Vh ekWuhVj (CRT - Cathode Ray Tube Monitor)
1
vf/kdka'k dEI;wVlZ esa blh izdkj dk ekWuhVj dke
esa fy;k tkrk gSA ;g cgqr dqN ?kj esa dke vkus okys
Vsyhfotu ds leku gksrk gSA bl izdkj ds ekWuhVj esa dSFkksM
js fiDpj V~;cw (Cathode Ray Picture Tube) gksrh gS rFkk
bldk Lhu QkWLQksjl ysi ;qDr gksrk gSA dSFkksM V~;cw ls
bySDVkWu fudydj tc Lhu ij fxjrs gSa rks Lhu ml
LFkku ij pedus yxrk gSA
Lhu ij dksbZ Hkh vkd`fr NksVs&NksVs fcUnqvksa ls
feydj cuh gksrh gS] ftUgsa fiDlsy (Pixels) dgrs gSaA izR;sd fp= 129 lh-vkj-Vh- ekW uhVj
fiDlsy bySDVkWu ds ,d iqat ls pedrk gSA ;s fiDlsy
ckj&ckj pedrs o fuf"; gksrs jgrs gSa ftls fjs'k (Refresh) dgrs gSaA fjs'k nj 30 ckj izfr lSd.M gksrh gSA
fjs'k nj de gksus ij fiDpj fgyrh ;k ygjkrh gqbZ fn[kkbZ
nsrh gS] D;ksafd QkWLQksjl ds d.k viuh nhfIr (Glow)
tYnh&tYnh [kks nsrs gSaA izR;sd fiDlsy dh ped bySDVkWu
iqat (Beam) dh rhozrk ij fuHkZj djrh gS rFkk bldh rhozrk
fp= 1-30 dSFkksM js V~;wc
bySDVkWu xu ds oksYVst ij fuHkZj djrh gSA

AglaSem School

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eksukskse ;kfu CySd ,.M OgkbV ekWuhVj esa ,d bySDVkWu xu gksrh gS tcfd jaxhu ekWuhVj
esa rhu bySDVkWu xu gksrh gSa tks yky] gjs vkSj uhys jax ds fy, vyx&vyx yxk;h tkrh gSaA blds
vykok jaxhu ekWuhVj ds Lhu ij ,d fiDlsy ds fy, rhu QkWLQksjl d.k dk ysiu fd;k tkrk
gS] QyLo:i izR;sd fiDlsy ,d bySDVkWu iqat ls rhu izdkj ds jax mRiUu dj ldrk gSA yky] gjs
vkSj uhys jax ds vykok vU; jax rFkk muds 'kSM (Shades) bySDVkWu iqt
a dh rhozrk dks ?kVk&c<+kdj
mRiUu fd, tkrs gSAa
Lhu ds izfr bdkbZ {ks=Qy esa mifLFkr fcUnqvksa dh la[;k ekWuhVj dk jstksyw'ku (Resolution) dgykrk gSA jstksyw'ku dk rkRi;Z Lhu ds fp= dh Li"Vrk (Sharpness) ls gSA Lhu ij
ftrus vf/kd fiDlsy gksaxs] Lhu dk jstksy'w ku mruk gh vf/kd gksxkA nwljs 'kCnksa esa ;g Hkh dgk
tk ldrk gS fd fp= mruk gh Li"V gksxkA
lh-vkj-Vh- ekWuhVj lLrs gksrs gSa rFkk mPp dksfV dk jaxhu vkmViqV nsus esa l{ke gksrs gSaA
,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVj (FPD - Flat Panel Display Monitor)
2
;s ubZ rduhd ij vk/kkfjr ekWuhVj gSAa buesa vkosf'kr
jlk;uksa vkSj xSlksa dks dkap dh IysVksa ds e/; la;ksftr fd;k
tkrk gSA ;s iryh fMLIys fMokblsl ySV iSuy fMLIys dgykrh
gSaA ,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVj vR;f/kd piVs] otu esa gYds vkSj de
fo/kqr [kir djus okys gksrs gSaA fdUrq ;s eagxs gksrs gSa rFkk
budk jstksyw'ku Hkh de gksrk gSA ,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVj eq[;r%
ySiVkWi (Laptop) dEI;wVj esa iz;qDr gksrs gSaA
,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVj rhu izdkj ds gksrs gS&
1 nzoh; fLVy fMLIys ekWuhVj (LCD- Liquid Crystal
fp= 1-31 ,ylhMh ekWuhVj
Display Monitor),
2 xSl IykTek fMLIys ekWuhVj (GPD- Gas Plasma Display Monitor),
3 bySDVksY;wfeuslsV fMLIys ekWuhVj (EL- Electroluminescent Display Monitor)
LCD ekWuhVj dk fjtksyw'ku de gksrk gS] ftlls Lhu ij fMLIys lgh ugha vkrkA GPD
vkSj EL ekWuhVj esa ;|fi fjtksyw'ku LCD ekWuhVj dh rqyuk esa vf/kd gksrk gS fdUrq vHkh ;s cgqr
eagxs gSaA
1-10-2 fizUVlZ (Printers)
fizUVj vkmViqV dks dkxt ij Nkidj izLrqr djrk gSA dkxt ij vkmViqV dh izfrfyfi
gkMZ dkWih dgykrh gSA fizUVj dEI;wVj ls izkIr fMftVy lwpukvksa dks ekuoh; Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr dj
rst xfr ls dkxt ij Nkirk gS ftls ekuo i<+ ldrk gSA
fizUVlZ dks lkekU;r% nks izdkjksa esa ckaVk tkrk gS&
1- bEiSDV fizUVlZ
2- ukWu bEiSDV fizUVlZ
1
bEiSDV fizUVlZ (Impact Printers)
bl izdkj ds fizUVlZ esa /kkrq dk ,d NksVk gFkkSM+k (Hammer) ;k fizUV gSM (Print Head)
L;kgh ds fjcu ij izgkj (Strike) djrk gSA fjcu ds uhps og dkxt j[kk tkrk gS ftl ij fizUV
djuk gksrk gSA tc fizUV gSM }kjk izgkj fd;k tkrk gS rks fizUV gSM ij ml le; mifLFkr djsDVj

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/28

dkxt ij fizUV gks tkrk gSA bl Js.kh esa fuEu fizUVlZ vkrs gS&
a
(I)
MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj (Dot Matrix Printer - DMP) %& bl fizUVj ds fizUV gSM esa
vusd fiuksa (Pins) dk ,d eSfVDl (Matrix) gksrk gSA izR;sd fiu ds fjcu o dkxt ij izgkj ls ,d
fcUnq (Dot) curk gSA vusd MkWV~l feydj djsDVj cukrs gSaA fizUV gSM esa 7] 9] 14] 18] ;k 24 fiuksa
dk /okZ/kj lewg gksrk gSA fiuksa dh la[;k fturh vf/kd gksrh gS] fizfUVax mruh gh vkd"kZd gksrh
gSA djsDVj ec)rk ds lkFk ,d ds ckn ,d Nirs tkrs gSaA
MkWV eSfVDl fizUVlZ dh xfr 30 ls 600 djsDVj izfr lSd.M (Character Per Second CPS) gksrh gSA buesa Bksl eqnzk v{kj (Solid Fonts) ugha gksus ds dkj.k ;s fofHkUu vkdkj] izdkj ,oa
Hkk"kk ds djsDVj Nki ldrs gSaA buls xzkQ] pkVZl~ vkfn Hkh cuk, tk ldrs gSaA fdUrq budh NikbZ
dh Li"Vrk Bksl eqnzk v{kj fizUVlZ dh rqyuk esa de gksrh gSA ;s fizUVlZ nk;sa ls ck;sa ,oa ck;sa ls nk;
vFkkZr nksuksa vksj ls fizfUVax dj ldrs gSAa fizfUVax ykxr de vkus ls budk mi;ksx fizfUVax gsrq
lokZf/kd gksrk gSA

fp= 1-32 MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj

fp= 1-33 MkWV eSfVDl fizUV~l

Msth Oghy fizUVj (Daisy Wheel Printer) %& ;g fizUVj MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj ls vf/
kd Li"V vkmViqV nsrk gSA ;g lkWfyM QkWUVl~ okyk fizUVj gSA bldk fizUV gSM IykfLVd ls fufeZr
,d xksy p (Wheel) ds :i esa gksrk gS] ftldh vkd`fr Msth xqycgkj ds iq"i tSlh gksrh gSA
blh dkj.k bls Msth Oghy (Daisy Wheel) uke fn;k x;k gSA
(II)

fp= 1-34 Msth Oghy fizUVj

AglaSem School

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p esa iq"i dh ia[kqfM+;ksa ds leku vusd rkusa (Spokes) gksrh gSa rFkk izR;sd rku ij ,d
djsDVj dk Bksl QksUV mHkjk jgrk gSA p dkxt dh {kSfrt fn'kk esa xfr djrk gSA tc Nius ;ksX;
djsDVj dk Liksd fizUV iksft'ku ij vkrk gS rks ,d NksVk gFkkSM+k (Hammer) Liksd ij izgkj djrk
gS ftlls ml ij mHkjk QkWUV dkxt ij Ni tkrk gSA NikbZ ds fy, p vkSj dkxt ds chp esa
fjcu gksrk gSA
Msth Oghy fizUVj ,d /kheh xfr dk fizUVj gSA bldh Nkius dh xfr izk;% 90 CPS gksrh
gSA fdUrq blds vkmViqV dh Li"Vrk mPp dksfV dh gksrh gSA blfy, bldk mi;ksx i= vkfn Nkius
esa gksrk gS vkSj ;g ySVj DokfyVh fizUVj (Letter Quality Printer) dgykrk gSA bl fizUVj ls dsoy
oks gh djsDVj Nkis tk ldrs gSa tks blds fizUVj gSM esa mifLFkr gksrs gSaA blls xzkfQDl vkfn dh
NikbZ ugha dh tk ldrhA bldh izfr i`"B NikbZ ykxr Hkh vis{kkd`r vf/kd vkrh gSA
(III) pSu fizUVj (Chain Printer) %& bl fizUVj esa /kkrq ls fufeZr fuf'pr xfr ls ?kweus okyh
,d pSu gksrh gSa ftls fizUV pSu (Print Chain) dgrs gSaA pSu esa djsDVj gksrs gSaA pSu dh izR;sd dM+h
(Link) es ,d djsDVj dk QkWUV gksrk gSA pSu {kSfrt (Horizontally) pyrh gS rFkk dkxt pSu ds
lkis{k /okZ/kj (Vertically) pyrk gSA ftl LFkku ij dksbZ djsDVj fizUV gksuk gksrk gS ml LFkku ij
gFkkSMs+ (Hammer) dk izgkj gksrk gS ftlls djsDVj dkxt ij Ni tkrk gSA bl fizUVj ls iwjh iafDr
ykbu ,d lkFk Nirh gSA ;g ,d mPp dksfV dk fizUVj gSA blds Nkius dh xfr 300 ls 3000
ykbu izfr feuV gSA

fp= 1-35 pSu fizUVj


cS.M fizUVj (Band Printer) %& ;g fizUVj pSu fizUVj ds leku gh gksrk gSA bl fizUVj
esa pSu ds LFkku ij LVhy dk cS.M gksrk gSA 'ks"k NikbZ izf;k pSu fizUVj ds leku gksrh gSA
(V)
Me fizUVj (Drum Printer) %& bl fizUVj esa ,d csyukdkj vkd`fr dk rst ?kweus okyk
Me (Drum) yxk gksrk gS ftldh lrg ij djsDVj yxs jgrs gSAa tc Me ?kwerk gS rks rhoz xfr ds
gFkkSMs+ (Hammer) }kjk Nkis tkus okys djsDVj ij izgkj fd;k tkrk gS ftlls og djsDVj dkxt
ij Ni tkrk gSA Me ds izR;sd ?kw.kZu esa ,d iafDr (Line) Nirh gSA ;g Hkh ,d mPp xfr dk fizUVj
gSA
(IV)

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/30

fp= 1-36 Me

fizUVj

lhfj;y ,oa ykbu fizUVj (Serial and Line Printer)


lhfj;y fizUVj e ls ,d ds ckn ,d v{kj
fizUV djrk gSA budh xfr vis{kkd`r /kheh gksrh gSA
mnkgj.k& MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj] Msth Oghy fizUVjA
ykbu fizUVj vR;f/kd rhoz xfr ls izpkfyr gksrs
gSa rFkk ,d ckj esa iwjh iafDr (Line) fizUV djrs gSaA pSu
fizUVj] cS.M fizUVj] Me fizUVj vkfn ykbu fizUVlZ ds
mnkgj.k gSA ykbu fizUVlZ dsoy ogha iz;qDr gksrs gSa] tgka
mPp xfr o Rofjr ifj.kke dh vf/kd vko';drk gks
rFkk xq.kork dh de vko';drk gksA
fp= 1-37 ykbu fizUVj
ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ (Non-Impact Printers)
2
ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ djsDVlZ dks jklk;fud] rkih; vFkok bysDVkfud ek/;e ls Lo:i
iznku djrs gSA bu fizUVlZ esa fizUV gSM vkSj dkxt ds e/; lEidZ ugha gksrk gSA bu fizUVlZ dh NikbZ
dh xq.kork mRd`"V gksrh gSA fdUrq bu fizUVlZ ls ,d ckj esa dsoy ,d gh izfr fizUV gks ldrh gS
rFkk buds fy, fo'ks"k vkSj eagxs dkxt dh vko';drk gksrh gSA
ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ Hkh dbZ izdkj ds gksrs gSaA ;gka rhu izdkj ds ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ dh
ppkZ dh xbZ gSA
rkih; fizUVj (Thermal Printer) %&
(I)
rkih; fizUVj esa fizfUVax gSM dh fiuksa dks fo/kqr
}kjk xeZ fd;k tkrk gS] rRi'pkr bUgsa dkxt ij nck;k
tkrk gSA tc xeZ fiusa fo'ks"k m"ek laosnh dkxt dks Li'kZ
djrh gSa rks fiu }kjk xeZ fd, x, {ks= dk jax ifjofrZr
gks tkrk gS] QyLo:i ogka dkyk ;k Hkwjk djsDVj cu
tkrk gSA bl fizUVj ds fy, iz;qDr gksus okyk dkxt
fo'ks"k jklk;fud ysiu }kjk m"ek laosnh cuk;k tkrk gSA
fp= 1-38 rkih; fizUVj

AglaSem School

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badtSV fizUVj (Inkjet Printer) %&


bl fizUVj ds fizUV gSM esa vusd ckjhd fNnzkas okys
uksty yxs gksrs gSa ftuls ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh L;kgh cwna ksa
dh ckSNkj ds :i esa dkxt ij QSd
a h tkrh gS] ftlls
dkxt ij djsDVj ,oa vkd`fr;ka Ni tkrh gSaA bl fizUVj
esa cgqr vf/kd ?kuRo okyh L;kgh (High Density Ink)
gksrh gS tks ,d fo'ks"k izdkj ds iSd esa jgrh gS ftls
dkjfVt (Cartridge) dgrs gSaA L;kgh dh cwUnksa dh ckSNkj
dkxt ij lgh LFkku ij fxjs blds fy, uksty dks fo/
kqr bysDVksM ls funsZf'kr fd;k tkrk gSA bl fizUVj dk
vkmViqV vf/kd Li"V gksrk gS] D;ksafd izR;sd djsDVj
vusd MkWV~l ls feydj cuk gksrk gSA vkmViqV dh fizUV
DokWfyVh 300 ls 600 dpi (dots per inch) gksrh gSA orZeku
esa ,d ls vf/kd fizfUVax gSM okys bad tSV fizUVj Hkh
fp= 1-39 badtsV fizUVj
miyC/k gSa] ftudh lgk;rk ls fofHkUu jaxksa okyh jaxhu
fizfUVax dh tk ldrh gSA
izkjEHk esa bad tSV fizUVj vR;f/kd eagxs Fks] fdUrq vkt budh dher cgqr de gks xbZ gSA
bl fizUVj dh eq[; leL;k fizUV gSM ds uksty ds fljksa ij L;kgh te tkus (Ink Clogging) ls fNnzksa
dk cUn gks tkuk gSA bldh fizfUVax ykxr Hkh rqyukRed :i ls vf/kd gksrh gSA
(II)

(III)

ystj fizUVj (Laser Printer) %&

;g orZeku dk lcls vf/kd fodflr fizUVj gSA


;g ystj fdj.kksa (Laser Beam) ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA
fdlh djsDVj dks Nkius ds fy, ml ij ystj fdj.ksa
Mkyh tkrh gSaA ble djsDVj dks Nkius ds fy, Vksuj
(Toner- ,d fo'ks"k L;kgh dk ikmMj iz;qDr gksrk gSA
ystj fizUVj eagxs gksrs gSa ysfdu vis{kkd`r vf/
kd rhoz xfr rFkk mPp DokWfyVh dh NikbZ djus esa l{ke
gksus ds dkj.k ;s vktdy lokZf/kd yksdfiz; gSaA jaxhu
ystj fizUVj mPp DokWfyVh dk jaxhu vkmViqV nsrs gSaA
buesa fo'ks"k Vksuj gksrk gS] ftlls fofo/k jaxksa ds d.k
miyC/k jgrs gSAa IykfLVd 'khV ;k vU; fdlh 'khV ij Hkh
fp= 1-40 ystj fizUVj
;s fizUVlZ vkmViqV dks Nki ldrs gSAa
1- 10
10-- 3 IykWVj (Plotter)
IykWVj dk mi;ksx cM+s vkdj ds uD'ks] pkVZ] f=foe; js[kk fp= xzkQ] fMtk;u] bysDVkfud
lfdZV vkfn fizUV djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA IykWVlZ izk;% nks izdkj ds gksrs ga&
S Me isu IykWVj
rFkk ysV cSM IykWVjA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/32

1-

Me isu IykVj (Drum Pen Plotter)


bu IykVjksa esa isu (Pen) gksrs gaS tks xfr'khy gksdj dkxt dh lrg ij vkd`fr dk fuekZ.k
djrs gaSA dkxt ,d Me ij p<+k gksrk gS tks vkxs dh vksj ?kwerk jgrk gS ftlls dkxt Hkh vkxs
dh vksj pyrk jgrk gSA isu dEI;wVj }kjk fu;fU=r gksrs gSa rFkk ;kfU=d dykdj dh rjg dk;Z djrs
utj vkrs gaSA jaxhu IykVj esa vyx&vyx jaxks dh L;kgh ds isu gksrs gSAa ;g IykVj dkQh cM+s fp=ksa
dks cgqr gh rhoz xfr ls cuk nsrk gSA

fp= 1-41 Me isu IykWVj


2- ySV cSM IykWVj (Flat Bed Plotter)
ysV cSM IykWVj esa dkxt dks ,d lery lrg tSls cSM (Bed) ;k Vs (Tray) esa fLFkj voLFkk
esa j[kk tkrk gSA blesa dkxt lkekU;r% xfr ugha djrk gSA bldh ,d Hkqtk ij isu (Pen) gksrk
gS tks fp= cukus ds fy, eksVj dh lgk;rk ls dkxt ds 'X' v{k ij nk;sa&ck;sa rFkk 'Y' v{k ij
ij&uhps xfr djrk gSA isu dh xfr dEI;wVj }kjk fu;fU=r gksrh gSA ysV cSM IykWVj ls vis{kkd`r
NksVs vkdkj ds fp= izkIr fd, tk ldrs gSaA

p= 1-42 ySV cSM IykWVj


fp=
vktdy IykWVlZ esa isu ds LFkku ij ,d Vksuj cSM (Toner Bed) dk iz;ksx Hkh gksus yxk
gS] tks ftjkWDl e'khu dh Vs ds leku dk;Z djrk gSA fdUrq ;gka izdk'k ds LFkku ij NksVs&NksVs rkjksa
(Wires) ds ,d tky
(Matrix) ls dkxt dks vkosf'kr (Charged) fd;k tkrk gSA tc vkosf'kr
dkxt dks Vksuj (Toner) ls xqtkjk tkrk gS rks ;g dkxt ds vkosf'kr fcUnqvksa ij fpid tkrk gS
ftlls fp= (Image) mHkj vkrk gSA bl rduhd dks bysDVksLVsfVd rduhd (Electrostatic
Technique) dgrs gSaA bysDVksLVsfVd IykWVj dh xfr rks rhoz gksrh gS fdUrq blls izkIr fp=ksa dh
Li"Vrk isu IykWVj dh rqyuk esa de gksrh gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/33

1 - 10
10-- 4 LihdlZ (Speakers)
LihdlZ vkmViqV midj.k gSa tks dEI;wVj ls izkIr fMftVy lwpukvksa dks /ofu esa ifjofrZr
djrs gaSA LihdlZ dk mi;ksx eYVhehfM;k vuqiz;ksxksa (Multimedia Applications) esa [kwc gksrk gSA
tgka lsfeukj vkfn esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx gksrk gS ogka Hkh /ofu izlkj.k esa LihdlZ mi;ksxh gksrs
gSA

fp= 1-43 LihdlZ

1-11 laxzg.k ;qfDr;ka (Storage Devices)

dEI;wVj ds MkVk vkSj izksxkz e rkRdkfyd rFkk Hkfo"; ds mi;ksx gsrq laxfz gr djds j[ks tkrs
gSaA ftu ek/;eksa esa bUgsa laxzfgr fd;k tkrk gS] mUgsa nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gS& 1izkFkfed laxzg.k ek/;e (Primary Storage Media) rFkk 2- f}rh;d laxzg.k (Secondary Storage
Media)

izkFkfed laxgz .k ek/;e esa MkVk vkSj izksxkz e dsoy rkRdkfyd :i ls laxfz gr fd, tk ldrs
gSaA dEI;wVj dh eseksjh (Memory) izkFkfed laxzg.k ek/;e dk mnkgj.k gS] ftldk v/;;u ge iwoZ
v/;k; esa dj pqds gSaA f}rh;d laxzg.k ek/;e ds vUrxZr os ;qfDr;ka lfEefyr dh tkrh gSa] ftuesa
MkVk] izksxzke vkSj izf;k ifj.kkeksa dks rkRdkfyd rFkk Hkfo"; esa ckj&ckj mi;ksx gsrq LFkkbZ :i ls
laxzfgr dj lqjf{kr j[ks tkrs gSaA ;gka ge ,slh gh dqN izeq[k ;qfDr;ksa ds ckjs esa v/;;u djsaxsA
1-11-1 pqEcdh; Vsi (Magnetic Tape) %& pqEcdh; Vsi ekW;yj (Mylar) IykfLVd dh cuh
gksrh gS ftldh lrg ij vk;ju&vkWDlkbM (Iron-Oxide) dh pqEcdh; ijr dk ysiu p<+k gksrk
gSA pqEcdh; Vsi 1/2 bap] 1/4 bap] 8mm, 3mm vkfn fofHkUu pkSMk+ bZ dh gksrh gSaA pqEcdh; Vsi
250MB, 500MB, 2GB, 10GB vkfn fofHkUu laxzg.k {kerkvksa esa miyC/k gSaA

fp= 1-44 pqEcdh; Vsi ;wfuV

fp= 1-45 pqEcdh; Vsi

AglaSem School

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pqEcdh; Vsi dk mi;ksx izk;% cSdvi (Backup) MkVk ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gSA ;|fi
orZeku esa cgqr vf/kd laxgz .k {kerk dh rduhdh dk fodkl gks pqdk gS] fdUrq pqEcdh; Vsi ds NksVs
vkdkj rFkk de dher gksus dss dkj.k budk mi;ksx vkt Hkh MkVk laxzg.k gsrq fd;k tkrk gSA
pqEcdh; Vsi ,slk MkVk] ftldk mi;ksx ckj&ckj ugha gksrk gS] ds laxzg.k gsrq vf/kd mi;qDr gksrh
gSA pqEcdh; Vsi esa MkVk dks ec) :i ls gh vfHkxe (Access) fd;k tk ldrk gS] blfy, bldk
vfHkxe le; (Access Time) dkQh vf/kd gksrk gSA blh izdkj bl ij MkVk fy[kus esa Hkh vU;
;qfDr;ksa dh rqyuk esa vf/kd le; yxrk gSA
1-11-2 pqEcdh; fMLd (Magnetic Disk) %& pqEcdh; fMLd ,d mi;ksxh ,oa vR;f/kd
izpfyr laxzg ;qfDr gSA blesa lh/kh vfHkxe (Direct Access) fof/k ls MkVk dks rhoz xfr ls izkIr
,oa laxzg fd;k tk ldrk gSA lh/kh vfHkxe fof/k esa fdlh vfHkys[k dks iwoZorhZ vfHkys[kksa dks i<+s
fcuk] izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
pqEcdh; fMLd eq[; :i ls nks izdkj dh gksrh gSa& 1- gkMZ fMLd (Hard Disk) vkSj 2fMLdsV~l (Diskettes)
gkMZ fMLd (Hard Disk) esa ,Y;wehfu;e ;k vU; /kkrq ls fufeZr pdfr;ka ;k IysVlZ
(Platters) gksrh gaS ftudh nksuksa lrgsa pqEcdh; vk;ju vkWDlkbM ls ysfir jgrh gSaA gkMZ fMLd dh
laxgz .k {kerk cgqr vf/kd gksrh gS rFkk blls MkVk izkIr djus dh xfr Hkh rhoz gksrh gSA gkMZ fMLd
dk mi;ksx ekbks dEI;wVj] feuh dEI;wVj vkSj esuse dEI;wVj rhuksa esa gh MkVk laxzg.k ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA orZeku esa vusd izdkj dh gkMZ fMLd miyC/k gSaAsa
fMLdsV~l (Diskettes) IykfLVd dh pdfr;ka (Disks) gksrh gSa tks IykfLVd ds [kksy esa
lqjf{kr jgrh gSaA budh laxzg.k {kerk gkMZ fMLd dh rqyuk esa cgqr de gksrh gSA bUgsa lkekU;r%
ykWih fMLd (Floppy Disk) ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA ;s LFkkukUrj.kh; gksrh gSa rFkk dEI;wVj ls
fudkydj ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij vklkuh ls yk;h o ys tk;h ldrh gSaA budk mi;ksx izk;%
ekbks dEI;wVjksa esa gksrk gSA
1-11-3 gkMZ fMLd (Hard Disk) %& gkMZ fMLd NksVs dEI;wVj tSls ekbks dEI;wVj ,oa feuh
dEI;wVj esa MkVk laxgz .k ds fy, dke esa yh tkrh gSA ;g flLVe ;wfuV ds vUnj yxh gksrh gSA bldh
vR;f/kd laxzg.k {kerk ds dkj.k bls ekl LVksjst fMokbl (Mass Storage Device) rFkk flLVe
;wfuV ds vUnj yxh gksus ds dkj.k vkWu ykbu LVksjst fMokbl (Online Storage Device) Hkh dgrs
gSaA orZeku esa 80GB, 160GB vkSj 240GB laxgz .k {kerk dh gkMZ fMLd vf/kd izpfyr gSA
gkMZ fMLd ij cgqr&lh lwpuk,a LFkkbZ :i ls laxfz gr gksrh gSAa vkijsfVax flLVe] dEikbyj]
,lsEcyj] MkVkcsl] ,Iyhds'ku izksxzke vkfn Hkh gkMZ fMLd ij gh laxzfgr gksrs gSaA vr% gkMZ fMLd
lokZf/kd izpfyr vko';d ,oa LFkkbZ laxzg.k ;qfDr gSA
gkMZ fMLd esa ,Y;wehfu;e ;k vU; /kkrq ls fufeZr pdfr;ksa ;k fMLd IysVj (Disk Platters)
dk lewg gksrk gSA izR;sd IysVj ij pqEcdh; vk;ju vkWDlkbM dk ysiu gksrk gSA IysVlZ dh nksuksa
lrgksa ij ladUs nzh; VSDl (Tracks) vkSj lSDVj (Sectors) gksrs gSaA MkVk bUgh VSDl ,oa lSDVj esa
laxfz gr jgrk gSA lHkh fMLd IysVj ,d fLi.My (Spindle) esa fijksbZ gksrh gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/35

izR;sd IysVj dk vyx ls jhM@jkbV gSM gksrk gSA lHkh jhM@jkbV gSMl
~ ,d gh Hkqtk ;k
vkeZ (Arm) ij da/ksuqek lajpuk esa yxs jgrs gSaA bl Hkqtk dks ,Dlsl vkeZ (Access Arm) dgrs gSA
izR;sd gSM ?kwerh gqbZ fMLd dh lrg ij mi;qDr VSd ij igaqp tkrk gSA bl izdkj MkVk jhM@jkbV
djus dh f;k lh/kh gksrh gSA izR;sd MkVk dh fLFkfr dk ,d irk ;k fMLd ,Msl (Disk Address)
gksrk gS ftlesa lrg la[;k] VSd la[;k vkSj lSDVj la[;k gksrh gSA blh dh lgk;rk ls ,Dlsl vkeZ
MkVk dks [kkstrk gSA

fp= 1-46 gkMZ fMLd

fp= 1-47 gkMZ fMLd dh vkUrfjd


lajpuk ,oa dk;Zfof/k

gkMZ fMLd ,oa jhM@jkbV gSM ;s lHkh ,d gok cUn pSEcj esa lhy gksrs gSa ftlls ogka rd
/kwy ugha tk ikrh gSA ;g pSEcj ckgj ls ns[kus esa yap ckDl tSlk yxrk gSA
1-11-4 ykWih fMLd (Floppy Disk) %& ykWih fMLd ek;yj IykfLVd (Mylar Plastic) ls
fufeZr ,d o`rkdkj pdrh gksrh gS] ftldh lrg ij vk;ju vkWDlkbM pqEcdh; inkFkZ dk ysiu
gksrk gSA bldh nksuksa lrgksa ij Hkh gkMZ fMLd ds leku ladUs nzh; VSDl (Tracks) vkSj lSDVlZ
(Sectors) gksrs gSA MkVk bUgha VSDl vkSj lSDVlZ esa laxzfgr gksrk gSA
ykWih fMLd dh lqj{kk gsrq bls IykfLVd ds vkoj.k esa j[kk tkrk gS tks bls [kajksp vkfn
ls cpkrk gSA blds vkoj.k esa ,d Hkkx [kqyk gksrk gS] ftlls jhM@jkbV gSM MkVk dks fMLd ij
laxfz gr ;k izkIr dj ldsA bl [kqys Hkkx dks ,Dlsl foUMks (Access Window) dgrs gSaA
ykWih fMLd vkSj mlds vkoj.k esa ,d fNnz gksrk gS ftls bUMsDl gksy (Index Hole) dgrss
gSaA bUMsDl gksy tc Hkh QksVks lsUlj (Photo Sensor) ds uhps vkrk gS rks bldk vFkZ gksrk gS fd
jhM@jkbV gSM vc orZeku VSd ds izFke lsDVj ij fLFkr gks x;k gSA
ykWih ds ,d vksj dqN Hkkx dVk gqvk gkssrk gS] ftls jkbV izksVsDV ukWp (Write Protect
Notch) dgrss gSAa bldk mi;ksx fMLd ij MkVk dks jkbV (Write) ;k laxg
z .k ls cpkus esa fd;k tkrk
gSA tc ;g ukWp [kqyk gksrk gS rks ge MkVk dks i<+ Hkh ldrs gSa vkSj fy[k Hkh ldrs gSa fdUrq tc
bls fdlh fLVdj ;k Vsi ls cUn dj fn;k tkrk gS rks fMLd ij MkVk dks dsoy i<+k tk ldrk gS]
fy[kk ugha tk ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/36

ykWih fMLd izk;% nks vkdkjksa esa miyC/k gksrh gSa& 1- ekbks ykWih (Micro Floppy)
rFkk 2- feuh ykWih (Mini Floppy)
ekbks ykWih dk O;kl 3-5 bap gksrk gSA ;g ykWih IykfLVd ds dBksj vkoj.k esa cUn jgrh
gSA blfy, vf/kd lqjf{kr gSA blesa 1.44MB MkVk laxzfgr fd;k tk ldrk gSA vktdy 2.8MB
MkVk laxzg djus okyh 3-5 bap O;kl dh ykWih Hkh vk x;h gSA
feuh ykWih dk O;kl 5-25 bap gksrk gSA ;g yphys vkoj.k esa vkrh gS] blfy, lqjf{kr ugha
gSAbldh laxzg. k {kerk Hkh de gS A bles a dsoy 1-2 MB MkVk la x z f gr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA vr% feuh ykWih dk izpyu cgqr de gSA
ykWih ikuh] vf/kd rki ,oa pqEcdh; {ks= esa j[kus ls [kjkc gks tkrh gSA tksj ls iVdus]
esXusfVd inkFkZ ds gkFk yxkus ls Hkh bldk MkVk [kjkc gks tkrk gSA vr% buds mi;ksx esa dkQh
lko/kkuh cjrus dh vko;drk jgrh gSA

fp= 1-48 ykWih fMLd ijh lrg

fp= 1-49 ykWih fMLd fupyh

1 -11
11-5
-5 lh-Mh- jkse ;k dkWEiSDV fMLd (C.D. ROM or Compact Disk)
lh-Mh- jkse ,d izdkkh; (Optical) laxgz .k ;qfDr (Storage Device) gS ftlesa laxfz gr MkVk
dks dsoy i<+k tk ldrk gSA ROM 'kCn Read Only Memory dk laf{kIr :i gSA lh-Mh- jkse esa yslj
(LASER) fdj.kksa dh lgk;rk ls MkVk dks jhM (Read) vkSj jkbV (Write) fd;k tkrk gSA ;g fMLd
jsftu (Resin) tSls inkFkZ ikWyhdkcksZusV ls cuh gksrh gSA bldh lrg ij ,Y;wehfu;e ;kSfxdksa dk
ysiu gksrk gS ftlls blesa izdk'k dks ijkofrZr (Reflect) djus dk xq.k vk tkrk gSA MkVk laxzg.k
dh izf;k esa lh-Mh- jkse dh ijkorZd lrg ij mPp rhozrk 25 esxkokV okyh yslj fdj.k Mkyh
tkrh gS ftlls ogka ,d vfr lw{e xM~<k ;k fiV (Pit) cu tkrk gSA ;g fiV ^1 fcV* dk lwpd gSA
lrg ij tgka fiV ugha gS] og ^0 fcV* dk lwpd gSA ,sls fiV jfgr LFky dks ys.M (Land) dgrs
gSaA
lh-Mh- jkse esa MkVk dks fMLd ls i<+us ds fy, de rhozrk 5 esxkokV okyh yslj fdj.ksa
Mkyh tkrh gSAa ijkofrZr yslj fdj.kksa dks QksVks fMVsDVj (Photodetector) }kjk tkapk tkrk gSA ys.M
ls ijkofrZr fdj.k dh rhozrk esa dksbZ vUrj ugha vkrk fdUrq fiV ls ijkofrZr fdj.k vusd fn'kkvksa
esa QSy tkrh gS ftlls fiV dh mifLFkfr dk irk py tkrk gSA ijkofrZr izdk'k ds bl vUrj dks

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/37

fo/kqr ladrs ksa 0 vkSj 1 fcV esa ifjofrZr dj fy;k tkrk gS ftlls MkVk dh tkudkjh gks tkrh gSA
lh-Mh- jkse esa Hkh MkVk laxzg.k ds fy, VSDl dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;s VSDl lsDVj
(Sector) esa caVs jgrs gSaA fdUrq CD-ROM ds VSDl ykWih fMLd ;k gkMZ fMLd dh rjg cUn u gksdj
fujUrjrk fy, gksrs gSa ftudh yEckbZ yxHkx iakp fdyksehVj gksrh gSA ;s lfiZykdkj :i esa O;ofLFkr
gksrs gSaA lh-Mh- jkse dh laxzg.k {kerk vf/kd gksrh gSA ,d lh-Mh- jkse esa 650MB rd MkVk laxzfgr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldh MkVk LFkkukUrj.k nj Hkh vf/kd gksrh gSA lh-Mh- jkse dk mi;ksx
eYVhfefM;k] dEI;wVj xsEl vkfn esa fd;k tkrk gSA vktdy lh-Mh- jkse dk mi;ksx fofHkUu 'kS{kf.kd
tkudkfj;ka] fp= vkfn ds laxzg.k gsrq Hkh cgqr vf/kd gks jgk gSA

fp= 1-51 lh-Mh- jkse Mkbo


fp= 1-50 lh-Mh1-11
11--6 fMftVy ohfM;ks fMLd (Digital Video Disk )
fMftVy ohfM;ks fMLd
(DVD) ns[kus esa fcYdqy lh-MhtSlh gh yxrh gS ysfdu nksuksa esa
dbZ fHkUurk,a gSAa DVD esa CD dh
vis{kk 7-5 xquk vf/kd MkVk laxfz gr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,d lk/kkj.k
DVD dh laxzg.k {kerk yxHkx
4.7GB gksrh gSA dqN DVD esa rks
17GB rd MkVk laxzg fd;k tk
ldrk gSA DVD dk O;kl 4.7
fp= 1-52 MhohMh Mk bo
bap gksrk gSA
CD dh rjg DVD ij Hkh MkVk VSDl ds :i esa laxfz gr fd;k tkrk gS tks dbZ lSDVjksa esa caVs
gksrs gaSA fdUrq DVD esa CD dh rqyuk esa fiV~l (Pits) dk vkdkj cgqr vf/kd lw{e rFkk VSDl ds e/
; dh nwjh Hkh cgqr de gksrh gSA QyLo:i DVD dh {kerk CD dh rqyuk esa cgqr vfkd c<+ tkrh
gSA DVD dh ,d vkSj fo'ks"krk ;g gS fd ;g jhM ys;j ds Qksdl dks cny dj ,d ls vf/kd rF;ksa
dks jhM dj ldrk gSA DVD esa MkVk nks irksZ esa fy[kk tkrk gS blls bldh laxgz .k {kerk esa vkSj o`f)

gqbZ gSA
bldh mez Hkh CD dh Hkkfr de ls de nl o"kZ gSA DVD jhM ,oa jkbV djus ds fy,
MhohMh Mkbo (DVD Drive) dh vko';drk gksrh gSA MhohMh Mkbo lhMh dks Hkh jhM ,oa jkbV dj
ldrh gSAa ueh] rkieku tSls i;kZoj.kh; dkjd CD dh rjg DVD dks Hkh izHkkfor ugha djrs gaS fdUrq

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/38

bls [kajksp ls cpkuk vko';d gSA [kajksp ls DVD iw.kZr% csdkj gks ldrh gSA /kwy Hkh DVD dks jhM
djus esa ck/kk mRiUu djrh gSA vr% bls ges'kk doj esa j[kuk pkfg,A
1-11
11--7 fti Mkbo (Zip Drive)
fti Mkbo] ykWih fMLd ds i'pkr pqEcdh; ek/;e (Magnetic Media) dh nqfu;k dk
nwljk vk'p;Z gSA lh-Mh- jkbVj ls iwoZ fti Mkbo gh lcls vf/kd izpfyr cSdvi midj.k FkhA fti
Mkbo lh-Mh- jkbVj ls dkQh fdQk;rh gSA blesa MkVk laxzg.k ds fy, tks midj.k dke esa fy;k
tkrk gS mls fti dkWfVZt (Zip Cartridge) dgrs gSaA fti dkWfVZt ykus ys
tkus esa lqfo/kk tud rFkk vf/kd
fo'oluh; gSA fti dkWfVZt esa yxHkx
100 MB MkVk laxfz gr fd;k tk ldrk
gSA bldk vkdkj 4 oxZ bap gksrk gS
rFkk eksVkbZ ykWih ls yxHkx nqxuh
gksrh gSA blh vklkuh ls tsc esa j[kk
tk ldrk gSA fti Mkbo izk;% dEI;wVjksa
esa ugha gksrs blfy, fti Mkbo ds }kjk
MkVk LFkkukUrj.k djrs le; fti Mkbo
,oa Mkboj dh Hkh lkFk esa vko';drk
gksrh gSA fti Mkbo dks bULVky djuk cgqr
fp= 1-53 fti Mkbo ,oa fti dkWfVZt
vklku gksrk gSA
fti fMLd dkWfVZt dk pqEcdh; ysi ykWih fMLd dh rqyuk esa dgha vf/kd csgrj ,oa mPp
xq.kokk dk gksrk gSA blfy, fti Mkbo ds jhM@jkbV gSM dk vkdkj dkQh NksVk gksrk gS ftlls
bleas VSDl dh la[;k dgha vf/kd gksrh gS rFkk izfr VSd lSDVjksa dh la[;k Hkh T;knk gksrh gSA
jhM@jkbV gSM ds nks vksj ia[k (Wings) yxs gksrs gSaA ;s ia[k gSM dh xfr dks fu;fU=r djrs gaSA
fti fMLd esa MkVk ykWih fMLd dh Hkkfr o`rkdkj VSDl ij laxfz gr gksrk gS] fdUrq izfr VSd
lSDVjksa dh la[;k fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA fti Mkbo ds lkFk ,d leL;k ;g gS fd orZeku esa
miyC/k vkWijsfVax flLVe fti Mkbo dks liksVZ ugha djrs gaSA vr% vyx ls Mkboj baLVky djuk
iM+rk gSA
1-11
11--8 isu/ QyS'k Mkbo / bUVsfytsUV fLVd (Pen/Flash Drive /Intelligent Stick)
;g MkVk LFkkukUrj.k ,oa laxzg.k ds fy, ,d vk'p;Z pfdr djus okyh fo'ks"krkvksa ;qDr
uohure ;qfDr gSA MkVk LFkkukUrj.k ,oa laxgz .k ds fy, vc rd izpfyr ;qfDr;ksa tSls ykWih] fti
fMLd] lhMh vkfn izR;sd ds lkFk viuh leL;k,a gS fo'ks"kdj fHkUu ifj/kh; midj.kksa ;qDr dEI;wVjksa
esa budk mi;ksx ugha fd;k tk ldrkA tcfd bUVsfytsUV fLVd dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh dEI;wVj ds
lkFk fd;k tk ldrk gSA
bls dEI;wVj ds USB iksVZ esa yxk;k tkrk gS bldk vkdkj bruk NksVk gksrk gS fd bls tsc
,oa ilZ esa vklkuh esa j[kk tk ldrk gSA budk vkdkj fHkUu&fHkUu gksrk gS fdUrq lkekU;r% ;s 167 bap yEch] 0-7 bap pkSM+h vkSj 0-1 bap eksVh gksrh gaSA vktdy buls Hkh NksVh bUVsfytsUV fLVd

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/39

miyC/k gaSA vkdkj es NksVh gksus ds lkFk&lkFk budh fo'oluh;rk] dk;Z{kerk] laxgz .k {kerk vkfn
Hkh deky dh gksrh gSA budh laxzg.k {kerk fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA lkekU;r% 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB ;k
8 GB {kerk dh fLVd miyC/k gSA

fp= 1-54 bUVsfytsUV fLVd


1 .11
11.99 Cyw&js&fMLd (Blue-Ray-Disc)
11
Cyw&js&fMLd] CD rFkk DVD dh Hkkafr ,d vkfIVdy fMLd ek/;e gS A bldh HkkSfrd
foek,a ekud DVD rFkk CD ds leku gksrh gSA Cyw&js&fMLd dh laxgz .k {kerk 25 GB izfr flaxy
ys;j rFkk 50 GB M~;y
w ys;j gksrh gSA Cyw&js&fMLd dks i<+us ds fy, Cyw&ok;ksyVs ystj dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA blh dkj.k bldk uke Cyw&js&fMLd iM+k gSA bldk eq[; mi;ksx gkbZ MsfQusku
ohfM;ks] Iys LVsku- 3 fofM;ks xse rFkk vU; MkVk dks laxfz gr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
1 .11
11
10 eSeksjh fLVd (Memory Stick)
11.10
eSeksjh fLVd ,d gVk;h tk ldus okyh ySk eSeksjh gS
A eSeksjh fLVd dk mi;ksx oguh; ;qfDr (Portable Device)
tSls ysiVksi] fofM;ks dSejk] QksVksxzkfQd dSejk] eksckby esa
laxzg.k ek/;e ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gSA izkja fEHkd eSeksjh fLVd
dh laxgz .k {kerk 128 MB Fkh A vkt cktkj esa vf/kdre 32
fp= 1-55 eSeksjh fLVd
GB laxzg.k {kerk dh eSeksjh fLVd miyC/k gSA
1-12 fuos'kh fuxr iksVZ @ la;ksft= (Input Output Port/Connector)
1-12
12.11 lhfj;y iksVZ (Serial port)
lhfj;y iksVZ (Serial port) Js.kh lapkj (Serial
Communication) dk ,d HkkSfrd lEidZ (Physical Interface) gS] tks dEI;wVj ra= ls ;qfDr dks ;k ;qfDr ls
dEI;wVj dks ,d le; esa ,d fcV lwpuk vUnj ;k ckgj
Hkstrk gSA ilZuy dEI;wVj ds bfrgkl esa lhfj;y iksVZ us
dEI;wVj rFkk ;qfDr ds e/; MkVk lapkj dks laHko cuk;k
gSA vf/kdrj lhfj;y iksVZ RS-232C rFkk RS-422 ekud
fp= 1-56 lhfj;y iksVZ

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/40

dk vuq#i.k djrs gSA vf/kdka'kr% lhfj;y iksVZ dks ,d 9&fiu la;ksft= (Connector) ds #i esa
cuk;k tkrk gSA ekbkslkWa V MkWl
a (DOS) rFkk foaMks (Window) i;kZoj.k esa lhfj;y iksVZ dks COM
iksVZ : COM1, COM2 vkfn iksVZ ds #i esa tkuk tkrk gSA
lhfj;y iksVZ (Serial port) ,d lkekU; mi;ksx lEidZ (General Purpose Interface) gS,
ftldk mi;ksx yxHkx lHkh ;qfDr;ksa tSls & ekml (Mouse), ekWMe (Modem), rFkk fizVa j (Printer)
dks dEI;wVj ra= ls tksM+us esa fd;k tkrk gSA
vk/kqfud dEI;wVjksa esa lhfj;y iksVZ ds LFkku ij ;q ,l ch (USB) (Universal Serial Bus)
dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSa
1-12
12.22 iSjYy iksVZ (Parallel Port)
iSjYy iksVZ (Parallel Port) lekarj lapkj
(Parallel Communication) dk ,d HkkSfrd lEidZ
(Physical Interface) gS A bls fiz a V j iksV Z ;k
flUVkfs uDl iksVZ (Centronics Port) Hkh dgrs gSA
IEEE1284 ekud bldk f}nSf'kd vuqokn (Version) gSaA iSjYy iksVZ (Parallel Port)s dEI;wVj ra= ls
;qfDr dks ;k ;qfDr ls dEI;wVj dks ,d le; esa
fuf'pr ek=k esa fcV~l dk lekarj lapj.k djrk gSaA
ilZuy dEI;wVj esa iSjYy iksVZ ds #i esa ,d 25&
fiu la;ksft= dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA iSjYy ikVZ
dk mi;ksx fofHkUu ;qfDr;ksa tSls & fizaVj (Printer),
fti Mkbo (Zip Drive) , Ldsuj (Scanner), lkmaM
fp= 1-57 iSjYy iksVZ iksVZ
(Sound Card), ekWMe (Modem),
lhMhjkse (CDROM) vkfn dks tksMus ds fd;k tkrk gSA
1- 12
12.33 ;wfuoZly lhfj;y cl (Universal Serial Bus)
;wfuoZly lhfj;y cl (Universal Serial Bus)
,d vk/kqfud HkkSfrd lEidZ (Physical Interface) gSA
vktdy USB us fofHkUu izdkjds lhfj;y o iSjYy iksVZ
dks LFkkukUrfjr dj fn;k gSA USB fofHkUu dEI;qVj ;qfDr;ks
tSls & ekml (Mouse), dhcksmZ (Keyboard), fizaVj
(Printer), ckgkz Mkbo fmLd (External Hard Disk) ,
Ldsuj (Scanner), ehfM;k Iys;j (Media Player), fMthVy
dSejk (Digital Camera), yS'k Mkbo (Flash Drive) vkfn
dks dEI;qVj ls tksMus esa l{ke gSAa vktdy bldkmi;ksx
LekVZ Qksu, ohfM;ks dalksy rFkk AC ,MiVj ds e/; ikoj
fp= 1-58 ;w, lch la;ksf t=
dkMZ ds #i esa Hkh fd;k tkrk gSa
;wfuoZly lhfj;y cl (Universal Serial Bus) dh fuEu fo'ks"krk, gSa &
1. dEI;qVj gksLV dh rjg dk;Z djrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/41

2. ,d ;w,lch dscy 5 ehVj rd yEch gks ldrh gSA


3. ;w,lch dscy es ikoj ds fy, nks rkj gksrs gS rFkk MkVk ds fy, rkj dk ,d fVoLVsM
;qXe gksrk gSA
4. ;w,lch dscy ds ikoj ds rkj ij dEI;wVj 5 oksYV ij 500 feyh,Eih;j ikoj iznku dj
ldrk gSA
5. ;w,lch fMokbl gksV Lokiscy (Hot swapable) gS vFkkZr bls cl ls dHkh Hkh yxk;k
;k gVk;k tk ldrk gSA
1- 12
12.44 ih,l@2 iksVZ la;ksft= (PS/2 Port Connector)
ih,l@2 iksVZ la;ksft= (PS/2 Port Connector) dk mi;ksx dhcksMZ rFkk ekml dks dEI;wVj
ra= ls tksmus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA l~u 1987 esa lcls igys bUgs IBM ilZuy dEI;wVj@2 Js.kh
ds dEI;wVj esa yxk;k x;k FkkA blh ls bldk uke ih,l@2 iksVZ la;ksft= iM+kA
dh cksMZ rFkk ekml la;ksft= dk
fMtkbu fo|qrh; #i esa leku gksrh gS
rFkk nksuksa leku lapkj izkVs ksdky dk
mi;ksx djrs gSA ,d dEI;wVj ij
dhcksMZ rFkk ekml ds fy, miYc/k
ih,l@2 iksVZ dks vkil esa ,d nqljs
ds fy, mi;ksx ugh fd;k tk ldrk
gS D;ksfd nksuks ;qfDr;k fofHkUu fuZns'k
leqPp;ks dk mi;ksx djrk gSA
fp= 1-59 ih,l@2 iksV Z la;ksft=
1-12
12.55 baQzkjSM iksVZ (Infrared Port)
baQzkjSM iksVZ (Infrared Port) ,d ,slk iksVZ gS tks baQzkjSM izdk'k (Infrared Light) dk mi;ksx
dj ,d ;qfDr ls nqljh ;qfDr MkVk dks Hkst ;k izkIr dj ldrk gSA ;g izk;% IrDA izkVs ksdky dk
mi;ksx djrk gSAbldk mi;ksx dEI;wVj, ihMh, rFkk lSyQksu es fd;k tkrk gSA jsfM;ks fQzdosalh
(Radia Frequency) rduhd ( tSl&
s Cyw VqFk) ds vkus ij budk mi;ksx de gks x;k gSA ijUrq vkt
Hkh /kjsyq midj.kks ds fjeksV daVksy esa bl iksVZ mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
1-12
12.66 Cyw VqFk (Bluetooth)
Cyw VqFk de nqjh ij fLFkr fLFkj ;qfDr ls pyk;eku
;qfDr ds e/; ,d izksijkbVjh vksiu ok;jySl rduhd
(Properietory open wireless) dk ,d ekud gSA ;g
pyk;eku ,oe~ fLFkj ;qfDr ds e/; mPp lqj{kk dk ilZuy
,fj;k usVodZ (Personal Area Network) (PAN) cukrk
gSA Cyw VqFk dh [kkst lu~ 1994 esa ,jhdlu (Ericssion)
daiuh }kjk dh xbZ FkhA
Cyw VqFk ds }kjk ,d ;qfDr ,dlkFk lkr vU; ;qfDr;ksa
ds lkFk tqM+ ldrk gS rFkk lqjf{kr MkVk lapkj dh ldrk gSA fp= 1-60 lSyQksu Cyw VqFk

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/42

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1- dEI;wVj rU= ds eq[; Hkkx % (1) flLVe ;wfuV (2) buiqV ;wfuV (3) vkmViqV ;wfuV
2- lsUVy izkslsflax ;wfuV (CPU) % ;g dEI;wVj dk fnekx gksrk gSA bldk eq[; dk;Z izkx
s zkeksa dks
f;kfUor djuk gSA
3- ,-,y-;w- % ;g ;wfuV vadxf.krh; ,oa rkfdZd f;k, djus dk dk;Z djrh gSA
4- eseksjh izkFkfed laxzg.k ;qfDr gSA
5- eSeksjh % dEI;wVj dk dk;Zdkjh laxzg gS tgk MkVk] lwpuk vkSj izkx
s zke laxzfgr jgrs gSa vkSj
vko';drk ds le; rRdky miyC/k gks tkrs gSAa
6- eSeksjh dks eq[;r% nks Hkkxksa esa ckVk tkrk gS& (1) eq[; eSeksjh (2) ck eSeksjhA
7- eq[; eSeksjh dks nks Hkkxkssa esa foHkDr fd;k tkrk gS& (1) vLFkkbZ eSeksjh -RAM (2) LFkkbZ eSeksjh
- ROM
8- fcV % eSeksjh dh lcls NksVh bdkbZ gSA ckbujh vad iz.kkyh esa bldk eku 0 vFkok 1 gksrk gSA
9- ckbV % vkB fcV ds lewg dks ckbV dgrss gSAa lkekU;r% ,d djsDVj vad ;k v{kj dks ,d ckbV
ls O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA
10- dEI;wVj ds lh-ih-;w- ls tqMs+ fofHkUu midj.kksa ,oa ;qfDr;ksa dks ifj/kh; ;qfDr;ka (Peripheral
Devices) dgk tkrk gSA
11- buiqV ;qfDr;ksa (Input Devices) dh lgk;rk ls mi;ksxdrkZ (User) }kjk dEI;wVj esa vkadMs+]
lwpuk,a rFkk funs'Z k Mkys tkrs gSaA
12- dh&cksMZ ,d lokZf/kd iz;qDr gksus okyk egRoiw.kZ buiqV midj.k gSA ;g VkbijkbVj dk
la'kksf/kr :i gSA
13- dEI;wVj ds lapkyu ds fy, iz;qDr gksus okys egRoiw.kZ midj.kksa esa ls ekml Hkh ,d gSA ekml
dk vkdkj pwgs tSlk gksus ds dkj.k bls ekml dgk tkrk gSA
14- ekml ds lapkyu dks ekWuhVj dh Lhu ij n'kkZus ds fy, ,d rhjuqek fp Lhu ij gksrk gS
ftls ekml ikWbUVj dgrs gSAa
15- tkW; fLVd Lhu ij fp=ksa dks fgykus o pykus vkfn dk dk;Z djrk gSA bldk mi;ksx eq[;r%
dEI;wVj xsEl [ksyus esa fd;k tkrk gSA
16- ykbV iSu Lhu ij lh/ks fy[kus dk dk;Z djrk gSA bldk mi;ksx xzkfQDl vkfn cukus ds
dk;ksZa (Computer Aided Design) esa fd;k tkrk gSA
17- vkWIVhdy djsDVj jhMj (OCR) Nis gq,] Vkbi fd, gq, rFkk gLrfyf[kr vYQkU;wefs jd
djsDVjksa dks i<+us dk dk;Z djrs gaAS

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/43

18- MICR dk iz;ksx eq[;r% cSadksa esa tek gksus okys pSadksa dks tkapus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
19- OMR dkxt ds fdlh LFkku fo'ks"k ij isfUly ;k isu ds fp dh mifLFkfr rFkk vuqifLFkfr
dks tkapus dk dk;Z djrk gSA
20- LdSuj (Scanner) fdlh fp=] QksVksxkz Q] vkd`fr] VSDLV vkfn dks lhks dEI;wVj esa buiqV djrk
gSA
21- LekVZ dkMZ jhMj LekVZ dkMZ dks i<+us dk dk;Z djrk gSA LekVZ dkMZ vkWu ykbu Hkqxrku
O;oLFkk rFkk viuh igpku crkus dk ,d lk/ku gSA
22- ckj dksM jhMj dk mi;ksx fdlh ckj dksM esa fufgr lwpukvksa dks xzg.k djus rFkk i<+us ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA
23- fMftVy dSejk QksVks [khpusa ds i'pkr QksVks dks fMftVy MkVk esa ifjofrZr djrk gSA
24- osc dSejk ,d vkWu ykbu midj.k gS ftldh lgk;rk ls ykbo rLohjsa (Live Pictures)
dEI;wVj Lhu ij ns[kh tk ldrh gaAS
25- ekbksQksu /ofu dks fMftVy MkVk esa ifjofrZr djrk gSA
26- Vp Lhu ekuo vaxfq y;ksa ds Li'kZ ds izfr laosnu'khy gksrs gaSA Vp Lhu dk mi;ksx mu LFkkuksa
ij gksrk gS tgka vke yksxksa dks dEI;wVj ls dksbZ tkudkjh izkIr djuh gks ;k dksbZ fo'ks"k dk;Z
djuk gksA
27- ck;ksefs Vd lsUlj ekuo ds fofHkUu tSfod vfHky{k.kksa dh fo'ks"krkvksa dks ekirk gSA rFkk mudk
fo'ys"k.k Hkh djrk gSA
28- vkmViqV ;qfDr;ka (Output Devices) os lk/ku gSa ftudh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj mi;ksxdrkZ
(User) ls izkIr vkdM+ksa] lwpukvksa] funsZ'kksa vkfn ds ifj.kke izf;k ds i'pkr mi;ksxdrkZ dks
izLrqr djrk gSA
29- ekWuhVj vkmViqV dks n`'; :i esa Lhu ij iznf'kZr djrk gSA ekWuhVj eq[;r% nks izdkj ds gksrs
gS&1- lh-vkj-Vh- ekWuhVj] 2- ,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVjA
30- fizUVj vkmViqV dks dkxt ij Nkidj gkMZ dkWih ds :i esa izLrqr djrk gSA fizUVlZ eq[;r% nks
izdkjksa esa ckaVs tkrs gS&
1- bEiSDl fizUVlZ] 2- ukWu bEiSDV fizUVlZA
31- bEiSDV fizUVj ds eq[; mnkgj.k gSa& 1- MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj 2- Msth Oghy fizUVj 3- psu fizUVj
4- cS.M fizUVj 5- Me fizUVj
32- ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVj ds eq[; mnkgj.k gSa& 1- rkih; fizUVj 2- bad tSV fizUVj 3- yslj fizUVj
33- MkVk] lwpuk] izksxzke vkfn dks rkRdkfyd ,oa Hkfo"; esa mi;ksx gsrq laxzfgr djds j[kk tkrk
gSA
34- IykWVj dk mi;ksx cM+s vkdj ds uD'ks] pkVZ] js[kkfp=] xzkQ vkfn fizUV djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk
gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/44

35- LihdlZ dEI;wVj ls izkIr fMftVy lwpukvksa dks /ofu esa ifjofrZr djrs gSA
36- pqEcdh; Vsi] pqEcdh; fMLd] gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd] lh-Mh- jkse f}rh;d laxgz .k ;qfDr;ka
gSaA
37- dkWEiSDV fMLd (CD) MkVk laxzg.k dh ,d izdk'kh; ;qfDr gSA
38- fMftVy ohfM;ks fMLd (DVD) Hkh MkVk laxzg.k dh ,d izdk'kh; ;qfDr gS fdUrq bldh {kerk
CD dh rqyuk esa cgqr vf/kd gksrh gSA
39- fti Mkbo MkVk laxzg.k ,oa LFkkukUrj.k dh ,d mke pqEcdh; ;qfDr gSA
40- bUVsfytsUV fLVd MkVk LFkkukUrj.k ,oa laxgz .k dh vusd foy{k.k xq.kksa okyh uohure ;qfDr gSA
41. lhfj;y iksVZ (Serial port) Js.kh lapkj (Serial Communication) dk ,d HkkSfrd lEidZ
(Physical Interface) gS] tks dEI;wVj ra= ls ;qfDr dks ;k ;qfDr ls dEI;wVj dks ,d le; esa
,d fcV lwpuk vUnj ;k ckgj Hkstrk gSA
42. iSjYy iksVZ (Parallel Port) lekarj lapkj (Parallel Communication) dk ,d HkkSfrd lEidZ
(Physical Interface) gSA bls fizaVj iksVZ ;k flUVksfuDl iksVZ (Centronics Port) Hkh dgrs gSA
43. iSjYy iksVZ (Parallel Port)s dEI;wVj ra= ls ;qfDr dks ;k ;qfDr ls dEI;wVj dks ,d le; esa
fuf'pr ek=k esa fcV~l dk lekarj lapj.k djrk gSAa
44. ,d ;w,lch dscy 5 ehVj rd yEch gks ldrh gSA
45. ;w,lch dscy es ikoj ds fy, nks rkj gksrs gS rFkk MkVk ds fy, rkj dk ,d fVoLVsM ;qXe gksrk
gSA
46. ;w,lch dscy ds ikoj ds rkj ij dEI;wVj 5 oksYV ij 500 feyh,Eih;j ikoj iznku dj ldrk
gSA
47. ih,l@2 iksVZ la;ksft= (PS/2 Port Connector) dk mi;ksx dhcksMZ rFkk ekml dks dEI;wVj
ra= ls tksMus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
48. baQzkjSM iksVZ (Infrared Port) ,d ,slk iksVZ gS tks baQzkjSM izdk'k (Infrared Light) dk mi;ksx
dj ,d ;qfDr ls nqljh ;qfDr MkVk dks Hkst ;k izkIr dj ldrk gSA
49. baQzkjSM iksVZ (Infrared Port) izk;% IrDA izksVksdky dk mi;ksx djrk gSA
50. Cyw VqFk de nqjh ij fLFkr fLFkj ;qfDr ls pyk;eku ;qfDr ds e/; ,d izkis jkbVjh vksiu ok;jySl
rduhd (Properietory open wireless) dk ,d ekud gSA
51. ;g pyk;eku ,oe~ fLFkj ;qfDr ds e/; mPp lqj{kk dk ilZuy ,fj;k usVodZ (Personal Area
Network) (PAN) cukrk gSA
52. Cyw VqFk ds }kjk ,d ;qfDr ,dlkFk lkr vU; ;qfDr;ksa ds lkFk tqM+ ldrk gS rFkk lqjf{kr MkVk
lapkj dj ldrk gSA

vH;klkFkZ iz'u
oLrqfu"B izu
1dEI;wVj esa MkVk Lohdkj djus okyh ;qfDr gS&

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/45

2-

3-

4-

5-

6-

v lh-ih-;w-

c lh-;w-

l buiqV ;wfuV

n vkmViqV ;wfuV

dEI;wVj dh fdlh fof'k"V Hkk"kk esa fy[ks funsZ'kksa ds lewg dks dgrs gSa&
v izkx
s zke

c MkVk

l lwpuk,a

n mijksDr lHkh

,d ckbV esa gksrs gSa&


v 4 fcV

c 8 fcV

l 16 fcV

n 32 fcV

U;wesfjd dh iSM dk eq[;r% mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS&


v VSDLV izkslsflax esa

c xzkfQDl dk;ksZa esa

l cSafdx dk;ksZa esa

n mDr lHkh esa

ekml gS ,d&
v buiqV midj.k

c vkmViqV midj.k

l laxzg.k midj.k

n mDr esa ls dksbZ ugha

VkbieSfVd dh nj gksrh gS&


v 20 ckj izfr lSd.M c 10 ckj izfr lSd.M
l 5 ckj izfr lSd.M

7-

8-

9-

n 1 ckj izfr lSd.M

fdlh dkxt ij fizUVj }kjk Nik gqvk vkmViqV dgykrk gS&


v gkMZ dkWih

c lkWV dkWih

l ekbks fQYe

n ykWih

lh-vkj-Vh dh vkUrfjd lrg ij ysfir jgrk gS&


v dSfY'k;e inkFkZ

c QkWLQksjl inkFkZ

l fLVy inkFkZ

n vk;ju vkWDlkbM

fizfVax dh og rduhd tks VkbijkbVj dh rduhd ds leku gksrh gS&


v Vkbi eSfVd fizafVax c bEiSDV fizafVx
l ukWu bEiSDV fizafVx

10-

11-

n yslj fizafVx

Me fizUVj gS&
v djsDVj fizUVj

c ykbu fizUVj

l ist fizUVj

n xzkfQDl fizUVj

izkFkfed laxzg.k ek/;e gS&

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/46

12-

13-

14-

15-

16-

17-

18-

19-

20-

v gkMZ fMLd

c eSeksjh

l lh-Mh- jkse

n pqEcdh; Vsi

izdk'kh; rduhd dk iz;ksx gksrk gS&


v gkMZ fMLd esa

c ykWih fMLd esa

l bad tSV fizUVj esa

n lh-Mh- jkse esa

ekbks ykWih dh lkekU;r% laxzg.k {kerk gksrh gS&


v 1.2 MB

c 650 MB

l 1.44 MB

n 2.8 MB

cSafdax esa vf/kd mi;ksx esa fy, tkrs gS&


v OMR

c MICR

l OCR

n Boarcode Reader

cgqp;ukRed iz'uksa dh tkap fdl midj.k }kjk dh tkrh gS&


v OCR

c ORR

l MICR

n OMR

Nis gq, v{kjksa dks i<+us okyk midj.k gS&


v OCR

c OMR

l MICR

n Biometric Sensor

pqEcdh; L;kgh dk mi;ksx fdlesa fd;k tkrk gS&


v OCR

c OMR

l MICR

n mDr lHkh esa

ykbu fizUVj mi;ksxh gS&


v fctyh ds fcyksa dks Nkius esa

c fMtkbu cukus esa

l lqUnj i= fy[kus esa

n 'kks/k i= Nkius esa

QksVks dkWih e'khu ds fl)kUr ij dkSu lk fizUVj dk;Z djrk gS&


v badtSV fizUVj

c MkWV&eSfVDl fizUVj

l MSth Oghy fizUVj

n yslj fizUVj

eksVh iqLrd dh LdSfuax ds fy, dkSulk LdSuj mi;qDr gS&


v 'khV&QhM LdSuj

c ysV cSM LdSuj

l gSaM&gSYM LdSuj
n mijksDr lHkh
21- og iksVZ (Port), tks dEI;wVj ra= ls ;qfDr dks ;k ;qfDr ls dEI;wVj dks ,d le; esa ,d fcV

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/47

lwpuk vUnj ;k ckgj Hkstrk gS&


c iSjYy iksVZ
v lhfj;y iksVZ
l ih,l@2 iksVZ
n ;q,lch iksVZ
22- ,d ;w,lch dscy dh yEckbZ gks ldrh gS&
v 25 ehVj
c 20 ehVj
l 5 ehVj
n 2 ehVj
23- OyWVqFk] pyk;eku ,oe~ fLFkj ;qfDr ds e/; mPp lqj{kk tks usVodZ cukrk gS] mls dgrs gS&
v LAN
c MAN
l WAN
n PAN
vfry?kq kjkRed iz ' u %
1- dEI;wVj rU= dh eq[; bdkb;ksa ds uke fyf[k,A
2- buiqV bdkbZ ds mnkgj.k crkb,A
3- vadxf.krh; ,oa rkfdZd bdkbZ ds dk;Z fyf[k,A
4- flLVe ;wfuV ds vUrxZr vkus okys Hkkxksa ds uke fyf[k,A
5- fuCcy (Nibble) fdls dgrss gSaA
6- MICR dk iwjk uke fyf[k,A
7- OCR esa lokZf/kd izpfyr ekud QkWUV dk uke crkb,A
8- LekVZ dkMZ ds :i esa ml vo;o dks D;k dgrs gaS ftlesa miHkksDrk ds lEcU/k esa tkudkjh laxfz gr
jgrh gSA
9- fofHkUu fuekZrk vius mRiknksa ij fof'k"V igpku ds fy, D;k vafdr djrs gS\
10- ohfM;ksa pSfVax ds fy, fdl dSejs dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\
11- fMftVy dSejs esa n`'; dks laxzg (Capture) djus ds fy, fdl ;qfDr dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk
gS\
12- ADC dk iwjk uke crkb,A
13- LihdlZ dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj ds fdl QhYM esa gksrk gS\
14- vaxqyh ds fpksa dh cukoV rFkk mldk fo'ys"k.k fdl midj.k }kjk fd;k tkrk gS\
15- ekWuhVj ds Lhu ds NksV&
s NksVs fcUnqvksa dks D;k dgrs gSa\
16- MkVk dks fMLd ij i<+us o fy[kus dk dk;Z fdlds }kjk gksrk gS\
17- MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj fdl izdkj ds fizUVj dk mnkgj.k gS\
18- ykWih fMLd vkSj mlds vkoj.k esa fLFkr fNnz dks D;k dgrs gSa\

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/48

19202122-

ekbks ykWih dk O;kl fdruk gksrk gS\


MhohMh dh lkekU;r% laxzg.k {kerk fdruh gksrh gS\
MkVk laxzg.k ,oa LFkkukUrj.k dh lcls NksVh ;qfDr dk uke crkb,A
og iksVZ (Port), tks dEI;wVj ra= ls ;qfDr dks ;k ;qfDr ls dEI;wVj dks ,d le; esa fuf'pr
ek=k esa fcV~l dk lekarj lapj.k djrk gS]mls D;k dgrs gS \
23- ;w,lch dscy ds ikoj ds rkj ij dEI;wVj fdruh ikoj iznku dj ldrk gS \
24-- baQzkjSM iksVZ (Infrared Port) izk;% fdl izkVs ksdky dk mi;ksx djrk gS\

y?kq kjkRed iz'u %


1- RAM vkSj ROM D;k gSa\ budk iwjk uke fyf[k,A
2- yslj fizUVj fdl rduhd ij dk;Z djrk gS\
3- bEiSDV fizUVj o ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVj esa vUrj crkb,A
4- LdSuj ds mi;ksx crkb,A
5- CRT dSFkksM&js&V~;cw ekWuhVj esa Lhu dh Hkhrjh lrg ij QkLQksjl dh ijr D;ksa p<+kbZ tkrh
gS\
6- MSth&Oghy fizUVj dh D;k lhek,a gS\
7- ySVj DokfyVh fizafVx (Letter Quality Printing) D;k gS\
8- LdSuj fdlh L=ksr i`"B ds fp= dks dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh esa fdl izdkj igqpkrk gS\
9- fMftVy dSejk ,d lk/kkj.k izdk'kh; dSejs ls fdl izdkj fHkUu gS\
10- lkWV dkWih vkSj gkMZ dkWih esa vUrj crkb,A
11- ekml dk mi;ksx fdu&fdu dk;ksZa esa gksrk gS\
12- tkW; fLVd vkSj ykbV iSu ds dk;Z fyf[k,A
13- lhMh jkse ,oa MhohMh ds mi;ksx esa D;k lko/kkfu;ka j[kh tkuh pkfg,\
14- D;k ,d dEI;wVj ij dhcksMZ rFkk ekml ds fy, miYc/k ih,l@2 iksVZ dks vkil esa ,d nqljs
ds fy, mi;ksx esa fy;k tk ldrk gS \ le>kb,A
fucU/kkRed iz 'u %
1- dEI;wVj ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dk o.kZu dhft, rFkk bldk CykWd js[kkfp= cukb,A
2- dEI;wVj esa eSeksjh dh vko';drk D;ksa gksrh gS\ dEI;wVj eSeksjh ds fofHkUu izdkjksa dk o.kZu
dhft,A

AglaSem School

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3- MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj dh f;k fof/k dk lfp= o.kZu dhft,A


4- ekWuhVj fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSa\ izR;sd dk lfp= o.kZu dhft,A
5- IykWVj D;k gS\ blds izdkjksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
6- vkmViqV dks dkSu&dkSu lh xq.kokk (Quality) esa Nkik tk ldrk gS\ izR;sd dk lfp= o.kZu
dhft,A
7- LdSuj fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSa\ LdSuj dh f;k iz.kkyh rFkk blds mi;ksx fyf[k,A
8- fuEu ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k,&
v LekVZ dkMZ jhMj
c ck;ksesfVd lsl
a j
l ckj dksM jhMj
n Vp Lhu
9- gkMZ fMLd dh lajpuk o dk;Z iz.kkyh lfp= le>kb,A
10- lh-Mh-jkse D;k gS\ bldh dk;Z iz.kkyh rFkk blds mi;ksx fyf[k,A
11- MhohMh D;k gS bldh fo'ks"krk,a crkb,A MhohMh lhMh jkse dh rqyuk esa fdl izdkj csgrj gS\
12- dEI;wVj esa iz;qDr gksus okyh fofHkUu izdkj ds iksVZ@la;ksft=ksa dks le>kb;sA

mkjekyk
cgqp;ukRed iz'u %
1- l

2- v

3- c

4- l

5- v

6- c

7- v

8- c

9- c

10- c

11- c

12- n

13- l

14- c 15- n 16- v

17- l

18- v

19- n

20- c

21- v

22- l

23- n

AglaSem School

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2
dEI;wV j lkWVos;j
(Computer Software)
2-1

izLrkouk (Introduction)

foxr o"kksaZ es O;kolkf;d izksxkz feax us fofHkUu mUur fdLe ds lkWVos;j ,oa izksxzke dh lgk;rk
ls gekjs MsLdVkWi dEI;wVjksa dks fdlh Hkh izdkj dk dk;Z djus dh l{kerk iznku dh gSA ;g ikB
lEkfiZr gS lkWVos;j dks ftlus dEI;wVj dks ,d /kjsyw uke nsus dk mRd`"V dk;Z fd;k gSA
dEI;wVj dk dk;Z nks Hkkxks ls lapkfyr gksrk gSA
1

gkMZo;
s j (Hardware)

lkWVos;j (Software)

2 -2

gkMZos;j rFkk lkWVos;j (Hardware & Software)

gkMZos;j rFkk lkWVos;j feydj ,d lEiw.kZ rU= dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA dEI;wVj rU= ds
vUrxZr tks Hkh midj.k] oLrq,] izksxzke vkfn vkrs gS] os lHkh ;k rks gkMZo;
s j ds vUrxZr vkrs gSa ;k
fQj lkWVos;j ds vUrxZrA vr% bu nksuksa dk Kku gksuk vko';d gSA
gkMZos;j (Hardware) %& dEI;wVj flLVe ds os lHkh HkkSfrd (Physical) ,oa ewrZ (Tangible) Hkkx
ftUgsa ge ns[k ldrs gSa rFkk Nw Hkh ldrs gSa] gkMZos;j dgykrs gSaA lh-ih-;w-] dh&cksMZ] ekml] fizUVj]
Lihdj vkfn gkMZos;j ds mnkgj.k gSaA bu lHkh Hkkxksa dks ge ns[kus ds lkFk&lkFk Nw Hkh ldrs gSAa
lkWVos;j (Software) %& dEI;wVj ls dk;Z djokus ds fy, gesa dEI;wVj dks crkuk gksxk fd mls
D;k djuk gSA bl dk;Z ds fy, gesa dEI;wVj dks funsZ'k nsus iM+rs gSaA bu funsZ'kksa dks gh lkWVos;j
dgk tkrk gSA bu funsZ'kksa ds lewg dks izkx
s zke Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
lkWVos;j gh gkMZos;j dks f;k'khy cukrk gSA dksbZ Hkh gkMZos;j rHkh dk;Z djrk gS] tc
mls mlls lEcfU/kr lkWVos;j ls funsZ'k feyrs gSaA lkWVos;j bysDVkWfud :i esa gksrs gSa ftUgsa ns[kk
;k Nqvk ugha tk ldrkA

2.3 lkWVos;j ds izdkj (Types of Software)


lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj rFkk mi;ksxdrkZ ds e/; dh f;kvksa dks lapkfyr djus ds fy;s fd;k
tkrk gS rFkk budk mi;ksx fdlh dk;Z dks dEI;wVjkbTM djus ds fy;s Hkh fd;k tkrk gSA ;s rhu izdkj

ds gksrs ga%S &

AglaSem School

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1 flLVe lkWVos;j (System Software)


2 ,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j (Application Software)
3 ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j ( Utility Software)
2.4

flLVe lkWVos;j (System Software)

dEI;wVj dks lapkfyr djus okys lkWVos;j] tks dEI;wVj ij fdlh izksxzke ds f;kUou ds
fy, vko';d gksrs gSa] flLVe lkWVos;j dgykrs gSAa ;s dEI;wVj dks vf/kd izHkko'kkyh ,oa mi;ksxh
cukrs gSaAflLVe lkWVos;j izkx
s kz eks dk og lewg gS tks fd dEI;wVj ds HkkSfrd Hkkxksa rFkk lkWVos;j dks
fu;fU=r djrk gSA flLVe lkWVos;j ds vHkko esa dEI;wVj ij ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx ugha
fd;k tk ldrk gSA flLVe lkWVos;j dEI;wVj fo'ks"kKksa }kjk rS;kj fd;s tkrs gSAa ;s dEI;wVj rU=
dk ,d vR;ko';d Hkkx gSaA;g dEI;wVj mi;ksx
s drkZ rFkk dEI;wVj gkMZo;s j ds e/; dh f;kvksa dks
fu;fU=r djrk gS rFkk ;g ,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j dks Hkh f;kfUor djrk gS blfy;s bls ,Iyhdsku
lkWVos;j dk vk/kkj Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
flLVe lkWVos;j ds dk;Z%&
1

flLVe lkWVos;j vU; lHkh lkWVos;jks dk fu"iknu djrk gSA

;g mi;ksxdrkZ rFkk dEI;wVj gkMZos;j ds e/; lEcU/k LFkkfir djrk gSSA

bldk mi;ksx fofHkUu lkWVos;jksa ds fuekZ.k ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA

dEI;wVj L=ksrks tSls eSeksjh] izkslslj] buiqV vkmViqV fMokbl dks fu;fU=r djrk gSA

flLVe lkWVos;j esa vxzfyf[kr izksxzke lfEefyr gksrs gSa %&


1

vkWijsfVax flLVe (Operating System)

;wfVfyVh izkx
s zke (Utility Program)

izksxzkfeax Hkk"kk,a (Programming Languages)

Hkk"kk lalk/kd (Language Translator)

2.4.1

vkWijsfVax flLVe (Operating System) %&

,sls izksxkz eksa dk lewg tks dEI;wVj ds leLr dk;ksZa dk lapkyu djrk gS] vkWijsfVax flLVe
dgykrk gSA ;g dEI;wVj vkSj mi;ksxdkkZ (User) ds chp ;kstd dM+h Hkh gksrk gSA tSls gh ;wtj
dEI;wVj vkWu djrk gS] vkWijsfVax flLVe dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh esa laxfz gr gks tkrk gS vkSj fQj dEI;wVj
dh leLr f;kvksa dk lapkyu djrk gSA MS-DOS, WINDOWS, UNIX, LINUX, SOLARIS,
BhartiOO vkfn dqN izpfyr vkWijsfVax flLVe gSaA
2.4.1.1

vkWijsfVax flLVe dh vko';drk (Need of Operating System) %&

dEI;wVj esa miyC/k lalk/kuks ds mfpr ,ao dq'kyrk iqod


Z mi;ksx ds fy, rFkk mi;ksxdrkZ
dh lqfo/kk ds fy, ,sls lkWVos;jksa dh vko';drk gksrh gS tks lalk/kuks dk izca/ku ,ao fu;a=.k dj
ldsAvkWijsfVax flLVe ;s lHkh dk;Z djrk gS rFkk blds vfrfjDr fuEu lsok, iznku djrk gS &
1 buiqV&vkmViqV vkWijs'ku (Input Output Operation)

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/52

2 Qkby flLVe esuhiqy's ku (File System Manipulation)


3 ,jj~ fMVsd'ku (Error Detection)
4 dE;quhds'ku (Communication)
5 izksxkz e ,xthD;q'ku (Program Execution)
6 fjlkslZ vyksd's ku ,aM eSut
s esaV (Resource Allocation and Management)
7 fMLdLisl@eSeksjh@izksll
s vdkmfVax (Disk Space/Memory/Process Accounting)
8 izksVd
s 'ku (Protection) vkfn
2.44.11.22 vkWijsfVax flLVe ds izeq[k dk;Z (Main Functions of Operating System)&
s kz e rFkk mlls lecfU/kr MkVk dks eSeksjh
1- Le`fr izcU/ku Memory Management& fdlh Hkh izkx
es dgk j[kuk gS rFkk dgk ls ykuk gS bldk fu/kkZj.k vkWijsfVax flLVe gh djrk gSA
2

Qkby izcU/ku (File Management)&blds vUrxZr Qkby dks mlds uke ls laxgz rFkk okfil
ykus dk dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSA

fuoskfuxZe izcU/ku (Input Output Management)& blds vUrxZr dEI;wVj es MkVk nsus
vFkok dEI;wVj ls MkVk ysus ds fy;s dke vkus okyh ;qfDr;ksa Devices dk izcU/ku j[krk gSA

;wtj bUVjQsl (User Interface) & blds vUrxZr vkWijsfVax flLVe mi;ksxdrkZ ds lkFk lecU/
k j[krk gS ftlls mi;ksxdrkZ dk dke ljy gks tkrk gSA

s kz e mi;ksxdrkZ dks dk;ksaZ dh tfVyrkvkas ls nwj djok nsrs gaAS


;wfVfyVht (Utilities) & ;s izkx

2 .44 .11.33 vkWijsfVax flLVe ds izdkkjj (Types of Operating System)&


1. cSp izkslsflax flLVe (Batch Proccessing System)
bl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj ds vkajfHkd nkSj es fd;k tkrk
FkkA nks dk;ksZ ds e/; lsVvi le; de djus ds fy, izkx
s zke yksMj (Program Loader)
ds fopkj dk mi;ksx fd;k x;kAbl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe esa buiqV fMokbl ls dk;ksZ
ds Lor% (automatic) yksfMax dh O;oLFkk dh xbZ FkhAbl izdkj dk vkWijsfVax flLVe dk;ksZ
dks ,d Js.khc) rjhds ls lalkf/kr djrk FkkA
2. eYVh izksxzkfeax flLVe (Multi Programming System)
bl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe esa ,d CPU ij ,d le; esa ,d ls vf/kd dk;ksZ
dks lalkf/kr fd;k tkrk gSAblls dk;ksZ dks rsth ls lalkf/kr fd;k tk ldrk gS rFkk blls
dEI;wVj dk izR;qRrj le; (Response Time) c<+k gSA
3 . baVj,fDVo flLVe (Interactive System)
bl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe esa mi;ksxdrkZ VfeZuy dh enn ls dEI;wVj ls
lh/kk tqM+k gksrk gSA bl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe mi;ksxdrkZ dks nks izdkj ds lEidZ

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/53
(Interface) & DjsDVj ;qtj baVjQsl (Character User Interface (CUI), xzkfQdy ;qtj
baVjQsl (Graphical User Interface (CUI) miyC/k djkrs gSA

4. Vkbe 'ks;fjax flLVe (Time Sharing System)


bl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe esa dEI;wVj izkl
s slj ds le; dks ,d gh le; esa
fn;s x;s ,d ls vf/kd dk;ksaZ ds e/; ckWVa k tkrk gSA
5 . eYVh izkslsflax vkWijsfVax flLVe (Multi Proccessing Operating System)
bl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe] dEI;wVj esa mifLFkr nks ;k nks ls vf/kd CPU ij
,d eSeksjh rFkk vU; lalk/kuks dk mi;ksx dj ],d gh le; esa fn;s x;s ,d ls vf/kd dk;ksZ
dk ,d le; esa izkslsflax djrk gSA
6 . eYVh Vklfdax vkWijsfVax flLVe (Multi Tasking Operating System)
eYVh Vklfdax vkWijsfVax flLVe esa jSe (RAM) eSeksjh esa mifLFkr ,d ls vf/kd dk;ksZ
dks bl izdkj lalkf/kr fd;k tkrk gS fd dEI;wVj ds lalk/kuksa dk vf/kdre mi;ksx fd;k
tk ldsA
7. jh;y Vkbe vkWijsfVax flLVe (Real Time Operating System)
jh;y Vkbe vkWijsfVax flLVe dk;Z fo'ks"k dh le; dh ck/;rk dks /;ku esa j[k
cuk;s tkrs gSAbl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe dk ,d viuk le; ca/ku gksrk gSAjh;y Vkbe
vkWijsfVax flLVe dk mi;ksx m|ksxksa tSls & ikoj IYkakV, dsfedy baMLVh vkfn esa fofHkUu
izfdz;kvks ds Lor% lapkyu (Auotomation) dh izfdz;k ds fu;a=.k ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
8 . MhlVhC;qVsM vkWijsfVax flLVe (Distributed Operating System)
bl izdkj ds vkWijsfVax flLVe esa fdlh x.kuk ds dk;Z dks] HkkSfrd #i ls vyxvyx LFkku ij fLFkr dEI;wVjks ij ckWV fn;k tkrk gSA ;s dEI;wVj eYVh izkslslj flLVe dh
rjg eSeksjh rFkk DykWd Vkbe 'ks;j ugh djrs gSA fofHkUu LFkkuks ij fLFkr ;s dEI;wVj MkVk
dk vknku iznku mPp rhozrk dh lapkj ykbu ;k cl ds }kjk djrs gSA
2.4.2

;wfVfyVh izksxzke (Utility Program) %&

;s izkx
s kz e dEI;wVj ds fofHkUu Hkkxksas ds j[k&j[kko rFkk ejEer dk dk;Z djrs gSAa mnkgj.k&fMLd
fjdojh izkx
s zke] MkVk cSdvi izksxzke vkfnA
2.4.3

izksxzkfeax Hkk"kk,a (Programming Languages) %&

dEI;wVj dks fn, tkus okys funs'Z k dEI;wVj dh Hkk"kk esa gh fn, tkrs gS]a D;ksfa d dEI;wVj viuh
Hkk"kk gh le>rk gS] euq"; dh Hkk"kk ughaA vkt fofHkUu fo'ks"krkvksa okyh fofo/k dEI;wVj izkx
s kz feax Hkk"kk,a
miyC/k gSAa izR;sd Hkk"kk ds vius ekud vkSj fof'k"V fu;e gSAa csfld] dkscksy] QksjVku] ikLdy] lh]
tkok] vkWjd
s y vkfn izkx
s kz feax Hkk"kkvksa ds dqN mnkgj.k gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/54
2.4.4

Hkk"kk lalk/kd (Language Translator) %&

;s ,sls izksxkz e gSa tks ,d Hkk"kk esa funs'Z k Lohdkj dj vU; Hkk"kk esa mlds lerqY; funsZ'k rS;kj
djrs gSaAdEikbyj (Compiler), bUVjizsVj (Interpreter), vlsEcyj (Assembler) Hkk"kk
lalk/kd ds dqN mnkgj.k gSA
s kz feax Hkk"kk dks ekhuh
dEikbyj & ;g ,d flLVe lkWVos;j gS ftldk mi;ksx mPp Lrjh; izkx
Hkk"kk es ifjofrZr djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS dEikbyj iwjs izkx
s ke dks ,d lkFk dEikby djrk gS
rFkk fofHkUu =qfV;ksa dks muds ykbu uEcj ds lkFk iznfkZr djrk gS dEikbyj }kjk izkx
s kz e fu"iknu
ds le; izkx
s kz e dk eSeksjh es gksuk t#jh ugha gSA
bUVjizsVj &
&os Hkk"kk izksll
s j tks mPp Lrjh; izkx
s zkfeax Hkk"kk dks iafDr nj iafDr ekhuh Hkk"kk
es ifjofrZr djrs gSa bUVjizsVj dgykrs gSAa fdlh Hkh iafDr es =qfV gksus ij og rRdky iznfkZZr
dj nsrk gSA bUVizsVj }kjk izksxkz e fu"iknu ds le; izksxkz e dk eSeksjh es gksuk vko;d gSA
vlsEcyj &
&;g vlsEcyh Hkk"kk es fy[ks izkx
s kz e dks ekhuh Hkk"kk es ifjofrZr djrk gSA

2.5 ,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j (Application Software)


,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j izkx
s kz eksa dk og lewg gS tks fdlh fo'ks"k rFkk fuf'pr dk;ksZa dks djus ds
ms'; ls cuk, x, gks A dk;Z ds vk/kkj ij budk fuekZ.k fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk esa fd;k tk ldrk gSA
MkWDVj] bUthfu;j] fMtkbuj] ,MoksdVs vkfn dks viuh fHkUu vko';drkvksa gsrq fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj
ds izkx
s zkeksa dh vko';drk gksrh gSA ;s is'ksoj O;fDr ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j ds iz;ksx ls vius dk;ksZa
dk fu"iknu cgqr gh csgrj <ax ls dj ldrs gSaA vkt cSafdax] chek] QSDVjh] vLirky] bathfu;fjax
vkfn esa budk dkQh mi;ksx gksus yxk gSA f'k{kk cksMZ ,oa fo'ofo|ky;ksa }kjk ijh{kk ifj.kke rS;kj
djus] dk;kZy;ksa esa osru fcy cukus ds fy, Hkh fofHkUu ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk
gSA ;s izkx
s kz e dEI;wVj dks fofk"V dk;Z djus dh l{kerk iznku djrs gS tSls oMZ izkl
s fs lax] bUosUVh dUVky
s ]
is&jksy] jsYos vkj{k.k vkfn ;s lHkh lkWVos;j bl Js.kh ds vUrxZr vkrs gSA
oMZ izkslslj (Word Processor )
oMZ izkslslj ,d ,slk lkWVos;j gS tks 'kCnksa esa fy[ks x/kka'k ds ij dk;Z dj ldsaA fdlh
Hkh i= vFkok x|ka'k dks Vkbi djds bl izdkj ls iznf'kZr djuk fd og lqUnj fn[ks lkFk gh lkFk
i<+us esa Hkh vklku gksA ;s dk;Z oMZ izkslslj }kjk fd;s tkrs gSaA dEI;wVj dh lgk;rk ls oMZ izkslslj
}kjk ge os lHkh dk;Z dj ldrs gSa tks fd ,d O;fDr iSu] dkxt] 'kCndks"k] }kjk dj ldrk gSA ;s
dk;Z dEI;wVj }kjk rhoz xfr ls lEikfnr fd;s tk ldrs gSaA dEI;wVj ij oMZ izksll
s j }kjk Vkbi fd;s
i= dk izk:i vPNk fn[ksxk] i<+us ;ksX; ;k i<+us esa vklku gksxkA cktkj esa dbZ izdkj ds izksxzke
miyC/k gSa tks i= Vkbi djus vFkok i= dks O;kdj.k ds vuqlkj vPNs rjhds ls fy[kus esa enn djrs
gSSaA
oMZ izkslslj esa lk/kkj.kr% fuEu izdkj dh lqfo/kk,a miyC/k gksrh gSa tks vko';drkuqlkj
mi;ksx esa yh tk ldrh gSAa
1
Vkbi fd;s x;s 'kCnksa dk jax] vkdkj o vkd`fr cnyukA
2
'kCnksa ds uhps js[kk [khapuk] 'kCnksa dks xgjs djuk vFkok 'kCnksa dks frjNs dj nsukA

2.5.1

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/55

fofHkUu iafDr;ksa ds izFke v{kjksa ;k vfUre v{kjksa dks ,d lh/k esa j[kuk ;k v{kjksa dks
iafDr ds fcYdqy e/; esa j[kukA
4
'kCnksa dh Lisfyax dh xyfr;k nwj djuk djus dh {kerkA
5
ist ds pkjksa rjQ ckWMZj cukukA
6
fofHkUu iafDr;ks dks o.kZekuqlkj O;ofLFkr djukA
7
izR;sd ist ij gSMj ;k QqVj MkyukA
8
fofHkUu izdkj ds fp=@xzkQ Mkyuk vkfnA
blds vfrfjDr Hkh fofHkUu izdkj dh lqfo/kk,a gksrh gSaA ftuds ckjs esa ge ekbkslkWV oMZ
esa i<asx
+ As bu lqfo/kkvksa dk mi;ksx dj ge fofHkUu izdkj ds dk;Z tSls O;olkf;d i= ys[ku] lekpkj
i= dk lEiknu] lk/kkj.k i= ys[ku vkfn dk;Z vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSaAcktkj esa fofHkUu izdkj ds
oMZ izkslslj miyC/k gSaA muesa dqN eq[; fuEu gS
1
oMZ LVkj(Word Star)
2
,e- ,l- oMZ
(M.S. Word)
3
oMZ ijQsDV
(Word Perfect)
4
lkWVoMZ
(Soft Word)
5
v{kj
(Akshar)
2.5.2 LizsM 'khV (Spreadsheet)
LizM
s 'khV, iafDr (ROW) rFkk LrEHk (Column) esa O;ofLFkr MkVk ,oe~ VsDlV dh Vscy gksrh
gSA LizsM'khV esa mifLFkr izR;sd eku (MkVk ;k VsDlV) dk nqljs eku ls iwoZ
fu/kkZfjr lEcU/
k gksrk gSA ;fn fdlh eku esa ifjofrZr fd;k tkrk gS rks mlls lEcaf/kr eku esa Lor% ifjorZu gks
tkrk gSA
LizM
s 'khV, vuqi;z ksx lkWVos;j ds ,sls oxZ dks fu#fir djrk gS ftudh enn ls LizM
s 'khV dks
bysDVkfs ud #i esa cuk;k ,ao ifjofrZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA LizsM'khV izR;sd MkVk@VsDlV dks ,d
lSy (Cell) esa MkVk ds izdkj (Type) dks vklkuh ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gSAlSy (Cell) ds
uke dks yscy (Label) rFkk buds e/; laca/k dks QkWaewZyk (Formula) dgrs gSALizsM'khV esa mifLFkr
iafDr;ksa (ROWS) rFkk LrEHkksa (Columns) dh pkSMk+ bZ rFkk pkbZ dks vklkuh ls ifjofrZr fd;k tk
ldrk gSA
LizsM'khV dk iz;ksx ctV rS;kj djus ] lkexzh izca/ku] ykxr izca/ku] vk;dj x.kuk vkfn
esa fd;k tk ldrk gSAcktkj esa miyC/k dqN LizsM'khV vuqi;
z ksx lkWVos;j fuEu gS
1
yksV~l&123
(Lotus-123)
2
,e- ,l- ,Dlsy (M.S. Excel)
2.5.3 izLrqrhdj.k VqYl (Presentation Tools )
izLrqrhdj.k VqYl mi;ksxdrkZ dks LykbM 'kks rFkk fjiksVZ ds fy, mPp dksfV dh best
cukus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA izLrqrhdj.k VqYl dk mi;ksx lgt ,ao vljnkj izLrqrhdj.k
djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS bldk mi;ksx &
1. izkt
s Ds Vj ij fn[kkus ds fy, Vklisjsalh dk fuekZ.k
2. fo'ks"k ,ao izHkkoh dEI;wVj Ldzhu dk fueZk.k
3. fdlh lsfeukj ds fy, izLrqrhdj.k dk fueZk.k

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/56

4. Ldzhu ij #ijs[kk vkfn crkus okyh izLrqfr dk fueZk.k vkfn esa fd;k tkrk gSA ,e- ,likojikabV (M.S. Powerpoint ) bldk mnkgj.k gSA
2.5.4 MkVkcsl iSutesaV flLVe (Database Management System )
,d dk;Z ls lEcaf/kr mkVk ;k lqpukvksa ds leqg dks tc O;ofLFkr <+x ls j[kk tkrk
gS rks ml MkVkcsl dgrs gSA Mhch,e,l ,d izksxkeks dk leqg gS tks MkVk@lWpuk laxzfgr djus]
la'kksf/kr djus rFkk mlls dksbZ vU; lqpuk fudkyus vFkok tksM+us dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA
blesa MkVk dks ,df=r dj ,d funsZf'kdk cuk yh tkrh gS] ftlls fofHkUu lqpuk izkIr dh tk
ldrh gSA Mhcsl&III (Dbase-III), ,e ,l ,Dlsl (MS Access) vkfn blds mnkgj.k gSA
2.6
;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j (Utility Software)
os izksxzke tks dEI;wVj flLVe vkSj lkWVos;j ds j[k&j[kko rFkk ejEer ds fy;s fodflr fd;s
tkrs gS ;wfVfyVh lkWQVos;j dgykrs gSA ;s izkx
s kz eks es ,fMfVax djus mudh =qfV;k nwj djus vkfn dk;Z
djrs gSA ;wfVfYkVh izksxkz e dks ljoj ( Server) izksxkz e Hkh dgrs gSA
;s lkWVos;j le;&le; ij dEI;wVj ij pydj dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh dks xfr'khy o vf/kd
vkadMs+ xzg.k djus yk;d cuk ldrs gSAa bu lkWVos;j ds }kjk vko';d vkadMksa dks cSdvi cukdj
j[k ldrs gSA mUgsa iqu% iz;ksx dj ldrs gaS vkfnA fo.Mks&98 vkWijsfVax flLVe ds lkFk ;s lkWVos;j
Vwy Hkh 'kkfey gSaA ;fn ;s Vwy viuh vko';drk dks iwjk ugha dj ik jgsa gks rks ge vU; lkWVos;j
dks mi;ksx esa ys ldrs gSaA tSls ukWjVu ;wfVfyVh] Mcaffee, Quick Heal vkfnA
;s lHkh lkWVos;j dEI;wVj ij fdlh u fdlh izdkj dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSa vr% bUgs
;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j (Utility Software) dgrs gSaA ;s ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j lkekU;r% fuEu dk;ksaZ ds
fy, iz;ksx esa yk;s tkrs gSa %&
1

gkMZ fMLd dks lgh j[kus ds fy, LdSu fMLdA

gkMZfMLd dks xfr'khy cuk;s j[kus ds fy, fMLd MhsxesUVj

Qkbyksa dks cSdvi ysus o cSdvi dks iqu% dEI;wVj ij Mkyus ds fy, fjLVksj izkx
s zkeA

fMLd ij vf/kd vkadM+s Hk.Mkfjr djus ds fy, dEizsflax izksxzkeA

dEI;wVj ij ok;jl dh tkap djus o mls gVkus ds fy, ,UVh ok;jl izksxzke vkfnA

QksYMj / Qkby eSustesUV Vwy


Qkby eSustesUV Vwwy dk vFkZ mu lkWVos;j ls gS tks Qkby o QksYMjksa dks O;ofLFkr djus
ds fy, iz;qDr gksrs gSaA fofHkUu dEI;wVj mi;ksxdrkZ vyx&vyx rjhdksa ls Qkbyksa dks O;ofLFkr
j[krs gSaA fo.Mks esa fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj rFkk ekbZ dEI;wVj uked nks lkWVos;j miyC/k gS ftudk iz;ksx
dj ge Qkbyksa] QksYMjksa vkfn dks bPNkuqlkj O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSaA

2-6
2-6.11

fo.Mks ,DlIyks jj
;g ,d ,slk izksxzke gS ftldk mi;ksx dj ge ykWih] gkMZ fMLd ;k vU; fMLd ij
mifLFkr Qkby] o QksYMjksa dks ns[k ldrs gSa o mUgsa O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSaA bl izksxzke ls Qkby

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/57

dks ,d LFkku ls vU; LFkku ij dkWih dj ldrs gSa] LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrs gSa] gVk ldrs gSa vkfnA
2-6.22 fMLd eSus tesUV Vwy
2-6
fMLd eSustesUV Vwy mu lkWVos;jksa dks dgrs gaS tks gekjh gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd vkfn
dks O;ofLFkr djus ds dke vkrs gSaA ftlls fd gkMZ fMLd ;k vU; fMLd rhoz xfr ls dk;Z djus
esa l{ke jg ldsaA cktkj esa bl dk;Z ds fy, fofHkUu lkWVos;j miyC/k gSA buesa ls dqN lkWVos;j
tSls LdSu fMLd] fMsxesUVj vkfn vklkuh ls de dher ij izkIr fd;s tk ldrs gSa ge dsoy LdSu
fMLd o fMsxesUVj ds ckjs esa i<sxsaA
fMLd dks fMsxesUV djuk %&
fo.Mks vkWijsfVax flLVe Hkh vU; vkWijsfVax flLVe dh rjg fMLd ij tgka Hkh [kkyh LFkku
gksrk gS ogha ij vkadM+s fy[k nsrk gSA vFkkZr~ vkadMs+ eSeksjh esa yxkrkj LFkkuksa ij Hk.Mkfjr ugha jgrsA
tc ge fdlh Qkby ;k vkadM+ksa dkss eSekssjh ij Hk.Mkfjr djrs gSa rks Qkby ds vyx&2 Hkkx
vyx&2[kkyh LFkkuks ij HkaMkfjr gks tkrs gS ijUrq vkWijsfVax flLVe dks ;g /;ku jgrk gS fd ,d
Qkby ds fofHkUu Hkkx eSeksjh esa dgka&dgk ij gSa ]vkSj mudk e D;k gSaA vr% Qkby dks i<+us ij
dksbZ Hkh ijskkuh ugha gksrhA
tc ge Qkby dks i<uk pkgsa rks vkWijsfVx flLVe Qkby ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks eSeksjh esa
vyx&vyx LFkku ij Hk.Mkfjr gksus ds dkj.k Qkby dks i<+us esa vf/kd le; yxrk gSA Qkby dks
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij VqdM+ksa esa Hk.Mkfjr gksuk sxesUVku dgykrk gSA ftrus vf/kd sxesUV gksaxs
mruh gh dEI;wVj dh xfr /kheh gksxhA
;fn ge Qkby ds bu VqdM+ksa dk yxkrkj ,d LFkkuksa ij Hk.Mkfjr dj ldsa rks dEI;wVj dh
xfr c<+ ldrh gSA Qkby ds fofHkUu VqdMs+ tks fd eSseksjh esa vyx&vyx LFkku ij Hk.Mkfjr gSa] dks
yxkrkj ,d lkFk Hk.Mkfjr djuk fMsxesUVsku dgykrk gSA blfy, gesa dEI;wVj ij ,d eghus esa
,d ckj fMsxesUVsku lkWVos;j pyk ysuk pkfg;sA ftlls fd Qkby ds fofHkUu Hkkx yxkrkj ,d
LFkkuksa ij Hk.Mkfjr jg ldsaA vkSj dEI;wVj dh xfr rst jg ldsA
2-6.33 LdSu fMLd Vwy
2-6
tSlk fd ge tkurs gS fd dEI;wVj vius vki esa ,d dfBu dkEWiysDl flLVe gSA dEI;wVj
ij dk;Z djus ds nkSjku dEI;wVj esa fofHkUu izdkj ds vkUrfjd f;k,a lEiUu gksrh gSaA bu f;kvksa
ds ckjs es gesa tkudkjh Hkh ugha gskrh gS tSls fofHkUu Qkbyksa dks izkFkfed eSeksjh esa Mkyuk] budks
ekuqlkj fu"ikfnr djuk] vuko';d Qkbyksa dks izkFkfed eSeksjh ls f}rh;d eSeksjh esa Mkyuk vkfnA
bu f;kvksa ds lEiknu ds nkSjku dEI;wVj esa xyfr;ka gksus dh laEHkkouk cuh jgrh gSA ;fn
le;&le; ij bu xyfr;ksa dks lq/kkjk u tk;s rks xEHkhj ifj.kke gks ldrs gSAa
bu xyfr;ksa ls cpus ds fy, ;k xyfr;ksa ds dkj.k gksus okys ifj.kkeksa ls cpus ds fy,
LdSufMLd lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx djuk pkfg;sA ;g lkWVos;j gkMZfMLd dks lqjf{kr j[krk gSA ftl
izdkj MkWl vkWijsfVax flLVe esa pSd fMLd dek.M dk;Z djrk FkkA mlh izdkj LdSu fMLd fo.Mks
vkWijsfVax flLVe esa dk;Z djrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/58

2.6.4

ok;jl LdSuj / Dyhuj

ok;jl
tho foKku esa ok;jl dk vFkZ dhVk.kqvksa ls gksrk gS tks ;fn 'kjhj ds vUnj izo's k dj tk;as
rks 'kjhj lkekU; dk;Z ugh dj ikrkA blh izdkj dEI;wVj fo"k; esa ok;jl dk vFkZ mu izksxzkeksa ls
gksrk gS tks ;fn dEI;wVj esa izos'k dj tk;sa rks dE;wVj esa ok;jl ds izos'k ds dkj.k fofHkUu izdkj
dh ijs'kkfu;ka mRiUu gks ldrh gSaA vr% ok;jl ,d fo'ks"k izdkj ds izksxzke gSa tks oSls rks vU;
lkWVos;j izksxkz e dh rjg gh gksrs gSaA ijUrq ;s izksxkz e dEI;wVj o mlesa Hk.Mkfjr vkadM+ksa dks uqdlku
igqapkus ds fy, gksrs gSaA ;s ok;jl dEI;wVj dh vU; Qkbyksa ds lkFk feydj dEI;wVj dh lkekU;
dk;Z iz.kkyh dks ckf/kr dj nsrs gSaA
bu ok;jl izksxzke dh fo'ks"krk ;s gksrh gSa fd ;s Lor% gh viuh izfrfyfi rS;kj dj ldrs
gSa rFkk lk/kkj.kr% ;s fdlh vU; Qkby ds lkFk tqM+dj laxzfgr gksrs gSAa vFkkZr~ ;fn ge bu ok;jl
izkx
s zke dh Qkby <wa<+s rks ;s Qkbysa ugh feysxhA
ok;jl gks rks mls fudkysaA
,a V hok;jl iz k s x z k e
ftl izdkj ok;jl ,d izksxzke gS vkSj bldh ,d fo'ks"k izdkj ds dk;Z djus dh {kerk gSA
mlh iz d kj cktkj es a ,s l s iz k s x z k e Hkh miyC/k gS a tks bu ok;jl iz k s x z k e S
dh mifLFkr dks tkap ldrs gSa vkSj bUgs dEI;wVj esa ls gVk ldrs gSaA ijUrq ;g vko';d ugh gS fd
dksbZ Hkh ,aVh ok;jl izkx
s zke lHkh izdkj ds ok;jl dh mifLFkfr dh tkap dj ldrs gksa vkSj mUgs
gVk ldrs gksaA
tSlk ge i< pqds gSa fd ;s ok;jl izksxzke gksrs gS rks budh ,d fo'ks"k dk;Z fof/k Hkh gksxhA bl fo'ks"k
dk;Z fof/k ds vk/kkj ij gh budh mifLFkfr dh tkap lEHko gSA ;fn ok;jl dh dk;Z fof/k bl izdkj
dh gks fd ,aVh ok;jl mldh igpku dj lds rks ,aVh ok;jl ml ok;jl dh u rks mifLFkfr
crk;sxk vkSj u gh mls fudky ik;sxkA vr% ;g vko';d gS fd ,aVh ok;jl ,slk gksuk pkfg;s tks
yxHkx lHkh izpfyr ok;jl dh igpku djus dh {kerk j[krk gksA gkykafd ;g lEHko ugha gS fd
,d ,aVh ok;jl lHkh ok;jl dks igpku ldsA ij ftruk vf/kd laEHko gks ,aVh ok;jl le;kuqlkj
viMsVsM djrs jguk pkfg, ftlls fd ;g izpfyr ok;jl dh igpku dj ldsaA
fofHkUu ,aVhok;jl izksxzke cktkj esa miyC/k gSA tSls ukWjVu ,aVh ok;jl] vkbZ- ,- oh- Vh] LekVZMkWx vkfn bu lHkh ,aaVhok;jl dh dk;Ziz.kkyh vyx&vyx gksrh gSA ijUrq lHkh ,aVhok;jl
,d&,d djds lHkh Mkbo dh tkap djrs gSa vkSj fQj muesa ls ok;jl gVkrs gSaA
tc Hkh fdlh ,aVhok;jl izksxzke dks pyk,a rks igys dEI;wVj dks ,slh ykWih ;k lhMh ls
cwV djsa tks ok;jl xzflr u gksA bl ykWih dks jkbV izkVs DV j[ksAa cwV djus ds ckn ,aVhok;jl izkx
s kz e
pyk,aA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/59

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1234-

dEI;wVj dk dk;Z nks Hkkxksa ls lapkfyr gksrk gS gkMZos;j ,oa lkWVos;j


gkMZo;
s j dEI;wVj ds HkkSfrd Hkkxksa dks n'kkZrk gSA
izksxzke] izkx
s zkeksa dk lewg lkWVos;j dgykrk gSA
lkWVos;j rhu izdkj ds gksrs gSA 1- flLVe lkWVos;j 2- ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j 3- ;wfVfyVh
lkWVos;j
5- dEikbyj] bUVjizVs j] vlsEcyj] vkWijsfVax flLVe] flLVe lkWVos;j ds mnkgj.k gSA
6- vkWijsfVax flLVe nks izdkj ds gksrs gS 1- flaxy ;wtj 2- eYVh ;wtj
7- MkWl fMLd vkWijsfVax flLVe dk laf{kIr uke gSA
8. ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j % ,sls lkWVos;j ftudk mi;ksx dj gekjs dEI;wVj dks LoLF; vFkkZr rst
xfr ls pyus yk;d o vf/kd vkadM+s xzg.k djus yk;d vkfn cuk ldrs gSA
9. ok;jl% ,sls izkx
s zke ftuds dEI;wVj ij vkus ls dEI;wVj dh dk;Zi.z kkyh vFkok vkadMs+ [kjkc gks
ldrs gSaA buesa Lo;a dks dkWih djus dh {kerk gksrh gSA
10.,aVh ok;jl+ & ,sls izksxzke tks dEI;wVj ij ok;jl dh mifLFkfr dks n'kkZrk gSA vkSj ok;jl dks
dEI;wVj esa ls fudkyus dk dk;Z djrk gSA mnkgj.k& ukWjVu ,aVh ok;jl]LekVZ MkWx] vkbZ-,-oh]Vh
vkfn
11. ok;jl ls lqj{kk& bl gsrq ckgj dh Qkbyksa ;k ykWfi;ksa dk mi;ksx de ls de djsaA ikbjsVsM
lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx u djsaA vokaNuh; yksxksa ds dEI;wVj iz;ksx ij izfrca/k gks vkfnA
12. Qkby eSustesUV %&,sls lkWVos;j ftudk iz;ksx fofHkUu Qkbyksa ;k QksYMjksa dks O;ofLFkr djus
ds dke vkrs gSA O;ofLFkr djus ls rkRi;Z Qkby dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ys tkuk] Qkby
gVkuk] Qkby <w<+uk ]QksYMj cukuk vkfn ls gSA mnkgj.k%& fo.Mkst ,DlIyksjj] ekbZ dEI;wVj
vkfnA
13
13. fo.Mkst ,DlIyksjj pykuk%& LVkVZ&izksxzke&fo.Mkst ,DlIyksjj
14. fMLd eSustesaUV Vwy%& ,sls lkWVos;j ftudk iz;ksx dj gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd vkfn dks
LoLFk vFkkZr rst xfr'khy j[k ldrs gSA mnkgj.k %& fMLd fMsxesUVj] LdSu fMLd vkfnA
15. fMLd fMsxesUVj%& ;g lkWVos;j fMLd ij Hk.Mkfjr Qkby ds Hkkxksa dks ,d lkFk
ikl&ikl ykrk gS ftlls Qkby dks i<us esa de le; yxsA
16. LdSu fMLd%& ;g lkWVos;j fMLd ij fLFkr dfBukbZ;ksa tSls cSM lsDVj] vkfn dks lgh dj
16
ldrk gSA rFkk fMLd ls lEcfU/kr vU; tkudkfj;ksa dks iznf'Zkr djrk gSAtSls dqy txg] dqy
QksYMj ] dqy Qkby] Nqih Qkbyks dh la[;k] [kkyh txg vkfn A

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/60

vH;klkFkZ izu
oLrqfu"B izu
1- dEI;wVj esa iz;ksx fd, tkus okys HkkSfrd midj.k dgykrs gSA
v lkWVos;j
c gkMZos;j
l ykWih
n lh-ih-;w2- lWkVos;j fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSA
v nks
c pkj
l rhu
n buesa ls dksbZ ugha3- ,sIyhds'ku lkWVos;j D;k gS\
v lkWVos;j
c flLVe lkWVos;j
l gkMZos;j
n ,sIyhds'ku
4- izksxzkfeax Hkk"kk esa fy[ks izksxkz e dks dEI;wVj dh Hkk"kk e'khuh Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr djus dk dk;Z
dkSu djrk gS\
v dEikbyj
c bUVjizsVj
l v vkSj c nksuksa
n buesa ls dksbZ ugha
5- dkSu gkMZos;j dh Js.kh esa ugha vkrk gSA
v ykWih
c ekWuhVj
l jSe
n foUMkst
6- fuEu esa ls ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j dkSulk gS\
v Word processor
c Spread sheet
l DBMS
n linker
7- ok;jl ,d izdkj ds
v izkx
s zke gksrs gSaA
c thok.kq gksrs gSaA
l mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA n midj.k
8- fMLd fMQzsxesUVj dks dg ldrs gSAa
v Qkby eSutesUV Vwy
c fMLd eSustesUV Vwy
l ,UVh ok;jl
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA
9- ok;jl
v vkadMs+ [kjkc dj ldrs gSaA
c gkMZ fMLd dks [kjkc dj ldrs gSA
l dEI;wVj dh dk;Ziz.kkyh [kjkc dj ldrs gSaA
n mijksDr lHkh A
10- fuEu esa ls dkSulk rduhdh vke.k ugha gS\
v ok;jlA
c okWeZA
l lqfo/kk dk fu"ks/kA
n ikloMZ rksM+ukA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/61

vfry?kq kjkRed iz' u


1- gkMZos;j fdls dgrs gS\
2- lkWVos;j fdls dgrs gS\
3- lkWVos;j fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gS\
4- vlsEcyj fdls dgrs gS\
5- vkWijsfVax flLVe fdls dgrs gS\
6- LdSu fMLd lkWVos;j fdl dke vkrk gS \
7- ok;jl ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
8- ,aVhok;jl ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
y?kq kjkRed iz ' u
1- vkWijsfVax flLVe dh fo'ks"krkvksa dks le>kb;sA
2- flLVe lkWVos;j dks le>kb;sA
3- ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j fdls dgrs gS \
4- fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj fdl dke vkrk gS \
fucU/kkRed iz ' u
1- lkWVos;j D;k gS\ ;s fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gS\ izR;sd dks mnkgj.k lfgr Li"V dhft,A
2- vkWijsfVax flLVe ds eq[; dk;ksZ dk o.kZu dhft,A
3- Qkby eSustesUV Vwy ls vki D;k le>rs gS \ fdlh ,d Qkby eSustesUV Vwy ij fVIi.kh
fyf[k;sA
4- fMLd eSut
s esUV Vwy ls D;k vk'k; gS \

mkjekyk
1- c 2- l 3- v 4- l 5- n 6- n 7- v 8- c 9- n

10- l

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/62

3
flLVe dh lqj{kk
(Security of System)
3.1

ifjp; (Introduction)

dqN o"kZ iwoZ] dEI;wVj dqN fof'k"V {ks=ksa rd gh lhfer FksA os ewy:i ls fo'ofo|ky;ksa ds
'kks/kdrkZvksa }kjk bZ&esy Hkstus rFkk vkS|ksfxd deZpkfj;ksa }kjk fizUVj tSls lk/kuksa dks fey tqydj
dke esa ysus ds fy, iz;qDr gksrs Fks] blfy, lqj{kk dh vko';drk ugha FkhA
ijUrq vktdy fLFkfr;ka vyx gSaA vkt usVofdZax ds fy, cgqr volj gSa vkSj blus ,d
cM+k {ks= vius vf/kdkj esa ys fy;k gSA vc djksM+ksa vke ukxfjd dEI;wVj rFkk usVodZ }kjk iznku
dh tkus okyh lqfo/kkvksa dk mi;ksx cSafdax] [kjhnkjh rFkk vk;dj Hkjus esa djrs gSAa blfy, fonzksgh
yksxksa }kjk dbZ lqj{kkRed leL;k,a mRiUu dh tk ldrh gSA ;g yksx fdlh Hkh izdkj vuSfrd y{;
izkIr djuk pkgrs gSa ;k fdlh dks gkfu igqpkuk pkgrs gSaA ;s fo|kFkhZ] O;olk;h] iwoZ deZpkjh]
ys[kkdkj] nyky] tklwl ;k vkradoknh] vkfn esa ls dksbZ Hkh gks ldrs gSA
fo|kFkhZ
&
flQZ ets ds fy, nwljksa ds bZ&esy i<+ukA
O;olk;h
&
vius izfr}Unh dh O;kikfjd ;kstukvksa dk irk yxkus ds fy,A
iwoZ deZpkjh &
ukSdjh ls fudkys tkus dk cnyk ysus ds fy,A
ys[kkdkj
&
fdlh laLFkk ;k laxBu ds [kkrksa dk vukf/kd`r :i ls mi;ksxA
nyky
&
fdlh xzkgd ls bZ&esy }kjk fd, x, vuqcU/k dks rksM+ukA
tklwl
&
nq'euksa dh xfrfof/k;ksa dk irk yxkus ds fy,A
vkradoknh &
;q) ls lacaf/kr jkt pqjkukA

3-2 vke.k ds L=ksr ,ao laHkkfor gkfu (Sources of Attack and Possible
Damage)
dEI;wVj dh lqj{kk ij rhu rjg ds vke.k gks ldrs gSAa
3-2-1 iSflo vke.k (Passive Attack) &
lwpuk dk vukf/kd`r :i ls fudyuk iSflo vke.k dgykrk gSA iSflo vke.k ls
vfHkizk; gS ckrphr dks lquuk ;k Vkl
a fe'ku ij utj j[kukA 'k=q dk ms'; VkalfeV dh tk jgh

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lwpuk izkIr djuk gksrk gSA iSflo vke.k nks izdkj ds gSa&
v lans'kksa dk yhd gksuk & tc VsyhQksu ij ckr gks jgh gks] bZ&esy ;k fQj laosnh lwpuk ;k
futh lwpuk dh Qkby Vkl
a feV gks jgh gksA ge pkgsaxs fd 'k=q dks bu Vkl
a feV gks jgs va'kksa ;k lans'kksa
dk irk uk yx ldsA
c VSfQd dk fo'ys"k.k& 'k=q dE;qfuds'ku dj jgs O;fDr;ksa dh igpku rFkk fLFkfr dk irk yxk
ldrk gS vkSj vknku&iznku fd, tk jgs lans'kksa dh vko`fr rFkk yEckbZ dk irk yxk ldrk gSA ;g
lwpuk 'k=q }kjk MkVk dE;qfuds'ku dh izd`fr dk irk yxkus esa mi;ksxh gks ldrh gSA ;g rduhd
vklkuh ls 'kq= }kjk irk ugha yxkbZ tk ldrhA
iSflo vke.k dk irk yxkuk dfBu gS D;ksafd blesa dgha Hkh MkVk esa dksbZ ifjorZu ugha
fd;k tkrkA lans'k lkekU; :i ls Hksts rFkk izkIr fd, tkrs gSa vkSj Hkstus okys ;k izkIrdrkZ nksuksa
gh blls vufHkK gksrs gSa fd fdlh rhljs O;fDr us lans'k i<+k gS ;k VSfQd dh izdf` r dk fujh{k.k
fd;k gSA gekjs ikl lan's k ;k lwpuk dks ,sls :i esa ifjofrZr djus dk rjhdk gS fd 'k=q ml lans'k
dks dCts esa ys dj Hkh mlesa fufgr lwpuk dks Kkr ugha dj ldrkA lan's k dks ,sls :i esa cnyus dk
rjhdk gS ^bufI'ku^ (Encryption)A ;fn ge mi;qDr LFkku ij bufI'ku dk iz;ksx djrs gSa rks 'k=q
lans'kksa ds Lo:i dk irk ugha yxk ldrk gSaA bufI'ku }kjk bl izdkj ds vke.k ls lqj{kk iznku
dh tk ldrh gSA iSflo vke.kksa dk irk yxkuk dfBu gS ijUrq buls cpko vklku gSA iSflo
vke.k ls fuiVus ds fy,] vke.k dk irk yxkus ls T;knk tksj mlls cpus ij fn;k tkrk gSA
3-2-2 ,fDVo vke.k (Active Attack)
lwpuk es vukf/kd`r :i ls ifjorZu ;k fdlh lqfo/kk dks fuf"k) djuk ,fDVo vke.k
dgykrk gSA ,fDVo vke.k esa MkVk esa ifjorZu fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k >wBk MkVk cuk;k tk ldrk
gSA ,fDVo vke.k pkj Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gS&
v ekLdjsM & tc ,d mi;ksxdrkZ dksbZ nwljk mi;ksxdrkZ gksus dk nkok djrk gS rks
;g fLFkfr mRiUu gksrh gSA bl izdkj ds vke.k esa vuf/kd`r mi;ksxdrkZ vf/kd`r mi;ksxdrkZ ds
vf/kdkj izkIr dj MkVk dks uqdlku igqpk ldrk gSA
c jhIys & bl vke.k esa MkVk dks dCts esa ysdj mls iqu% Vkl
a feV fd;k tkrk gS] tks
vukf/kd`r izHkko iSnk djrk gSA
l lans'kksa dk :i cnyuk & ewy lans'k ds dqN Hkkx esa ifjorZu dj fn;k tkrk gS]
;k fQj lans'kksa ds igqpus esa foyEc dj vukf/kd`r izHkko iSnk fd;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, ,d lan's k gS&
^^jktho dks xqIr Qkby i<+us nh tk,A^^
ifjofrZr lans'k

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/64

^^jfo dks xqIr Qkby i<+us nh tk,A^^


n lqfo/kk fuf"k) djuk & ;g lkekU; dE;qfuds'ku lqfo/kkvksa ds mi;ksx ij vadq'k
yxkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, & ,d mi;ksxdrkZ fdlh xarO; dks tk jgs lHkh lans'kksa dks
vojksf/kr dj nsrk gSA nwljh izdkj dh lqfo/kk dks fuf"k) djuk fdlh iwjs usVodZ dks fucZy cukuk]
ml usVodZ ij {kerk ls vf/kd lans'k Hkstdj mldh dk;Z{kerk dks fxjkukA
,fDVo vke.k ls cpuk cgqr dfBu gS] D;ksfa d blds fy, lHkh dE;qfuds'ku lqfo/kkvksa iFkksa
ij gj le; lqj{kk dh vko';drk gksrh gSA blfy, ,fDVo vke.k esa ge vke.k dk irk yxk
dj mlls gqbZ nsjh dks nwj djrs gSaA
3-2-3 rduhdh vke.k (Technical Attack) &
laf/k ds fy, dke esa yh xbZ rduhd ij fofHkUu izdkj ls vke.k fd, tkrs gSaA dqN
vke.k MkVk dh fy[kkoV rFkk dksM esa ifjorZu djrs gSa tcfd vU; dke esa yh tk jgh rduhd
dk ykHk mBkrs gSaA rduhdh vke.k ds dbZ rjhds gSa&
v Vkstu gkWlZ (Trojan Horse)& ;g ,d xqIr izksxzke gksrk gS tks fd vf/kd`r izkx
s zke
ds lkFk tqM+k gksrk gS vkSj vf/kd`r izksxzke ds laikfnr gksus ij vokafNr ;k vukf/kd`r crkZo djrk
gSA bls Vkt
s u gkWlZ dgrs gSaA blls cpko cgqr gh dfBu gksrk gSA dqN Vkstu gkWlZ vKkr O;fDr;ksa
dks vkids dEI;wVj ij vf/kdkj iznku dj funsZ'k nsus esa lgk;rk djrs gSaA dqN Vkt
s u gkWlZ dh&cksMZ
ij vkids }kjk nckbZ xbZ gj dqath dks Kkr dj ldrs gSa] ftlesa vkids sfMV dkMZ dk uEcj Hkh
gks ldrk gSA
c ikloMZ rksM+uk & ikloMZ dk dh&cksMZ }kjk irk yxkuk] tks fdlh izksxzke dks
vukf/kd`r :i ls pykus dh vuqefr nsrk gSA dbZ ,sls lkWVos;j vkrs gSa ftuls vki ikloMZ dk irk
yxk ldrs gSaA
l ok;jl vkSj okWeZ & ok;jl izksxzke dk ,d va'k gksrk gS tks fd vU; izksxzkeksa ij
izHkko Mkyus ds bjkns ls gksLV izkx
s zke ls tqM+rk gSA ;g ,d ,slk izksxzke gS ftldk dk;Z vius dks
,d dEI;wVj ls nwljs ij LFkkukarfjr gks jgh Qkbyksa ds ek/;e ls igqpuk gSA dqN vfr gkfudkjd
ok;jl Qkbyksa ;k Qkby flLVe dks u"V djus esa leFkZ gksrs gSaA ok;jl] okWeZ ls flQZ blh :i esa
fHkUu gS fd ok;jl ,d izksxzke dk va'k gksrk gS tks nwljs izksxzke ds lkFk tqM+ tkrk gS tcfd okWeZ
[kqn ,d izkx
s zke gksrk gSA
ok;jl vkSj okWeZ nksuks [kqn dks foLr`r djus dk iz;kl djrs gSa vkSj nksuksa gh Hkkjh uqdlku
dj ldrs gSAa bu leL;kvksa dks lq/kkjus dh ctk; buls vklkuh ls cpk tk ldrk gSA lcls lqjf{kr
mik; gS ,UVh ok;jl lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx djukA ,d lkekU; rjhdk gS gkMZ fMLd dks cwV lsDVj
lfgr QkesZV dj ds lHkh fo'oluh; lkWVos;j Mkyuk vkSj gj Qkby ds fy, psdle dh x.kuk
djukA

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3-3 MsLdVkWi lqj{kk (Desktop Security)


MsLdVkWi lqj{kk ds [krjs gks de djus dk lcls vPNk rjhdk ;g gS fd vuf/kd`r O;f
dks dEI;qVj dks ,Dlsl (Access) ugh djus fn;k tk;sA bl dk;Z ds fy, laLFkku O;f dh igpku
djus ds fy, dEI;qVj ij fofHkUu izdkj ds lk/ku ,ao rduhd dk iz;ksx djrs gSA vktdy
mi;ksxdrkZ uke ,ao ikloZM ls vf/kd`r O;f dh igpku djus ds vfrfjDr ck;ksesfVd lsl
a j }kjk
fQaxj fizaV, ok;l fizaV ;k jsfVuk Ldsu vkfn dk mi;ksx vf/kd`r O;f dh igpku djus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA vkt ds ;qx esa dEI;qVj usVodZ ds ek/;e ls ck fo'o ls tqMs gq, gS ftlls MsLdVkWi
lqj{kk vksj Hkh eqf'dy gks x;h gSA usVodZ ds ek/;e ls vkus okys [krjs ls cpus ds fy, vfrfjDr
lqj{kk rduhdks dh vko';drk gks x;h gSA

3-4 fMftVy izek.k i= (Digital Certificate)


fMftVy izek.k i= ,d bySDVksfud izek.k i= (Electronic credential) gS tks lkoZtfud
pkch (Public Key) rFkk ,d lRo fo'ks"k (Specific entity) ds lekxe (association) dks izekf.kr
djus esa enn djrk gSA fMftVy izek.k i= ,d dEI;qVj midj.k, ,d izfdz;k ;k ,d O;f fo'ks"k
dks tkjh (issue) fd;s tk ldrs gSA;fn dksbZ daiuh baVjusV ij O;kikj dj jgh gS rks og vius
dEI;qVj loZj ds fy, izek.k i= izkIr dj ldrh gSA daiuh ds os xzkgd tks daiuh ds loZj ls
bufdzIVsM lqpukvksa tSls &ikloMZ , szfMV dkMZ uEcj vkfn dk lqjf{kr vknku iznku djuk pkgrs
gS, mUgsa fMftVy izek.k i= ds ek/;e ls daiuh ds loZj dkss izekf.kr djus esa enn djrk gSA
fMftVy izek.k i= ,d NksVk bySDVksfud izys[k (electronic document) gksrk gS ftlesa
O;f fo'ks"k dk uke , O;f fo'ks"k dh lkoZtfud pkch (Public Key) rFkk dqN vU; igpku dh
lqpuk,a j[kh tkrh gSAbl bySDVksfud izy[s k dks daiuh ds dEI;qVj loZj ij miyC/k lkoZtfud
Mk;jsDVjh esa j[kk tkrk gSA fMftVy izek.k i= ,d fo'oklik= r`rh; laLFkk (Trusted third party)
}kjk tkjh (issue) fd;s tkrs gSaAbl laLFkk dks izek.ku vkf/kdj.k (Certification Authority) dgrs
gSA ;g laLFkk fMftVy izek.k i=ksa dks fMftVy gLrk{kj (Digital Sign) djrh gS vkSj ;g izekf.kr
djrh gS fd fMftVy izek.k i= esa miyC/k lkoZtfud pkch,izek.k i= esa miyC/k O;f fo'ks"k ds
uke ls lEcaf/kr gSA

3-5

fMftVy gLrk{kj (Digital Signature)

fMftVy gLrk{kj baVhfxzVh lR;rk rFkk vkWFksfUVds'ku vf/kdj.k iznku djrs gSA
fMftVy gLrk{kj esa bufI'ku ds fy, futh pkch rFkk fMfI'ku ds fy, lkoZtfud pkch dk iz;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA ;g blfy, laHko gS D;ksafd vkt dy dke esa vkus okyh bufI'ku vkSj fMfI'ku
,YxksfjFe] tSls vkj ,l , (RSA), DES, IDEA vkfn xf.krh; lw= gksrs gSa vkSj budk Lo:i leku
gksrk gSA

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3-6

dqfdt (Cookies)

dqfdt dks osc dqfdt , czkmtj dqfdt ;k HTTP dqfdt ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA
dqfdt mi;ksxdrkZ ds osc czkmtj }kjk lajf{kr VsDlV dk VqdMk gksrk gSA dqfdt dk mi;ksx
vf/kdj.k iznku djus esa , lkbV dh izkFkfedrk, loZj ij vk/kkfjr ls'ku ds ladrs d dks lajf{kr djus
esa fd;k tkrk gSA ,d dqdh esa lqpuk j[kus okyk ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd uke&eku ;qXe (Name-Value
Pair) gksrk gSAdqdh dks HTTP gsMj ds #i esa osc loZj }kjk osc czkmtj dks Hkstk tkrk gS rFkk tc
Hkh osc czkmtj osc loZj ls lEiZd djrk gS rc izR;sd ckj dqdh dks vifjofrZr #i esa osc loZj dks
okil Hkstk tkrk gSA vf/kdka'kr% lHkh vk/kqfud osc czkmtj dqfdt dks Lohdkj ;k vLohdkj djus
dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA

3-7

Qk;jokW y (Firewall)

Qk;jokWy dh LFkkiuk bl rjg ls dh tkrh gS fd gj vkus vkSj tkus okys MkVk dk fo|qr
iqfyl }kjk fujh{k.k fd;k tkrk gSA Qk;jokWy ,slh i)fr ;k ,slh i)fr;ksa dk lewg gS tks nks
usVodksaZ ds chp dk;Z djus ds fy, fu;a=.k iz.kkyh dk iz;ksx djrh gSA Qk;jokWy dh dk;Z i)fr
dk fl)kar VSfQd dks jksduk ;k vuqefr nsuk gSA Qk;jokWy dh lcls egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd ;g
dk;Z djus ij ,d fu;a=.k iz.kkyh dk iz;ksx djrk gSA
Qk;jokWy gkMZos;j rFkk lkWVos;j dk feJ.k gS tks vkids baVjusV dh igqp dks jksdrk gSA
mlh le; vkidks vius baVjusV lk/kuksa }kjk baVjusV rd igqp iznku djrk gSA ;g jkmVj] loZj rFkk
fof'k"V lkWVos;j ls fey dj cuk gksrk gSA Qk;jokWy ds Lo:i dh egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd ;g
iz.kkyh dks yxkus dk rjhdk gSA dqN yksx baVjusV ij laosnh rFkk xqIr MkVk j[krs gSa ftldh lqj{kk
djuk vko';d gksrk gSA lkekU;r% Qk;joWky dk mn~ns'; vkids MkVk dks lqjf{kr j[kuk gS] tc vki
usVodZ ij dk;Z dj jgs gksrs gSAa
eq[;r% Qk;jokWy vukf/kd`r ykWx&bu (Log-in) dj vke.k djus okys ckgjh mi;ksxdrkZvksa
ls cpko ds fy, cuk, x, gSA
;g vkids usVodZ dks vukf/kd`r mi;ksxdrkZvksa lss cpkus esa enn djrk gSA Qk;jokWy ckgj
ls usVodZ ds vanj vk jgs VSfQd dks jksdrk gS ijarq Hkhrjh mi;ksxdrkZvksa dks Lora= :i ls ckgj
ls laidZ LFkkfir djus nsrk gSA Qk;jokWy vkidks gj izdkj ds usVodZ vke.kksa ls lqj{kk iznku djrk
gSA

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fp= 1

3-8

ikloMZ (Password)

ikloMZ ,d xqIr 'kCn ;k dlsDVj dh fLaVx gksrh gSA ftldk mi;ksx fdlh O;f fo'ks"k
dh igpku ;k fdlh lalk/ku dks ,Dlsl (Access) djus dks izekf.kr djrk gSA;fn ikloMZ dks
lko/kkuh iwoZd pquk tk, rks budk mi;ksx dk;Z lk/kd gks ldrk gSA ijUrq vDlj yksx ;kn j[kus
rFkk lqfo/kk ds fy, vklku ikloMZ dk p;u dj ysrs gS, ftlls bu ikloMksZ dk vuqeku yxkuk
vklku gks tkrk gSAvr% ikloMZ dk p;u bl izdkj djuk pkfg, fd bu dk vuqeku yxkuk nqljs
O;f ds ft, eqf'dy gksA lkFk gh ikloMZ dks le;&le; ij cnyrs jguk pkfg,A

3-9

Qkby ,Dlsl ijfe'ku (File Access Permission)

vktdy vf/kdka'kr% Qkby flLVe mi;ksxdrkZ rFkk mi;ksxdrkZ leqg dks vuqefr rFkk
izos'k vf/kdkj ds izca/ku dh fof/k iznku djrs gSAMkWl (DOS) / foamks (Window) lapkyd fudk;
(Operating System) esa Qkby izos'k vuqefr ugh gksrh gSA bu lapkyd fudk;ksa esa flQZ Qkby
,VhC;qV gksrk gS ftls mi;ksxdrkZ lysDV ;k vulysDV fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;qfuDl tSls lapkyd fudk;ksa esa vuqefr izca/ku ds rhu oxZ (i) ekfyd oxZ (Owner
Class)(ii) leqg oxZ (Group Class) (iii) vU; oxZ (Other Class) rFkk izR;sd oxZ esa rhu rjg dh
vuqefr (i) iBu (Read) (ii) ys[ku (Write) (iii) ,xthD;qV (Execute) miyC/k gksrh gSA ,d
mi;ksxdrkZ viuh fdlh Hkh Qkby ;k Mk;jsDVh ds fy, oxZ rFkk vuqefr dk dksbZ Hkh la;ksx
(Combination) dk p;u dj Qkby ;k Mk;jsDVh dh Qkby izos'k vuqefr lsV dj ldrk gSA

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egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1. dEI;wVj dh lqj{kk ij rhu rjg ds vke.k gks ldrs gSAa (I) iSflo vke.k (II) ,fDVo vke.k
(III) rduhdh vke.k
2. lwpuk dk vukf/kd`r :i ls fudyuk iSflo vke.k dgykrk gSA
3. lwpuk esa vukf/kd`r :i ls ifjorZu ;k fdlh lqfo/kk dks fuf"k) djuk ,fDVo vke.k dgykrk
gSA
4. rduhdh vke.k fofHkUu izdkj ds gks ldrs gSaA tSls Vkt
s u gkWl]Z ikloMZ rksM+uk] ok;jl vkSj
okWeZA
5. lqj{kk dks VwVus ls cpkus ds fy, dbZ rjg ds lqj{kkRed izcU/k fd;s tk ldrs gSA
6. fMftVy izek.k i= ,d bySDVksfud izek.k i= (Electronic credential) gS tks lkoZtfud pkch
(Public Key) rFkk ,d lRo fo'ks"k (Specific entity) ds lekxe (association) dks izekf.kr
djus esa enn djrk gSA
7. dqfdt dks osc dqfdt , czkmtj dqfdt ;k HTTP dqfdt ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA
dqfdt mi;ksxdrkZ ds osc czkmtj }kjk lajf{kr VsDlV dk VqdMk gksrk gSA
8. dqfdt dk mi;ksx vf/kdj.k iznku djus esa , lkbV dh izkFkfedrk, loZj ij vk/kkfjr ls'ku ds
ladrs d dks lajf{kr djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA
9. fMftVy gLrk{kj esa bufI'ku ds fy, futh pkch (Private Key) rFkk fMfI'ku ds fy,
lkoZtfud pkch (Public Key) dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
10. Qk;jokWy ,slh i)fr ;k ,slh i)fr;ksa dk lewg gS tks nks usVodksaZ ds chp dk;Z djus ds fy,
fu;a=.k iz.kkyh dk iz;ksx djrh gSA
11. ikloMZ ,d xqIr 'kCn ;k dlsDVj dh fLaVx gksrh gSA ftldk mi;ksx fdlh O;f fo'ks"k dh
igpku ;k fdlh lalk/ku dks ,Dlsl (Access) djus dks izekf.kr djrk gSA

vH;klkFkZ izu
oLrqfu"B izu
1- Qk;jokWy D;k djrk gS\
v dk;Z fu;=a.k iz.kkyh yxkrk gSA
l dkWfUQMsfU'k;fyVh xqIr yxkrk gSA
2- ikloMZ D;k gks ldrk gSa\
v ,fDVo vke.kA
l lqj{kk ds mik;A

c vkWFksfUVflVh yxkrk gSA


n baVhfxzVh yxkrk gSA
c iSflo vke.kA
n rduhdh vke.kA

AglaSem School

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3-

fuEu esa ls dkSulk lqj{kk dk mik; ugha gSa\


v ikloMZA
c bufI'kuA
l fIVksxzkQhA
n oSc gSfdaxA

vfry?kq kjkRed iz' u


1- dEI;wVj lqj{kk ij gksus okys rhu eq[; vke.k dkSuls gSa\
2- fMftVy gLrk{kj esa fdl pkch }kjk bufI'ku fd;k tkrk gS\
y?kq kjkRed iz ' u
1- fofHkUu izdkj ds rduhdh vke.k crkb,A
2. fMftVy izek.k i= dks le>kb;sA
3. Qkby ,Dlsl ijfe'ku dks le>kb;sA
4. osc dqfdt dks le>kb;sA
fucU/kkRed iz ' u
1- iSflo vke.k ls vki D;k le>rs gSa\
2- ,fDVo vke.k ds gj Hkkx dks le>kb,A
3- usVodZ lqj{kk ds [krjksa ls cpko ds rjhds fyf[k;sA
4- Vkt
s u gkWlZ lqj{kk ij dSls vke.k djrk gS\ le>kb,A
5- ok;jl vkSj okWeZ ij ys[k fyf[k;sA
6. fuEukfdr ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k;sA
v fMftVy izek.k i=
c fMftVy gLrk{kj
l dqfdt
n ikloMZ
mkjekyk
1- v 2- l 3- n

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/70

1
izksxzkfeax dss fl
)kar
fl)ka
(Programming Fundamentals)
1-1 lesfdr fodkl i;kZoj.k (Integrated Development Environment)
lesfdr fodkl i;kZoj.k (Integrated Development Environment)(IDE) dks lesfgr
fMtk;u i;kZoj.k (Integrated Design Environment) ;k lesfdr nks"kektZd i;kZoj.k (Integrated
Debugging Environment) ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA IDE dEI;wVj izksxzkej dks lkWVos;j ds
fodkl ds fy, lai.w kZ lqfo/kk iznku gjus okyk ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j gSA ,g IDE lkekU;r% fuEu
lqfo/kk, iznku djrs gS&
& L=ksr dqV laiknd ( Source Code Editor)
& daik;yj rFkk@;k baVjizsVj (Compiler and/or Interpreter)
& fuekZ.k Lor% lapkyu lk/ku ( Build Automation Tool)
& nks"k ektZd ( Debugger)
& mi;ksxdrkZ vkys[ku lEidZ ( Graphical User Interface)(GUI)
GUI ij vk/kkfjr ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j fodkl dks lqfo/kktud cukus ds fy, dqN IDE
mijks lqfo/kkvksa ds vfrfjs fofHkUu lk/ku (tools) rFkk vuqokn fu;a=d fudk; (Version Control
System) Hkh miyC/k djkrs gSAvk/kqfud IDE vkCtsdV vksfj;UVsM Hkk"kk (Object Oriented Language) esa lkWVos;j fodkl dks lqfo/kktud cukus ds fy, Dykl czkmtj (Class Browser), Dykl
balisDVj (Class Inspector) rFkk Dykl gk;jkjdh Mk;xzke (Class hirarchey Diagram) tSlh
lqfo/kk, Hkh miyC/k djkrs gSA
izk;% ,d IDE ,d mPpLrjh; Hkk"kk (High Level Language) fo'ks"k ds fy, lefiZr gksrh
gSA IDE lkWVos;j ds lEiw.kZ fodkl ds fy, ,d izksxzke iznku djrs gS ftlesa mi;ksxdrkZ (user)
dks vkFkfjax (Authoring), eksfmQkf;ax (Modifying) rFkk Mhcfxax (Debugging) ds fy, lqfo/kk,
miyC/k gksrh gSA vk/kqfud Hkk"kk, tSls& fotqoy csfld (Visual Basic), tkok (Java), C rFkk C++
vkfn lkWVos;j ds fodkl ds fy, IDE ds }kjk mi;ksxdrkZ lgk;d (user friendly) i;kZoj.k
miyC/k djkrh gSA vktdy osc ,Iyhds'ku ds fodkl ds fy, IDE dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
Homsite, Dreamweaver, Frontpage vkfn blds mnkgj.k gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/71

1.2

MkVk Vkbi (Data Type)

MkVk Vkbi izksxzkfex Hkk"kkvksa dk ,d egRoiw.kZ /kkj.kk (Concept) gSA izksxzkfeax dk eq[;
ms'; MkVk dk izlLa dj.k gSA izlLa dj.k ds fy, miyC/k MkVk la[;k (iw.kkZd
a ;k okLrfod), djsDVj,
fLVax ;k cwfy;u gks ldrk gSA vr% izksxkz feax Hkk"kk ds fy, vko';d gS fd og fofHkUu izdkj ds MkVk
ds fu#i.k dh lqfo/kk iznku djsA mnkgj.kkFkZ & ;fn ge fdlh izksxzke esa nks fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj dsh
la[;k tSls &iw.kkZad o okLrfod la[;k ij dk;Z djuk pkgrs gS rFkk eku yhft, fd izksxzkfex Hkk"kk
la[;k dks fu#fir djus ds fy, dsoy ,d izdkj dk MkVk Vkbi Float dks iksf"kr (Support) djrk
gS rks gesa vius izkx
s zke essa nksuksa izdkj ds fy, Float MkVk Vkbi dk mi;ksx djuk gksxkAFloat MkVk
Vkbi, Integer MkVk Vkbi dh rqyuk esa vf/kd eSeksjh Lisl dk mi;ksx djrk gSA
eSeksjh Lisl ds dq'ky izca/ku ,oa vkoaVu ds fy, rFkk izksxzkej dh lqfo/kk ds fy, lHkh
izksxzkfex Hkk"kk, fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj ds MkVk ij dk;Z djus ds fy, fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj ds MkVk Vkbi
Float dks iksf"kr (Support) djrs gSA
1.2.1 izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi ( Primitive Data Type)

vk/kkjHkwr MkVk Vkbi izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi dgykrs gSA lHkh izksxzkfex Hkk"kk, izkFkfed MkVk
Vkbi dk ,d leqPp; miyC/k djkrh gSAInteger, Float, Double, Char, String rFkk Boolean
izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi ds mnkgj.k gSA
1.2.1.1 iw.kkZd MkVk Vkbi (Integer Data Type)
iw.kkad
Z (Integer) MkVk Vkbi lcls lk/kkj.k izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi gSA ,slh la[;k, ftuesa
n'keyo fcUnq ugh gksrk gS iw.kkaZd la[;k, dgykrh gSA Integer MkVk Vkbi eSeksjh esa nks ckbV (16
fcV) LFkku xzg.k djrs gSA /kukRed rFkk _.kkRed la[;kvksa ds fu#i.k djus ds fy, 16 fcV dh
ysV eksLV fcV (Left Most bit) dks lkbu fcV ds #i esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

1 fcV
Sign bit

15 fcV
iw.kkZad la[;k ( Integer Number)

vr% Integer MkVk Vkbi ds pj dk vf/kdre eku -32767 ls 32767 ds e/; gks ldrk gSA
vk/kqfud Hkk"kk, vf/kd eku nsus ds fy, long MkVk Vkbi dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA long MkVk
Vkbi eSeksjh esa pkj ckbV (32 fcV) LFkku xzg.k djrs gSA Integer MkVk Vkbi dh Hkkafr budh ysV
eksLV fcV (Left Most bit) dks lkbu fcV ds #i esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA long MkVk Vkbi ds pj
dk vf/kdre eku -2147483647 ls 2147483647 ds e/; gks ldrk gSA
1.2.1.2 py fcUnq MkVk Vkbi

(Floating Data Type)

okLrfod la[;kvksa (Real Numbers) dks dEI;qVj dh eSeksjh esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, py
fcUnq la[;k MkVk Vkbi dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA pwfd okLrfod la[;kvksa (tSls& 0.1234) dks
f}vk/kkjh la[;k i)fr esa lhfer la[;k esa fcV~l dk mi;ksx dj iw.kZ 'kqf) (Accuracy) ls O;
ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA

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baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/72

okLrfod la[;kvksa (Real Numbers) dks nks Hkkxks esa foHkDr fd;k tk ldrk gSAn'keyo
fcUnq ds nk;ha (Left) rjQ dh la[;k dks ,DliksusUV (Exponent) rFkk ck;h (Right) rjQ dh la[;k
dks sD'ku (Fraction) dgrs gSApy fcUnq la[;k, 'kqf) (Accuracy) ,ao ijkl (Range) ds #i esa
O; dh tkrh gSA'kqf) py fcUnq la[;k ds sD'kuy (Fractional) fgLls dh ;FkkZFkrk dks O; djrk
gSA
py fcUnq la[;k dsk eSeksjh esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, 4 ckbV (32 fcV) LFkku dh vko';drk
gksrh gSA ;g Float ;k Single Precision la[;k dgykrh gSA Double rFkk Long Double, py fcUnq
la[;k ds vU; izdkj gSA Double MkVk Vkbi dks eSeksjh esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, 8 ckbV (64 fcV)
LFkku dh rFkk Long Double MkVk Vkbi dks 10 ckbV (80 fcV) LFkku dh vko';drk gksrh gSA
1.2.1.3 djsDVj MkVk Vkbi (Character Data Type)

;g ,d egRoiw.kZ MkVk Vkbi gSA yxHkx lHkh izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvksa esa djsDVj (Character)
MkVk Vkbi miyC/k gksrk gSA djsDVj dks eSeksjh esa la[;k ds #i esa lajf{kr fd;k tkrk gSAblds fy,
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchage) dksM dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
bl dksM esa djsDVjl~ dks 0 ls 127 ls[;k ds #i esa O; fd;k tkrk gSA
1.2.1.4 fLaVx MkVk Vkbi (String Data Type)

djsDVjl~ ds la;kstu ls cus 'kCnks dks fLaVx (String) dgrs gSA fLaVx Hkh ,d egRoiw.kZ MkVk
Vkbi gSA fLaVx dh yEckbZ, fLaVx MkVk Vkbi dk ,d egRoiw.kZ fo"k; gSA,d fLaVx dh yEckbZ fLFkj
;k ifjorhZ gks ldrh gSA
fLaVx dks O; djus ds fy, nks egRoiw.kZ fof/k;ksa dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSAftu izksxzkfeax
Hkk"kkvksa (tSl&
s Fortran, C o C++ vkfn) esa fLaVx MkVk Vkbi miyC/k ugh gksrk gS, mu Hkk"kkvksa esa
fLaVx dks djsDVj MkVk Vkbi ds ,dy foek (Single Dimension) ,js ds #i esa O; fd;k tkrk
gSAdqN Hkk"kkvksa (tSls& Ada, Visual Basic vkfn) esa fLaVx (String) MkVk Vkbi izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi
ds #i esa miyC/k gksrk gS, mu Hkk"kkvksa esa fLaVx MkVk Vkbi ds }kjk fLaVx pjksa dks ifjHkkf"kr fd;k
tkrk gSA
1.2.1.5 cwfy;u MkVk Vkbi (Boolean Data Type)

cwfy;u MkVk Vkbi pj ds nks laHko eku gksrs gSA cwfy;u MkVk Vkbi dk eku lR; (True)
;k vlR; (False) gks ldrk gSA ,d cwfy;u MkVk Vkbi pj dks eSeksjh esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, 2
ckbV (16 fcV) LFkku dh vko';drk gksrh gSA

1-3 pj (Variables)
pj ,d vkbMsfVQk;j (identifier) gSA bldk mi;ksx eku (value) dks lajf{kr djus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA ,d pj dk eku izksxzke ds ,DthD;q'ku (Execution) ds le; Hkh ifjofrZr fd;k tk

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/73

ldrk gSA pj dk eku ftl eSeksjh yksd's ku ij lajf{kr gksrk gS, pj dk uke ml eSeksjh yksd's ku ds
uke dks fu#fir djrk gSA
tc fdlh izksxkz e esa dksbZ pj ?kksf"kr (declare) fd;k tkrk gS rks mlds lkFk eSeksjh esa LFkku
lqjf{kr gks tkrk gSA pj ds lkFk lacf/kr bl eSeksjh Cykd dk vkdkj (size) pj esa lajf{kr gksus okys
MkVk ds izdkj ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ,d pj ds N% ,VhC;qV gksrs gS&
(i) uke (Name) (ii) irk (Memory Address) (iii) eku (Value) (iv) izdkj (Type) (v) thoudky
(Lifetime) (vi) vfHkizk; (Scope)
1.3.1 pjksa dh ?kks"k.kk djuk (Declaring Variables)

dqN izkx
s zkfeax Hkk"kkvksa esa pjksa dks muds MkVk izdkj ds lkFk izkx
s zke ds izkjaHk esa ?kksf"kr
(declare) fd;k tkrk gS ijarq dqN izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvksa esa ,d pj dks izksxzke esa mldh vko';drk ds
LFkku ij Hkh ?kksf"kr (declare) fd;k tk ldrk gSA tSls& C, C++ vkfn Hkk"kkvksa esa ,d pj dks
izksxkz e ds izkjaHk esa Hkh ?kksf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gS rFkk vko';drk iMus ij izksxkz e ds e/; esa Hkh fd;k
tk ldrk gS
,d pj dks ?kksf"kr djus ds ft, flaVsDl fuEu izdkj gS&
<Data Type> VariableName1, VariableName2

mnkgj.k &
Int A
Float A, B, A123
1.3.2 pjksa ds ukedj.k dh jhfr

(Naming Convention of Variables)

lHkh izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvksa esa pjksa ds uke nsus ds fy, lkekU; fu;e fuEu gS&
pj ds uke dk igyk v{kj ,YQkcsV (Alphabet) ( a to z ;k A to Z) gksuk pkfg,A C
rFkk C++ izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvksa esa izFke v{kj vaMj Ldksj (_)(underscore) gks ldrk gSA
vij dsl (Upper Case) ;k yksvj dsl (Lower Case) ,YQkcsV djsDVj (a to z ;k A
to Z), la[;k( (digit) (0 ls 9) rFkk vaMj Ldksj (_)(underscore) dss fdlh ls;kstu dk mi;ksx
pjksa ds ukedj.k ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk gSA dqN izkx
s zkfeax Hkk"kkvksa tSl-s & Fortran, Basic
rFkk COBOL vkfn esa pjksa ds ukedj.k esa vaMj Ldksj (_)(underscore) dk mi;ksx fd;k
tkuk fuf"k) gSA
izR;sd izksxzkfeax Hkk"kk esa pjksa ds uke dh yEckbZ dh vf/kdre lhek gksrh gSAtSls& C
Hkk"kk esa pjksa ds uke dh yEckbZ dh vf/kdre lhek 31 djsDVj gksrh gSA
pjksa ds uke ds #i esa lqjf{kr 'kCnksa (Keyword/ Reserve Word) tSl&
s Int, Float, For
vkfn dk mi;ksx ugh fd;k tk ldrk gSA
dqN Hkk"kkvksa tSls& C, C++ , Java vkfn dsl lsflfVo gksrh gSA bu Hkk"kkvksa esa vij dsl
djsDVj (Upper Case Character) (A to Z) ;k yksvj dsl djsDVj(Lower Case
Character)(a to z) ds la;kstu ls cus pj fHkUu&fHkUu pj ekus tkrs gSAtSl&
s C, C++ esa

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/74

SALARY , salary ;k SAlaRy rhu fHkUu&fHkUu pj ekus tkrs gSAa

1-4 fu#i.k dFku (Assignment Statement)


fu#i.k dFku dk mi;ksx izksxzke ju Vkbe (Run Time) esa pjksa dk eku lajf{kr djus ;k
ifjofrZr djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA fu#i.k mf ds fofHkUu izdkj fuEu gS&
1. lk/kkj.k fu:i.k (Simple Assignment)
2. xq.kd fu:i.k (Multiple Assignment)
3. ;wujh fu:i.k ladkjd(Unary Assignment Operator)
4. fefJr fu:i.k ladkjd (Compound Assignment Operator)
5. fefJr fu:i.k O;atd (Compound Assignment Expression)
1.4.1 lk/kkj.k fu:i.k (Simple Assignment)

lHkh Hkk"kkvksa esa (=) fpUg dk mi;ksx fu#id ladkjd (Assignment Operator) ds #i esa
fd;k tkrk gSApjksa dks eku dk fu#i.k djus ;k eku dks ifjofrZr djus ds fy, fu#id ladkjd
dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA fdlh izksxzke esa pjksa ds ?kks"k.kk ds le; ladkjd dk mi;ksx dj izkjafHkd
eku fu#fir fd;k tk ldrk gS ;k izksxzke esa fdlh Hkh LFkku ij mi;ksx dj eku dk fu#i.k fd;k
tk ldrk gSA
flaVsDl &
<Data Type> <Variable Name> < Assignment operator> <Expression>

;k
<Variable Name> < Assignment operator> <Expression>

mnkgj.k &
Int A123=20
Float BC=123.56

;k
A123 =2
A123=A123+2
1.4.2 xq. kd fu:i.k (Multiple Assignment)

,d ls vf/kd pjksa dks ,d lkFk ,d eku dk fu#i.k djus ;k ,d eku dks ifjofrZr djus
ds fy, xq.kd fu:i.k O;atdksa dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
flaVsDl &
<Data Type> <Variable Name1> < Assignment operator> <Variable Name2>

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/75
<Assignment Operator><Expression>

;k
<Variable Name> < Assignment operator> <Expression><Variable Name2>
<Assignment Operator><Expression>

mnkgj.k &
Int A123=B1=C1=20
Float BC=123.56

;k
A123 =B1=C2 =2
1.4.3 ;wujh fu:i.k lad kjd (Unary Assignment Operator)

;wujh fu:i.k ladkjd fo'ks"k ladkjd gksrs gSA bu ladkjdks esa dsoy ,d vkWijsaM (operand)
gksrk gSA budk mi;ksx ,d pj ds eku esa ?kVkskjh ;k c<kskjh djus esa gksrk gSA ++ o -- ladkjd
;wujh fu:i.k ladkjd ds mnkgj.k gSA C, C++ rFkk tkok izksxkz feax Hkk"kkvksa esa ;wujh fu:i.k ladkjd
miyC/k gksrs gSA
flaVsDl &
<Variable Name> < Unary Assignment operator>

;k
< Unary Assignment operator><Variable Name>

mnkgj.k &
++I
--Incr
;k
I++
Incr-1.4.4 fefJr fu:i.k lad kjd (Compound Assignment Operator)

fefJr fu:i.k ladkjd izkx


s zkfeax Hkk"kkvksa esa lk/kkj.k ,ao 'kkVZ&gSM rjhdks ds fy, mi;ksx
esa fy, tkrs gSAbu ladkjdks dk mi;ksx dFkuks ds fu:i.k ds izpfyr rjhdks ds LFkku ij gksrk gSA
flaVsDl &
<Variable Name> < Compound Assignment operator> <Value>

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/76

mnkgj.k &
Flag += 20
1.4.5 fefJr fu:i.k dFku (Compound Assignment Expression)
os dFku ftuesa ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd fefJr fu:i.k ladkjd dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS,
fefJr fu:i.k dFku dgykrs gSA
mnkgj.k &
Flag = ++I + (J=5/K) + 200

rFkk
For (K = 0; ( C[I]= getchar()) != '\n' ; K++)

1-5 fu.kZ; lajpuk (Decision Structure)


fu.kZ; lajpuk dk mi;ksx tc fd;k tkrk gS] tc ,d izksxkz e esa miyC/k dbZ iFkska esa ls ,d
iFk dk pquko djuk gksrk gSA fu.kZ; lajpuk rhu rjg dh gksrh gSA
i
bZQ (if)
ii
bZQ&,sYl (if-else)
(iii)
fLop (Switch)
bZQ (if)
bldk mi;ksx ,dekxhZ pquko (One waySelector) esa fd;k tkrk gSA ;s dFku rkfdZd
izkx
s kz feax ds vk/kkj gSA bu dFkuksa esa ,d rkfdZd 'krZ gksrh gS ftlds vk/kkj ij izksxkz e ds ,XthD;q'ku
ds iFk dk fu.kZ; fd;k tkrk gSA if dFku dk C- izksxzkfeax Hkk"kk esa flaVsDl fuEu izdkj gS&

1-5-1

,dekxhZ pquko (One way Selector)


flaVsDl &
if ( Boolean Expression)
Statement;

;k
if ( Boolean Expression)
{
Statement 1;
Statement 2;
.
.
Statement N;
}

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/77
mnkgj.k&
if (per>=60)
Printf("First Division);

;k
if (N%2=0)
{
prinf("Even Number");
N= N*50;
}

bZQ&,sYl (if-else)
bldk mi;ksx f}ekxhZ pquko (Two way Selector) o cgqekxhZ pquko (Multiple Way
Selection) esa fd;k tkrk gSA bu O;atdks esa rkfdZd 'krZ lR; gksus ij izksxzke ds ,XthD;q'ku ds
,d iFk dk p;u fd;k tkrk gS vU;Fkk nqljs iFk dk p;u fd;k tkrk gSA if ..else dk C- izksxkz feax
Hkk"kk esa flaVsDl fuEu izdkj gS&

1-5-2

f}ekxhZ pquko (Two way Selector)


flaVsDl &
if ( Boolean Expression) then
Statement 1;
else
Statement 2;
mnkgj.k&
if (N > M)
Printf("N is Greater than M");
else
Printf("M is Greater than N");

cgqekxhZ pquko (Multiple way Selector) / usfLVax (Nesting)


flaVsDl &
if ( Boolean Expression 1)
Statement 1;
else
{
if ( Boolean Expression 2)
Statement 2;

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/78
else
Statement 3;
}
mnkgj.k&
if (N > M)
Printf("N is Greater than M");
else
{
if (N = M);
Printf("N and M are Equal);
else
Printf("M is Greater than N");
}

fLop (Switch)
bldk mi;ksx cgqekxhZ pquko (Multiple Way Selection) esa fd;k tkrk gSA bu O;atdksa esa
,d pj ds eku ds vk/kkj ij izksxzke ds ,XthD;q'ku ds ,d iFk dk p;u fd;k tkrk gS A Switch
dFku dk C- izkx
s zkfeax Hkk"kk esa flaVsDl fuEu izdkj gS&
flaVsDl &
1-5-3

Switch(Integer Expression)
{
Case Constant1:
do this;
Case Constant1:
do this;
default:
do this;
}
mnkgj.k&
Switch(I)
{
Case 1:
Printf("Inside Case 1");
Case 2:
Printf("Inside Case 2");
default:
Printf("Default Value");
}

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1-6

ph; lajpuk (Looping Structure)

ph; lajpuk dk T;knkrj tc iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] tc ,d gh dFku ,d izkx


s zke esa dbZ
ckj iz;ksx vk jgk gSA ph; lajpuk rhu rjg dh gksrh gSA
i
Ogkby (While)
ii
Mw&Ogkby (do-While)
iii
QkWj (for)
Ogkby ywi (While Loop)
ph; lajpuk fdlh leL;k dks ;wtj }kjk bfPNr le; rd fu"iknu djus ds fy, dke
esa vkrh gSA

1-6-1

Step 1.
Step 2.
Step 3.
Step 4.
Step 5.
Step 6.

n1
while n <10
x a * (1+r/100)
write x,n
n n+1
end while

1-6-2

Mw&Ogkby ywi (Do...While Loop)


Mw&Ogkby ywi] Ogkby ywi dh rjg gh dke djrh gS varj dsoy bruk gh gS fd blesa 'krZ
dh tkp ckn esa djrs gSa tcfd Ogkby esa igys djrs gS fuEu mnkgj.k es cksul ds eku dh x.kuk
dh xbZ gSA ftlesa izkjfEHkd lSysjh 2000 var lSysjh 4000 ,oa vUrjky 100 :- gSA cksul lSysjh dk
20 izfr'kr gksxkA
Step 1.
Step 2.

Step 3.
Step 4.
Step 5.

1-6-3

Salary 2000
do
bonus .02xSalary
write bouns
Salary Salary +100
while salary <=4000
end

Qksj ywi (For Loop)


Qksj ywi lk/kkj.kr;k tc iz;ksx djrs gSa tc fu"ikfnr djus ds igys gh vkidks irk gks
fd ;g ywi fdruh ckj fu"ikfnr gksxhA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/80

1.8 LVDpj (Structure)


rkfdZd #i esa lacf/kr fHkUu&fHkUu MkVk Vkbi ds laxzg dks LVDpj dgrs gSA LVDpj
mi;ksxdrkZ ds }kjk ifjHkkf"kr (User Defined) MkVk Vkbi gksrk gSA;g fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj ds MkVk
Vkbi dks ,d lkFk cka/kus dh fof/k iznku djrk gSA vkCtsDV vksfjUVsM izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvksa (Objetc
Oriented Programming Language) esa Dykl (Class), LVDpj dk foLrkj (Extension) gksrk
gSADykl (Class), o LVDpj esa varj ;g gS fd ,d QaD'ku ,d Dykl dk lnL; gks ldrk gS ijarq
,d QaD'ku ,d LVDpj dk lnL; ugh gks ldrk gSA
LVDpj dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds ft, fuEu flaVsDl dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS&
Structure StructureName
{
<Data type> Member1
<Data type> Member2
<Data type> Member3
.
.
.
.
<Data type> MemberN
};

mijksDk mnkgj.k esa Struct ,d dhoMZ (Keyword) gS rFkk StructureName ,d LVDpj


MkVk Vkbi ds pj dk uke gSA Member1,Member2,Member3....... MemberN vkfn e'k% MkVk
Vkbi Datatype1,Datatype2.....DataaTypeN ds pj gS rFkk ;s lHkh StructureName ,d LVDpj
MkVk Vkbi ds rkfdZd #i esa lacf/kr lnL; gSA
fdlh izksxzke esa StructureName MkVk Vkbi ds pjksa dks fuEu izdkj ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk
ldrk gS&
Struct StructureName S1,S2;

mijksDk ykbu esa geus S1 o S2 uke ds nks pj ifjHkkf"kr fd;s gS ftudk MkVk Vkbi
StructureName gSA
1.9 LFkkuh; pj (Local Variable)
,sls pj ftUgs ftl QaD'ku esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gS rFkk bUgsa dsoy mlh QaD'ku esa ,Dlsl
(Access) fd;k tk ldrk gS, LFkkuh; pj dgykrs gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/81

1.10

QaD'ku (Function)

QaD'ku izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvksa dh egRoiw.kZ /kkj.kk gSA,d QaD'ku, ,d izksxzke dk Loa;Hkw [k.M
(Self Contained Portion) gS , ftls iw.kZ:i ls ifjHkkf"kr dk;Z fo'ks"k ds fy, mi;ksx fd;k tkrk
gSA ,d QaD'ku dkWy djus okys izkx
s kz e ls iSjkehVj ds :i eas lqpuk izkIr dj mudk izlLa dj.k djrk
gS rFkk ,d i`Fkd eku (Single Value) okil djrk gSA
1.10.1 fjVZu osY;w (Return Value)

tc fdlh izksxzke esa fdlh QaD'ku dks dkWy fd;k tkrk gS rks og dkWy djus okys QaD'ku
dks ,d i`Fkd eku (Single Value) okil djrk gSA bls QaD'ku dh fjVZu osY;q (Function Return
Value) dgrs gSA
1.10.2 iSjkehVj Hkstus ds izdkj (Types of Parameter Passing)

fdlh izksxzke esa QaD'ku dk eq[; ms'; dkWy djus okys izkx
s zke ls fdlh fof/k ls izkIr
lqpukvksa dk izlaLdj.k dj ,d i`Fkd eku (Single Value) dkWy djus okys izksxzke dks okil djuk
gksrk gSA izksxzke ls QaD'ku dks lqpukvksa dks Hkstus dh fof/k , iSjkehVj Hkstus dk rjhdk (Method
of Parameter Passing) dgykrk gSA
,d izkx
s zke ls QaD'ku dks iSjkehVj Hkstus ds eq[;r% nks rjhds gksrs gS&
i
eku ds }kjk Hkstuk (Passing by Value)
ii
irs (Address) ds }kjk Hkstuk (Passing by Address)
izFke rjhds esa iSjkehVj ds eku dks izkx
s zke ls QaD'ku dkss Hkstk tkrk gS tcfd nqljs rjhds
esa iSjkehVj dk eSeksjh ,Msl izksxzke ls QaD'ku dkss Hkstk tkrk gSA

1-11 DykWl dk vo/kkj.kk

(Concept of Class)
DykWl ,d mi;ksxdrkZ ds }kjk ifjHkkf"kr (User Defined) MkVk Vkbi gksrk gS tks vius
vanj pj (variable) , fof/k (Method) rFkk xq.kksa (Properties) dks lekfgr j[krk gSA,d DykWl fdlh
s
oLrq ds vewrZ fof'k"V xq.kksa (Abstract Characteristics) ds lkFk blds fof'k"V xq.kksa (tSl&
,VhC;wV (Attribute) o xq.k (Properties) rFkk oLrq ds O;ogkj (tSls& fof/k (Method) o y{k.k
(Featuress) dks Hkh ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA vr% ;g dgk tk ldrk gS fd ,d DykWl fdlh oLrq dk
CY;w fizaV (Blue Print) gksrk gSA
tc fdlh izksxzke esa DykWl dks ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gS rks bl u;s MkVk Vkbi dk mi;ksx
, bl MkVk Vkbi ds vkCtsDV (object) ifjHkkf"kr djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA nqljs 'kCnksa esa ,d DykWl
,d vkCtsDV dk VsEiysV (Template) gksrk gSA mnkgj.k&
Class Animal
{
}

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/82
Animal Dog,Cat

mijksDk mnkgj.k esa geus animal uke dh ,d DykWl ifjHkkf"kr dh gSA Dog rFkk Cat uke
ds nks ,sls vkCtsDV (object) ifjHkkf"kr fd;s gS ftudk MkVk Vkbi animal gSA
1.11.1 balVsUl (Instance)

,d vkWCtsDV ,d DykWl dk balVsUl gksrk gS vFkkZr~ balVsUl izksxzke ds ju Vkbe ds le;


cuh okLrfod oLrq gksrk gSA lsD'ku 1.11 esa fn;s x;s mnkgj.k esa Dog rFkk Cat, animal uke dh
,d DykWl ds balVsUl gSA
1.11.2 vkWCtsDV (Object)
,d vkWCtsDV okLrfod nqfu;k dh ,d oLrq gSAjksteZjk ds thou esa ik;h tkus okyh oLrqvksa
dks ekWMy djus ds fy, lkVos;j vkWCtsDV dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ,d vkWCtsDV lacfa /kr
voLFkkvksa ,ao O;ogkjksa dk ,d lkVos;j cWMy gksrk gSA
,d vkWCtsDV ,d DykWl dk balVsUl gksrk gSAvkWCtsDV dks blds uke ls igpkuk tk ldrk
gSA fdlh {k.k vkWCtsDV ds ,VhC;qV dk eku ml {k.k vkWCtsDV dh voLFkk dks fu:fir djrk
gSAvkWCtsDV dh voLFkk, ml ij vkjksfir eSFkM (Method) ds vuqlkj ifjofrZr gksrh gSAvkWCtsDV dh
laHkkfor voLFkkvksa dk vuqe vkWCtsDV ds O;ogkj dks ifjofrZr djrk gSA,d vkWCtsDV dk O;ogkj
eSFkMl~ ds leqPp; }kjk ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA
1.11.3 eSFkM (Method)

euokafNr ifj.kke izkIr djus ds fy, dk;Zfof/k dFkuksa (Procedural Statements) dk


leqPp; eSFkM dgykrk gSAeSFkM fofHkUu izdkj ds MkVk Vkbi ij fHkUu&fHkUu dk;Z djrk gSAeSFkM dk
lkekU; :i fuEu gS&
<Data Type> Name(Parameter-List)
{
// Body of Method
}

;gkW
Data Type eSFkM }kjk okil fd;s x;s MkVk dk MkVk Vkbi gSA
Name eSFkM ds uke dks O; djrk gSA
Parameter-List dksek ls i`Fkd fd;s x;s MkVk Vkbi rFkk ladr
s dks dh lqph gSA

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1- IDE dEI;wVj izksxkz ej dks lkWVos;j ds fodkl ds fy, lai.w kZ lqfo/kk iznku gjus okyk ,Iyhds'ku
lkWVos;j gS
2- vk/kkjHkwr MkVk Vkbi izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi dgykrs gSA Integer, Float, Double, Char, String
rFkk Boolean izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi ds mnkgj.k gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/83

3- Integer MkVk Vkbi eSeksjh esa nks ckbV (16 fcV) LFkku xzg.k djrs gSA /kukRed rFkk _.kkRed
la[;kvksa ds fu#i.k djus ds fy, 16 fcV dh ysV eksLV fcV (Left Most bit) dks lkbu fcV
ds #i esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
4- py fcUnq la[;k dsk eSeksjh esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, 4 ckbV (32 fcV) LFkku dh vko';drk gksrh
gSA ;g Float ;k Single Precision la[;k dgykrh gSA
5- djsDVjl~ ds la;kstu ls cus 'kCnks dks fLaVx (String) dgrs gSA
6- cwfy;u MkVk Vkbi pj ds nks laHko eku gksrs gSA cwfy;u MkVk Vkbi dk eku lR; (True) ;k
vlR; (False) gks ldrk gSA
7- tc fdlh izksxzke esa dksbZ pj ?kksf"kr (declare) fd;k tkrk gS rks mlds lkFk eSeksjh esa LFkku
lqjf{kr gks tkrk gSA pj ds lkFk lacf/kr bl eSeksjh Cykd dk vkdkj (size) pj esa lajf{kr gksus
okys MkVk ds izdkj ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
8. ,d pj ds N% ,VhC;qV gksrs gS&
(i) uke (Name) (ii) irk (Memory Address) (iii) eku (Value) (iv) izdkj (Type)
(v) thoudky (Lifetime) (vi) vfHkizk; (Scope)

vH;klkFkZ izu
oLrqfu"B izu
1Integer MkVk Vkbi dks eSeksjh esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, fdrus ckbV LFkku dh vko';drk
gksrh gS\
v 32
c 16
l 8
n 2
2long MkVk Vkbi pj dk vf/kdre eku gks ldrk gS&
v -32767 ls 32767
c -65536 ls 65536
l -2147483647 ls 2147483647 n -4294967296 ls 4294967296
3LVDpj dk lnL; (Member) ugh gks ldrk gS&
v pj
c QaD'ku
l LVDpj
n mijks esa ls dksbZ ugha
4ASCII dk iqjk uke gS&
v American Standard Code for Information Interchange
c American Stable Code for Information Interchange
l American Standard Case for Information Interchange
n American Standard Code for Institutional Interchange

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/84

vfry?kq R jkRed iz ' u


1cwfy;u pj ds dkSuls eku laHko gS\
2Double MkVk Vkbi dks eSeksjh esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, fdrus ckbV LFkku dh vko';drk
gksrh gS\
3,d pj ds fdrus ,VhC;qV gksrs gS\
4QaD'ku o LVDpj esas D;k varj gSa \
y?kq R jkRed iz ' u
1pjksa ds ukedj.k dh jhfr dkss le>kb;sA
2QaD'ku ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
3LFkkuh; pj D;k gksrs gS \
4.
LVDpj ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
5lkbu fcV D;k gksrh gS \
6.
balVsal ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
fucU/kkRed iz ' u
1lesfdr fodkl i;kZoj.k ls vki D;k le>rs gS\a
2izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi ls vki D;k le>rs gS \eq[; izkFkfed MkVk Vkbi dks le>kb;sA
3fu#i.k dFku dk mi;qDr mnkgj.k nsdj le>kb;sA
4fu.kZ; lajpuk rFkk ph; lajpuk dks mnkgj.k nsdj le>kb;sA
5DykWl dh vo/kkj.kk dks mnkgj.k nsdj le>kb;sA

mkjekyk
1- n

2- l]

3- c

4- v]

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/85

2
izksxzkfeax ekxZn'kZd
(Programming Guidelines)
2-1 ,d vPNs izksxzke dh fo'ks"krk,sa (Characteristics of a good program)
12345-

izekf.kd (Reliable)
fuiq.krk(Efficiency)
iBu'khyrk (Readability)
izfriknu ;ksX;(Maintainability)
ogu ;ksX; (Portability)

2-1-1 izekf.kd(Reliable) :- izekf.kd dk vFkZ gS fd ,d izkx


s zke bl rjg dk gksuk pkfg,] tks
fdlh Hkh ifjfLFkfr esa dke djrk gksA vkSj ;g Hkh ekuk tkrk gS fd izksxzke dk ifj.kke 'kq) gksxkA
ftruh T;knk izksxzke dh 'kq)rk gksxh mruh T;knk gh izkx
s zke izekf.kd gksxkA ,d izkx
s zke ftldk
fd ifj.kke lgh o 'kq) ugha gks og izksxzke fjyk;scy ugha gSA
2-1-2 fuiq.krk (Efficiency) :- ,d izksxzke dks fy[kus ds dbZ rjhds gks ldrs gSA ysfdu fuiq.k
izkx
s zke og gksrk gS tks fd de txg ysrk gSA rFkk tks fd fu"iknu (Executive) esa de le; yxkrk
gSA bl rjg ds izksxkz e ds }kjk dEI;wVj dk ewY; de gks tkrk gS] D;ksfa d dEI;wVj dh eseksjh o le;
nksuksa gh egxs gksrs gSA
2-1-3 iBu'khyrk (Readability)
izksxkz e dh lcls ize[q k fo'ks"krk iBu'khyrk gksrh gSA iBu'khyrk dk vFkZ gS fd ,d izksxkz e
bl rjg dk fy[kk gksuk pkfg, fd dksbZ Hkh O;fDr izksxzke dks vklkuh ls le> ldsA
2-1-4 izfriknu ;ksX; (Maintainability)
lk/kkj.kr;k izksxzke le; vkSj 'krksZa ds vuqlkj ifjorZu gksrk jgrk gSA vc mlh izksxzke dks
u;s fljs ls nqckjk fy[kuk dfBu o T;knk le; yxus okyk gksrk gSA vr% bl ifjfLFkfr ls fuiVus
ds fy, gesa izkx
s zke bl rjg dk cukuk pkfg;s ftlls fd ml izksxzke esa ifjorZu djuk vklku gksA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/86

2-1-5 ogu ;ksX; (Portability)


,d iksVsZcy izksxzke og gksrk gS ftls fdlh Hkh dEI;wVj ij ju dj ldrs gksA ,d vPNs
izksxzke gksus ds fy, mijksDr lkjh fo'ks"krk,a gksuh pkfg;sA

2-2 O;atd rFkk ukeksa dk p;u (Choice of Expression and Names)


,d izkx
s zke esa O;atd dk mi;ksx leL;k funku ds fy, vko';d f;k fo'ks"k dks fu:fir
djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSAvr% ,d O;atd Li"V rFkk ljy gksuk pkfg,A,d izksxzke esa mi;ksx esa
fy, tkus okys O;atd dh Li"Vrk rFkk ljyrk ds fy, fuEu fcUnqvksa dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,&
1. lHkh O;atd ,d u;h ykbu ls izkjaHk djus pkfg;sA
2. pjksa ds uke dk p;u bl izdkj djuk pkfg, fd budk uke, izkx
s zke esa buds mi;ksx
ds lkFk izklafxd gksA
3. blh izdkj izksxzke esa mi;ksx esa fy, x;s QaD'ku rFkk lc:fVu (Subroutine) dk uke
muds ms'; rFkk dk;Z ds lkFk izklafxd gksuk pkfg;sA
4. izksxzke dh iBu'khyrk c<kus ds fy, feDl dsl (Mix Case) dk mi;ksx djuk pkfg;sA
5. pjksa ds uke esa milxZ (Prefix) rFkk izR;; (Suffix) tksMus ds fy, vaMjLdksj ( _ ) dk
mi;ksx djuk pkfg;sA
6. tfVy izksxzkfeax fuZns'kksa dks bl izdkj fu:fir dluk pkfg, fd i<us okys O;f dks
bldk ms'; rFkk vFkZ Li"V le> vk;sA
7. izksxzke dh iBu'khyrk c<kus ds fy, O;aatdks esa ekud Qyuksa (Standard Function) dk
mi;ksx djuk pkfg;sA
8. O;aatdks esa ladkjdks dk mi;ksx djrs le; ladkjdks ds vxzxeurk (Precedence) dk
/;ku j[kuk pkfg;sA
9. O;aatdks dks iBu'khy rFkk le>us ;ksX; cukus ds fy, dks"Bdkssa (Brackets) dk mi;ksx
djuk pkfg;sA
10. O;aatdks esa pjks dks eku fu:fir djrs le; MkVk Vkbi dk fo'ks"k /;ku j[kuk pkfg,A

2-3 O;k[;k (Comments)


izksxzke dk izy[s ku ,d egRoiw.kZ dk;Z gSA izksxzke ds izy[s ku ds fy, O;k[;k dFku
(Comment Statement) dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA O;k[;k dFku ,XthD;qVc
s y dFku ugh gksrs gS,
ijUrq ;s izksxzke dks i<us okys O;f ds fy, ,d vPNh fuZnsf'kdk dk dk;Z djrs gSAlHkh izksxzkfeax
Hkk"kkvksa esa O;k[;k dFku dh lqfo/kk miyC/k gksrh gSAO;k[;k dFku nks izdkj ds gksrs gS&
(i) ,d ykbu ds O;k[;k dFku
(ii) ,d ls vf/kd ykbu ds O;k[;k dFku
C o C++ Hkk"kk esa O;k[;k dFku dk mnkgj.k&
/* Program for Calculating Factorial of a Number */
Fortran Hkk"kk esa O;k[;k dFku dk mnkgj.k&

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/87
C

Program for Calculating Factorial of a Number

izksxzke ds izys[ku ds fy, O;k[;k dFku dk mi;ksx djus ds fy, fuEu fcUnqvksa dk /;ku
j[kuk pkfg,&
1. eq[; izksxkz e, QaD'ku rFkk lc:fVu (Subroutine) dk dk;Z,ms'; rFkk mi;ksx fd;s x;s
pjksa ds dk;Z o ms'; dks O;k[;k dFku dh lgk;rk ls izksxkz e ds izkjaHk esa fy[kuk pkfg;sA
2. izksxkz e esa tgkW tfVy izksxkz feax fuZn's k vkrs gS ogkW ij mlls lacf/kr lq= vkfn dks O;k[;k
dFku dh lgk;rk ls fy[kuk pkfg;sA

2-4 baMsUVs'ku dk mi;ksx (Use of Indentation)


,d izksxkz e esa ,d dk;Z o f;k ls lacf/kr dFku ds CykWd dks ,d LrEHk (Column) ls izkjaHk
djuk baMsUVs'ku (indentatation) dgykrk gSAbaMsUVs'ku ,d izksxzke dh iBu'khyrk dks c<krk
gSAbaMsUVs'ku djus ds fy, fuEu fcUnqvksa dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,&
1. ,d ykbu esa ,d funsZ'k fy[kuk pkfg;sA
2. ,d MkVk Vkbi ds pjksa dks ,d ykbu esa ?kksf"kr djuk pkfg;sA
3. izksxzke esa mi;qDr LFkkuksa ij [kkyh ykbu ;k [kkyh LFkku NksMuk pkfg;sA
4. ph; lajpuk (Looping Structure), fu.kZ; lajpuk (Decision Structure) dh usfLVax
(Nesting) esa dFkuksa ds CykWd (Statement Block) dks ,d LFkku ij baMUs V (Indent)
djuk pkfg;sA
5. blh izdkj ls if...else dFku esa if dk dFku CykWd rFkk else dFku CykWd ,d LFkku ij
baMsUV (Indent) djuk pkfg;sA

2-5 izys[ku (Documentation)


izy[s ku fdlh Hkh leL;k ds MkVk dk lewg o mlds gy dks lqO;ofLFkr rjhds ls dkxt ij
n'kkZus dks dgrs gSA izy[s ku ds varxZr ;g Hkh crkuk iM+rk gS fd ;g leL;k (problem) fdlus fy[kh]
dc fy[kh vkSj D;ksa fy[khA bl leL;k ds vanj dkSu&dkSuls QaD'ku dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gSA
fdlh Hkh lkWVos;j ds izys[ku esa fuEufyf[kr phtsa t:j gksuh pkfg;sA
2-5-1 lkWVos;j dks ifjHkkf"kr djuk %& izys[ku dks ifjHkkf"kr djrs le; ge ;g t:j
crk;s fd lkWVos;j fdl pht dk gSA rFkk fdlds }kjk cuk;k x;k gSA vkSj fdl dke ds fy,
cuk;k x;k gSA
2-5-2 lkWVos;j dks o.kZu djuk (Description of the program) %& lkWVos;j dk o.kZu
djus ds fy, ykspkVZ] ,YxksFkzhe] tkWp ds fy, MkVk tks iz;ksx esa fy,] tkWp ds ckn tks ifj.kke vk;s
vkfn lc phtksa dk izy[s ku ds vUrxZr lekos'k gksuk pkfg;sA
2-5-3 fudk; ds ckjs esa o.kZu (Description of the system)
izys[ku ds vUrxZr gedks ;g Hkh crkuk gS fd ;g lkWVos;j fdl fudk; ;k mi fudk;
okrkoj.k esa vPNh rjg dke djrk gSA ml fudk; dk iwjh rjg o.kZu djuk gSA vxj fudk; T;knk
cM+k gS rks laf{kIr ykbuksa esa ml fudk; dk o.kZu djuk gSA fdl rjg ds buiqV MkVk izksxkz e ds vanj
iz;ksx esa fy;s x;s gSA rFkk fdl rjg dk vkmViqV izksxzke }kjk feysxk vkfn lc dFkuksa dk Li"V
o.kZu gksuk pkfg;sA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/88

2-5-4 vkWijsVj funsZ'k iqfLrdk (An operator instruction manual)


lkWVos;j iSdt
s ds vanj vkWijsVj funsZ'k iqfLrdk gksuh pkfg,A vkWijsVj funsZ'k iqfLrdk ds
varxZr gj funsZ'k dks fy[kuk fd bl lkWVos;j dks pykus ds fy, dEI;wVj dks D;k&D;k funsZ'k nsus
gksaxAs izR;sd funsZ'k Li"V gksus pkfg;s ftlls ,d lk/kkj.k O;fDr Hkh mu funsZ'kksa dk ljyrk ls iz;ksx
dj ldsA funsZ'k iqfLrdk esa ;g funsZ'k Hkh Li"V gksuk pkfg;s fd bl lkWVos;j dk dEI;wVj esa dSls
iz;ksx djsaxs rFkk bl lkWVos;j ls dSls ckgj fudysaxsA

2-6 izksxzke dk j[kj[kko (Maintaining the program)


,d ckj izksxkz e fy[kus ds ckn mlesa le; dh vko';drkuqlkj ifjorZu djus iM+rs gSA bl
vko';drkuqlkj ifjorZu dks gh izkx
s zke dk j[kj[kko dgrs gSA j[kj[kko dbZ ckj rks izksxzke dk
iz;ksx djus okys dh vko';drk ds vuqlkj fd;k tkrk gSA vkSj dbZ ckj fu;e ifjorZu ds dkj.k
djuk iM+rk gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, ,d izkx
s kz e gS tks fd izksxkz ej A us jktLFkku ljdkj ds deZpkfj;ksa ds osru
dh x.kuk djus ds fy, cuk;k gSA tc ;g izksxzke ;k lkWVos;j fy[kk Fkk] ml le; ;g jktLFkku
ljdkj }kjk funsZf'kr lHkh 'krksZ dh ikyuk djrk FkkA tSls gh ikpok osru vk;ksx ykxw gqvkA iqjkuk
izksxzke rks iwjh rjg ls dke djsxk lkFk gh vc bl izksxzke dks u;s fu;eksa ds rgr vk/kqfud cukus
ds fy, blds vanj ifjorZu djuk gksxkA vkSj ml ifjorZu ds vanj tks u;s fu;e ikpos osru vk;ksx
esa gS mudk lekos'k djuk iM+sxkA
bl rjg ls le;&le; ij ,d izksxzke dk j[kj[kko djuk cgqr t:jh gSA

2-7 fMcfxax izksxzke (Debugging Program) cx

(Bug) dk eryc gksrk gS =qfV

(error) vkSj fM$cx ;kfu fM dk eryc gVkuk] cx (Bug) dk eryc =qfV vFkkZr =qfV dks gVkukA

fMcfxax ,d rjhdk gS ftlesa ge izksxzke ds vanj =qfV dk irk djrs gSA vkSj irk djus ds
ckn ml =qfV dks lgh djrs gSA
fdlh Hkh izkx
s kz e ds vanj =qfV dks gVkus ds fuEu rjhds viuk;s tkrs gSA
1- fdlh izksxkz e ds NksVs Hkkx dks] eq[; izkx
s kz e esa tksMu+ s ls igys mls vyx ls dEI;wVj ij ju djds
ns[k ys fd bl NksVs izkx
s zke ds vanj dksbZ =qfV gS ;k ugha gSA =qfV dh tkap djus ds i'pkr~ gh
ml NksVs izksxzke dks] eq[; izksxzke esa tksM+k tk;sA
2- blds vUrxZr ge izksxzke ds vanj vfrfjDr osfj;cy ysdj mudh vkmViqV dh tkap izksxzke ds
vanj chp&chp esa djrs jgrs gSA ftlls fd ge =qfV dk irk yxk ldrs gSA
3- MkVk dks Vsl (Trace) djukA

2-8 flUVsDl =qfV (Syntax error)


flUVsDl =qfV rc vkrh gS tc fdlh Hkk"kk dh xzkej dk fu;e ikyuk lgh <ax ls ugha fd;k
x;k gksA ;g cgqr lkekU; =qfV gS tks fd vf/kdrj vkrh jgrh gS bl =qfV dks Bhd djuk Hkh ljy
gSA tc Hkh bl rjg dh =qfV izksxzke esa vkrh gS rks dEikbyj mlh le; crk nsrk gSA ftlls fd

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/89

=qfV dks nwj djuk lqfo/kktud jgrk gSA rFkk ;g Hkh irk yx tkrk gS fd dgka ij =qfV gSA vkSj
D;k gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy,&
# include <stdio.h>
void main ( )
{
printf ("\n enter the value of n");
scanf ("%", & n)
}

mijksDr izkx
s zke dks tc ge dEI;wVj ij (Compile) dEikby djrs gSA rc og nks lwpuk
s kz e esa fMDy;sj ugha fd;k x;k gSA nwljh
nsxkA ,d ;g fd tks osfj;cy n dk iz;ksx fd;k gSA og izkx
;g fd scanf ds ckn lsehdkWyku ( dk iz;ksx ugha fd;k x;k gSA

2-9 ju Vkbe =qfV (Run time error)


tc ge fdlh izksxzke dks dEikby djrs gS rks og fdlh Hkh izdkj dh =qfV ugha crkrk gSA
ysfdu tc ml izkx
s kz e dks dEI;wVj ij ju djrs gS] rks =qfV vkrh gSA bl izdkj dh =qfV dks ju Vkbe
=qfV dgrs gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, ge la[;k esa Hkkx nsus dk izksxzke cukrs gSA
# include <stdio.h>
void main ( )
{
int a, b, c
printf ("\n enter value of a");
scanf ("%d", &a);
printf("\n enter value of b");
Scanf("%d," & b);
c=a/b;
printf("\n division=%d," c);
}

mijksDr izkx
s zke dks tc Hkh bl ge dEI;wVj ij dEikby djsaxs rks ;g fdlh Hkh izdkj dh
=qfV ugha n'kkZ;sxkA ysfdu blh izksxzke dks tc ge dEI;wVj ij ju djsaxs vkSj a dk eku 6 o b dk
eku 0 nsaxs rks ;g =qfV n'kkZ;sxkA bl izdkj dh =qfV dks ju Vkbe =qfV dgrs gSA D;ksafd fdlh Hkh
uacj dks vxj ge 0 ls Hkkx nsaxs rks ifj.kke laHko ugha gSA D;ksafd dksbZ Hkh la[;k dks 0 ls Hkkx nsaxs
rks ifj.kke vuUr () vkrk gSA
blh rjg vxj ge fdlh la[;k dk (log) ykWx fudkyus dk izksxzke cuk;s rks og Hkh tc
dEikbyj ds }kjk vkCtsDV izksxkz e (object program) esa ifjofrZr djsxk] rc og fdlh Hkh izdkj dh
=qfV ugha crk;sxkA ysfdu tc ge blh izksxzke dks dEI;wVj ij ju djs vkSj _.kkRed la[;k ns rks
gedks izksxzke esa =qfV feysxhA tks fd ju Vkbe =qfV gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/90

2-10 rdZ =qfV (Logical Error)


flUVsDl =qfV vkSj ju Vkbe =qfV ds ckn rdZ =qfV (Logical Error) vkrh gSA ;g =qfV lcls
T;knk dfBu o lcls T;knk le; yxkus okyh gksrh gSA bl =qfV dks irk djus esa lcls T;knk le;
yxrk gSA
rdZ =qfV lk/kkj.kr;k tc vkrh gS] tc fdlh izksxzke ds dFku dks xyr rjhds ls fy[k nsrs
gSA
lcls vPNk mnkgj.k gS fd tc fdlh Hkh f}?kkr lehdj.k ax2+bx+c=0 ds ewy fudkyus
ds fy, gy djrs gS rks ge fuEu izdkj fy[krs gSA
d = b*b - 4*a*c;
Root 1 = (-b+Sqrt (d))/ 2*a

mijksDr izkx
s kz e esa vxj ge ;g dksM fy[kdj dEikby djsx
a s rks] dEikbyj fdlh Hkh izdkj
dh =qfV ugha crk;sxkA vkSj tc blh izkx
s kz e dks ju djsx
a s vkSj a, b vkSj c dk eku nsx
a s rks ge dHkh Hkh
bl lehdj.k ds ewy lgh ugha fudky ik;sx
as As dkj.k ;g gS fd Qkewy
Z k ds fglkc ls igys ;g cszdVs
ds vanj dk eku Kkr djsx
a As mlds ckn bl eku dks 2 ls Hkkx nsx
a As mlds ckn tks Hkh ifj.kke vk;sxk
mldks a ls xq.kk djsx
a As tcfd gekjk okLrfod lw= igys csVs ds vanj dk eku fudkydj mldks
2a ls Hkkx nsuk gSA rks bl mijksDr izkx
s kz e ls lgh ewy fudkyus ds fy, 2*a dks csd
z Vs ds vanj fy[ksx
a As
vFkkZr~
Root 1 = (-b+Sqrt (d)) / (2*a);

2-11 izksCye lksfYoax esFkksMksyksth (Problem solving methodology)


vc lkjs fu;e tkuus ds ckn vxyk dk;Z gSA bu fu;eksa dh ikyuk djuk vkSj iz'u dks gy
djukA
2-11-1 leL;k dks le>uk (Understanding the problem)
blds vUrxZr gedks tks Hkh leL;k nh gqbZ gS mldks le>uk gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, ;fn ,d izksxzke QSDVksfj;y fudkyus dk ;k izkbZe uEcj dk irk djus
dk gSA bl leL;k dks gy djus ds igys QSDVksfj;y dks x.kuk djus dk lw= rFkk izkbZe (Prime)
uEcj dk irk djus dk rjhdk ekywe gksuk pkfg,A vU;Fkk bl leL;k dks gy ugha dj ldrsA
2-11-2 de ls de buiqV dk irk djuk (Identifying Minimum Number of Inputs
Required)

leL;k dks le>us ds ckn vxyk dk;Z leL;k ls lacaf/kr buiqV dk irk djuk gS fd bl
leL;k dks gy djus ds fy, fdrus buiqV osfj;oy dh vko;drk gSA ftlls fd tks leL;k nh
gqbZ gS og gy gks tk;s vkSj mldk vkmViqV fey tk;sA
mnkgj.k ds fy, gedks C;kt fudkyus ds fy, izksxzke cukuk gS rks ge bl izksxzke dks gy
djus ds fy, rhu buiqV osfj;oy P,R,T ysaxsA ;fn gesa ;g dgk tk;s fd izFke 10 izkd`r la[;kvksa
dk tksM+ fudkyuk gS rks bl leL;k dkas gy djus ds fy, gesa fdlh Hkh buiqV osfj;oy dh t:jr
ugha gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/91

2-11-3 LVsi ckbZ LVsi gy fudkyuk (Step by Step Solution)


buiqV dk lgh rjhds ls irk djus ds ckn] vxyk dk;Z tks Hkh leL;k gS mldk ,YxksfjFke
;k ykspkVZ cukuk gSA ftlls fd ml leL;k ls lacaf/kr gy ds lkjs LVsi nkkZ;s tk;saA
2-11-4 vadxf.krh; ,oa rdZ vkWijskuksa dk irk djuk (Identification of Arithmetic
and logic operations required for solution)

leL;k dk lgh rjhds ls gy fudkyus ds ckn vxyk dk;Z ;g irk djuk gS fd fdl LVsi
ij vadxf.krh; ,oa fdl LVsi ij rdZ vkWijskuksa dk iz;ksx djuk gSA ;g dk;Z ;fn ykspkVZ cuk;k
gS rks ykspkVZ ds ckWDl ds vkdkj ls Hkh irk py ldrk gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, dgha Hkh ;fn fu.kkZ;d ckWDl (Decision Box) dk iz;ksx fd;k gS rks
ogka ij rdZ vkWijsku yxsxk vkSj ;fn izkslsflax ckWDl dk iz;ksx fd;k gS rks vadxf.krh; vkWijsku
yxsxkA

2-12 ekWM~;wyj izLrko (Modular Approach)


ekWM;~ y
w j dk eryc gksrk gS NksVk izkx
s kz eA ekWM;~ y
w j izLrko ,d izdkj dh rduhd gSA ftlesa
;fn dksbZ izkx
s kz e dfBu yxrk gS rks] mldks vyx&vyx nks izkx
s kz e esa ckV nsrs gSA vc bu vyx&vyx
izkx
s kz eksa dks vyx&vyx dEI;wVj esa ju djrs gSA vkSj budh dfe;ksa (Error) dks nwj djrs gSA
bl izdkj bl rduhd dks LVDpMZ izksxzkfeax (Structured Programming) Hkh dgrs gSA
D;ksafd blesa gj dfBu izkx
s zke dks vyx&vyx ckWV nsrs gSA vyx&vyx izksxzke esa tkus (Entry)
dk vkSj ckgj fudkyus (Exit) dk dsoy ,d gh jkLrk gksrk gSA
(i)
ij ls uhps izLrko (Top down approach)
bl izLrko esa cM+s izksxkz e dks NksVs&NksVs izksxkz e esa ckaV nsaxAs izksxkz e lcls igys eq[; izksxkz e
ls izkjaHk gksxkA tks fd uhps vkrs vkrs NksVs NksVs izkx
s zkeksa esa caVrk tk;sxkA vc gj NksVs izkx
s zkeksa dks
ge vyx&vyx ls lqfo/kkiwoZd gy dj ldrs gSA

lk/kkj.kr;k tc Hkh dksbZ izksxzke cukrs gS rks blh rduhd dk iz;ksx djrs gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/92

mnkgj.k ds fy, ;fn gesa dksbZ cM+s edku dk fuekZ.k djrs gS rks ge viuh lqfo/kkuqlkj igys
lHkh dejksa dk fuekZ.k dk;Z djk;saxs tks fd bZV o lhesUV ls gksxk] mlds ckn ge lkjk yksgs dk dke
djk;saxsA mlds ckn ydM+h dk dke djk;saxAs dgus dk eryc gS fd ge dHkh Hkh ;g ugha djk;saxs
fd ge ,d dejk cuk;saxs vkSj mlesa igys pqukbZ dk dke] fQj ydM+h dk dke] fQj yksgs dk dke
djk;saxsA vkSj mlds ckn fQj nwljs dejs dk dke Hkh blh rjg djk;saxsA

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1- ,d vPNs izkx
s zke dh fo'ks"krk,sa gksrh gSA
(i) izekf.kd (Reliable) (ii) fuiq.krk(Efficiency) (iii)iBu'khyrk (Readability)
(iv) izfriknu ;ksX;(Maintainability) (v) ogu ;ksX; (Portability)
2. ,d izksxzke esa O;atd dk mi;ksx leL;k funku ds fy, vko';d f;k fo'ks"k dks fu:fir djus
ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSAvr% ,d O;atd Li"V rFkk ljy gksuk pkfg,A
3- izksxzke ds izys[ku ds fy, O;k[;k dFku (Comment Statement) dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
O;k[;k dFku ,XthD;qVscy dFku ugh gksrs gS, ijUrq ;s izksxzke dks i<us okys O;f ds fy, ,d
vPNh fuZnfs 'kdk dk dk;Z djrs gSA
4. ,d izksxzke esa ,d dk;Z o f;k ls lacf/kr dFku ds CykWd dks ,d LrEHk (Column) ls izkjaHk
djuk baMsUVs'ku (indentatation) dgykrk gSA
5. izy[s ku (Documentation) fdlh Hkh leL;k ds MkVk dk lewg o mlds gy dks lqO;ofLFkr rjhds
ls dkxt ij n'kkZus dks dgrs gSA
6. ju Vkbe =qfV] izksxzke dks ju djrs le; vkrh gSA
7- cx dk eryc gS =qfV vkSj Mh cx dk eryc gSaA =qfV dks gVkukA
8- ekM+;wyj izLrko esa cMs izksxzke dks NksV&
s NksVs izksxzkeksa esa ckaV nsaxsA

vH;klkFkZ izu
oLrqfu"B izu
1fMokbM okbZ thjks (Divide by zero) =qfV gSA
v flUVsDl =qfV (Syntax error)
c yksthdy =qfV (Logical error)
l ju Vkbe =qfV (Run Time error)
n mijks esa ls dksbZ ugha
2flUVsDl =qfV (Syntax error) dk irk fd;k tkrk gSA
v ju djrs le;
c dEikby djrs le;
l izkxs kz e cukrs le;
n dHkh Hkh ugha

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/93

y?kq R jkRed iz ' u


1ogu ;ksX;rk ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
2.
O;atd rFkk ukeksa dk p;u ds fy, fdu fcUnqvksa dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,?
3cx D;k gksrk gS \
4.
,d vPNs izksxzke dh fo'ks"krk, crkb;s \
fucU/kkRed iz ' u
1,sjj fdrus izdkj dh gksrh gS \
2.
fuEukfdar ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k,&
(i) O;k[;k (Comment)
s ku (Documentation)
(ii) izy[
(iii) izksxzke dk j[kj[kko (Maintaining the program)
(iv)izkCs ye lksfYoax esFkksMksyksth (Problem solving methodology)

mkjekyk
1- l

2- c]

AglaSem School

1
MkVkcsl esustesaV flLVe
(Database Management System)
1-1 ifjp; (Introduction)
Mhch,e,l ,d ,slk flLVe gS] tks iz;ksxdrkZ (user) dks MkVk access djus ,oa MkVk dks
lwpuk esa cnyus esa lgk;rk iznku djrk gSA ;g flLVe mi;ksxdrkZvksa dks& MkVkcsl cukus] viMsV
djus ,oa lwpuk izkIr djus dh lgefr iznku djrk gSA Mhch,e,l leLr lEcfU/kr fjdkWMl
~Z dk lewg
,oa izksxkz e gS] ftlds }kjk fjdkWMZ access fd, tkrs gSaA Mhch,e,l dEI;wVj ij vk/kkfjr fjdkWMZ
O;oLFkk dks iwjh rjg ls laHkkyus (maintain) ,oa access djus ds fy;s gSA
Mhch,e,l dk izkFkfed y{; ,slk okrkoj.k iznku djuk gS] tks fd lqfo/kktud ,oa MkVkcsl
lwpuk dks laxzg djus ,oa Retrieve djus ds ;ksX; gksA
MkVkcsl cgqr cMs lewg dh leLr lwpuk dks O;ofLFkr djus ds fy, fMtkbZu dh xbZ iz.kkyh
gSA MkVkcsl iz.kkyh dh O;oLFkk }kjk leLr lajpukvksa dh ifjHkk"kk vius lkFk j[krh gS rkfd leLr
lwpukvksa dks LVksj ;k laxgz fd;k tk ldsA blds vfrfjDr MkVkcsl flLVe laxfz gr lwpuk dks flLVe
s'k] fcuk vuqefr ds mi;ksxdrkZvksa bR;kfn ls lqj{kk iznku djrk gSA
Mhch,e,l dh fo'ks "krk ,oa mRrjnkf;Ro

MkVk dh lqyHk miyC/krk


MkVkcsl esa yk[kksa fjdkWMl
Z LVksj gksrs gSaA

fu;fU=r ,oa lqyHk MkVk dh miyC/krk


dkSu MkVk ns[k ldrk gSs ;g fuf'pr djukA
fdl mi;ksxdrkZ ds fy, MkVk dks i<+us@fy[kus (Read/write) djus dh vuqefr gSA

,d lkFk ,d gh le; MkVk dks miyC/k djkuk


blesa ,d lkFk ,d gh le; esa ,d ls vf/kd mi;ksxdrkZ MkVkcsl ij dk;Z dj ldrs gSaA
tc vki fjdkWMZ esa dks ifjorZu dj jgs gks rks fjdkWMZ dks Lock o Save fd;k tk ldrk
gSA
MkVkcsl ds ek/;e ls dzkWl lsDku }kjk fdlh fufpr dk;Z dks fd;k tkuk A

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/95

ckn ds ;wtlZ Hkh MkVk dks viuh vko;drkuqlkj ns[k ldrs gSaA
Mhch,e,l MkVkcsl fjdojh esa Hkh lgk;d gS
MkVk ds [kjkc vFkok Qsy gksus ij iqu% fuekZ.k dh rduhd ls lq/kkjk tk ldrk gS] tSl&
s disk
crash, program error, power outage, fire vkfnA
vo/kkj.kk :i ls ,slk gksrk gS&
1- mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk MkVkcsl dks access djus ds fy, DML Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
2.
Mhch,e,l vkxzg esa ;fn dksbZ vojks/k (Interrupt) dh vko';drk gksrh gS rks Mhoh,e,l dk;Z
jksddj ml vojks/k dh O;k[;k djrk gSA
3.
Mhch,e,l ckgjh fMtku dks pSd djrk gS] eSfiax djrk gS vkSj LVDpj ds fMtku dks LVksj
djrk gSA
4.
Mhch,e,l laxzfgr MkVkcsl esa pkgs x;s vko;d vkWijs'ku djrk gSA

1-2 MkVkcsl ds ykHk%


12345-

,d tSls fjdkWMZ dks de djukA


MkVk dh ,dkRedrk ,oa xq.kokk dks cuk;s j[kukA
MkVk dh vlaxfr (Inconsistency) dks gVkukA
MkVk dks lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy;s vko';d izfrcU/k yxkukA
lkWVos;j MoyiesUV dk [kpZ de djukA

1-3 MkVkcsl ds O;w (View of Database)%


MkVkcsl mi;ksxdrkZvksa] izksxkz ejksa vkSj MkVkcsl iz'kkld (Administrator) ds le{k dbZ rjg
ds view nsrk gSA
Internal Data Representation ;g ;wtj ;k Application Programmer }kjk ns[kk ugha tk
ldrkA
vo/kkj.kk (Conceptual) Schema ;k conceptual view gh ,d eq[; ek/;e gS] ftlds
}kjk DBA (Data Base Administrator) MkVkcsl dks cukrs gS ,oa ns[ k&js[k djrs gS A
Mhch,e,l }kjk external schema ds dbZ view, izksxzkej o ;wtj dks miyC/k gksrs gSa tks fd
Application dh vko;drk ds vuqlkj gksrs gSaA

1-4 MkVk ds O;w (Views of Data):


bUVjuy@fQftdy Lrj O;w (Internal / Physical Level View)
;g MkVk ds HkkSfrd :i ls laxzg.k (physically storage) dh O;k[;k djrk gS o muds vkilh
relations dks nkkZrk gS vkSj lEiw.kZ MkVkcsl dks NksVs vkSj vis{kkd`r lk/kkj.k lajpuk esa ifjHkkf"kr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA
(ii) vo/kkj.kk@ykWftdy ysoy O;w (Conceptual / Logical Level View)
;g Lrj Database Administrators ds }kjk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks ;g fu.kZ; ysrk gS
(i)

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fd dkSu&dkSulh lwpuk MkVkcsl esa j[kuh gSA izR;sd MkVkcsl dk ,d gh conceptual view gksrk
gS vkSj blds }kjk ;g tkap dh tkrh gS fd MkVk consistency ,oe~ integrity fu;eksa dk /;ku j[ks
gq;s gSA
(iii) ,DlVjuy@O;w ysoy (External / View Level)
;g lcls ijh Lrj gksrk gS ftlesa MkVkcsl ls lEcfU/kr mu Hkkxksa dks 'kkfey fd;k tkrk
gS tks fd mi;ksxdrkZ ls lEcfU/kr gksrs gSaA Mhch,e,l ,d database ds fy, vusd views iznRr
dj ldrk gSA
1.5

MkVk ekWMy (Data Model):

(i)

vkWCtsDV vk/kkfjr ykWftdy ekWMy Object Based Logical Model)


;g MkVk dks logical ,oe view level ij O;k[;k djus gsrq iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;s yphys ,oe~
Li"V structure capabilities miyC/k djkrs gSa vkSj data constraints dks vyx ls ifjHkkf"kr djrs gaaSA
,fUVVh fjys'kuf'ki ekWMy (The Entity relationship model)
vkWCtDV vkWfj;UVsM ekWMy (The object Oriented model)
lhekfUVd MkVk ekWMy (The semantic data model)
QaD'kuy MkVk ekWMy (The functional data model)
(ii) fjdkWMZ vk/kkfjr ykWftdy ekWMy Record Based Logical Model)
Hierarchical Model, file ij vk/kkfjr System gS vkSj Network Model, Hierarchical
Model dk Superset gSA Relational Model, Relation dh ifjdYiuk ij vk/kkfjr gSA ;g data dks
logical vkSj view level ij nkZkrk gS&
fjys'kuy ekWMy (Relational Model) : bl ekWMy esa MkVk Vscyksa esa laxzfgr fd;k tkrk gSA Vscy
iafDr ,oa dkWye dk lewg gksrh gSA iafDr dks Viy dgrs gSa ,oa dkWye dks ,VhC;wV dgrs gSaA
usVodZ ekWMy (Network Model): bl ekWMy esa MkVk dks ,d ls vf/kd fjys'kuf'ki }kjk isjUs V
,oa pkbYM QkWeZ esa laxzfgr fd;k tkrk gSA blesa tYnh ,oa lh/kk MkVk miyC/k gks tkrk gS D;ksafd
MkVk dks izkIr djus ds ,d ls vf/kd jkLrs Path gksrs gSaA
gk;jkjdhdy ekWMy (Hierarchical Model): bl ekWMy esa MkVk dks Vh&LVDpj esa j[kk tkrk
gSA blesa fjdkWMZ uksM~l ,oa czkUpst ds :i esa laxzfgr fd;s tkrs gSaA
(iii) fQftdy MkVk ekWMy (Physical Data Model)
;g MkVk dks lowest level ij nkZkus gsrq iz;ksx gksrk gSA

1-6 vkjMhch,e,l dk ifjp; (Introduction of RDBMS):


vkjMhch,e,l esa MkVk VscYkksa esa laxfz gr gksrk gS tks fd iafDr ,oa dkWye dh cuh gqbZ gksrh
gSaA iafDr dks Viy }kjk ,oa dkWye dks ,VhC;wV }kjk bafxr fd;k tkrk gSA MkseSu(Domain)] dkWye
esa laxfz gr gksus okys eku dk okLrfod eku gS tks fd fdlh dkWye esa ntZ gksrk gSA
1-6-1 vkjMhch,e,l dh fo'ks"krk (Properties of RDBMS):
(i) MkVk dks Vscy dh QkseZ esa iznf'kZr fd;k tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/97

mi;ksxdrkZ dks ;g le>uk vko';d ugha gksrk gS fd MkVk dSls laxzfgr fd;k tk;sxkA
(iiii) flLVe Vscy] j[kh tkus okyh lwpuk dh vkWuykbu dh tkudkjh nsrk gSA
(iv) ;g uy (NULL) eku dh ifjdYiuk (Concept) dks Support djrk gSA
(v) iafDr dgk fLFkr gS bldk vkjMhch,e,l ds fy, egRo ugha gSA
(vi) fdlh Hkh iafDr esa izkbZejh dh dk eku vf}rh; gksuk pkfg,A
(vii) dkWye dk uke vf}rh; gksuk pkfg,A
(viii) vkjMhch,e,l esa Vscyksa ds e/; dksbZ gkMZdksM fjys'kuf'ki ugha gksrh gSA
(ix) MkVk tks iafDr ,oa dkWye esa] Vscy esa laxfz gr fd;k tkrk gS bls fjys'ku dgrs gSaA
(x) iafDr ,oa dkWye dk bUVjlSD'ku vkjMhch,e,l esa ,d eku nsrk gSA
1-6-2 vkjMhch,e,l ds ?kVd (Components of RDBMS):
MkVk (Data): MkVk] MkVkcsl esa laxfz gr (stored) fd;k tkrk gS ftlesa vadxf.krh; (numerical
data), vxf.krh; (non-numerical data) tSls fd chraracters (alphabetic and numeric characters),
frfFk (date) vkSj rdZ lEcU/kh (logical data) izdkj ds gksrs gSaA T;knk mUUkr flLVe (advanced
system) esa T;knk dfBu data entities kkfey djrs gSa] tks fd picture vkSj image ds :Ik esa gksrs gSaA
MkVkcsl (Database)% ;g MkVk dk lewg gksrk gS tks fd Vscyksa esa laxfz gr gksrk gS vkSj ;g iafDr
,oa dkWye dh QkWjesV esa gksrk gSA MkVk tks Vscy esa laxzfgr gksrk gS og ,d nwljs ls lEcfU/kr gksrk
gSA
LVSUMMZ vkWijs'ku (Standard Operations): ;s vkWijs'ku (operation), mi;ksxdrkZ (user) dks
data ds manipulation gsrq izkjfEHkd laHkkouk,a miyC/k djkrs gSaA record dks dze esa O;ofLFkr
(sorting) djuk] gVkuk (removing) vkSj p;u (selecting) djuk standard operations ds mnkgj.k
gSaA
izksxzkfeax VwYl (Programming Tools): Command & query ds vfrfjDr conventional
programming language esa function calls (subroutine calls) dh lgk;rk ls application programms
esa lh/ks rkSj ij database accessible gksuk pkfg;sA
Qkby LVDpj (File Structure) : izR;sd Mhch,e,l esa data dks lqO;ofLFkr djus gsrq LOk;a dk
internal structure gksrk gSA blds fy, dqN common data models lkekU; :i ls Mhch,e,l }kjk
iz;ksx fd;s tkrs gSaA
MkVk MsfQfu'ku ySXaost Data Definition Langague (DDL)) :
MhMh,y ,d ,slh Hkk"kk gS tks fd MkVkcsl ds vkCtsDV dk o.kZu djrh gSA blds }kjk QhYMuse]
MkVk Vkbi] MkVkcsl laxzfgr djus dk LFkku ,oa vuqcU/kksa ds o.kZu ds lkFk lkFk] MkVkcsl ds
vkWCtsDV~l tSls fd Vscy] O;w] bUMsDlst vkfn dks f;sV ,oa MkWi fd;k tkrk gSA
MkVk esfuiqys'ku ySXaost Data Manipulation Language (DML)):
ftl Hkk"kk ds }kjk data dks manipulate fd;k tk,A mls DML dgk tkrk gS] blds }kjk fuEu
dk;Z fd;s tkrs gSA
(ii)

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MkVkcsl esa laxzfgr lwpuk dk retrieval.


MkVkcsl esa u;h lwpukvksa dk insertion.
MkVkcsl esa ls lwpukvksa dks delete djuk
MkVkcsl esa laxzfgr lwpukvksa dks modify djukA
DML ,d ,slh Hkk"kk gS] ftls dke eas ysdj user }kjk data access o manipulate fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ;g nks rjhds dh gS%&
1. Procedural DML : mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk ;g nkkZuk vko;d gS] fdl rjg dk data ] o dSls
izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
2. Nonprocedural DML: mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk ;g nkkZuk vko;d gS] dSlk data pkfg, fcuk
crk;s fd ml data dks dSls izkIr djsaA
Non-procedural DMLs, Procedural DMLs dh rqyuk esa ;kn djus esa T;knk ljy gS]a
D;ksafd mi;ksxdrkZ dks specify ugha djuk iM+rk dSls MkVk izkIr fd;k tk,A bl language ls
,d ,slk code mRiUu gksrk gS tks mruk l{ke ugha gksrk gS tSlk fd procedural language }kjk
mRiUu gksrk gSA
fjys'kUl@VscYl (Relations / Tables):
Relational model esa data, relation izk:i esa laxfz gr fd;k tkrk gSA fjysku dk vkSipkfjd
uke Tables gSSA Table esa database bldh contents dks igpkuus (identify) ds fy, ,d unique
name j[krk gSA izR;sd table esa dkWye o iafDr;k (rows and columns) gksrh gSA
Vscy Table): Table ,d izkFkfed bdkbZ (primary unit) gS] tks fd data dk laxgz database esa djrh
gSA tc dksbZ Hkh user database dks access djrk gS] rc table dk reference okafNr data ikus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA Multiple tables esa MkVk gksus ij MkVk izkIr djus ds fy;s VscYl ds e/; fjyskufki
Hkh LFkkfir fd;k tk ldrk gSA table ds fy, database esa physical storage okNauh; gSA
ViYl (Tuples): izR;sd relation/ tables cgqr lkjs tuples ls cuh gksrh gSA bUgsa record Hkh dgk
tkrk gSA ;g iafDr;ka (rows) gksrh gS] ftuls table curh gSA
Domain: ;s ,d ,slh values dk lewg gS] ftlds }kjk ,d ;k T;knk column, attribute / field
viuh lgh values dks izkIr dj ldrs gaSA nwljs kCnksa esa ;g ,d QhYM (field) dk uke gSA
MkVkcs l Ldhek (Database Schema): Schema lk/kkj.k rkS j ij dbZ tq M + s gq , vkW C ts D V~ l
dk lew g gS ] tks database es a gks r k gS A Schema ds vUrxZ r tks Hkh vkW C ts D V tq M + k gq v k
gks r k gS ] mudh vkil es a relationship Hkh gks r h gS A Schema dk flQZ ,d gh owner gks r k
gS A
vkj-Mh-ch-,e-,l- ds mi;ksxdrkZ%& vkj-Mh-ch-,e-,l- ds mi;ksxdrkZvksa dks eq[;r% pkj Hkkxksa
esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gSA
1MkVkcsl fMtkbuj%& ;g MkVkcsl dh LVDpj dk fMtkbu djrk gS ,oa ;g lqfuf'pr djrk
gS fd fdl izdkj dk MkVk MkVkcsl esa laxfz gr fd;k tkuk gSA
2MkVkcsl ,MfefuLVsVj%& ;g Mhch, dgykrk gS rFkk ;g MkVkcsl ds leLr dk;ksZa dks ekWuhVj

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34-

djrk gS ,oa ;g lqfuf'pr djrk gS fd ;g vPNh rjg dk;Z djsaA


,Iyhds'ku Moyij%& buds }kjk lkekU;r% izksxzke fy[ks tkrs gaS tks fd MkVkcsl dks ,Dlsl
djus ds fy, dke esa vkrs gSaA
vfUre mi;ksxdrkZ (End User)%& buds }kjk MkVk ,UVh ,oa eSuhiqy's ku dk dk;Z fd;k tkrk gSAa

1-7 MkVk Vkbi (Data Types):


Data type ds ek/;e ls ;g fufpr fd;k tkrk gS fd database ds dkWYkEl esa fdl rjg
dk MkVk j[kk tkuk gSSA gkykafd dbZ rjg ds data type miyC/k gSa] ysfdu T;knkrj dke esa fy, tkus

okys 3 eq[; gSa] tks fd fuEu gSa&


vYQk U;wefs jd (Alphanumeric)
U;wefs jd (Numeric)
MsV ,.M VkbZe (Date and time)
Alphanumeric data dk bLrseky character, number, special character vkfn dk laxzg
djus ds fy, gksrk gSA alphanumeric type esa vxj numeric value dk laxgz gksrk gS rc ml value
dks character dh rjg ekuk tkrk gS] u fd uEcj dh rjgA Numeric data types esa flQZ numeric
values dk gh laxzg fd;k tkrk gSA
Date and time, data types dk bLrseky date and time values dk laxzg djus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gS tks fd lkekU;r;k vyx vyx vkjMhch,e,l ds fy;s cnyrh gSA
izkbZejh dh] Qksjsu dh] dSUMhMsV dh
mnkgj.k%& uhps rhu Vscy n'kkZ;h x;h gS ftuds }kjk izkbejh dh] Qksjsu dh ,oa dSUMhMsV dh dks
le>k;k x;k gSA
REGISTRATION DETAIL
REGISTRATION_NO STUDENT_NAME
101
ALPHA
102
BETA
103
GAMA
104
ARUN
105
VARUN

BOOK DETAILREGISTER
BOOKNO
BOOKNAME
1
SQL
2
DBMS
3
MSACCESS
4
DBMS
5
VB

CLASS
X
II
III
IV
V

AUTHOR
KORTH
STERLING

DOB
10/10/1965
07/01/1995
01/01/1993
01/10/1990
05/08/1990

COST
500
485
400
300
200

PLACE
JAIPUR
DELHI
JAIPUR
JAIPUR
DELHI

EDITION
II
I
I
II
III

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BOOK ISSUE REGISTER
REGISTRATION_NO
BOOKNO
101
1
102
3
103
5
104
5

ISSUEDATE
01/01/2006
31/12/2005
25/12/2005
02/01/2006

DEPOSITDATE

01/01/2006

izkbZejh dh& izkbZejh dh] izR;sd fjdksMZ esa ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd QhYM dk lewg gksrk gS tks fd izR;sd fjdksMZ
dks vyx ls iznfkZr djrk gS rFkk mudh osY;w ls MkVk dk fjVhoy o viMsfVax 'kh?kzz laHko gks tkrk gSA ;g
MkVk ds eku dh ,d ls vf/kd izfof"V dks jksdrh gSA izkbZejh dh dk eku uy ugha gksuh pkfg,A mijksDr
of.kZr mnkgj.k esa Registration table esa REGISTRATION_NO izkbejh dh gS tks fd vf)rh; gSA
BOOK DETAIL REGISTER esa BOOKNO izkbejh dh gS tks fd vf)rh; gSA
Qksjsu dh& Qksjsu dh] fdUgha nks VscYl esa laca/k LFkkfir djus ds fy, gksrh gSA nksukas gh VscYl esa de ls
de ,d QhYM dkWeu gksuk vko;d gksrk gSA lkekU;r% ,d Vscy esa ;g izkbZejh dh dgykrh gS ,oa nwljh
Vscy esa ;g Qksjsu dh dgykrh gSA Qksjsu dh] dh ds eku ckj ckj (Repeat) gks ldrs gSA Qksju dh dk
mi;ksx lkekU;r% lanfHkZr Vscy ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ;g MkVk Mksesu bUVsfxzVh lqfuf'pr djrh gSA
mijksDr of.kZr mnkgj.k esa BOOK DETAIL REGISTER esa REGISTRATION_NO Qksjsu dh
gS tks fd jftLVs'ku Vscy esa izkbejh dh gSA

dSUMhMsV dh (Candidate Keys) : candidate key ,d minimal super key gSA Minimal dk
eryc ;g gksrk gS fd ;fn iwjs set esa fdlh ,d attribute gVk;k tk, rks fQj ;s super key ugha
jgrhA ;fn ,d attribute dks tksMsa+ rks ;g Minimal ugha jgrh gSA ij fQj Hkh ;g super key gSA
CandidatekCn dk eryc lk/kkj.k rkSj ij ;g gS fd attributes ds set dks primary key dh rjg
bLrseky dj ldrs gSa] D;ksafd gesa vko;drk ls T;knk attribute dh t:jr ugha gksrhA fdlh Hkh
fjys'ku esa ,d ls vf/kd dSUMhMsV dh gks ldrh gSA

1.8 MkVk bUVsfxzVh (Data Integrity):


ifjp;%& system integrity dk vFkZ gS fd database esa MkVk lgh ,dkRed o lqlaxr gksuk pkfg,A
fofHkUu rjhds dh integrity fuEu fyf[kr gS&
- ,fUVjh bUVsfxzVh (Entity Integrity)
- jSQ~jsfUl;y bUVsfxzVh (Referential Integrity)
- Mkseu
S bUVsfxzVh (Domain Integrity)
- mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk ifjHkkf"kr bUVsfxzVh (User Defined Integrity)
mnkgj.k
P#
P1
P2
P3
P4

Pname
nut
bolt
screw
screw

PARTS RELATION
P-colour
P-wt
Red
12
Green
17
Blue
17
Red
14

P-city
London
Paris
Rome
London

AglaSem School

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S#
S1
S1
S1
S2
S2

SHIPMENTS RELATION
Part#
qty
P1
300
P2
200
P3
400
P1
300
P2
400

S3

P3

200

;gka ikVZl fjysku esa P# vkSj pname, candidate key gS]a P# vkSj S# primary key ds mnkgj.k
ikVZl ,oa f'kieSUV fjys'ku esa gS] P#, Shipment relation esa foreign key dk mnkgj.k gSA

,fUVVh bUVsfxzVh (Entity Integrity): Entity Ingerity fu;e] Referential Integrity fu;e
ds lkFk feydj] Relational Model ij ykxw gksrs gaSA
Entity Integrity Rule dgrk gS fd dksbZ Hkh attribute tks fd primary key dk Hkkx gS] mlesa
null values ugha vk ldrh] D;ksfa d uy oSY;w dh igpku ugha dj ldrs blds ihNs eq[; dkj.k ;g
gS fd mldh lwpukvksa dks Hkh ge recrod ugha dj ldrs gSaA bl okLrfod nqfu;k esa Entity dh fdlh
Hkh ek/;e ls igpku gks ldrh gSA Relational Model esa Primary Key ds }kjk gh igpkuus dk dk;Z
fd;k tkrk gSA vxj fdlh Hkh part relation ds part number esa null values dks Lohd`fr nh tkrh
gS] rks ;g dgk tk;sxk fd ;k rks ml Hkkx dh igpku ugha gS] ;k [kks jgh gS] ysfdu ifjHkk"kk ds rkSj
ij fdlh Hkh Entity dh dksbZ u dksbZ igpku t:j gksuh pkfg;sA
(i)

CREATE TABLE Customer


(Customer_No
number (10)
Name
varchar2(20),
Address
varchar2(20),
Depot_no
number (10),
Credit_limit

NOT NULL,

number (10) );

jSQ~jsfUl;y bUVsfxzVh (Referential Integrity):


Referential Integrity ds fu;e gSa
Database esa unmatched foreign key values ugha gksuh pkfg;sA
nwljs rjhds ls ,d foreign key F1, base relation R1 esa tks fd match djuh pkfg, gS
primary key P2 ds base relation , R2 esa nksuksa esa ls ;k rks
a)
R2 ds one tuple ds fy, P2 dh Value ds cjkcj gksuh pkfg,A
b)
iw.kZ :i ls fujFkZd (Null) i.e. vxj F1, one attribute ls T;knk dk cuk gqvk gS rks os lHkh
fujFkZd values gSA
vxj ij nh x;h parts ,oa shipments dh table ns[ksaxs rks part P2 tks fd part table esa gS
mldks fMyhV djuk vlaHko gS ;fn P2 dks shipment table esa NksM fn;k tkos rksA
(ii)

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(iii) Mksesu bfUVxzsVh (Domain Integrity):
Domain integrity esa vko;d gS fd MkVk dk eku dkye esa fn;s x;s {ks= ds vUnj gh gksuk pkfg;sA
mnkgj.k% Domain integrity ds }kjk ;g r; fd;k tkrk gS fd age {ks= esa tks entry gS og
integer gS ,oa 0,oa 100 values ds e/; dh gSA
Data types broad categories esa {ks= dks lhfer dj nsrh gSA e.g. integers
Default ,d ,slh value dh ifjHkk"kk gS ftls column esa Lor~ gh Hkjk tk ldrk gS] Rule ,sls
viuk, tkus okyh values dh ifjHkk"kk gS] ftUgsa Hkh column esa Mkyk ldrk gSA
Rules ,oa defaults Hkh constraints dh Hkkafr gh gS] ysfdu ANSI Lrj ds ugha gS] buds fujUrj

iz;ksx dks c<+kok ughas fn;k tkrk gSA


(iv) mi;ks x drkZ }kjk ifjHkkf"kr bUVs f xz V h (User Defined Integrity):bl iz d kj dh

bUVsfxzVh mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk dsoy fVxj] :Yl ;k izksfltj tks fd izksxzke gksrs gSa ,oa MkVkcsl esa
laxzfgr fd;s tkrs gaS budks ykxw djds ;g bUVsfxzVh lqfuf'pr dh tkrh gSA
General Organization of Mhch,e,l
end
user

application
programmer

advanced
user

database
administrator

data

application
program

query

database
schema

query
processor

data
manipulation
language
processor

application
program
compiled

application
program
compiled

database
manager

data
definition
language
processor

DBMS
file
manager

data
file

data
file

data
file

fp= 1

data
dictionary

AglaSem School

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egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
Mhch,e,l ,d ,slk flLVe gS] tks iz;ksxdrkZ (user) dks MkVk access djus ,oa MkVk dks
lwpuk esa cnyus esa lgk;rk iznku djrk gSA ;g flLVe mi;ksxdrkZvksa dks& MkVk cukus] viMsV djus
,oa lwpuk izkIr djus dh lgefr iznku djrk gSA Mhch,e,l leLr lEcfU/kr fjdkWM~l
Z dk lewg ,oa
izksxkz e gS] ftlds }kjk fjdkWMZ access fd, tkrs gSAa Mhch,e,l dEI;wVj ij vk/kkfjr fjdkWMZ O;oLFkk
iwjh rjg ls fjdkWMZ dks maintain laHkkyus ,oa access djus ds fy;s gSA
Mhch,e,l dk izkFkfed y{; ,slk okrkoj.k iznku djuk gS] tks fd lqfo/kktud ,oa MkVkcsl
lwpuk dks laxzg djus ,oa Retrieve djus ds ;ksX; gksA
MkVkcsl ds ykHk&
1- ,d tSls fjdkWMZ dks de djukA
2- MkVk dh ,dkRedrk ,oa xq.kokk dks cuk;s j[kukA
3- MkVk dh vlaxfr (Inconsistency) dks gVkukA
4- MkVk dks lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy;s vko';d izfrcU/k yxkukA
5- lkWVos;j MoyiesUV dk [kpZ de djukA
MkVk ds view Internal / Physical Level View
Conceptual / Logical Level View
External / View Level
Data Model

Object-Based Logical Model


Record Based Logical Model
Physical Data Model
vkjMhch,e,l dk ifjp;
ifjp;% vkjMhch,e,l esa MkVk VscYkksa esa laxzfgr gksrk gS tks fd iafDr ,oa
dkWye dh cuh gqbZ gksrh gSaA iafDr dks Viy }kjk ,oa dkWye dks ,VhC;wV }kjk bafxr fd;k tkrk gSA
MkseSu(Domain)] dkWye esa laxzfgr gksus okys eku dk okLrfod eku gS tks fd fdlh dkWye esa ntZ
gksrk gSA
Data Definition Langague (DDL) : MhMh,y ,d ,slh Hkk"kk gS tks fd MkVkcsl esa lkjka'k dk
o.kZu djrh gSA blds }kjk QhYMuse] MkVk Vkbi] MkVkcsl laxfz gr djus dk LFkku ,oa vuqcU/kksa ds
o.kZu ds lkFk lkFk] MkVkcsl ds vkWCtsDV~l tSls fd Vscy] O;w] bUMsDlst vkfn dks f;sV ,oa MkWi fd;k
tkrk gSA
Data Manipulation Language (DML): ftl Hkk"kk ds }kjk data dks manipulate fd;k tk,A
mls DML dgk tkrk gS] blds }kjk fuEu dk;Z fd;s tkrs gS &
MkVkcsl esa laxzfgr lwpuk dk retrieval.

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/104

MkVkcsl esa u;h lwpukvksa dk insertion.


MkVkcsl esa ls lwpukvksa dks delete djuk
MkVkcsl esa laxzfgr lwpukvksa dks modify djukA

esa data, relation izk:i esa laxzfgr


fd;k tkrk gSA fjysku dk vkSipkfjd uke Tables gSSA Table esa database bldh contents dks
igpkuus (identify) ds fy, ,d unique name j[krk gSA izR;sd table esa dkWye o iafDr;k (rows
and columns) gksrh gSA
Vscy Table): Table ,d izkFkfed bdkbZ (primary unit) gS] tks fd data dk laxgz database esa djrh
gSA tc dksbZ Hkh user database dks access djrk gS] rc table dk reference okafNr data ikus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA Multiple tables esa MkVk gksus ij MkVk izkIr djus ds fy;s VscYl ds e/; fjyskufki
Hkh LFkkfir fd;k tk ldrk gSA table ds fy, database esa physical storage okNauh; gSA
ViYl (Tuples): izR;sd relation/ tables cgqr lkjs tuples ls cuh gksrh gSA bUgsa record Hkh dgk
tkrk gSA ;g iafDr;ka (rows) gksrh gS] ftuls table curh gSA
Domain: ;s ,d ,slh values dk lewg gS] ftlds }kjk ,d ;k T;knk column, attribute / field
viuh lgh values dks izkIr dj ldrs gSA nwljs kCnksa esa ;g ,d QhYM (field) dk uke gSA
MkVkcs l Ldhek (Database Schema): Schema lk/kkj.k rkS j ij dbZ tq M + s gq , vkW C ts D V~ l
dk lew g gS ] tks database es a gks r k gS A Schema ds vUrxZ r tks Hkh vkW C ts D V tq M + k gq v k
gks r k gS ] mudh vkil es a relationship Hkh gks r h gS A Schema dk flQZ ,d gh owner gks r k
gS A
vkj-Mh-ch-,e-,l- ds mi;ksxdrkZ%& vkj-Mh-ch-,e-,l- ds mi;ksxdrkZvksa dks eq[;r% pkj Hkkxksa
esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gSA
1MkVkcsl fMtkbuj%
2MkVkcsl ,MfefuLVsVj%
3,Iyhds'ku Moyij%
4,.M ;wtj%
Data Types: Data type ds ek/;e ls ;g fufpr fd;k tkrk gS fd database ds dkye esa fdl
rjg dk MkVk j[kk tkuk gSSA ftls database column esa laxgz fd;k tkrk gSA gkykafd dbZ rjg ds
data type miyC/k gSa] ysfdu T;knkrj dke esa fy, tkus okys 3 eq[; gSa] tks fd fuEu gSa&
Alphanumeric
Numeric
Date and time
fjys'kUl@VscYl (Relations / Tables): Relational model

izkbZejh dh& izkbZejh dh] izR;sd fjdksMZ esa ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd QhYM dk lewg gksrk gS tks fd izR;sd fjdksMZ
dks vyx ls iznZfkr djrk gS rFkk mudh osY;w ls MkVk dk fjVhoy o viMsfVax 'kh?kzz laHko gks tkrk gSA ;g
MkVk ds eku dh ,d ls vf/kd izfof"V dks jksdrh gSA izkbZejh dh dk eku uy ugha gksuh pkfg,A

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/105
Qksjsu dh& Qksjsu dh] fdUgha nks VscYl esa laca/k LFkkfir djus ds fy, nksukas gh VscYl esa de ls de ,d
QhYM dkWeu gksuk vko;d gksrk gSA lkekU;r% ,d Vscy esa ;g izkbZejh dh dgykrh gS ,oa nwljh Vscy esa
;g Qksjsu dh dgykrh gSA Qksjsu dh] dk eku ckj ckj (Repeat) gks ldrk gSA Qksju dh dk mi;ksx
lkekU;r% lanfHkZr Vscy ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS vkSj ;g MkVk Mksesu bUVsfxzVh lqfuf'pr djrh gSA

dSUMhMsV dh (Candidate Keys) : candidate key ,d minimal super key gSA Minimal dk
eryc gksrk gS] ;fn iwjs set esa ,d attribute gVk;k tk, rks fQj ;s super key ugha jgrhA ;fn ,d
attribute dks tksMas+ rks ;g Minimal ugha jgrh gSA ij fQj Hkh ;g super key gSA CandidatekCn
dk eryc lk/kkj.k rkSj ij ;g gS fd attributes ds set dks primary key dh rjg bLrseky dj ldrs
gS]a D;ksfa d gesa vko;drk ls T;knk attribute dh t:jr ugha gksrhA fdlh Hkh fjys'ku esa ,d ls vf/kd
dSUMhMsV dh gks ldrh gSA
DATA INTEGRITY: system integrity dk vFkZ gS fd database esa MkVk dk lgh o lqlaxr gksukA
fofHkUu rjhds dh integrity fuEu izdkj gS&
-

Entity Integrity
Referential Integrity
Domain Integrity
User defined Integrity

vH;klkFkZ izu
oLrqfu"B izu
1
fjyskuy ekWMy fdl MkVk ekWMy ds vUrxZr vkrk gS\
(av) vkWCtsDV csLM ykWftdy ekWMy ds vUrxZr
(ac) fjdksMZ csLM ykWftdy ekWMy ds vUrxZr
(al) nksuksa esa
(an) mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
2- MkVkcsl Ldhek ds fdrus Owner gksrs gaS&
(av) ,d
(ac) nks
(al) rhu
(an) pkj a
vfr
123-

y?kqkjkRed izu
MkVk ds O;w fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSa\
fjdksMZ csl ykWftdy ekWMy D;k gksrk gS\
bUVjuy@fQftdy ysoy MkVk dk o.kZu djsaA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/106

4- fjysku D;k gksrk gS\


5- Viy D;k gksrk gS\
y?kq kjkRed iz u
1- Mh-Mh-,y- dh O;k[;k dhft,A
2- Mh-,e-,y- dh O;k[;k dhft,A
3- MkVkcsl ds D;k&D;k ykHk gSa\
4- ,VhO;wV~l fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSa\
5- Mh-ch-,e-,l- ds D;k&D;k ykHk gS\
6- Mh-ch-,e-,l- dk o.kZu dhft,A
fucU/kkRed iz u
1- MkVkcsl ds fofHkUu ;wtjksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
2- MkVkcsl ds O;w dk o.kZu dhft,A
mkjekyk
1. (c)

2. (v)

AglaSem School

2
ekbZ,lD;w,y dk ifjp;
INTRODUCTION TO MySQL
2-1 ,lD;w,y dk ifjp;%
,l-D;w-,y- ,d ukWu izkslhtjy Hkk"kk gSA ;g MkVkcsl ij dfBu DoSjh nsus dh lqfo/kk iznku
djrh gSA SQL esa mi;ksxdrkZ ;wtj dksa crkuk gksrk gS fd D;k MkVk pkfg,] fcuk ;g crk;s fd
MkVk dSls izkIr fd;k tk;sA ,l-D;w-,y- dk iwjk uke LVDpMZ DoSsjh ySsaXost gS vkSj ;g MkVkcsl ls
dE;wfudsV djus ds mi;ksx esa yk;h tkrh gSA ;g vesfjdu uskuy LVSs.MMZ baLVhV~;Vw ANSI) ekud
dEI;wVj Hkk"kk gS tks fd fjyskuy MkVkcsl esut
s esVa flLVe ds fy;s MkVk ,Dlsl ,oe~ MkVk ds cnyko
ds mi;ksx esa yk;h tkrh gSA ,l-D;w-,y- LVsVesUV~l dk mi;ksx MkVkcsl esa MkVk ds viMsV ;k ns[kus
fjVho ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;g fjyskuy MkVkcsl esSustesaV flLVe ds lkFk dke djrh gSA
fjyskuy MkVkcsl esustesaV flLVe esa MkVk VscYl esa ,df=r LVksj fd;k tkrk gSA MkVkcsl VscYl
dk ,d laxgz .k gSA Vscy esa fjdkWMZ gksrs gS ,oe~ fjdkWMZ esa QhYM gksrs gSaA Vscy ds izR;sd fjdkWMZ dk
LVDpj leku gksrk gSA
,l-D;w-,y- MkVkcsl ds fofHkUu izksxzkeksa tSls ,e-,l- ,Dlsl] bUxzsl] Mh-ch-2] buQksfeZDl] ,e,l-,l-D;w-,y- loZj] vkWjsdy] lkbZcsl ,ao ekbZ,lD;w,y vkfn ds lkFk iz;ksx dh tkrh gSaA ekud
,l-D;w-,y- dek.M tSls fd lysDV] viMsV] fMyhV] f;sV ,oe~ MkiW vkfn dk iz;ksx lkekU;r%
MkVkcsl dh lHkh vko;drkvksa dh iwfrZ ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
,l-D;w-,y- dks lkekU;r% rhu mi Hkk"kkvksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA MkVk MsfQusku ySXaost
DDL) esa lkekU;r% f;sV ,oe~ MkWi dek.M gksrs gSa tks fd MkVkcsl ,oe~ MkVkcsl ds vkWCtsDV
VscYl] O;w] bUMsDl vkfn cukus ds dke vkrs gSAa ,d ckj MkVk LVDpj r; gksus ds ipkr~ ;wtj MkVk
esSuhiqysku ySsaXost DML) dk mi;ksx djrk gS ftlesa fd lkekU;r% bUlVZ] fjVho ,oe~ eksMhQkbZ
dek.M gksrs gSa tks fd MkVk dks ekWMhQkbzZ djus ds mi;ksx esa fy;s tkrs gSaA MkVk dUVksy ysaSXost dk
mi;ksx MkVkcsl ds j[k&j[kko ds fy;s gksrk gS ftlesa fd xzkUV ,oe~ fjoksd dh Lohd`fr MkVkcsl
vkWCtsDV~l ds fy;s nh tkrh gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/108

2-2 ekb
ekbZ,lD;w
,lD;w,yMySQL dk ifjp;%
ekbZ,lD;w,y ,d fjyskuy MkVkcsl esSustesaV flLVe vkjMhch,e,l gSA bldks eqDr L=ksr
vuqKki= Open Source license ds rgr tkjh fd;k x;k gSA blesa ekud Lrj dh ,lD;w,y
LVDpMZ DoSjh ySaXost dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks fd MkVkcsl esa MsVk Mkyus ds fy,] ns[kus ds
fy, ,ao izfd;k ds fy, mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA ekbZ,lD;w,y cgqr gh rst] lqjf{kr] fooluh; ,ao
yphyh Mhch,e,l gSA ftldk mi;ksx O;olkb;ksa ,ao vU; izfr"Bkuksa }kjk fd;k tk jgk gSA ;g ,d
cgqr gh izfl) eqDr L=ksr vuqKki= ds rgr tkjh dh xbZ MsVkcsl gS D;kasfd ;g eqr esa fcuk dksbZ
ewY; fn;s miyC/k gSA ,ao ;g fHkUu fHkUUk vkWijsfVax flLVe ij dk;Z djrh gSA ekbZ,lD;w,y dk
mi;ksx fHkUu fHkUu izdkj ds dk;ksZ ,IyhdskUl esa fy;k tkrk gS ysfdu bldk eq[;r% mi;ksx osc
,IyhdskUl ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

2-3 ekbZ,lD;w,y MySQL dh foks"krk,sa%

;g eqDr L=ksr vuqKki= Open Source license ds rgr tkjh dh xbZ MsVkcsl gS ,oa
;g eqr esa fcuk dksbZ ewY; fn;s bu gkml mi;ksx ds fy, miyC/k gSA

;g cgqr gh rst] lqjf{kr] fooluh; ,ao yphyh gSA


;g cgqr cMs MsVk ij cgqr rst dk;Z djrh gsSA

;g bUMsDl ,ao ckbZujh vkWCtsDVl dks leFkZu nsrh gSA


ekbZ,lD;w,y ds }kjk ,lD;w,y MkVk ySXosat dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

ekbZ,lD;w,y dk lkslZ dksM Source Code miyC/k gksrk gS vkSj bldks iqu% dEikby
recompile fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;g C ,ao C++ Hkk"kk esa fy[kh x;h gSA
;g fHkUu fHkUu vkWijsfVax flLVel OS dks liksVZ support djrh gSA
;g dbZ Hkk"kkvksa tSls PHP, C, C++,JAVA,PERL etc.dks liksVZ support djrh
gSA

2-4 MkVk MsfQusku ySaXost Mh-Mh-,y %


MkVk MsfQusku ySXsa ost dk mi;ksx MkVkcsl ,oe~ MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l tSls fd VscYl] O;w
,oe~ b.MsDl vkfn dks f;sV ,oe~ MkWi djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;g ,lD;w,y dk Hkkx gS tks
MsVkcsl cukus ,oa gVkus ds fy, vuqefr iznku djrk gSaA blesa bUMsDlst dks ifjHkkf"kr dj ldrs gS]a
VscYl ds e/; fyad dks LislhQkbZ dj ldrs gSa ,oe~ MkVkcsl VscYl ij izfrcU/k yxk ldrs gSaA
MkVk MsfQusku ySaXost ds ize[q k dk;Z fuEu gS%&
1- ubZ Vscy@ MkVkcsl cukuk
2- Vscy@MkVkcsl esa ifjorZu dj++uk
3- Vscy@MkVkcsl dks MkWi djuk
4- bUMsDl cukuk
5- bUMsDl dks MkWi djuk

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/109

2-5 ekbZ,lD;w,y }kjk lefFkZr MhMh,y dFku %


MkVkcs l cukuk
MkVkcsl cukus dk dek.M fuEukuqlkj gS&
Create Database [IF NOT EXISTS] <db_name>;
mijksDr dek.M ds }kjk ij fn;s x;s uke dh MkVkcsl cukbZ tk ldrh gSA ;fn ij fn;s
x;s uke ds MkVkcsl iwoZ esa gh cuh gqbZ gS rks bl dek.M }kjk ubZ MkVkcsl blh uke ls ugha
cusxhA ;fn [IF NOT EXISTS] vkWIku dk mi;ksx ugha fd;k x;k gS ,oa mijkSDr uke dh
MkVkcsl iwoZ esa gh miyC/k gS ,slh fLFkfr esa ;g =qfV lansk nsxk ,oa MkVkcsl ugha cuk;sxkA

ubZ MkVkcsl cukuk%


school uke ls ubZ MkVkcsl cukuk&
create DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS school;
mijksDr dek.M ds }kjk school uke ls ubZ MkVkcsl cukbZ xbZ gSA vc ;fn flLVe ij
miyC/k MkVkcsl ns[kuk pkgrs gS rks fuEu dek.M dk mi;ksx fd;k tk,xkA
show databases;
mijksDr dek.M nsus ij ;g Ldwy MkVkcsl ds lkFk&lkFk vU; miyC/k MkVkcsl ds ukeksa dh lwph
miyC/k djk;sxkA
ubZ Vscy cukus ls iwoZ ;g Bhd jgsxk fd MkVk ds izdkj dh tkudkjh dh tk;saA

2-6 MkVk ds izdkj&


Vscy cukrs le; QhYM Vkbi ,ao QhYM lkbt dh tkudkjh gksuk cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ gSA
ekbZ,lD;w,y esa fHkUu&fHkUu izdkj ds MkVk Vkbi dk mi;ksx fd; tkrk gSA ;g eq[;r% rhu
Jsf.k;ksa esa foHkkftr fd;s tk ldrs gSA
1 String data types

2 Numeric data types

3 Date & Time data types

2.6.1 String Types:


CHAR(M) ;g ,d fufpr yEckbzZ dh fLVax ds fy, mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;g 1 ls 255
djsDVj rd laxzg.k LVksj dj ldrk gSA M fLaVx dh yEckbZ crkrk gSA ,oa fMQkYV yEckbZ 1 gSA
VARCHAR(M) ;g Hkh fLaVx MkVk Vkbi ds fy, mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS ,oa ;g ifjorZuh;
yEckbZ 1 ls 255 djsDVj dk laxgz .k dj ldrk gSA VARCHAR ] CHAR dh vf/kd yphyh
Form gSA M fLaVx dh yEckbZ crkrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/110

BLOB or TEXT ;g Hkh fLVax MkVk Vkbi gSA BLOB(Binary Large Objects) BLOB
dk mi;ksx cgqr vf/kd ckbZujh MkVk tSls fd bZet
s ;k vU; rjhds dh Qkby dk laxzg.k djus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;g vf/kdre 65535 djsDVj rd laxfz gr dj ldrk gSA
LONGBLOB or LONGTEXT - ;g Hkh fLaVx
MkVk Vkbi gS rFkk ;g vf/kdre 4294967295
djsDVj rd laxfz gr dj ldrk gSA
MEDIUMBLOB or MEDIUMTEXT - ;g Hkh fLaVx MkVk Vkbi gS rFkk ;g vf/kdre
16777215 djsDVj rd laxfz gr dj ldrk gSA
TINYBLOB or TINYTEXT - ;g Hkh fLaVx MkVk Vkbi gS rFkk ;g vf/kdre 255 djsDVj
rd laxfz gr dj ldrk gSA
ENUM ;g Hkh fLaVx MkVk Vkbi gSA ;g ,d vkbZVel dh lwph cukrk gSA ftlesa ls fdlh ,d
dks vki ds }kjk p;u fd;k tkrk gSA ;g uy Hkh gks ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij ;fn vki fdlh
QhYM esa E ;k F ;k G esa ls pkgrs gSA rks ENUM (E,F,G) QhYM cuk;saA ;g ;k rks E ;k
F ;k G esa ls p;u djsxk ;k uy eku ysxkA
SET -;g Hkh fLaVx MkVk Vkbi gSA ;g fufnZ"V lwph esa ls ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd eku dks p;u djus
dh lqfo/kk nsrk gSA tSls fd transport SET (jeep, scooter) NOT NULL ; mijksDr
transport QhYM esa jeep scooter jeep,scooter eku vk ldrk gSA vf/kdre 64 eku
fufnZ"V fd;s tk ldrs gSA fdlh QhYM esa lsV MsVkVkbZi ls miyC/k lwph ls ,d ls vf/kd eku Hkh
laxfz gr fd;k tk ldrk gSA tcfd ENUM DATA TYPE }kjk dsoy ,d gh eku laxfz gr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA

1.6.2 Numeric Data Types:


INT ,d iw.kkZad eku tks fd fpfUgr vFkok fcuk fpUg dk gks ldrk gSA fpfUgr dh lhek,sa
&2147483648 ls 2147483647 rd gksrh gSA ;fn fcuk fpUg ds gS rks lhek,as 0 ls 4294967295
rd gksxhA
BIGINT - ,d cMk iw.kkZad eku tks fd fpfUgr vFkok fpUg fcuk gks ldrk gSA fpfUgr dh lhek,sa
9223372036854775808 lsa 9223372036854775807 rd gksrh gSA ;fn fcuk fpUg ds
gS rks lhek,as 0 ls 18446744073709551615 rd gksxhA bldk vkdkj 8 ckbZV dk gksrk gSaA
MEDIUMINT - ,d e/;e vkdkj dk iw.kkZd
a tks fd fpfUgr vFkok fcuk fpUg ds gks ldrk gSA
;fn fpfUgr gS rks lhek,sa &8388608 ls 8388607 rd gksrh gSA ;fn fpUg fcuk gS rks lhek,as 0
ls 16777215 rd gksrh gSA bldk vkdkj 3 ckbZV dk gksrk gSA

AglaSem School

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/111

SMALLINT - NksVs vkdkj dk iw.kkZad fpUg vFkok fcuk fpUg gks ldrk gSA ;fn fpfUgr gS rks
lhek,as -32768 ls 32767 rd gksrh gSA ;fn fpUg fcuk gS rks lhek,sa 0 ls 65535 rd gksrh
gSA bldk vkdkj 2 ckbZV dk gksrk gSA
TINYINT - vfr NksVs vkdkj dk iw.kkZad fpUg vFkok fcuk fpUg gks ldrk gSA ;fn fpfUgr gS rks
lhek,sa -128 ls 127 rd gksrh gSA ;fn fpUg fcuk gS rks lhek,as 0 ls 255 rd gksrh gSA bldk
vkdkj 1 ckbZV dk gksrk gSA
FLOAT(M,D) - yksfVax IokabV la[;k fcuk fpUg ds ugha gks ldrhA ;gka (M) la[;k dh yEckbZ
rFkk (D) nkeyo ds ckn ds vadks dh la[;k gSA ;fn ifjHkkf"kr ugha fd;k x;k gS rks ;g Lor% 10]2
gksrh gS] tgka nks nkeyo ds ckn ds vadks dh la[;k gSa rFkk 10 la[;k ds dqy vad gS nkeyo lfgr
bldk vkdkj 4 ckbZV gksrk gSA
DOUBLE(M,D) - Mcy izflku yksfVax IokabV la[;k Hkh fcuk fpUg ds ugha gks ldrh gSA ;gka
(M) la[;k dh yEckbZ rFkk (D) nkeyo ds ckn ds vadks dh la[;k gSA ;fn ifjHkkf"kr ugha fd;k
x;k gS rks ;g Lor% 16]4 gksrh gS] tgka 4 nkeyo ds ckn ds vadks dh la[;k gSaA 16 la[;k ds dqy
vad gS nkeyo lfgr bldk vkdkj 8 ckbZV gksrk gSA
DECIMAL(M,D) vuiSDM yksfVax IokbaV la[;k Hkh fcuk fpUg ds ugha gks ldrh gSA izR;sd
Mslhey ,d ckbV dks iznfkZr djrk gSA bldk vkdkj 8 ckbZV gksrk gSA M rFkk D dk eku
iznfkZr djuk vko;d gSA DECIMAL dk lekukFkZd NUMERIC gSA

2.6.3 Date and Time data types :


DATE - DATE dk QksjesV YYYY-MM-DD gS rFkk bldh lhek,sa 1000-01-01 ls 999912-31 rd gSA bldk vkdkj 3 ckbV dk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ November 28th, 1986 QhYM esa
1986-11-28 ds :i esa laxfz gr gksxkA
DATETIME - blesa fnukad rFkk le; dk la;kstu YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS QksjesV
esa gksrk gSA ftldh lhek,sa 1000-01-01 00:00:00 ls 9999-12-31 23:59:59 rd gksrh gSA
bldk vkdkj 8 ckbV dk gksrk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ 30 vDVwcj] 1986 ds nksigj ckn ds le; 5%45 dks
1986-10-30 17:45:00 ds :i esa laxfz gr gksxkA
TIMESTAMP - bldk QksjesV iwoZ DATETIME dh rjg gh gksrk gS ijUrq & hyphen dk
mi;ksx ugha gksrkA mnkgj.kkFkZ 30 fnlEcj 1986 ds nksigj ckn ds 3:30 cts dks 19861230153000
( YYYYMMDDHHMMSS ) :i esa laxfz gr gksxkA bldk vkdkj 4 ckbV gSA

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TIME - ;g le; dks HH:MM:SS QksjesV esa laxfz gr djrk gSA bldk vkdkj 3 ckbV gSA
YEAR(M) - ;g o"kZ dks 2 vad ;k 4 vad ds QksjesV esa laxzfgr djrk gSA ;fn nks vad esa iznfkZr
fd;k tkrk gS rks YEAR 1980 ls 2079 ds fy, 80 ls 79 gksxkA ;fn 4 vadks esa iznfkZr fd;k
tkrk gS rks 1980 ls 2079 gksxkA Lor%default gh bldk vkdkj 4 vadks esa rFkk bldk eSeksjh oMZ
lkbt 1 ckbV dk gksrk gSA

2-7 izfrcU/k (Constraints):


Constraint specifications }kjk fdlh Hkh Vscy esa vfrfjDr 'krsZ@izfrcU/k@pSd yxk;s
tk ldrs gS vkSj budks Mh-ch-,e-,l- Lor% gh ykxw djrk gSA
fdlh Vscy ij fuEu izfrcU/k (constraints) yxk;s tk ldrs gaS &
izkbZejh dh (Primary key) izfrcU/k& izkbZejh dh] Vscy ds ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd QhYM dk
lewg gksrk gS tks fd izR;sd fjdkWMZ dks Vscy esa vyx ls iznZfkr djrk gS rFkk mudh osY;w ls
MkVk dk fjVhoy o viMsfVax 'kh?kz laHko gks tkrk gSA izkbZejh dh ,d vf}rh; eku gksrk gS
ftlds }kjk Vscy ds izR;sd fjdkWMZ dks izFkd ls Kkr fd;k tkrk gSA bl izfrcU/k ls ;g
lqfufpr fd;k tkrk gS fd izR;sd fjdkWMZ esa izkbZejh dh dk eku vyx&vyx gSA ;fn izkbZejh
dh dk eku ,d leku fn;k tkrk gS rks Vscy esa MkVk Lohdkj ugha fd;k tk;sxkA blesa uy
oSY;w dks ntZ ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA
mnkgj.k % Alter table titles
ADD Constraint pk_titleid PRIMARY KEY (title_id);
bleas pk_titleid izfrcU/k izkbZejh dh title_id dkWye ij title Vscy esa yxk;k x;k gSA
rcU/k ;wfud }kjk ;g nkkZ;k tkrk gS fd izR;sd iaf ds fy;s dkWye
;wfud (UNIQUE) izfrcU/k
foks"k dk eku vf}rh; gSA Vscy dh izR;sd iaf esa bl dkWye dh osY;w vyx&vyx gksrh gSA
Unique constraint }kjk ;g lqfufpr fd;k tkrk gS fd Vscy dh izR;sd iaf esa ml dkWye dh
vyx&vyx osY;w gSA ;g bUMsDl Lor% gh f;sV gks tkrk gSA ;g izfrcU/k ml dkWye ij Hkh yxk;k
tk ldrk gS tks fd uy oSY;w ysrk gksA ;g izfrcU/k ,fUVVh baVsfxzVh dks lqfufpr djrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ% Alter table stores
ADD Constraint uk_storeid UNIQUE store_id;
mijksDr mnkgj.k }kjk izfrcU/k uk_storeid dkWye store_id ij yxk;k x;k gSaA
mnkgj.kkFkZ% CREATE TABLE job
(
job_id smallint PRIMARY KEY,
min_amt int NOT NULL
CHECK (min_amt>=1000),

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Referential Integrity izfrcU/k& fdUgh nks Vscyksa esa laca/k LFkkfir djus ds fy, nksukas gh
Vscyksa esa de ls de ,d QhYM dkWeu gksuk vko;d gksrk gSA lkekU;r% ,d Vscy esa ;g izkbZejh
dh dgykrh gS ,oa nwljh Vscy esa ;g Qksjsu dh dgykrh gSA bl izfrcU/k }kjk nwljh Vscy esa j[ks
tkus okys MkVk dks fu;fU=r djuk gksrk gSA rkRi;Z ;g gS fd nwljh Vscy esa ogh MkVk vkuk pkfg,
tks fd izFke Vscy dh izkbZejh dh ds MkVk ls feyrk gksA ftu dkWyEl ij Qksjsu dh izfrcU/k yxk;k
tkrk gS mu ij baMDs l f,V ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;g izfrcU/k jSQjsUlh;y baVsfxzVh dks lqfufpr
djrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ% Alter table titleauthor
ADD Constraint fk_titleid REFERENCES titles.title_id;
mijksDr mnkgj.k esa Qksjsu dh izfrcU/k fk_titleid dkWye title_id tks fd titles table esa izkbZejh
dh Hkh gS] ij yxk;k x;k gSA MySQL esa Vscyks es lca/k LFkkfir djus ds fy, jsQjsflax Vscy esa
Qksjsu dh LFkkfir dh tkrh gS ge child table ds dkWye vFkok dkWyEl esa Qksjsu dh LFkkfir dj
ldrs gS tks fd jsQjsUl~M parent Vscy ds dkWye vFkok dkWyEl dks jsQj djrk gSA ;s Qksjsu dh
child rFkk parent Vscy esa laxrrk consistency j[krh gSA
Syntax
REFERENCES referenced-table(column)
or as a separate constraint ..
FOREIGN KEY(referencing-table-columns)
REFERENCES referenced-table(columns);
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
Creating the person - phone foreign key constraint
ALTER TABLE phone ADD
CONSTRAINT FK_phone_person_num
FOREIGN
KEY (person_num)
REFERENCES person(num);
pSd (CHECK) izfrcU/k ;g ;wtj }kjk Vscy ij yxk;k x;k izfrcU/k gSa bldk mi;ksx
domain integrity dks ykxw djus ds fy,] fdlh dkWye dh osY;w dks fu;af=r limiting djus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

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mnkgj.kkFkZ%
CREATE TABLE job
(
job_id smallint PRIMARY KEY,
min_amt int NOT NULL
CHECK (min_amt>=1000),
max_amt int NULL
);

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa izfrcU/k CHECK dkWye min_amt ij yxk;k x;k gS ftlesa MkVk ntZ
djrs le; ;g lqfufpr fd;k tk;sxk fd min_amt dkWye dk eku 1000 ds cjkcj ;k vf/kd gksA
ukWV uy (NOT NULL Constraint) izfrcU/k blds }kjk ;g ns[kk tkrk gS fd fdlh dkWye
foks"k esa uy osY;w ugha gksA ;g ;wtj dks ml dkWye esa eku Mkyus ds fy, ck/; djrk gSA
Constraints dks dHkh Hkh Vscy cukus ds ipkr~ vkSj Vscy cukrs le; add/disable/
enable/drop fd;k tk ldrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ% CREATE TABLE job
(
job_id smallint PRIMARY KEY,
min_amt int NOT NULL
max_amt int
);

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa izfrcU/k NOT NULL dkWye min_amt ij yxk;k x;k gS ftlesa MkVk
ntZ djrs le; ;g lqfufpr fd;k tk;sxk fd min_amt dkWye dk eku NULL ugha gksuk pkfg,A

2.8 Vscy cukuk


MkVkcsl cukus ds ipkr MkVkcsl esa Vscy dk fuekZ.k djuk gS tks MkVk dks laxfz gr djds
j[k ldsA Vscy cukus ds dek.M%
CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS]

<table_name>[(create_definition,...)] [table_options] [select_statement]


table-name esa u;h Vscy dk uke gksrk gSA ;fn mDr uke dh Vscy igys ls miyC/k gS rks mluke
ls Vscy f;sV ugha gksxhA [IF NOT EXISTS] vkWIku dke esa ugha fy;k tk jgk gS vkSj fn;s
uke dh Vscy igys ls gS rks dEI;wVj Error nsxk rFkk Vscy f;sV ugha gksxhA TEMPORARY

vkWIku dke esa fy;k tk jgk gS rks tks Vscy cusxh og MsVkcsl ds orZeku dusDku rd gh
miyC/k jgsxh tSls gh dusDku lekIr gksxk Vscy Hkh lekIr gks tk;sxhA

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column-name fdlh Hkh Vscy esa vf}rh; gksrk gSA data-type }kjk ml dkWye esa fdl izdkj dk
eku j[kk tkuk gS crk;k tkrk gSA Vscy dk fuekZ.k fdlh vU; nwljh Vscy ls Hkh fd;k tk ldrk
gS ;fn ge nwljh Vscy ds dkWyEl dks dke esa ys jgs gaSA

NOT NULL/NULL dk mi;ksx QhYM esa MsVk gksuk vko;d gS vFkok ugha] bls
iznfkZr djrk gSA
DEFAULT option dk mi;ksx Lor% fl) eku dks fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk
gSA

Integer MsVk VkbZi okys dkWye esa AUTO-INCREMENT attribute dk mi;ksx


fd;k tk ldrk gS tks buiqV NULL gksus ij vius&vki gh dkWye QhYM+ ds eku dks
,d ls c<+k nsrk gSA

PRIMARY KEY attribute ml dkWye QhYM+ ds fy, mi;ksx gksrk gS ftls ge MsVk
dks 'kh?kz ,Dlsl djus ds fy, Index ds :i esa ysuk pkgrs gSA
CREATE TABLE command mi;ksx djus ls igys use db_name command dk
mi;ksx djrs gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
use school;
Database changed
CREATE table student(
Rollno INT NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY,
Studentname VARCHAR(30),fname VARCHAR(30), dob datetime,
Class CHAR(10), sect CHAR(5));

mijksDr command }kjk school Database essa table student f;sV gks jgh gSA ftlds
dkWye QhYM
ROLLNO, STUDENTNAME, FNAME, DOB, CLASS and SECT gSAa
;gak ROLLNO dkWye Primary Key ds fy, dke vk jgk gSA
vU; mnkgj.k%
vc vU; Vscy Marks fuEu mnkgj.k }kjk dh xbZ gSA ftlesa ROLLNO, MARKS rFkk
SUBJECT QhYM gSS
CREATE TABLE MARKS
(ROLLNO INT,

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MARKS INT,
SUBJECT CHAR(30));
;s ns[kus ds fy, dh Vscy f;sV gqbZ vFkok ugha SHOW TABLES command dke
vkrh gSA ;s dek.M MsVkcsl esa mifLFkr Vscyksa dh fyLV dks iznfkZr djrh gSA
show tables;
mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA
student
marks

2.9 MsVkcsl esa cnyko Altering the Database


MsVkcsl esa v|ru ds fy, fuEu dek.M dk mi;ksx djrs gSA
ALTER {DATABASE} [db_name] alter_specification [alter_specification]......

ALTER DATABASE dek.M }kjk ge MsVkcsl ds y{k.kksa characteristics esa cnyko


dj ldrs gSA ;s y{k.k db.opt Qkby esa LVksj gksrs gSA fuEu mnkgj.k }kjk MsVkcsl dh ,d
Qkby Sample1 ds vkdkj dks c<k jgs gSA
ALTER DATABASE school
modify file (NAME=sample1, SIZE=10MB);

2.10 Vscy esa cnyko Altering the Table%%


Vscy esa cnyko dk lkekU; Syntax fuEu izdkj ls gsS
ALTER TABLE tbl_name alter_specification [, alter_specification] ...

ALTER TABLE dek.M }kjk ge Vscy ds LVDpj esa cnyko dj ldrs gSA
bl dek.M }kjk ge Vscy ds dkWyEl dks tksMuk] cnyuk rFkk gVk ldrs gS] index dks f;sV
vFkok gVk ldrs gS] dkWye dk vFkok Vscy dk uke cny ldrs gSA fuEu mnkgj.kksa }kjk ge
Vscy ds fofHkUu cnykoksa dks le> ldrs gSA
Vscy dk uke cnyus ds fy,
ALTER TABLE old_name RENAME TO new_name;
SHOW tables;

mDr dek.M dk ifj.kke student rFkk marks gksxkA

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ALTER TABLE student RENAME to student_data;


SHOW tables;
mDr dek.M dk ifj.kke student_data rFkk marks gksxkA
fuEu mnkgj.k Vscy esa u;k dkWye tksMus dks iznfkZr djrk gS
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD column_name column_type;
vf/kd dkWye tksMus ds fy,
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD (column_1 column_type, column_2
column_type);
DESCRIBE student;
Field
Rollno
Studentname
Fname
dob
Class

Type
Int (10) insigned
Varchar (30)
Varchar (30)
datetime
CHAR (10)

Null
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES

Key
PRI

Default

Extra

Null
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

Key
PRI

Default

Extra

ALTER TABLE student


-> ADD Age numeric (3);
DESCRIBE student;
Field
Rollno
Studentname
Fname
dob
Class
Sect

Type
Int (10) insigned
Varchar (30)
Varchar (30)
datetime
CHAR (10)
CHAR (5)

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Field
Rollno
Studentname
Fname
dob
Class
Sect
Age

Type
Int (10) insigned
Varchar (30)
Varchar (22)
datetime
CHAR (10)
CHAR (5)
Decimal (3,0)

Null
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

Key
PRI

Default

Extra

fuEu mnkgj.k Vscy ls dkWye gVkus DROP dks iznfkZr djrk gSA
ALTER TABLE tbl_name DROP COLUMN column_name;
DESCRIBE student;
Field
Rollno
Studentname
Fname
dob
Class
Sect
Age

Type
Int (10) insigned
Varchar (30)
Varchar (22)
datetime
CHAR (10)
CHAR (5)
Decimal (3,0)

Null
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

Key
PRI

Default

Extra

Key
PRI

Default

Extra

ALTER TABLE student DROP COLUMN Age;


DESCRIBE student;
Field
Rollno
Studentname
Fname
dob
Class
Sect

Type
Int (10) insigned
Varchar (30)
Varchar (22)
datetime
CHAR (10)
CHAR (5)

Null
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES

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2.11 MsVkcsl dks gVkuk Dropping the Database%%


DROP DATABASE SCHOOL:
bl dek.M dk iz;ksx lko/kkuh ls djuk pkfg, D;ksafd ;g lEiw.kZ MsVkcsl dks gh gVk
nsrh gSA dsoy dqN fjdkMZl~ dks gVkus ds fy, DML dh DELETE command dk iz;ksx
gksrk gSA
MsVkcsl dks DROP djus dk syntax fuEu izdkj gS%
DROP {DATABASE | SCHEMA} [IF EXISTS] db_name;
mDr dek.M MsVkcsl dh Vscy lesr MsVkcsl dks lekIr dj nsrk gSA ;fn IF EXISTS
option dke esa ugha fy;k tk jgk gS rFkk MsVkcsl miyC/k ugha gS rks Error message iznfkZr
gksxkA
ekuk fd geus emp1 uke dk MsVkcsl f;sV fd;k gqvk gSA
SHOW DATABASE;
mDr dek.M dqy MsVkcsl dh fyLV emp1 ds lkFk iznfkZr djrk gSA
DROP DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS EMP1;
SHOW DATABASE;
mDr dek.M emp1 ds vykok miyC/k MsVkcsl dh fyLV iznfkZr djsxh] D;ksafd emp1 MsVkcsl
gV x;k gSA

2.12 Vscy dks gVkuk Dropping the Table%% Data Definition Language dh
fu.kkZ;d dek.M gS DROPA ;s dek.M MsVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l dks gVkus ds dke vkrh gSA
Vscy Drop djus dh dek.M dk Syntax fuEu gSA
DROP [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF EXISTS] tbl_name;
;g dek.M MsVkcsl ls ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd Vscy dks gVkus ds dke vkrh gSA ;g dek.M
Vscy ds MsVk rFkk ifjHkk"kk nksuksa dks gh gVk nsrh gSA ;fn IF EXISTS option dke esa ugha
fy;k tk jgk gS rFkk Vscy miyC/k ugha gS rks Error message iznfkZr gksxkA ;fn TEMPORARY
keyword dke esa fy;k tk jgk gS rks dek.M vLFkk;h Vscy temporary tables dks gVk;sxkA
;g dek.M py jgs dk;Z lEiknu dks lekIr ugha djrk gS rFkk ;g vfHkxe vf/kdkj access right
dks Hkh tkap ugha djrk gS D;kafs d temporary table dsoy client ij gh nkZuh; gS blfy, vfHkxe
vf/kdkj dh tkap vko;d ugha gSA ;fn TEMPORARY keyword dke esa ugha fy;k

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tk jgk gS rks DROP TABLE command Lor% gh orZeku esa lf; vfHkxe transaction dks
Commit dj nsrk gSA
Example:
DROP TABLE MARKS;
DROP TABLE STUDENT;
mijksDr dek.M ls marks rFkk student Vscy gVk fn;s x;s gSA

2.13 Vscy dk uke cnyuk Rename the Table%% Vscy dk uke cnyus dk lkekU;
Syntax fuEufyf[kr gS%
RENAME TABLE tbl_name TO new_tbl_name, tbl_name2 TO
new_tbl_name2 ...
bl dek.M }kjk ge ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd Vscy ds uke cny ldrs gSA uke cnyus dk dk;Z
Lor% gh bl izdkj gksrk gS fd uke cnyrs le; dksbZ vU; thread Vscy dks ,Dlsl ugha dj
ldrkA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SHOW TABLES;
mDr dek.M MsVkcsl esa mifLFkr dqy Vscy dh fyLV dks iznfkZr djrk gSA
ekuk emptemp uked Vscy dks emp_temp1 uke ls ifjofrZr djuk gS rc fuEu dek.M dk
mi;ksx gksxkA
RENAME TABLE EMPTEMP TO EMP_TEMP1;
;g dek.M emptemp dk uke emp_temp1 uke ls ifjofrZr dj nsxkA
2.14 Index:
gesa cgqr cMs MsVk dks fcuk le; u"V fd;s ,Dlsl djuk gksrk gSA Index }kjk Vscy ls MsVk dks
'kh?kzrk ls ,Dlsl djuk laHko gSA fdlh Vscy esa Index iafDr;ks dks vfrkh?kzrk rFkk fuiq.krk ls
,Dlsl djus ds fy, f;sV fd;s tkrs gSA fdlh Hkh Vscy esa ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd dkWye ij Index
f;sV djuk laHko gS rFkk izR;sd Index dks uke nsuk vko;d gSA mi;ksxdrkZ Users Indexes
dks ugha ns[k ldrs gSa] os dsoy DoSjht dh xfr rst djus ds fy, budk mi;ksx djrs gSa
Unique Index:
;s dek.M Unique Index f;sV djus ds dke vkrh gSA ;gak Unique Index dk eryc
gS fd fdUgh nks iafDr;ks ds Index dk eku leku ugha gksrkA

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CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name


ON table_name (column_name);
column_nameml dkWye dk uke gS ftl ij Index f;sV fd;k x;k gSA
Simple Index:
;s dek.M Vscy esa Simple Index f;sV djus ds dke esa vkrk gSA ;agk UNIQUE keyword
gVk;k x;k gS vr% Index ds eku dh iqujkZo`fr duplicate values laHko gSA
CREATE INDEX index_name
ON table_name (column_name);
gVkuk:
Index dks gVkuk
Index dks gVkus ds fy, DROP INDEX dek.M dke esa yh tkrh gSSA
DROP INDEX <indexname> [ON <tablename>];
Index dks f;sV djus ds fy, vko;d Alter dek.M fuEu izdkj ls gS%
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD INDEX index_name (column_list):
;g lkekU; Index gS ftlesa dksbZ Hkh eku ,d ls vf/kd ckj vk ldrk gSA
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD UNIQUE index_name (column_list):
;g dek.M ,slk Index f;sV djrh gS ftlesa Index ds eku vyx&vyx (unique)
vko;d gS ijarq NULL eku ,d ls vf/kd ckj vk ldrs gSa
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD PRIMARY KEY (column_list) : ;g
dek.M PRIMARY KEY f;sV djrh gSA ftldk rkRi;Z gS KEY esa vyx&vyx
(unique) eku gksxsa rFkk dksbZ Hkh eku NULL ugha gksus pkfg,A
ALTER TABLE tbl_name ADD FULLTEXT index_name
(column_list): ;g ,d foks"k FULLTEXT index f;sV djrk gSA tks fd textsearching esa dke vkrk gSA

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
y% ,d ukWu izkslhtjy Hkk"kk gSA ;g MkVkcsl ij dfBu DoSjh nsus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh
,lD;w,y
gSA SQL esa mi;ksxdrkZ ;wtj dksa crkuk gksrk gS fd D;k MkVk pkfg,] fcuk ;g crk;s fd MkVk

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ekud dEI;wVj Hkk"kk gS tks fd fjyskuy MkVkcsl esustesaV flLVe ds fy;s MkVk ,Dlsl ,oe~
MkVk ds cnyko ds mi;ksx esa yk;h tkrh gSA ,l-D;w-,y- LVsVesUV~l dk mi;ksx MkVkcsl esa
MkVk ds viMsV ;k ns[kus fjVho ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;g fjyskuy MkVkcsl esSustesaV flLVe
ds lkFk dke djrh gSA fjyskuy MkVkcsl esustesaV flLVe esa MkVk VscYl esa ,df=r LVksj
fd;k tkrk gSA MkVkcsl VscYl dk ,d laxzg.k gSA Vscy esa fjdkWMZ gksrs gS ,oe~ fjdkWMZ esa QhYM
gksrs gSaA Vscy ds izR;sd fjdkWMZ dk LVDpj leku gksrk gSA
,l-D;w-,y- MkVkcsl ds fofHkUu izksxzkeksa tSls ,e-,l- ,Dlsl] bUxzsl] Mh-ch-2] buQksfeZDl] ,e,l-,l-D;w-,y- loZj] vkWjsdy] lkbZcsl ,ao ekbZ,lD;w,y vkfn ds lkFk iz;ksx dh tkrh gSaA ekud
,l-D;w-,y- dek.M tSls fd lysDV] viMsV] fMyhV] f;sV ,oe~ MkiW vkfn dk iz;ksx lkekU;r%
MkVkcsl dh lHkh vko;drkvksa dh iwfrZ ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
,l-D;w-,y- dks lkekU;r% rhu mi Hkk"kkvksa esa ckaVk tk ldrk gSA MkVk MsfQusku ySXaost
DDL) esa lkekU;r% f;sV ,oe~ MkWi dek.M gksrs gSa tks fd MkVkcsl ,oe~ MkVkcsl ds vkWCtsDV
VscYl] O;w] bUMsDl vkfn cukus ds dke vkrs gSAa ,d ckj MkVk LVDpj r; gksus ds ipkr~ ;wtj MkVk
esSuhiqysku ySsaXost DML) dk mi;ksx djrk gS ftlesa fd lkekU;r% bUlVZ] fjVho ,oe~ eksMhQkbZ
dek.M gksrs gSa tks fd MkVk dks ekWMhQkbzZ djus ds mi;ksx esa fy;s tkrs gSaA MkVk dUVksy ysaSXost dk
mi;ksx MkVkcsl ds j[k&j[kko ds fy;s gksrk gS ftlesa fd xzkUV ,oe~ fjoksd dh Lohd`fr MkVkcsl
vkWCtsDV~l ds fy;s nh tkrh gSA

ekb
ekbZ,lD;w
,lD;w,y% ,d fjyskuy MkVkcsl esSustesaV flLVe vkjMhch,e,l gSA bldks eqDr L=ksr
vuqKki= Open Source license ds rgr tkjh fd;k x;k gSA blesa ekud Lrj dh ,lD;w,y
LVDpMZ DoSjh ySaXost dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks fd MkVkcsl esa MsVk Mkyus ds fy,] ns[kus ds
fy, ,ao izfd;k ds fy, mi;ksx dh tkrh gSA ekbZ,lD;w,y cgqr gh rst] lqjf{kr] fooluh; ,ao
yphyh Mhch,e,l gSA ftldk mi;ksx O;olkb;ksa ,ao vU; izfrBkuksa }kjk fd;k tk jgk gSA ;g
,d cgqr gh izfl) eqDr L=ksr vuqKki= ds rgr tkjh dh xbZ MsVkcsl gS D;kasfd ;g eqr esa fcuk
dksbZ ewY; fn;s miyC/k gSA ,ao ;g fHkUu fHkUUk vkWijsfVax flLVe ij dk;Z djrh gSA ekbZ,lD;w,y
dk mi;ksx fHkUu fHkUu izdkj ds dk;ksZ ,IyhdskUl esa fy;k tkrk gS ysfdu bldk eq[;r% mi;ksx
osc ,IyhdskUl ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
MkVk ds izdkjCharacter (String)
CHAR(M)
VARCHAR(M)
BLOB OR TEXT
TINYBLOB OR TINYTEXT
MEDIUMBLOB OR MEDIUMTEXT
LONGBLOB OR LONGTEXT
ENUM
SET

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Numeric
TINYINT
SMALLINT
INT
BIGINT
MEDIUMINT
FLOAT
DECIMAL
DOUBLE
Datetime
DATE
DATETIME
TIMESTAMP
TIME
YEAR

Constraint specifications }kjk fdlh Hkh Vscy esa vfrfjDr 'krsZ@izfrcU/k@pSd yxk;s tk
ldrs gS vkSj budks Mh-ch-,e-,l- Lor% gh ykxw djrk gSA

Primary key

UNIQUE

REFERENCE

CHECK

NOT NULL

vH;klkFkZ izu
oLrqfu"B izu
1

3-

Mh-Mh-,y- ds }kjk vki D;k dj ldrs gSa\


(v) MkVk dks ,UVj ,oe~ ,fMV
(c)
MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV dks f;sV o MkWi
(l) mijksDr nksuksa dk;Z dj ldrs gS
(n)
mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaa
,l-D;w-,y- fdl izdkj dh Hkk"kk gS\
(v) ukWu izkslhtjy ySXoa st
(c)
izkslhtjy ySXoa st
(l) ekhu ySXaost
(n)
mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaa
,l-D;w-,y- dks fdruh mi&Hkk"kkvksa esa ckaVk x;k gS\
(v) nks
(c)
rhu
(l) vkB
(n)
ikp

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4-

vfr
123-

fuEu esa ls RDBMS dkSulk gSS\


(v) MySQL
(l) DBASE

(c)
(n)

MS excel
mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaa

y?kqkjkRed izu
MEDIUMINT MkVk VkbZi dk mi;ksx D;k gSS\
VARCHAR MkVk VkbZi dk D;k mi;ksx gS\
MsV MsVk VkbZi esa TIMESTAMP dk D;k mi;ksx gksrk gS\

y?kq kjkRed iz u
1- dULVsUV D;k gksrs gSa\
2- vkYVj dek.M dk D;k mi;ksx gksrk gS\
3- MkWi dek.M dk D;k mi;ksx gksrk gS\
fucU/kkRed iz u
1- MySQL ds D;k ykHk gSS\
2- ekbZ-,l-D;w-,y- dk o.kZu dhft,A
3- MySQL ds fofHkUu MkVk VkbZi dkSu&dksSu ls gS\
4- ,d Vscy cukb, ftlesa izkbZejh dh ds lkFk&lkFk ,d vU; QhYM ij ukWV uy dk
izfrcU/k fn;k x;k gksA mnkgj.k lfgr o.kZu djsaA
5- fuEu dh O;k[;k dhft,A
(i)
;wfud dkULVsUV
(ii) jsQjsUlst dkULVUs V
(ii) ukWV uy dkULVUs V

mkjekyk
1c

2v

3c

4v

AglaSem School

3
MkVk eSuhiqysku ySXaost
Data Manipulation Language
3-1 ifjp;
MkVk eSuhiqys ku ySXoa t
s Data Manipulation Language (DML) }kjk MkVkcsl dh lwpuk
dks fjVho] tksM ,oe~ cny ldrs gSA DML dek.M~l dk mi;ksx mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk fu;fer MkVkcsl
ds dk;Z ds nkSjku fd;k tkrk gSA DoSjh rFkk viMsV dek.Ml SQL ds DML dk Hkkx gS rFkk
MySQL }kjk lefFkZr gSA lkekU; rkSj ij dke vkus okys DML dek.Ml fuEu gS&
n

SELECT - Database esa laxfz gr lwpuk dk retrieval.

UPDATE - Database esa laxzfgr lwpukvksa dks modify djukA

DELETE - Database esa ls lwpukvksa dks delete djukA

INSERT INTO - Database esa u;h lwpukvksa dks Mkyuk insertion

MySQL }kjk lefFkZr DML dFku%


3.1.1 INSERT
MySQL esa INSERT dek.M dk mi;ksx orZeku Vscy esa fjdkWMl
Z dks tksMus ds fy;s fd;k
tkrk gSA ekuk fd ge student table esa fdlh student dk fjdkWMZ tksMuk pkgrs gS rks gesa fuEu
izdkj ls dek.M fy[kuk gksxk&
INSERT INTO STUDENT
VALUES (10001,VINOD,SHRI DL AGRAWAL,07/10/1965,MBA );
mijksDr dek.M ls LVwMUs V Vscy ds ROLLNO, STUDENTNAME, FNAME, DOB,
CLASS QhYMksa esa ek% 10001,VINOD,SHRI DL AGRAWAL,07/10/
1965,MBA ds eku bUlVZ gks tkrs gSA

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blh izdkj vU; fjdkWMl


Z Hkh tksMs tk ldrs gSaA vU; fjdkWMZ bUlVZ djrs gq;s
fuEufyf[kr Vscy cuk;saA
ROLLNO STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

07/10/1965

MBA

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

16/11/1995

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

25/06/1960

XII

10004

RUBAL

DR. VINAY GOYAL

27/11/1989

XI

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KMAR

06/11/2000

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

19/04/1971

Ph.D

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

14/08/2003

PLAY

blh izdkj ekDZl Vscy esa Hkh MkVk bUlVZ dj ldrs gSA
INSERT INTO marks
values (10001,90,Maths);
mijksDr dek.M ls ekDlZ Vscy ds ROLLNO, SUBJECT, MARKS QhYMksa esa ek%
10001,90,Maths ds eku bUlVZ gks tkrs gSa A
blh izdkj vU; fjdkWMl
Z Hkh tksMs tk ldrs gSA blh izdkj fjdkWMZ bUlVZ djrs gq;s fuEufyf[kr
Vscy cuk;saA
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

90

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

SCIENCE

80

10002

MATHS

99

10002

ENGLISH

90

10002

HINDI

88

3.1.2 SELECT
SELECT dek.M dks lkekU;r% MySQL esa cgqrk;r ls iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;g fdlh Hkh
vkWijskuy MkVkcsl ls mi;ksxdrkZ users dks okafNr MkVk retrieve djus ds fy, mi;ksx gksrk
gSAS ge School database esa student table dk ,d mnkgj.k ysrs gSAa uhps of.kZr mnkgj.k Vscy

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esa miyC/k leLr lwpuk dks fn[kkrk gSA ;gk asterisk (*) dk mi;ksax MySQL esa wild card
dh rjg fd;k tkrk gS ftlls fd Vscy esa miyC/k leLr lwpuk dk p;u gks tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k 1
.

SELECT *
FROM student;
mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA
ROLLNO STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

07/10/1965

MBA

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

16/11/1995

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

25/06/1960

XII

10004

RUBAL

DR. VINAY GOYAL

27/11/1989

XI

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KMAR

06/11/2000

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

19/04/1971

Ph.D

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

14/08/2003

PLAY

mnkgj.k 2
SELECT *
FROM marks;
mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

90

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

SCIENCE

80

10002

MATHS

99

10002

ENGLISH

90

10002

HINDI

88

;fn vki fdlh lwpuk dk dsoy dqN gh fgLlk pkgrs gSa rks vki mldks fuEufyf[kr dek.M
}kjk izkIr dj ldrs gaSA mnkgj.k ds fy, ;fn vki 10005 ls de vFkok cjkcj rollno okyksa dh
lwpuk student table ls pkgrs gS rks fuEu dek.M }kjk izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

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SELECT *
FROM Student
WHERE ROLLNO<=10005;
mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA
ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

07/10/1965

MBA

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

16/11/1995

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

25/06/1960

XII

10004

RUBAL

DR. VINAY GOYAL

27/11/1989

XI

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KMAR

06/11/2000

WHERE clause dk mi;ksx lwpuk dks pkgs x;s kVsfj;k ds vuqlkj izkIr djus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA bl DykWt ds }kjk pqus gq, fjdkWMksZ rFkk QhYMksa dks izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k
ds fy, gesa ,sls fjdkWMksaZ dks pquuk gS ftuesa ekDlZ QhYM dk eku 90 ;k blls vf/kd gS rks gesa fuEu
izdkj ls dek.M fy[kuk gksxkA
SELECT *
FROM marks
WHERE marks >=90;
mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxk
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARK

10001

HINDI

90

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

MATHS

99

10002

ENGLISH

90

blh izdkj fuEu mnkgj.k esa ge student Vscy dk og fjdkWMZ pquuk pkgrs gSa ftlesa
STUDENTNAME QhYM dk eku MANAN gSA
SELECT * FROM student
WHERE studentname=MANAN;

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mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA


ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

16/11/1995

3.1.3 UPDATE
UPDATE command dk iz;ksx lkekU;r% fdlh iafDr ds fdlh QhYM ds eku dks cnyus
ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn ge izR;sd fo|kFkhZ dks izR;sd fo"k; esa 2 vad crkSj cksul ds nsuk pkgrs
gSsa rks fuEufyf[kr dEkk.M }kjk bl dk;Z dks 'kh/kz fd;k tk ldrk gSA
mnkgj.k 1
UPDATE marks
SET marks=marks+2;
mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

92

10001

ENGLISH

97

10001

MATHS

100

10002

SCIENCE

82

10002

MATHS

101

10002
10002

ENGLISH
HINDI

92
100

mijksDr ifj.kke ds QhYM MARKS dks ns[kus ij ;g izrhr gksrk gS fd izR;sd jksy uEcj
ds ekDlZ esa iwoZ ds vadksa esa nks vad tksM+dj ifj.kke fn[kk;k x;kA
mnkgj.k 2
blh izdkj ;fn ge iqu% ekDlZ Vscy esa fn;s x;s ekDlZ esa ls nks vad de djuk pkgrs gaS rFkk
iwoZ dh fLFkfr esa Vscy dks j[kuk pkgrs gSa rks fuEu dek.M }kjk ;g dk;Z fd;k tk ldrk gSA
UPDATE marks
SET marks=marks-2;
mijksDr dek.M ls fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA

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ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

90

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

SCIENCE

80

10002

MATHS

99

10002

ENGLISH

90

10002

HINDI

98

mijksDr dek.M ls ekDlZ QhYM dk ifj.kke mnkgj.k 1 esa nkkZ;s x;s vadksa ls nks vad de
gSA

3.1.4 DELETE
bl dek.M dk mi;ksx fdlh fjdkWMZ ;k fjdkWMZ ds lewg dks gVkus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn
ge rollno 10002 ds fjdkWMZ dks gVkuk pkgrs gS rks DELETE command dks WHERE
clause ds lkFk iz;qDr djds ekDZl Vscy ls gVk;k tk ldrk gSA blds fy;s fuEu dek.M mi;ksx
esa ysx&
s
DELETE FROM marks
WHERE rollno=10002;
blds ipkr SELECT * FROM MARKS dek.M dks nsus ij fuEu ifj.kke izkIr gksxkA
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

90

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

mijksDr ifj.kke ls ;g fofnr gksrk gS fd Vscy esa iwoZ esa miyC/k jksy uEcj 10002 dk MkVk
[kRe gks x;k gSA bl izdkj Vscy ls MkVk dks gVk;k tk ldrk gSA

3.2 O;w (View):


O;w dk mi;ksx Vscy esa ls MkVk fjVho djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA DoSjh okLrfod MkVk ij
dk;Z djrh gSa tks fd Vscy esa LVksj jgrk gSA O;w ,d opqv
Z y Vscy gksrh gS tks fd lysDV LVsVesUV

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}kjk rS;kj gksrh gSA O;w esa iaf ,oa dkWye nksuksa gh gksrs gSa tSlk fd Vscy esa gksrs gaSA O;w esa ogh QhYMl
gksrs gSa tks QhYM okLrfod Vscy esa gksrs gSaA QhYMksa dh la[;k Select dFku ij fuHkZj djrh gSA O;w
ls MkVk dks i<uk] tksMuk ,oe~ viMsV fd;k tkuk laHko gSA ;g vU; rjhdk gS ftlds }kjk ,d
;k ,d ls vf/kd VscYl ds MkVk dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
O;w dk mi;ksx :

O;w dk lkekU;r% mi;ksx vukf/kd`r ;wtj ls MkVk dks lajf{kr djuk gSA
iaf;ksa dks Vscy esa ls fQYVj djrk gSA

O;w ds ykHk :

;wtj dks vklkuh ls ifj.kke vkmViqV nsrk gSA


;wtj dks vklkuh ls MsVk nsrk gSA
Moyij }kjk MkVk fjVhcy dks jksdk tk ldrk gSA
Moyij }kjk vklkuh ls ,Iyhdsku dks esUVsu fd;k tk ldrk gSA

Syntax

CREATE VIEW view_name AS


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition;
Drop view: O;w dks gVkus ds fy, fuEu dek.M mi;ksx djrs gS%
DROP VIEW <viewname>;

3.3 Index:
gesa cgqr cMs MsVk dks fcuk le; u"V fd;s ,Dlsl djuk gksrk gSA Index }kjk Vscy ls MsVk
dks 'kh?kzrk ls ,Dlsl djuk laHko gSA fdlh Vscy esa Index iafDr;ks dks vfrkh?kzrk rFkk fuiq.krk
ls ,Dlsl djus ds fy, f;sV fd;s tkrs gSA fdlh Hkh Vscy esa ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd dkWye ij Index
f;sV djuk laHko gS rFkk izR;sd Index dks uke nsuk vko;d gSA mi;ksxdrkZ Users Indexes
dks ugha ns[k ldrs gSa] os dsoy viuh DoSjht dh xfr rst djus ds fy, budk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
Index ds izdkj%
1- Hash indexes:
Hash indexes rqY;rk [kkst Equality search ds fy, ftlesa dkWye ds eku fHkUu&fHkUu
Unique gks ds fy, cgqr rst dk;Z djrs gSA visf{kr MsVk dks izkIr djus ds fy, blesa izkIr fMLd
CykWd dh la[;k cgqr de ,d vFkok nks gksrh gSA ijUrq Hash indexes range queries ds fy,
fuiq.krk ls dk;Z ugha djrs gS D;ksafd os clustering indexes ugha gSA ,d jsUt ds varxZr MsVkcsl

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vkbZVe fMLd ij ikl&ikl LVksj ugha gksrs D;ksafd muds Hash eku cgqr fHkUurk fy;s gq, gks ldrs
gSA
2- B+tree indexes:
B+tree indexes rqY;rk [kkst Equality search rFkk jsat DoSjht nksuksa ds fy, fuiq.krk ls
dk;Z djrh gSA ;|fi ;s rqY;rk [kkst ds fy, Hash indexes ftrus rst xfrkhy ugha gSA

3.4 MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l (Database Objects) :


Database Objects dk la/kkj.k RDBMS }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA eq[;r% lkjs gh Database
Objects MkVkcsl esa txg ?ksjrs gaAS dqN MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV nwljs MkVkcsl ds vkWCtsDV~l dks Hkh j[krs
gSA VscYl gh ,slk MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV gS ftlesa ;wtj dk MkVk j[kk tkrk gS vkSj ;wtj VscYl dks
lh/ks gh ,Dlsl dj ldrk gSA MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l dk uke cukrs le; fn;k tkrk gS vkSj budk uke
fu;ekuqlkj fn;k tkrk gSA lHkh MsVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l ,d f;sVj rFkk vkWuj j[krs gS
fuEufyf[kr MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l gSa %&
clusters
columns
constraints
database
database links
indexes
rollback segments
savepoints
tables
tablespaces
users
views
MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV ds uke nsus ds fu;e
MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV dk uke 64 djsDVj ls T;knk yEck ugha gksuk pkfg,A
dksVsku ekdZ uke esa mi;ksx ugha gksrk gSA
uke dh 'kq:vkr v{kj ls gksuh pkfg,A
uke MySQL fjtoZ oMZ~l esa ls ugha gksuk pkfg,A
uke esa v{kj tSls fd A-Z,0-9,_,#,$ gks ldrs gSaA #,& dk mi;ksx ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg,s

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mlh uke dk iqu% mi;ksx ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg, ;fn iwoZ esa mlh vkWuj }kjk fdlh MkVkcsl
vkWCtsDV dk uke mi;ksx esa ys fy;k x;k gSA
vU; tkudkfj;ka %&

iwjs ,oe~ o.kkZRed uke dk mi;ksx djsaA


,d opuh; (Singular) uke dk mi;ksx djsaA
fdlh Hkh ,d ,fUVVh dks nkkZus ds fy;s ,d gh uke dk iz;ksx djsaA

SQL/MySQL DDL/DML Syntax


Statement

Syntax

AND / OR

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition
AND|OR condition

ALTER TABLE (add column)

ALTER TABLE table_name


ADD column_name datatype

ALTER TABLE (drop column)

ALTER TABLE table_name


DROP COLUMN column_name

AS (alias for column)

SELECT column_name
AS column_alias
FROM table_name

AS (alias for table)

SELECT column_name
FROM table_name
AS table_alias

BETWEEN

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name
BETWEEN value1 AND value2

CREATE DATABASE

CREATE DATABASE database_name

CREATE INDEX

CREATE INDEX index_name


ON table_name (column_name)

CREATE TABLE

CREATE TABLE table_name

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(column_name1 data_type,
column_name2 data_type,.......)
CREATE UNIQUE INDEX

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX index_name


ON table_name (column_name)

CREATE VIEW

CREATE VIEW view_name


ASSELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name

WHERE condition
DELETE FROM
DELETE FROM table_name
(Note: Deletes the entire table!!) or
DELETE FROM table_name
WHERE condition
DROP DATABASE

DROP DATABASE database_name

DROP INDEX

DROP INDEX table_name.index_name

DROP TABLE

DROP TABLE table_name

GROUP BY

SELECT column_name1,SUM(column_name2)
FROM table_name
GROUP BY column_name1

HAVING

SELECT column_name1, SUM(column_name2)


FROM table_name
GROUP BY column_name1
HAVING SUM(column_name2) condition value

IN

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_nameIN (value1,value2,..)

INSERT INTO

INSERT INTO table_name


VALUES (value1, value2,....) or
INSERT INTO table_name
(column_name1, column_name2,...)
VALUES (value1, value2,....)

LIKE

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name
LIKE pattern

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ORDER BY

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
ORDER BY column_name [ASC|DESC]

SELECT

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name

SELECT *

SELECT *
FROM table_name

SELECT DISTINCT

SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s)


FROM table_name

SELECT INTO (used to create


backup copies of tables)

SELECT *
INTO new_table_name
FROM original_table_name or
SELECT column_name(s)
INTO new_table_name
FROM original_table_name
TRUNCATE TABLE(deletes only TRUNCATE TABLE table_name
the data inside the table)
UPDATE

UPDATE table_name
SET column_name=new_value
[, column_name=new_value]
WHERE column_name=some_value

WHERE

SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE condition

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
MkVk esU;wiqys ku ySXaost DML)
SELECT - Database esa laxfz gr lwpuk dk retrieval.
UPDATE - Database esa laxzfgr lwpukvksa dks modify djukA
DELETE - Database esa ls lwpukvksa dks delete djukA
INSERT INTO - Database esa u;h lwpukvksa dk insertion.
View- O;w dk mi;ksx Vscy esa ls MkVk fjVho djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA DoSjh okLrfod MkVk
ij dk;Z djrh gSa tks fd Vscy esa LVksj jgrk gSA O;w ,d opqv
Z y Vscy gksrh gS tks fd lysDV LVsVesUV
}kjk rS;kj gksrh gSA O;w esa iaf ,oa dkWye nksuksa gh gksrs gSa tSlk fd Vscy esa gksrs gaSA O;w esa ogh QhYMl

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gksrs gSa tks QhYM okLrfod Vscy esa gksrs gSaA QhYMksa dh la[;k Select dFku ij fuHkZj djrh gSA O;w
ls MkVk dks i<uk] tksMuk ,oe~ viMsV fd;k tkuk laHko gSA
O;w dk mi;ksx :

O;w dk lkekU;r% mi;ksx vukf/kd`r ;wtj ls MkVk dks lajf{kr djuk gSA
iaf;ksa dks Vscy esa ls fQYVj djrk gSA

O;w ds ykHk :

;wtj dks vklkuh ls ifj.kke nsrk gSA


;wtj dks vklkuh ls MkVk nsrk gSA
Moyij }kjk MkVk fjVhcy dks jksdk tk ldrk gSA
Moyij }kjk vklkuh ls ,Iyhdsku dks esUVsu fd;k tk ldrk gSA

Index: gesa cgqr cMs MsVk dks fcuk le; u"V fd;s ,Dlsl djuk gksrk gSA Index }kjk Vscy ls
MsVk dks 'kh?kzrk ls ,Dlsl djuk laHko gSA fdlh Vscy esa Index iafDr;ks dks vfrkh?kzrk rFkk fuiq.krk
ls ,Dlsl djus ds fy, f;sV fd;s tkrs gSA fdlh Hkh Vscy esa ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd dkWye ij Index
f;sV djuk laHko gS rFkk izR;sd Index dks uke nsuk vko;d gSA mi;ksxdrkZ Users Indexes
dks ugha ns[k ldrs gSa] os dsoy viuh DoSjht dh xfr rst djus ds fy, budk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
Database Objects dk la/kkj.k RDBMS. }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA eq[;r% lkjs gh Database
Objects txg MkVkcsl esa ?ksjrs gSA dqN MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV nwljs MkVkcsl ds vkWCtsDV~l dks Hkh j[krs

gSA VscYl gh ,slk MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV gS ftlesa ;wtj dk MkVk j[kk tkrk gS vkSj ;wtj VscYl dks
lh/kk ,Dlsl dj ldrk gSA MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l dk uke cukrs le; fn;k tkrk gS vkSj budk uke
fyLV ds fu;ekuqlkj fn;k tkrk gSA izR;sd MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV dk cukus okyk vkSj ekfyd gksrk gSA
fuEufyf[kr MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l gSa %&

clusters
constraints
database links
rollback segments
sequences
tables
users

columns
database
indexes
savepoints
synonyms
tablespaces
views

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vH;klkFkZ izu
oLrqfu"B izu
1 Mh-,e-,y- ds }kjk vki D;k dj ldrs gSa\
(v) MkVk dks ,UVj ,oe~ ,fMV
(c)
(l) mijksDr nksuksa dk;ksZ ds fy,
(n)
vfr
1
2
3
4
5

fjiksVZ~l cuk ldrs gS


mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaa

y?kqkjkRed izu
lysDV dek.M dk D;k mi;ksx gS\
viMsV dek.M dk D;k mi;ksx gS\
fMyhV dek.M dk D;k mi;ksx gS\
Vscy dk LVDpj ns[kus gsrq dkSulh dek.M dk mi;ksx djsxas \
Vscy]MsVkcsl rFkk dkWye ds uke dh vf/kdre yEckbZ fdrus v{kjksa dh gS\

y?kq kjkRed iz u
1 bUlVZ bu Vw dek.M dk D;k mi;ksx gS\
2 O;w D;k gksrk gS\
3 fdlh Vscy ds leLr fjdkWMZl dks iznfkZr djus ds fy, dek.M fy[kssa\
4 MySQL }kjk mi;ksx fd;s tkus okys indexes ds izdkjksa dk o.kZu dhft,\
fucU/kkRed iz u
1 VscYl esa ls dqN MkVk dks dSls fjVho fd;k tkrk gS\ mnkgj.k lfgr o.kZu djsaA
2 Mh-,e-,y- dek.M~l dk foLr`r o.kZu dhft,A
3 MkVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l ds uke nsus ds fu;eksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
4 VIEW dks mnkgj.k lfgr le>kb;s\
mkjekyk
1v

AglaSem School

4
ekbZ,lD;w,y QaDkUl
MySQL Functions
4-1 ifjp;
Functions, SQL/MySQL dh eq[; foks"krk gS vkSj bls fuEufyf[kr dk;ksZa dks djus ds
fy;s iz;qDr fd;k tk ldrk gsSA
MkVk ij fofHkUu x.kuk;sa djus ds fy,

fdlh fofk"V MkVk lsVS vFkok MkVk lsSV ds lewg dks ifjofRkZr djus ds fy,A

fdlh fofk"V iafDr vFkok iafDr;ksa ds lewg dks ifjoZfrr djus ds fy,A
dates and numbers ds iznkZu ds fy, QkjesfVax djukA

data types ds dUotZu ds fy,A

Function rFkk Operator leku :i ls dk;Z djrs gaSA nksuksa gh ,d vFkok vf/kd ifj.kke
nkkZrs gSa vkSj 'kwU; vFkok vf/kd argument ysrs gaSA

4-2 la[;kRed QaDku (Numeric Functions) :


;g dsoy numeric input ysrs gaS rFkk numeric output nsrs gssSa bu functions dks
select statement rFkk vU; statements ds lkFk iz;qDr dj ldrs gaSA
ABS() Function
QaDku dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh la[;k dh fuisZ{k eku fudkyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
tSls fd SELECT ABS(-30)(
bldk ifj.kke 30 izkIr gksxkA
CEIL() Function
bl QaDku dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh la[;k dk U;wure baVhtj eku ysus ds fy;s djrs gS
tks fd nh gqbZ la[;k ds cjkcj ;k vf/kd gksrk gSA tSls fd SELECT CEIL(10.6)+(
bldk ifj.kke 11 izkIr gksxkA

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FLOOR() Function
bl QaDku dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh la[;k dk vf/kdre baVhtj eku ysus ds fy;s djrs gS tks fd
nh gqbZ la[;k ds cjkcj ;k de gksrk gSA tSls fd SELECT FLOOR(10.6)+(
bldk ifj.kke 10 izkIr gksxkA
SELECT FLOOR(-10.6);
bldk ifj.kke &11 izkIr gksxkA
MOD() Function
bl QaDku dk mi;ksx 'ks"kQy fudkyus ds fy;s gksrk gS tks fd izFke la[;k esa f}rh; la[;k
ds Hkkx nsus ds ipkr 'ks"k jgrh gSA tSls fd SELECT MOD(25,10) (
bldk ifj.kke 5 izkIr gksxkA
POWER(m,n) Function ;k POW(m,n)
bl QaDku dk mi;ksx la[;k (m)ds ?kkr (n) dk ifj.kke izkIr djus ds fy, djrs gSA tSls
fd SELECT POWER(4,2) (
bldk ifj.kke 16 izkIr gksxkA
ROUND(n[,m]) Function
bl QaDku dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh la[;k (n) dks m LFkku rd jkm.M djus ds fy;s gksrk gSA
blesa m dk baVhtj gksuk vko;d gSA tSls fd SELECT ROUND(10.645,2) +(
bldk ifj.kke 10-64 izkIr gksxkA
SIGN(n) Function
QaDku dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh la[;k (n) dk eku &1 nsrk gS ;fn n dk eku 'kwU; ls de
gksrk gS] n dk eku 0 nsrk gS ;fn n dk eku 0 gks vkSj 1 nsrk gS ;fn n dk eku 0 ls vf/kd
gksA tSls fd SELECT SIGN(-30) (
bldk ifj.kke &1 izkIr gksxkA
SQRT(n) Function
QaDku dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh la[;k (n) ds oxZey
w dk eku nsrk gSA tSls fd
SELECT SQRT(16) (
bldk ifj.kke 4 izkIr gksxkA
TRUNCATE(n[,m]) Function
QaDku dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh la[;k (n) dks nkeyo ds m LFkku rd NksMdj ipkr dh leLr
nkeyo fcUnqvksa dks gVk nsrk gSA tSls fd
SELECT TRUNCATE(10.645,2) (

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bldk ifj.kke 10-64 izkIr gksxkA


SELECT TRUNCATE(10.645,0);
bldk ifj.kke 10 izkIr gksxkA
a QaDku (String Functions) :
44-3
-3 fLVx
;g dsoy character input ysrs gS rFkk numeric o character output nsrs gssSa bu
functions dks select statement rFkk vU; statements ds lkFk iz;qDr dj ldrs gSA bu
QaDkUl dks uhps of.kZr LVwMUs V Vscy dk mnkgj.k ysdj le>k;k x;k gSA
ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

07/10/1965

MBA

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

16/11/1995

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

25/06/1960

XII

10004

RUBAL

DR. VINAY GOYAL

27/11/1989

XI

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KMAR

06/11/2000

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

19/04/1971

Ph.D

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

14/08/2003

PLAY

4.3.1 Case Conversion function:


LOWER() Qyu Function

bl QaDku }kjk fdlh Hkh'kCn ;k iafDr ds lHkh v{kjksa dks NksVs v{kjksa esa cnyk tkrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ % SELECT LOWER(FNAME ) FROM STUDENT WHERE
ROLLNO=10005;
mijksDr dek.M ds }kjk LVwMUs V Vscy ls FNAME ij ;g QaDku yxk;k x;k gS lkFk gh
,d 'krZ ;g yxkbZ x;h gS fd ifj.kke dsoy mlh dk ns ftldk ROLLNO 10005 gksA bldk
ifj.kke fuEu izkIr gksxkA
FNAME
shri shiv kumar
UPPER() Qyu Function

bl QaDku }kjk fdlh Hkh 'kCn ;k iafDr ds lHkh v{kjksa dks cMs+ v{kjksa esa cnyk tkrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ% SELECT UPPER (FNAME ) FROM STUDENT WHERE ROLLNO=10003;

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mijksDr dek.M ds }kjk LVwMsUV Vscy ls FNAME ij ;g QaDku yxk;k x;k gS lkFk gh
,d 'krZ ;g yxkbZ x;h gS fd ifj.kke dsoy mlh dk ns ftldk ROLLNO 10003 gksA bldk
ifj.kke fuEu izkIr gksxkA
FNAME
SHRI DL AGRAWAL

4.3.2 String Manipulation function


Concat() function
bl QaDku dk mi;ksx fofHkUu QhYMks ls izkIr ifj.kkeksa dks tksMus Combine ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA
CONCAT(str1, str2, str3, ...);

mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SELECT CONCAT(My, S, QL);
Output:
MySQL
INSTR(STR, SUBSTR) Qyu Function

bl QaDku ls fdlh Hkh 'kCn@iafDr esa pkgs x;s v{kj dh izFke ckj mifLFkfr dh fLFkfr
dk irk yxk;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

INSTR(STR, SUBSTR)

RESULT

INSTR(HARDDISK, DISK)

INSTR(COMPUTER, HARDDISK)

LENGTH() Qyu Function

bl QaDku }kjk fdlh Hkh 'kCn@iafDr dh yEckbZ crkbZ tkrh gSA


mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

LENGTH(char)

LENGTH(alpha)

mijksDr mnkgj.k iafDr dh dqy yEckbZ crkrk gSA

RESULT
5

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LPAD() Qyu Function

bl QaDku }kjk ck;ha rjQ vfrfjDr v{kj ;k v{kjksa ds lewg dh HkjkbZ (insert) dh
tkrh gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

LPAD(char1,n[,char2])

LPAD(alpha,10,*)

RESULT
*****alpha

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa char1 ds ck;ha rjQ vfrfjDr v{kj char2 dh HkjkbZ dh x;h gS rFkk
char1 dh dqy yEckbZ n(10) gSA
LTRIM() Qyu Function

;g QaDku fdlh Hkh 'kCn dss igys ds [kkyh LFkkuksa dks gVk nsrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

LTRIM(STR)

LTRIM(

RESULT
HOLIDAY)

HOLIDAY

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa char ds ck;ha rjQ ds v{kj set ls rhu LFkku rd feyrs gSA ftudks
mijksDr QaDku }kjk gVk;k x;k gSA
REPLACE() Qyu Function

;g QaDku iafDr ds lHkh v{kjksa dks vkWIku 2 ls cny nsrk gS tks v{kj iafDr esa vkWIku 1
ls feyrs gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

RESULT

REPLACE(line,option1[,option2]) REPLACE (man & woman,a,e) men & women

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa line es fLFkr option1 esa miyC/k v{kj dks option2 ds v{kj ls cnyk x;k gSA

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RPAD() Qyu Function

bl QaDku }kjk nk;ha rjQ vfrfjDr v{kj ;k v{kjksa ds lewg dh HkjkbZ dh tkrh gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

RESULT

RPAD(char1,n[,char2])

RPAD(alpha,10,*)

alpha*****

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa char1 ds nk;ha rjQ vfrfjDr v{kj char2 dh HkjkbZ dh x;h gS rFkk char1
dh dqy yEckbZ n(10) gSA
RTRIM() Qyu Function

;g QaDku fdlh Hkh 'kCn ds vUr esa fLFkr [kkyh LFkkuksa dks gVk nsrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

SELECT RTRIM(STR)

RTRIM(HOLIDAY

RESULT
) HOLIDAY

SUBSTR() Qyu Function

bl QaDku }kjk fLVx


a esa ls lc&fLVax fudkyh tkrh gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX
SUBSTR(char,m[,n])

EXAMPLE
SUBSTR(RAMSITA,2,3)

RESULT
AMS

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa char ds LFkku 2 (m) ls lcfLVax dh yEckbZ 3 (n) v{kj dh ysdj
ifj.kke fn;k x;k gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SELECT SUBSTRING(MATHEMATICS,5,6);
RESULT - EMATICS

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4.4 Date Functions :


lHkh date functions }kjk date data type ifj.kke fn;k tkrk gS dsoy
month_between function dks NksMdj tks fd vadh; la[;k esa ifj.kke nsrk gSA
LAST_DAY() Qyu Function

bl QaDku }kjk crk;s x;s ekg dh vfUre frfFk dks Kkr fd;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
SYNTAX

EXAMPLE

RESULT

LAST_DAY(n)

LAST_DAY(SYSDATE)

31-JAN-2006

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa SYSDATE tks fd tuojh ekg lu~ 2006 dh gS }kjk tuojh 2006 ds
ekg dh vfUre frfFk tks fd 31 tuojh 2006 Kkr dh x;h gSA
SELECT LAST_DAY(2003-05-32)
RESULT

NULL

CURDATE() Qyu Function

;g QaDku }kjk orZeku rkjh[k dks YYYY-MM-DD ;k YYYYMMDD QksjesV esa iznfkZr
djrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
select curdate();
2009-01-03
CURTIME() :
;g QaDku }kjk orZeku le; dks HH:MM:SS or HHMMSS QksjesV esa iznfkZr djrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ%
select curtime();
18:38:09
DATEDIFF(expression1,expression2) :
expression1 vkSj expression2 nksuks fnukad ;k fnukad le; QksjesV esa gksrs gSaA ;g
QaDku nksuks fnukadks ds vUrj dks fnukas dh la[;k ds :i esa crkrk gSA dsoy fnukad okyk Hkkx gh
x.kuk esa dke vkrk gSA

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mnkgj.kkFkZ%
select datediff(2007-2-10 17:33:25,2007-1-1');
40
DATE_ADD(datetime, INTERVAL expression datetimetype)
;g QaDku fn;s x;s eku INTERVAL dks fnukad datetime esa tksM+ dj iznfkZr
djrk gSA
select date_add(2007-1-13, interval 15 day);
2007-01-28
ADDDATE(2008-1-10,INTERVAL 10 DAYS);
2008-01-20
ADDDATE()rFkk DATE_ADD functions lekukFkZd gSA
SUBDATE(date,INTERVAL expr unit), SUBDATE(expr,days)
;g QaDku fn;s x;s eku INTERVAL dks fnukad datetime esa ls ?kVk dj
iznfkZr djrk gSA
SUBDATE()rFkk DATE_SUB functions lekukFkZd gSA
select date_sub(2007-1-14, interval 10 day);
2007-01-04
DAYNAME(date) :
;g QaDku nh xbZ fnukad ds fnu ds uke dks iznfkZr djrk gSA
select dayname(2010-04-22);
Thursday
DAYOFMONTH(date) or DAY(date) :
;g QaDku nh xbZ fnukad ds fnu dks vad ds :i esa 1 ls 31 ds chp iznfkZr djrk
gSA QaDku DAY() rFkk DAYOFMONTH() lekukFkZd gSA
select dayofmonth(2007-01-04);
4
DAYOFWEEK(date) :
;g QaDku nh xbZ fnukad ds lIrkg ds fnu dks vad ds :i esa 1 ls 7 ds chp iznfkZr
djrk gSA

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select dayofweek(2007-01-03);
4
DAYOFYEAR(date) :
;g QaDku nh xbZ fnukad dks o"kZ ds fnu ds :i esa 1 ls 366 ds chp iznfkZr djrk
gSA
select dayofyear(2007-07-09);
190
MONTH(date) :
;g QaDku nh xbZ fnukad ds eghus dks vad ds :i esa 1 ls 12 ds chp iznfkZr djrk
gSA
select month(2007-09-09);
9
MONTHNAME(date) :
;g QaDku nh xbZ fnukad ds eghus ds uke dks iznfkZr djrk gSA
select monthname(2007-09-09);
September
NOW() :
;g QaDku orZeku fnukad o le; dks iznfkZr djrk gSA ftldk QksjesV
DD HH:MM:SS or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS gSA

YYYY-MM-

select now();
2007-01-04 14:56:15
STR_TO_DATE(str,format)
;g QaDku str esa nh xbZ iafDr dks format esa fn;s x;s QksjseVs ds vuqlkj fnukad ;k le; ;k
fnukad rFkk le; ds :i esa iznfkZr djrk gSA ;fn str iafDr esa fnukaad ;k le; ds vuq:i eku
ugha gS rks null eku iznfkZr gksrk gSA ;g QaDku DATE_FORMAT()ds foijhr gSA
SELECT STR_TO_DATE(01,5,2003,%D,%M,%Y);
2013-05-01
mijksDr mnkgj.k ds QksjesV esa %D fnu dks ,%M eghus dks rFkk %Y lky dks
iznfkZr djrk gSA

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DATE_FORMAT() function
;g QaDku fnukad rFkk le; ds MsVk dks fofHkUu QksjesV esa iznfkZr djrk gSA
DATE_FORMAT(date,format)
mijksDr syntax esa date ,d ekU; fnukad gS rFkk format fnukad dks iznfkZr djus dk QksjesV
gSA
Format
%b
%d
%m
%Y

Description
eghus ds uke 'kCnksa esa
eghus dk fnu vadks esa (00-31)
eghuk vadks esa (00-12)
o"kZ pkj vadks esa

Example: DATE_FORMAT(NOW(),%m-%d-%Y)
Result : 11-04-2008
Example: DATE_FORMAT(NOW(),%d %b %y)
Result : 04 Nov 08

4.5 Data type conversion functions


;s QaDku fn;s x;s eku dks fofHkUu mi;ksxksa ds fy, ,d MsVk VkbZi ls nwljs MsVk VkbZi esa
cnyus ds dke vkrs gSaA ;g QaDku select rFkk vU; dFkuksa statements ds lkFk mi;ksx
esa vkrs gSA
4.5.1 bEifyflV Implicit) :ikUrj.k Conversion:
;g :ikarj.k os gS tks fcuk CAST ;k CONVERT QaDku ds dke esa vkrs gSA

mnkgj.kkFkZ% ,d iafDr (string) dks iw.kZ la[;k esa cnyuk


SELECT 1+12;
13
;gak iafDr (string) *12* dks la[;k(Numeric) esa cny dj in expression dk ifj.kke 13
Hkh la[;k esa izkIr gqvk gSA
mnkgj.k % la[;k dk iafDr esa :ikraj.k
SELECT CONCAT(1,ALPHA);
1 ALPHA

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4.5.2 ,DlfIyflV Explicit) :ikUrj.k


;s :ikraj.k os gS tks CAST ;k CONVERT QaDku dks dke esas ysdj fd;s tkrs gSA
CAST(expr AS type) QaDku
CAST() QaDku ,d MsVk Vkbi ds eku dks ysdj nwljs MsVk Vkbi ds eku esa cnyrk

gSA
mnkgj.k % la[;k dk iafDr esa :ikraj.k ;k Casting
SELECT 12, CAST(12 as CHAR);
12, 12
CONVERT(expr,type) QaDku
CONVERT ,d in ls eku ysdj nwljs MsVk Vkbi esa cny nsrk gSA
1)SELECT (1999-05-15 00:00:00 AS date) as DATE1
Date1
1999-05-15
2)SELECT (99-05-15 00:00:00 AS date) as DATE2
Date2
1999-05-15
4.6. Aggregate QaDku :

;s QaDku dbZ records ls eku ysdj ifj.kke dh x.kuk djus ds dke esa vkrs gSA
;s eq[; ikap izdkj ds gksrs gSaA
1. COUNT(x)
2. SUM(x)
3. AVG(x)
4. MIN(x)
5. MAX(x)

x dh Hkjh gqbZ ekuksa dh x.kuk djrk gSaA


x ds ekuksa dks tksMrk gSA
x ds ekuksa dk vkSlr fudkyrk gS] null values dh mis{kk djrs gq,
x ds U;wure eku dks iznfkZr djrk gSA
x ds vf/kdre eku dks iznfkZr djrk gSA

mnkgj.kkFkZ%
1.

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM marks WHERE marks >90;


5

2.

SELECT sum(marks) as TOTAL FROM marks ;

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WHERE rollno=10002;
TOTAL
357
3.

SELECT AVG(marks) FROM marks;


91.43

4.

SELECT MIN(marks) FROM marks;


80

5.

SELECT MAX(marks) FROM marks;


99

xzqi QaDku Group Functions %


xzqi QaDku }kjk izkIr ifj.kke ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd iafDr;ksa ds lewg ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ;g
QaDku select rFkk vU; dFkuksa statements ds lkFk mi;ksx esa vkrs gSA
fjdkWMZl dk lewg cukuk %
Group by Clause The GROUP BY clause }kjk fdlh Vscy dks ,d ;k vf/kd milewg esa feyk djds] ml
milewg esa dks Hkh expr leku gksrk gS vkSj ml milewg esa dks eku gksrk gSA GROUP BY
clause esa ,d ls vf/kd dkWye gks ldrs gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ uhps fn;k x;k gS fd fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks d{kk]
oxZ] ,oe~ fo"k;kuqlkj mi lewg esa cuk;k tk ldrk gS&
SYNTAX
SELECT * from student GROUP BY CLASS
4.7 lc DoSjh Sub Query:
lc DoSjh SQL/MySQL dk fodflr :i gSa rFkk MySQL }kjk lefFkZr gSA lc DoSjh
esa ,d DoSjh dk ifj.kke nwljh DoSjh dk Hkkx gksrk gSAa ;g okLro esa ,d select statement ds
vUnj nwljk select, insert, update ;k delete statement gksrk gSA
Subquery egRroiw.kZ gS D;ksafd Subquery }kjk ;g vklku gks tkrk gS fdlh Hkh DoSjh dks VqdMksa esa foHkDr djuk ,oa
VqdMksa dks iqu% tksMdj ,d djukA
dqN Dosjht dks fcuk lcDosjh dk mi;ksx fd;s MySQL esa ifjHkkf"kr ugha fd;k tk
ldrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ
SELECT * FROM MARKS

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WHERE ROLLNO = (SELECT ROLLNO FROM student WHERE


SUDENTNAME=MANAN);
mDr mnkgj.k esa geus sudent table esa ls euu dk jksy uEcj fy;k gS rFkk izkIr ifj.kke dh
rqyuk marks table ds jksy uEcj ls dh gS D;ksfad marks table esa uke miyC/k ugha gSA blfy;s
geus uke ds vk/kkj ij jksy uEcj dks student table ls fy;k gS rFkk jksy uEcj dks marks table
es buiqV dh rjg iz;qDr fd;k gsA izkIr ifj.kke uhps fn;k x;k gSA
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10002

SCIENCE

90

10002

MATHS

85

10002

ENGLISH

90

10002

HINDI

85

,dkf/kd VscYl ls MkVk dk iznkZu djuk@ izkIr djuk


gekjs ikl nks VscYl student rFkk marks ifjfk"V esa fn;s x;s MkVkuqlkj gS&
nksuksa esa gh vf}rh; key rollno gSA fuEu Dosjh dh lgk;rk ls MkVk dk fMLiys nksuksa
Vscy ls fd;k tk ldrk gS
SELECT student.rollno, student.studentname, marks.marks,
marks.subject FROM student, marks WHERE student.rollno=marks.rollno;
izkIr ifj.kke uhps fn;k x;k gSA
rollno

studentname

marks

subject

10001

VINOD

60

HINDI

10001

VINOD

75

ENGLISH

10001

VINOD

55

MATHS

10002

MANAN

90

SCIENCE

10002

MANAN

85

MATHS

10002
10002

MANAN
MANAN

90
85

ENGLISH
HINDI

bl izdkj ,dkf/kd Vscy ls MkVk dk fMLiys fd;k tk ldrk gSA

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ge comparison operators dk iz;ksx 'krkasZ esa dj ldrs gaSA


1.
2.

=
>

equal to
greater than

3.

<

less than

4.
5.

>=
<=

greater than or equal to


less than or equal to

6.

<>

not equal to

7. LIKE
string comparison test
comparison operators ds mnkgj.k ij fn;s x;s gSA
1.

SELECT * FROM student WHERE ROLLNO=10004;


ROLLNO STUDENTNAME
10004

2.

3.

RUBAL

FNAME

DOB

DR. VINAY GOYAL

CLASS
27/11/1989

XI

SELECT * FROM student WHERE ROLLNO>10005;


ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

19/04/1971

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

14/08/2003 PLAY

Ph.D

SELECT * FROM student WHERE ROLLNO<10004;


ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL 16/11/1995

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

XII

07/10/1965
25/06/1960

CLASS
MBA

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4.

SELECT * FROM student WHERE ROLLNO<>10004;


ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME FNAME

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

07/10/1965

MBA

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

16/11/1995

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

25/06/1960

XII

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KMAR

06/11/2000

19/04/1971
14/08/2003

Ph.D
PLAY

10006
10007

5.

RANJANA
RADHIKA

DOB

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL


SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

CLASS

SELECT * FROM student WHERE ROLLNO>=10004;


ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10004

RUBAL

DR. VINAY GOYAL

27/11/1989

XI

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KMAR

06/11/2000

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

19/04/1971

Ph.D

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL

14/08/2003

PLAY

6. SELECT * FROM student WHERE ROLLNO<=10004;


ROLLNO STUDENTNAME

7.

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

07/10/1965

MBA

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL 16/11/1995

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGRAWAL

25/06/1960

XII

10004

RUBAL

DR. VINAY GOYAL

27/11/1989

XI

SELECT * FROM student WHERE FNAME LIKE SHRI VI%;


ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL 16/11/1995

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL 19/04/1971

Ph.D

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGRAWAL 14/08/2003

PLAY

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Mathematical operators
1. +
2. -

Addition
Subtraction

3. *

Multiplication

4. /
5. %

Division
Modulo

Mathematical operators ds mnkgj.k fn;s x;s gaS


1.

SELECT * FROM marks where (marks+2) =100;


ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

MATHS

98

2. SELECT * FROM marks where (marks-2) >90;

3.

ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001
10002

MATHS
MATHS

98
99

SELECT * FROM marks where marks*2<=180;


ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

90

10002

SCIENCE

80

10002

ENGLISH

90

10002

HINDI

88

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4.

5.

SELECT * FROM marks where marks/2>45;


ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

MATHS

99

SELECT * FROM marks where (marks+2) =100;


ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

90

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

SCIENCE

80

10002

MATHS

99

10002

ENGLISH

90

10002

HINDI

88

DISTINCT keyword dk iz;ksx djds nksgjko dks gVk;k tk ldrk gSA


mnkgj.kkFkZ
1) SELECT DISTINCT rollno FROM marks;
ROLLNO
10001
10002
USE AND, OR TO SPECIFY MULTIPLE CONDITIONS
mnkgj.kkFkZ
2) SELECT *
FROM marks
WHERE marks > 90
OR rollno =10002;

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ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

SCIENCE

80

10002

MATHS

99

10002

ENGLISH

90

10002

HINDI

88

3) SELECT *
FROM marks
WHERE subject=HINDI
AND marks < = 90;
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

HINDI

90

10002

HINDI

88

4) SELECT *
FROM marks
WHERE marks BETWEEN 95 AND 99;
ROLLNO

SUBJECT

MARKS

10001

ENGLISH

95

10001

MATHS

98

10002

MATHS

99

Sorting of data
5) SELECT *
FROM student
ORDER BY studentname;
* By default fjsdkMZl dks c<rs gq;s e esa O;ofLFkr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

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ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

CLASS

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KUMAR

2000-07-01

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGARWAL 1995-10-16

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGARWAL 2003-08-14

PLAY

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGARWAL 1965-07-10

Ph.D

10004

RUBAL

VINAY GOYAL

1989-11-27 XI

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGARWAL

1960-06-25 XII

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGARWAL

1965-07-10 MBA

ASC and DESC keywords dk iz;ksx ascending vFkok descending e esa O;ofLFkr djus
ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.kkFkZ
6) SELECT *
FROM student
ORDER BY studentname DESC;
ROLLNO

STUDENTNAME

FNAME

DOB

10001

VINOD

SHRI DL AGARWAL

1965-07-10 MBA

10003

SURESH

SHRI DL AGARWAL

1960-06-25 XII

10004

RUBAL

VINAY GOYAL

1989-11-27 XI

10006

RANJANA

SHRI VINOD AGARWAL 1965-07-10 Ph.D

10007

RADHIKA

SHRI VINOD AGARWAL 2003-08-14 PLAY

10002

MANAN

SHRI VINOD AGARWAL 1995-10-16 V

10005

DHRUV

SHRI SHIV KUMAR

CLASS

2000-07-01 I

GROUP BY izkIr ifj.kke vki }kjk nh x 'krksZa ds vk/kkj ij izkIr gksrs gaSA

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7) SELECT sum(marks)
FROM marks
GROUP BY subject;

98

90

194

170

98

Use the having clause to apply a search condition to groups


8)

SELECT sum(marks)
FROM marks
GROUP BY subject
HAVING sum(marks) >90

98

194

170

98

Joins dk iz;ksx rc fd;k tkrk gS tcfd gesa nks vFkok vf/kd VscYl ls MkVk dh vko;drk
gksrh gS
join nks vFkok vf/kd VscYl dks ,d Vscy esa feykus ds dke esa vkrk gSA
inner join dh syntax :
9) SELECT student.rollno,student.studentname,marks.subject,marks.marks
FROM student INNER JOIN marks
ON student.rollno = marks. Rollno;

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Rollno

Studentname

Subject

Marks

10001

VINOD

MATHS

90

10001

VINOD

HINDI

95

10001

VINOD

SCIENCE

98

10002

MANAN

HINDI

99

10002

MANAN

MATHS

80

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
QaDku SQL/MySQL dh vR;ar lkDr foks"krk gSa rFkk fuEu iz;ksxksa ds fy, dke esa vkrs gSA

fn;s x;s MsVk dh x.kuk ds fy,A


MsVk vFkok MsVk lewg ds v|ru Modify ds fy,A
iafDr vFkok iafDr lewg ds output esa cnyko ds fy,A
fnukad o la[;kvksa dks iznfkZr djus ds fy, Format djus ds fy,A
Column ds MsVk Vkbi dks cnyus ds fy,A

QaDku rFkk vkWijsVj ,d gh 'kSyh esa dke djrs gSaA nksuksa gh ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd ifj.kke
izLrqr djrs gSa rFkk 'kwU; o vU; pjksa dks Lohr djrk gSA
lc DoSjh SQL/MySQL dk fodflr :i gSaA rFkk MySQL }kjk lefFkZr gSA lc DoSjh esa ,d
DoSjh dk ifj.kke nwljh DoSjh dk Hkkx gksrk gSAa ;g okLro esa ,d select statement ds vUnj nwljk
select, insert, update ;k delete statement gksrk gSA
Subquery dh foks"krk,a egRroiw.kZ gS D;ksafd

Subquery }kjk ;g vklku gks tkrk gS fd ,d Dosjh dks VqdMksa esa djds mls iqu mu VqdMksa
dks nqckjk ,d lkFk j[k fn;k tkrk gSA
dqN Dosjht dks fcuk lcDosjh dk mi;ksx fd;s SQL esa ifjHkkf"kr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA

MsVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l % MsVkcsl vkWCtsDV~l RDBMS }kjk lapkfyr gksrs gSA lkekU;r;k lHkh MsVkcsl
vkWCtsDV~l eSeksjh esa laxfz gr jgrh gSaA

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MsVkcsl

vkWCtsDV~l fuEu izdkj ls gSa clusters


constraints
database links
rollback segments
tables
users

columns
database
indexes
savepoints
tablespaces
views

la[;kRed QaDku (Numeric Functions) : ;g dsoy numeric input ysrs gaS rFkk
numeric output nsrs gssSa bu functions dks select statement rFkk vU; statements ds
lkFk iz;qDr dj ldrs gaSA
fLVx
a QaDku (String Functions) : ;g dsoy character input ysrs gS rFkk
numeric o character output nsrs gssSa bu functions dks select statement rFkk vU;
statements ds lkFk iz;qDr dj ldrs gSA bu QaDkUl dks uhps of.kZr LVwMUs V Vscy dk
mnkgj.k ysdj le>k;k x;k gSA
Date Functions : lHkh date functions }kjk date data type ifj.kke fn;k tkrk gS
dsoy month_between function dks NksMdj tks fd vadh; la[;k esa ifj.kke nsrk gSA
Data type conversion functions: ;s QaDku fn;s x;s eku dks fofHkUu mi;ksxksa ds fy,
,d MsVk VkbZi ls nwljs MsVk VkbZi esa cnyus ds dke vkrs gSaA ;g QaDku select rFkk vU;
dFkuksa statements ds lkFk mi;ksx esa vkrs gSA
bEifyflV Implicit) :ikUrj.k Conversion: ;g :ikarj.k os gS tks fcuk CAST ;k
CONVERT QaDku ds dke esa vkrs gSA
,DlfIyflV Explicit) :ikUrj.k : ;s :ikraj.k os gS tks CAST ;k CONVERT
QaDku dks dke esas ysdj fd;s tkrs gSA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu %
1 CEIL(10.6) dk ifj.kke D;k gksxk ?
(va) 10
(c)
(l) 9
(n)
2 mod (35,10) dk ifj.kke D;k gksxk?
(va) 3
(c)
(l) 10
(n)

11
0
5
35

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3. sqrt (81) dk ifj.kke D;k gksxk ?


(va) 9
(l) 8
4. sign (-30) dk ifj.kke D;k gksxk ?
(va) -1
(l) -30
vfr
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

(c)
(n)

6
1

(c)
(n)

0
30

y?kqRrjkRed izu %
concat() function QaDku dk mi;ksx D;k gS?
lpad() function QaDku dk mi;ksx D;k gS?
substr() function QaDku dk mi;ksx D;k gS?
rtrim() function QaDku dk mi;ksx D;k gS?
now() function QaDku dk mi;ksx D;k gS?
cast() function QaDku dk mi;ksx D;k gS?
str_to_date() function QaDku dk mi;ksx D;k gS?

y?kqRrjkRed izu %
1. la[;kRed QaDku numeric functions fdrus izdkj ds gS\
2. fLVax QaDku fdrus izdkj ds gS\
fucU/kkRed
ucU/kkRed izu %
1. xzqi QaDku dks foLrkj ls le>kb;s \
2. MsVk Vkbi :ikarj.k QaDku dks mnkgj.k lfgr le>kb;s \
mRrj %
1. c

2. c

3. v

4. v

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vkjf{kr 'kCn Reserved Words


ADD

COLUMNS

DISTINCTROW

ALL

CONDITION

DIV

ALTER

CONNECTION

DOUBLE

AND

CONSTRAINT

DROP

AS

CONTINUE

ELSE

ANALYZE

CREATE

ELSEIF

ASC

CROSS

ENCLOSED

ASENSITIVE

CURRENT_DATE

ESCAPED

AUTO_INCREMENT

CURRENT_TIME

EXISTS

BDB

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

EXIT

BEFORE

CURSOR

EXPLAIN

BERKELEYDB

DATABASE

FALSE

BETWEEN

DATABASES

FETCH

BIGINT

DAY_HOUR

FIELDS

BINARY

DAY_MICROSECOND

FLOAT

BLOB

DAY_MINUTE

FOR

BOTH

DAY_SECOND

FORCE

BY

DEC

FOREIGN

CALL

DECIMAL

FOUND

CASCADE

DECLARE

FRAC_SECOND

CASE

DEFAULT

FROM

CHANGE

DELAYED

FULLTEXT

CHAR

DELETE

GRANT

CHARACTER

DESC

GROUP

CHECK

DESCRIBE

HAVING

COLLATE

DETERMINISTIC

HIGH_PRIORITY

COLUMN

DISTINCT

HOUR_MICROSECOND

AglaSem School

HOUR_MINUTE

baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/162
LOAD

OUT

HOUR_SECOND

LOCALTIME

OUTER

IF

LOCALTIMESTAMP

OUTFILE

IGNORE

LOCK

PRECISION

IN

LONG

PRIMARY

INDEX

LONGBLOB

PRIVILEGES

INFILE

LONGTEXT

PROCEDURE

INNER

LOOP

PURGE

INNODB

LOW_PRIORITY

READ

INOUT

MASTER_SERVER_ID

REAL

INSENSITIVE

MATCH

REFERENCES

INSERT

MEDIUMBLOB

REGEXP

INT

MEDIUMINT

RENAME

INTEGER

MEDIUMTEXT

REPEAT

INTERVAL

MIDDLEINT

REPLACE

INTO

MINUTE_MICROSECOND

REQUIRE

IO_THREAD

MINUTE_SECOND

RESTRICT

IS

MOD

RETURN

ITERATE

NATURAL

REVOKE

JOIN

NOT

RIGHT

KEY

NO_WRITE_TO_BINLOG

RLIKE

KEYS

NULL

SECOND_MICROSECOND

KILL

NUMERIC

SELECT

LEADING

ON

SENSITIVE

LEAVE

OPTIMIZE

SEPARATOR

LEFT

OPTION

SET

LIKE

OPTIONALLY

SHOW

LIMIT

OR

SMALLINT

LINES

ORDER

SOME

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SONAME

TINYBLOB

XOR

SPATIAL

TINYINT

YEAR_MONTH

SPECIFIC

TINYTEXT

ZEROFILL

SQL

TO

SQLEXCEPTION

TRAILING

SQLSTATE

TRUE

SQLWARNING

UNDO

SQL_BIG_RESULT

UNION

SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS

UNIQUE

SQL_SMALL_RESULT

UNLOCK

SQL_TSI_DAY

UNSIGNED

SQL_TSI_FRAC_SECOND

UPDATE

SQL_TSI_HOUR

USAGE

SQL_TSI_MINUTE

USE

SQL_TSI_MONTH

USER_RESOURCES

SQL_TSI_QUARTER

USING

SQL_TSI_SECOND

UTC_DATE

SQL_TSI_WEEK

UTC_TIME

SQL_TSI_YEAR

UTC_TIMESTAMP

SSL

VALUES

STARTING

VARBINARY

STRAIGHT_JOIN

VARCHAR

STRIPED

VARCHARACTER

TABLE

VARYING

TABLES

WHEN

TERMINATED

WHERE

THEN

WHILE

TIMESTAMPADD

WITH

TIMESTAMPDIFF

WRITE

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1
lqpuk izkS|ks
|ksfxdh ds vuqi;z ksx
Application Of Information Technology
1.1 bZ&'kklu (E-Governance)

bZ&'kklu (E-Governance) dks bZ&ljdkj (E-Government), fMftVy ljdkj (Digital


Government), vkWu&ykbu (On-line Government) ;k lac) ljdkj (Connected Government)
ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA ukxfjdksa , m|e lk>snkjksa (Business Partner) rFkk deZpkfj;ksa ds ykHk
ds fy, rduhdksa ds mi;ksx ds ek/;e ls ljdkjh lsokvksa dh igqp (Access) rFkk izfriknu
(Delivery) dks c<kok nsus dh izf;k dks bZ&'kklu dgrs gSA
bZ&'kklu, 'kklu esa bZ&O;kikj dk ,d #i gS ftlesa vke ukxfjdksa dks bZ&lsok ds izfriknu
dh izf;k rFkk lajpuk fufgr gksrh gSA bZ&'kklu, vke ukxfjdksa dks bysDVkfs ud ek/;e ls ljdkj
ds lkFk vU;ksU; f;k (interaction) dj euokafNr lsok ysus dh lqfo/kk dks vius vanj lekfgr djrk
gSA
bZ&esy ,ao baVjusV ds ek/;e ls vke turk dh 'kklu esa Hkkxhnkjh dks c<kok nsuk rFkk
'kklu dks lqxe, ljy ,ao lq/kkjuk bZ&'kklu dk vafre y{; gSAbZ&'kklu, bZ&iztkra+= dks bafxr
djrk gS ,tgkW ij vke turk rFkk ljdkj ds e?; lHkh izdkj dh vU;ksU; f;k bysDVkfs ud #i
esa gksrh gSAbZ&'kklu xq.kdkjh rFkk eqY; lk/kd lsokvksa dh lqpukvksa rFkk Kku dks 'kkflr ukxfjdks
rd igqpkus ds fy, dEI;qVj dh uohu rduhdksa rFkk lapkj rduhdksa tSl&
s baVjusV dk mi;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA
bZ&'kklu dks SMART iz'kklu Hkh dgrs gSASMART dk izR;sd v{kj iz'kklu dh ikWp
fo'ks"krkvksa dks bafxr djrk gS&Simple (lk/kkj.k),Moral (uhfreku),Accountable (tokcnsg),
Responsive(mkjnk;h),Transparent(ikjn'khZ)
1.2 bZ&'kklu dk vfHkizk; (Scope of E-Governance)

bZ&'kklu dh fuEukfdr foek,a gS&


1.2.1 ljdkj ls ukxfjd (Government to Citizen) (G2C)
G2C, bZ&'kklu dh og foek gS ftlds varZxr os lHkh lsok, vkrh gS tks ,d
ljdkj vius ukxfjdks dks miyC/k djkrh gSAG2C bZ&'kklu dk eq[; ms'; ljdkj }kjk ukxfjdksa

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baQksjesfVDl izsfDVlst/165

dks ,dy fcUnq izfriknu fudk; (Single point delivery system) ds ek/;e ls csgrj lqfo/kk,
miyC/k djkuk gSA blds varZxr 'kklu ds fuEu {ks=ks dks lEefyr fd;k tkrk gS&
bZ&ukxfjd (E-Citizen) & blds varZxr ljdkj lekdfyr lsok dsUnzkas (Integrated
Service Centers) ds ek/;e ls ukxfjdks dks tUe&e`R;q izek.k i= tkjh djuk, jk'ku dkMZ
o ikliksVZ tkjh djuk,ikuh,fctyh,VsyhQksu rFkk eksckby vkfn ds fcy tek djuk rFkk
dj (Tax) tek djus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA
bZ&ifjogu (E-Transport) & blds varx
Z r ljdkj ukxfjdks dks eksVj okgu iath;dj.k,
pkyd vkKk i= (Driving License) tkjh djuk, dj o 'kqYd dk tek djus vkfn dh
lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA
bZ&vkS"kf/k (E-Medicine) & blds varZxr ljdkj ns'k ds fofHkUu fgLlks esa fLFkr
vkS"k/kky;ksa (Hospitals) dk usVodZ LFkkfir dj ukxfjdks dks csgrj LokLF; lsok, iznku
djrh gSA
bZ&f'k{kk (E-Education) & baVjusV rFkk lapkj ek/;e (tSls&jsfM;ks,Vsyhfotu vkfn)
ds }kjk ns'k ds fofHkUu fgLlks eq[;r% nqjLFk LFkkuks esa fLFkr ukxfjdks dks f'k{kk dh
lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA
bZ&iath;dj.k (E-Registration) & bZ&iath;dj.k ljdkj ukxfjdks dks lEifk dk
iath;dj.k rFkk LFkkaukrj.k, LVkEi M;qVh tek djkus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSA
bZ&'kklu dh miyfC/k rFkk lQyrk ds fy, vko';d gS fd&
ljdkj ICT ds ek/;e ls vius fd, x, dk;ksZ , uhfr, ukxfjdks dks iznku dh x;h
lqfo/kkvksa rFkk viuh miyfC/k;ksa dh tkudkjh vke turk rd igqpk,A blls iz'kklu
ikjn'khZ, tokcnsg, dq'ky, ukxfjdks dks lefiZr ,ao ?kql[kksjh o fcpkSfy;ksa ls eqDr cusxkA
ljdkj ukxfjdks ls iquZfuos'k (Feedback) izkIr djus ds fy, ukxfjdks dks vkWuykbu
iquZfuos'ku f;kfof/k (Online Feedback Mechanism) miyC/k djk;s rFkk ukxfjdks ls
izkIr iquZfuos'k dks uhfr fu/kkZj.k rFkk iz'kklu esa lq/kkjus o tokcnsg cukus esa mi;ksx ysA
ljdkj dks ukxfjdkss dks nh tkus okyh vkWuykbu lqfo/kkvksa dh xq.kokk,izekf.kdrk,xfr
o miyC/krk dks c<kus ds fy, vuojr iz;kl djuk pkfg,A
1.2.2 miHkksDkk ls ljdkj (Consumer to Government) (C2G)
C2G , bZ&'kklu ds varZxr ukxfjd ljdkj ds lkFk vU;ksU; f;k djrk gS rFkk ljdkj ds pquko

ds fy, oksV nsuk, tux.kuk ls lacf/kr vius ckjs esa tkudkjh ljdkj dks miyC/k djkuk rFkk ljdkj
dks dj nsus tSls dk;Z djrk gSA
blds varZxr 'kklu ds fuEu {ks=ks dks lEefyr fd;k tkrk gS&
bZ&iztkra= (E-Democracy) & bZ&iztkra= ,bZ&'kklu dh og /kkj.kk gS ftlesa ukxfjdks
dh Hkqfedk 'kklu dks lqpuk nsus okys ls cny dj 'kklu esa Hkkxhnkj cukus dk iz;kl djrh
gSA bZ&iztkra= esa ljdkj bysDVksfud ek/;eksa dh enn ls fuEukfdr dk;Z djrh gS&
n ukxfjdks dks lqpuk iznku djuk
n ukxfjdks ds izfrfuf/k dh rjg dk;Z djuk

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n oksV nsus ds fy, ukxfjdks dks izksRlkfgr djuk
n ukxfjdks ls jk;'kqekjh djuk
n ukxfjdks dks iz'kklu esa Hkkxhnkj cukuk
n vius dk;ksZ rFkk uhfr;ksa ds fy, bZ&ppkZ (E-Debate) vk;ksftr djeh gS ftlesa

ukxfjdks ,ao jktuSfrd ikVhZ ds lnL;ks }kjk O; dh x;h jk; dks uhfr fu/kkZj.k
ds fy, djukA
bZ&'kklu dh miyfC/k rFkk lQyrk ds fy, vko';d gS fd ukxfjd ljdkjh dk;ksZ esa
Hkkxhnkjh djs rFkk ljdkj vius dk;ksZ , uhfr;ks, ukxfjdks dks iznku dh x;h lqfo/kkvksa rFkk viuh
miyfC/k;ksa dh tkudkfj;ksa dk izpkj ,ao izlkj djsA
1.2.3 ljdkj ls ljdkj (Government to Government) (G2G)
G2G dks bZ&'kklu ds uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSAG2G , bZ&'kklu dh og foek gS ftlds

varZxr ljdkj 'kklu dh izf;k dks fuEu dk;ksZ }kjk lq/kkjus dk iz;kl djrh gS&
iz'kklfud [kpksZ esa dVkSrh }kjk
'kklu ds van:uh f;kdykiks ds dEI;qVjhdj.k rFkk usVoZfdax }kjk
izf;k ds izc/a ku }kjk
izf;k ds l'kfdj.k }kjk
blds varZxr 'kklu ds fuEu {ks=ks dks lEefyr fd;k tkrk gS&
& fofHkUu 'kklu lfpoky; ,ao ljdkjh
bZ&'kklu lfpoky; (E-Secretariat)&
foHkkxks ds e/; usVoZd dh LFkkiuk ls 'kklu ds fofHkUu ?kVdks ds e/; lqpuk dk vknku
iznku gksus ls 'kklu izf;k ljy gks tkrh gSA
bZ&iqfyl (E-Police) &bZ&iqfyl ds varZxr nks izdkj ds MkVkcsl rS;kj fd;s tkrs
gSAizFke izdkj ds MkVkcsl esa iqfyl vf/kdkfj;ks dh lqpuk j[kh tkrh gS, ftlls vko';drk
iMus ij fdlh HkkSxksfyd {ks= fo'ks"k ;k fdlh dkS'ky (Skill) fo'ks"k dh fo'ks"kKrk j[kus okys
O;f dks vklkuh ls <q<k tk ldsA nqljs izdkj ds MkVkcsl esa vijkf/k;ksa dh tkudkjh, muds
}kjk iqoZ esa fd;s x, vijk/kksa dh tkudkjh, vijk/k djus ds rjhds rFkk muds igpku fpUg
vkfn dh lqpuk dsUnzh; MkVkcsl essa j[kh tkrh gS, ftlls vko';drk iMus ij ns'k ds fdlh
Hkh dksus ls vijk/kh dh miyC/k leLr tkudkjh vklkuh ls izkIr dh tk ldrh gSAMkVkcsl
ds vfrfjDr, FIR yxkus rFkk mldh fLFkfr vkWuykbu tkuus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA
bZ&U;k;ky; (E-Court) &bZ&U;k;ky; ds varZxr lHkh dslksa rFkk vihyksa dk MkVkcsl
rS;kj fd;k tkrk gS rFkk U;k;ky; ds baVjkusV (Intranet) ij miyC/k djk;k tkrk gSA bl
izdkj ds fudk; esa mPp U;k;ky; rFkk loksZP; U;k;ky; esa vihyksa dks Vkyk tk ldrk gS
D;ksfd blesa mPp U;k;ky; rFkk/;k loksZP; U;k;ky; ds U;k;k/kh'k vko';drk iMus ij
baVjkusV (Intranet) ij miyC/k ftyk ;k l= U;k;ky; ds dsl rFkk dsl ds lanHkZ esa ntZ
fd;s x;s rF;ks ds vk/kkj ij viuk fu.kZ; lquk ldrs gSAblds vfrfjDr dsl ds rF;ks dks
ntZ djus, fQaxj fizafVax Ldsfux rFkk izek.ku vkfn dh vkWuykbu lqfo/kk miyC/k djkrk gSA
bZ&'kklu dh miyfC/k rFkk lQyrk ds fy, vko';d gS fd&

AglaSem School

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iz'kklfud [kpksZ esa dVkSrh
ukxfjd lsok vf/kdkjh ds dk;Z dks bl izdkj fMtkbu fd;k tkuk pkfg, fd og ,d

izf;k fo'ks"k ds leLr inkas dks iqjk djsA vFkkZr~ iz'kklfud izf;k dk;Z dsfUnzr gksus ds
ctk; ifj.kke dsfUnzr (Outcome Oriented) cusA
fofHkUu ljdkjh foHkkxks ds e/; usVoZd dh LFkkiuk
,d izf;k fo'ks"k dk iqjk djus okys vf/kdkjh dks fu.kZ; ysus dk vf/kdkj iznku djuk
rFkk mlds vf/kdkjks dk l'kfdj.k djukA
1.2.4 ljdkj ls O;kikj (GOVERNMENT TO BUSINESS) (G2B)
G2B , bZ&'kklu dh og foek gS ftlds varZxr ,d O;kikjh ljdkj ls fofHkUu lsok, tSl&
s
lkoZtfud izkfIr (Public Procurment), Ykkblsl
a izkIr djuk rFkk ljdkj ls lEcaf/kr vU; dk;Zdyki

vkfn lfEefyr gksrs gSA


bZ&'kklu dh miyfC/k rFkk lQyrk ds fy, vko';d gS fd&
baVjusV ij bySDVkfs ud xfrfof/k (Electronic Transaction) ds fy, ekud LFkkfir
djukA
bySDVkfs ud ek/;e ij lqjf{kr Hkqxrku djus dh f;kfof/k dh O;oLFkk djukA
1.3

bZ&'kklu ds fy, fopkj.kh; fo"k; (Issues for E-Governance)


bZ&'kklu ds fy, fopkj.kh; eq[; fo"k; fuEu gS&
/ku dh miyC/krk
bZ&'kklu ds fy, izf;kvka,s uhfr;ksa ,ao dkuquksa esa fd;s x;s ifjorZuksa dk izCka/ku
ukxfjdks }kjk ljdkj dks miyC/k djk;h x;h tkudkjh dh xqIrrk (Privacy)
bySDVkfs ud xfrfof/k (Electronic Transaction) esa xfrfof/k djus okys O;f dk izek.ku
(Authentication)
lsokvksa dk izfriknu

bZ&'kklu esa mi;ksx esa yh x;h izf;kvkas rFkk fofHkUu ICT rduhdksa dk ekudhdj.k
izknsf'kd Hkk"kkvksa dk mi;ksx
1.4 bZ&'kklu ds ykHk (Advantage of E-Governance)

bZ&'kklu ds fuEukafdr ykHk gS&


;g lHkh ukxfjdks dks iznku dh ikus okyh lsok dh xq.kokk dks lq/kkjus dk volj iznku
djrk gSA
;g ukxfjdks dks lsok iznku djus dh lqfo/kk dks ljy cukrk gSA
;g ljdkjh izc/a ku dh fofHkUu ijrks dk foyksiu djrk gSA
ukxfjdks, m|eksa rFkk nqljh ijrksa ds ljdkjh deZpkfj;ksa dks lqpuk izkIr djuk vklku
cukrk gSA
ukxfjdks ,ao m|eksas dks dqN fnuksa ;k lIrkgks dh rqyuk esa dqN feuVksa ;k lsdUMks esa lsok
iznku djkrk gSA

AglaSem School

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ljdkjh fudk; dh m|e izf;k dks ikjn'khZ, ljy rFkk eqY; lk/kd cukrk gSA
ljdkj ds vkarfjd ,ao czk f;k&dykiksa dks ukxfjdks dh vko';drk ds fy, 'kh?kZ

mkj nsus okyk (Rapid Responsive) cukrk gSA


ljdkjh deZpkfj;ksa dks vklkuh ls, fuiq.krk ls rFkk dk;Z lk/kuk ls dk;Z laiknu djus
dh {kerk iznku djrk gSA
vkWu ykbu lqfo/kkvksa ds ek/;e ls ukxfjdks dh jk; tku dj 'kklu esa Hkkxhnkjh dks
lqfuf'pr djrk gSA
iz'kklu dks ?kql[kksjh o fcpkSfy;ksa ls eqDr cukrk gSA

bZ&'kklu ds fy, Hkkjr ljdkj ds vkjafHkd (Initatives of the Indian


Government for E-Governance)

1.5

lwpuk ,ao lapkj izkS|ksfxdh ds bl ;qx esa Hkkjr ljdkj us ukxfjdks dks 'kklu ds izR;sd
Lrj ij dq'ky, ikjn'khZ , tokcnsg iz'kklu iznku djus dh le;&le; ij izfrc?rk tkfgj dh
gSAHkkjr ljdkj }kjk 'kklu dks bZ&'kklu ds :i esa iquZifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, x;s iz;klks dk
dkye fuEu izdkj gS&
1970& bysDVksfuDl foHkkx (Department of Electronics) dh LFkkiukA
1977-& jk"Vh; lqpuk dsUnz (National Informatic Center) dh LFkkiukA
1987 & jk"Vh; lqpuk dsUnz usVodZ (National Informatic Center Network) dk izkjaHkA
1990 & DISNIC izksxkz e dh 'kq:vkr, blds rgr ns'k ds lHkh ftyk dk;kZy;ksa dk
dEI;wVjkbts'ku djukA
1998 & lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ,ao lkVos;j ds fodkl ds fy, jk"Vh; dk;Z&cy (Task
force)dh LFkkiukA
1999 & dsUnzh; lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ea=ky; dh LFkkiukA
2002 & bZ&'kklu ds fy, 12&fcUnq U;qure dk;Z lwph (agenda) dh igpkuA
2006 & jk"Vh; bZ&'kklu ;kstuk (National e-Governance Plan) (NeGP)dh 'kq:vkrA
1.5.1 bZ&'kklu ds fy, 12&fcUnq U;qure dk;Z lwph (12-point Minimum Agenda for EGovernance)

Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk 2002 esa bZ&kklu ds fy;s 12&fcUnq dh U;wure dk;Z lwph (12-point
inimum agenda for E-Governance) rS;kj dh xbZA ftlds f;k fcUnq (action point) fuEu izdkj
gS&
1 izR;sd ea=ky;@foHkkx lsDku vf/kdkjh ds Lrj rd vko;d lkVos;j lfgr ilZuy
dEI;wVj miyC/k djk;sxk rFkk yksdy ,fj;k usVodZ (Local Area Network) dh LFkkiuk
djsxkA
2 lHkh LVkQ lnL; ftudks dEI;wVj miyC/k gSa ;k ftudks vius dk;Zky; ds dk;Z ds fy;s
bldh vko;drk gS mudks mi;qDr izfk{k.k iznku djukA

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3 lHkh ea=ky;@foHkkx, NIC }kjk cuk;s x;s vkWfQl izkfltj vkWVkses ku lkVos;j (Office
Procedure Automation Software ) dk mi;ksx djsaxAs
4 lHkh ea=ky;@foHkkx is&jksy ,dkmfVax (Pay-Roll Accounting) rFkk vU; gkml dhfiax
lkVos;j (House Keeping Software) dk mi;ksx nSfud f;k esa djsxsAa
5 vkarfjd lHkk dh lwpuk bZ&esy (e-mail) }kjk Hksth tk;sxhA blh izdkj Nqh dh ,Iyhdsku
vkfn bySDVkfs udyh Hksth tk ldsxhA lHkh ea=ky;@foHkkx vknskksa ds fMLIys (Display) ds
fy;s vkWuykbu uksfVl cksMZ cuk;sxAs
6 lHkh ea=ky;@foHkkx fMikZeVas vkWQ ,MfefuLVfs Vo fjQkeZ ,aM ifCyd xzhfo;sl
a (Department
of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievance) }kjk cuk;s x;s osc vk/kkfjr xzhfo;sl
a
jhMly lkVos;j (Grievance Redressal Software) dk mi;ksx djsaxAs
7 izR;sd ea=ky;@foHkkx dh viuh ,d osc lkbV gksxhA
8 lHkh ,DV (Act), fu;e (Rules) rFkk ldqzZyj (Circulars) bySDVkfs ud :i esa ifjofrZr fd;s
tk;sxsa rFkk bUgsa baVjusV ij miyC/k djk;k tk;sxkA
9 lHkh ea=ky;@foHkkx@laxBu viuh osclkbV ij ,d foks"k lsDku cuk;sx
a sAftlesa
ukxfjdksa@miHkksDrkvksa }kjk fofHkUu lsok, izkIr djus ds fy;s mi;ksx esa fy;s tkus okys
fofHkUu QkeZ miyC/k gksaxAs
10 osc lkbV dk fgUnh :ikUrj.k cuk;k tk;sxkA
11 turk dks bySDVksfud lsok iznku djus ds fy;s izR;sd ea=ky;@foHkkx vkWu ykbu
lkVos;j iSdt
s rS;kj djsxkA
12 izR;sd ea=ky;@foHkkx iapo"khZ; lexz IT n`f"V (Vision) rFkk j.kuhfr (Strategy) rS;kj
djsxkA
1.5.2 jk"Vh; bZ&kklu ;kstuk (National E-Governance Plan)
jk"Vh; bZ&kklu ;kstuk (NeGP) dsUnzh; lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh foHkkx rFkk fMikZeaVs vkWQ
,MfefuLVfs Vo fjQkeZ ,aM ifCyd xzhfo;sl
a (Department of Administrative Reforms and Public
Grievance) }kjk rS;kj dh x;h gSA NeGP dk eq[; ms'; ukxfjdks rFkk m|eksa dks iznku dh tkuh
okyh ljdkjh lsokvksa ds izfriknu dks lq/kkjukA NeGP ds fy, Lohdkj dh x;h f;kfof/k ds eq[;

rRo fuEu gS&


i. lkekU; voyEc <kWpk (Common Support Infrastructure): NeGP fzz;kUo;u ds vUrZxr
lkekU; voyEc rFkk IT <kWpk tSls -LVsV okbM ,fj;k usVodZ (State Wide Area Networks
a j (State Data Centres) (SDCs), dkWeu lsok dsUnz (Common Services
(SWANs), LVsV MkVk lsV
Centres) (CSCs) rFkk bysDVkfs ud lsok izfriknu xsVos (Electronic Service Delivery Gateways)
dh LFkkiuk dh tkuh gSA
ii. kklu (Governance): l{ke vf/kdkfj;ksa ds usr`Ro esa NeGP ds fzz;kUo;u ds ,dhdj.k ,ao

eksfuVfjax dh mi;qDr O;oLFkk dh x;h gSA bl izksxkz e ds fy, vko';d ekudks dh LFkkiuk,
'ksk/k o fodkl, {kerk dk fodkl rFkk dqVuhfrd ekxZn`f'kdk rS;kj djuk vkfn dks Hkh lEefyr fd;k
x;k gSA

AglaSem School

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fzz;kUo;u (Centralized Initiative, Decentralized


iii. szUnzh; iz;kl ,ao foszUnzhd`r f
Implementation): bZ-'kklu dks ukxfjd dsfUnzr cukus ds fy, dsUnzh; Lrj ij iz;kl izkjaHk fd;s
x;s gSA ftlls fofHkUu bZ-'kklu mi;ksfxrkvksa ds e/; leUo; fd;k tk lds rFkk ICT baQzkLVdpj
dk mkerrk ls mi;ksx fd;k tk ldsA
fud-futh
iv. lkoZtfud
futh Hkkxhnkjh (Public-Private Partnerships) : (PPP) model is to be
adopted wherever feasible to enlarge the resource pool without compromising on the security
aspects.
v. lekdfyr rRo (Integrative Elements): ,dhdj.k dh lqfo/kk ,oe~ vfuf'prrk dks nqj

djus ds fy, ukxfjdks, O;kikj rFkk laifk ds fy, vf}rh; igpku dksM dk mi;ksx izkjaHk fd;k x;k
gSA

vi. jk"Vh; rFkk jkT; Lrj ij izksxzke dh igqWp (Programme Approach at the National
and State levels): NeGP ds fzz;kUo;u ds fy, jk"Vh; rFkk jkT; Lrj ds fofHkUu foHkkxkas, Eak+ =ky;ks

dks lEefyr fd;k x;k gSA


1.5.2.1 dsUnzh; ljdkj ds fe'ku eksM izkstsDV (Union Government Mission Mode
Projects )

1. ,elh,21 (MCA 21): ;g dksjiksjsV vQs;j ea=ky; (Ministry of Corporate Affairs) dk


fe'ku eksM izkstDs V gSA bl izkstDs V dk eq[; daaiuh ,DV ds varZxr iathd`r daifu;ksa ls lacf/kr
fdz;kvks tSl-s uke ifjorZu, iath;dj.k 'kqYd dk vkWuykbu Hkqxrku, iathd`r dk;kZy; ds irs esa
ifjorZu , lkoZtfud fjdkMZ dks ns[kuk vkfn lacf/kr lsok, iznku dh tkrh gSA
2. isa'ku (Pension): isa'ku izkIr djus okyks dks ljdkjh isa'ku fu;eksa rFkk O;oLFkk dh lkef;d
tkudkjh miyC/k djkus ds fy, isa'kuj iksVZy dh LFkkiuk lu~ 2007 esa dh x;h FkhAbl MMP dk

eq[; ms'; isa'ku izkIr djus okys O;f;ksa dh ihMkvksa dk iath;dj.k, le; iwoZd isa'ku rFkk xzPs ;qVh
ds Hkqxrku dk eksfuVfjax, isa'kuj dk MkVkcsl cukuk vkfn lqfo/kk, iznku djuk gSA
3. vk;dj (Income Tax): bl MMP ds varZxr vk;dj nsus okys ukxfjdks fy, vk;dj foHkkx
}kjk 17 bZ-lsok, iznku dh x;h gSA bl MMP ds }kjk iznku dh x;h dqN eq[; bZ-lsok, fuEu gS fofHkUu izdkj ds QkWeZ MkmuyksM djus dh lqfo/kkA
iSu dkMZ (PAN card) rFkk VSu dkMZ (TAN Card) cuokus ds fy, vkWuykbu vkosnu dh

lqfo/kk iznku djukA


vk;dj fjVZu dks bysDVksfud :i esa Hkjuk (e-filling)
L=ksr ij dj dVkSrh (Tx Deduction at Source) dks bysDVksfud :i esa Hkjuk (e-filling)
dj dk vkWuykbu HkqxrkuA
4. ikliksVZ, ohlk
ohlk, rFkk vkoztu (Passport, Visa and Immigration): bl MMP ds varZxr

ikliksVZ, ohlk, rFkk vkoztu ls lacf/kr vkWuykbu lsok, tSl-s u;s ikliksVZ ds fy, vkosnu
djuk,ikliksVZ dk uohuhdj.k, uke o irs esa ifjorZu vkfn lqfo/kk, iznku dh tkrh gSA

AglaSem School

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a Vy
5. lsV
,Dlkbt (Central Excise): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; baMLVh ds fy, vizR;{k dj,

vk;krd, fu;kZrd vkfn ls lacf/kr bZ-lsok dh lqfo/kk iznku djuk gSA lsVa y ,Dlkbt ,oa lsok dj
dh bZ-fQfyax, vk;kr-fu;kZr dkxtkrksa dh bZ-fQfyax, bZ-iath;dj.k, fMthVy gLrk{kj vkfn bZlsok, bl MMP ds varZxr miyC/k djk;h tk;saxhA
6. cSafdax (Banking): bl MMP dk fzz;kUo;u cSafdax baMLVh }kjk fd;k tk jgk gSA bldk eq[;

ms'; cSdkas }kjk bZ-lsok, iznku djuk rFkk fofHkUu cSdkas ds e/; lkeatL; LFkkfir djuk gSA
7. chek (Insurance): bl MMP dk fzz;kUo;u lkoZtfud {kS= dh chek daifu;ksa ds }kjk fd;k

tk jgk gSAbldk eq[; ms'; chek mi;ksxdkkZ dk MkVkcsl rS;kj djuk, miHkskDkk lsok lqfo/kk
iznku djuk gSA
1.5.2.2 ,dhd`r fe'ku eksM izkstsDV (Integrated Mission Mode Projects)

1. lkekU; lsok dsUnz (Common Service Center): ;g MMP NeGP dk eq[; rFkk lgk;d

baQzjkLVdpj gS A ;s lkekU; lsok dsUnz xzkeh.k ukxfjdks dks bZ-'kklu ls lacf/kr lsok, iznku djsxsAa
2. bZ-dksVZ (e-Courts): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; ICT rduhdks dk mi;ksx dj ukxfjdks dks

csgrj U;kf;d lsok, iznku djuk gSA


3. bysDVksfud MkVk dk vknku iznku (Electronic Data Interchange/e-Trade) (EDI):
bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; vk;kr o fu;kZr dh izfdz;k esa layXu fofHkUu fudk;ks ds e?; MkVk dk

vknku iznku djuk gSA


4. bafM;k iksVZy (India Portal): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; ljdkj }kjk iznk lsokvksa ,oe~

lqpukvksa dks cgqHkk"kh; :i esa ,dy f[kMdh ij miyC/k djkuk gSA


Vh; lsok izfriknu xsVos (National Service Delivery Gateway) : bl MMP dk
5. jk"
jk"V
eq[; ms'; lsok iznkrk rFkk lsok izkIr djus okys ds e/; ,d dkWeu baVjQsl (Common Interface)
iznku djuk gSA
6. bZ -izkfIr (e-Procurement) : ;g okf.kT; ea=ky; dk MMP gSA bl MMP dk eq[; ms';
ljdkjh foHkkxks esa lqpuk izkS|ksfxdh ij vk/kkfjr bZ-izkfIr (e-Procurement) dh fdz;kfof?k dh
LFkkiuk djuk gSA
1.5.2.3 jkT; ds fe'ku eksM izkstsDV (State Mission Mode Projects)

1. Hkwfe ys[kk (Land Records): bl izkstDs V ds rgr Hkqfe lacf/kr fjdkMZ dk dEI;qVjhdj.k fd;k

tkuk gSA bl Ldhe dk eq[; ms'; ukxfjdks dks Hkwfe lacf/kr lqpuk ,ao lsok, iznku djuk gSA
2. lMd ifjogu (Road Transport): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; ns'k ds lHkh ifjogu dk;kZy;ksa

}kjk ukxfjdks dks okgu iath;dj.k,Mkbfoax ykblsl


a rFkk LekVZ dkMZ vk/kkfjr iath;dj.k izek.k i=
(Registration Certificate) dh lqfo/kk bysDVksfud :i esa iznku djuk gSA

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3. d`f"k (Agriculture): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; fdlkuks dks d`f"k rFkk rduhd ls lacf/kr

tkudkjh rFkk cktkj ds :>ku vkfn tSlh lqfo/kk, iznku djuk gSA
4. iqfyl (Police): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; iqfyl LVs'kukas dk dEI;qVjhdj.k djuk rFkk
vijk/k rFkk vijkf/k;ksa dk lqpuk vk/kkj rS;kj djuk gSA
5. [ktkuk (Treasuries): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; dk lkekU; ekudks ds leqPp; ds vk/kkj ij

Hkkxhnkj ,tsafl;ks dk ,dhdj.k dj [ktkus dk dEI;qVjhdj.k djuk gSA


6. uxjikfydk, (Municipalities): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; uxjh; LFkkuh; fudk;ks }kjk

ukxfjdks dks fofHkUu lsok, bysDVksfud :i esa iznku djuk gSA


7. bZ-ftyk (e-District): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; mPp foLrkj dh ukxfjd dsfUnzr lsokvks dks
lkekU; lsok dsUnzks }kjk ukxfjdks dks iznku djuk gSA ;s os lsok, gS ftUgs vU; MMP }kjk doj ugh

fd;k x;k gSA


8. okf.kfT;d dj (Commercial Taxes) :bl MMP ds varZxr okf.kfT;d djnkrkvksa ds fy,

bysDVksfud lsok, iznku dh tk;saxhA


9. xzke iapk;r (Gram Panchayat): bl MMP dk eq[; ms'; xzke iapk;r Lrj ij bysDVksfud

lsok, iznku djuk gSA


10. jkstxkj dsUnz (Employment Exchange): ;g Je ea=ky; dk MMP gSAa bl MMP dk eq[;

ms'; jkstxkj izkIr djus okys rFkk jkstxkj iznku djus okys yksxks ds fy, bysDVksfud lsok, iznku
djuk gSA
2.1 bZ&okf.kT; (E-Commerce)

ccbcbySDVkfs ud okf.kT; (Electronic Commerce) ;k bZ&okf.kT;((E- Commerce) dk


vFkZ gS bUVjusV ds ek/;e ls O;kikj djuk A bZ&okf.kT;, mu o`gn ijkl vkWu&ykbu O;kikfjd dk;kasZa
dks bafxr djrk gS ftueas mRikn ,ao lsok [kjhnh o csph tkrh gSAbZ&okf.kT;, mu lHkh okf.kfT;d
xfrfof/k;ksa ls lacf/kr gS ftles nks ;k nks ls vf/kd i{k (O;kikjh ;k xzkgd) HkkSfrd lEidZ ;k HkkSfrd
fofue; ds LFkku ij bySDVkfs ud ek/;e ls vU;ksU; f;k djrs gSAbZ&O;kikj , bZ&cSafdx ;k bZ&'kkfiax
vkfn bZ&okf.kT; ds Hkkx gSA(ds
fo'oO;kih vFkZO;oLFkk ds izknqZHkko ds dkj.k bZ&okf.kT; ;k bZ&O;kikj , O;kikj dh O;qg
jpuk ds vax curs tk jgs gS rFkk ;g vkfFkZd fodkl esa mRizsjd dk dk;Z dj jgk gSA O;kikj esa lwpuk
,ao lapkj rduhd (Information and Communication Technology)(ICT) ds mi;ksx us O;kikfjd
laxBuksa ds e/; rFkk O;kikfjd laxBu ,ao O;f fo'ks"k ds e/; lac/a kks esa kfrdkjh ifjorZu yk fn;s
gSA ICT ds O;kikj esa mi;ksx us mRiknu {kerk esa c<kskjh, mRikn dh ykxr esa deh rFkk xzkgdks dh
Hkkxhnkjh dks c<kok fn;k gSAICT ij vk/kkfjr okf.kT; us cnyrs gq, okf.kfT;d ifjos'k dks u;h

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pkbZ;ksa ij igqpk fn;k gS,ftlls bySDVkfs ud okf.kT; dh ifjHkk"kk vksj O;kid gks x;h gSAbySDVkfs ud
okf.kT; dh O;kid ifjHkk"kk fuEu gS&
laxBuksa ds e/; rFkk O;kikfjd laxBu ,ao O;f fo'ks"k ds e/; O;kikfjd xfrfof/k;ksa dh
mRifk, cnyko ,ao laca/kksa dh iquZ&ifjHkk"kk ds fy, bySDVkfs ud lapkj ek/;e rFkk fMftVy lwpuk
izlLa dj.k rduhdks dk mi;ksx, bZ&okf.kT; dgykrk gSA
bzZ dkeWlZ ds+ vUrZxr srk bfPNr oLrq dks ; djus ds fy, oLrq dk mRiknu djus okyh
;k fo; djus okyh O;kikfjd laLFkk dh bzZ dkeWlZ osc lkbV ij tkdj oLrq dk p;u djrk gSA
srk dks mRikn dk Hkqxrku sfMV dkMZ ;k MsfcV dkMZ ds }kjk djuk gksrk gSA blds fy, fosrk
dh osc lkbV ij lqfo/kk miyC/k gksrh gS tgkW srk vius sfMV dkMZ ;k MsfcV dkMZ dk uEcj rFkk
vU; tkudkfj;kW nsrk gSA fosrk dkMZ iznkrk laLFkk ls bu tkudkfj;ksa dk vkWu ykbu lR;kiu djrk
gS rFkk lkSnk fufpr dj nsrk gSA fosrk dksfj;j ;k ifjogu lqfo/kk dh enn ls oLrq dks srk }kjk
crk;s x, irs ij Hkst nsrk gS rFkk Hkqxrku jkfk srk ds [kkrs ls fosrk ds [kkrs esa gLrkUrfjr gks
tkrh gSA
2.2 bZ&okf.kT; ds izdkj (Type of E-Commerce)

bZ&okf.kT; fuEu izdkj dk gksrk gS&


(v) O;kikj ls O;kikj (Business to Business) (B2B)
(c) O;kikj ls xzkgd
(Business to Customer) (B2C)
(l) O;kikj ls ljdkj (Business to Government) (B2G)
(n) xzkgd ls xzkgd
(Customer to Customer) (C2C)
(;) eksckby okf.kT;
(M-Commerce)
2.2.1 O;kikj ls O;kikj (Business to Business) (B2B)

nks ;k nks ls vf/kd daifu;ksa ds e/; bySDVkfs ud lapkj ek/;e ls O;kikj B2B bZ&okf.kT;
dgykrk gSAB2B bZ&okf.kT; daifu;ksa ds e/; laca/kksa ls lacfa /kr gSAB2B cktkj ds nks izkFkfed ?kVd
gS & (i) bZ&bakLVdpj (e-Infrastructue) (ii) bZ&cktkj (e-Market)
bZ&bakLVdpj (e-Infrastructue) B2B bZ&okf.kT; ds f'kYi (Architecture) dks fu?kkZfjr
djrk gSAbZ&bakLVdpj vius vanj fuEu fcUnqvksa dks lekfgr djrk gS&
(i) vuqiz;ksx lsok iznkrk (Application Service Provider)& tSls& dsUnzh; lqfo/kk ij
vuqiz;ksx lkVos;j miyC/k djkukA
(ii) ykWftfLVd (Logistics) & tSl&
s ifjogu, forj.k vkfn
(iii) osc vk/kkfjr okf.kT; lk/kd (Web Based Commerce Enabler) & tSl&
s dkWeZlou
(CommerceOne) vuqiz;ksx lkVos;jA dkWel
Z ou baVjusV ij [kjhnkjh djus ds fy,
czkmtj ij vk/kkfjr rFkk XML buscYM (Enabled) vkWVkse's ku (Automation) lkVos;j
(iv) baVjusV ij okLrfod le; esa uhykeh (Auction) djus ds fy, lkVos;j ds lapkyu
,ao j[k j[kko ds fy, lk/ku miyC/k djkuk A
(v) osc lkbV ij lqpuk, izdkf'kr djus dh lqfo/kk ds fy, fo"k;&lqph izca/ku lkVos;j

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(Content Management Software)
bZ&cktkj (e-Market) os osc lkbV gS tgkW ij srk ,ao fosrk ijLij vU;ksU; f;k dj
O;kikfjd xfrfof/k;k (Business Transaction) djrs gSA
2.2.2 O;kikj ls xzkgd (Business to Customer) (B2C)

( HmudjO;kikfjd laxBu ,ao O;f fo'ks"k ds e/;rO;kikfjd xfrfof/k;ks dkss,O;kikj ls xzkgd


(Business to Customer) (B2C) bZ&okf.kT; dgykrk gSA B2C bZ&okf.kT; esa ,d xzkgd, O;kikfjd
laxBu dh osc lkbV ls mRikn dh lqpuk, HkkSfrd mRikn dh [kjhn, lqpuk lkezxh (tSl&
s bZ&cqd ,
lkVos;j vkfn izkIr dj ldrk gSAdh osesamuater convenience
B2C bZ&okf.kT; dk nqljk lcls cMk rFkk lcls iqjkuk ?kVd gSA B2C bZ&okf.kT; mRiknks
rFkk lsokvksa dh [kjhnnkjh, futh foh; izca/ku B2C bZ&okf.kT; ds mnkgj.k gSA
2.2.3 O;kikj ls ljdkj (Business to Government) (B2G)

Revenue

gro

O;kikfjd laxBu ,ao lkoZtfud {ks+= ds e/; okf.kT; dks O;kikj ls ljdkj (Business to
Government) (B2G) bZ&okf.kT; dgrs gSA B2G bZ&okf.kT; esa lkoZtfud izkfIr (Public
Procurment), Ykkblsl
a izkIr djus dh f;kfof/k rFkk ljdkj ls lEcaf/kr vU; dk;Zdyki vkfn
lfEefyr gksrs gSA osc ij vk/kkfjr lkSnk uhfr (Public Purchase) us izkfIr izf;k (Procurement

ed cost of running
xzkgd (Customer to Customer) (C2C)government

Process) dks ikjn'khZ cuk fn;k gSA


2.2.4 xzkgd ls

Incr O;f fo'ks"k ;k xzkgdkas ds e/; okf.kT; dks xzkgd ls xzkgd (Customer to Customer)
(C2C) bZ&okf.kT; dgrs gSA bl izdkj ds okf.kT; rhu izdkj dk gksrk gS&
(i) xzkgdkas dks osc lkbV ij uhykeh dh lqfo/kk, bl izdkj dh aosc lkbV xzkgdks dks
oLrqvksa ds fy, vU; xzkgdkas }kjk cksyh yxkus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrh gSAr
(ii) ih;j ls ih;j fudk; (Peer to Peer System) dh enn ls xzkgdks dks vius
lalk/ku tSl&
s Qkby, xkus, QksVksxkz Q vkfn 'ks;j djus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA
(iii) osc lkbV ij DyklhQkbM foKkiu nsus dh lqfo/kk
2.2.5 eksckby okf.kT; (M-Commerce)
rkj&foghu rduhd (Wireless Technology) tSl&
s lsY;qyj Qksu, ilZuy fMftVy vflLVsVa
(Personal Digital Assistance) (PDA) dh enn ls mRiknks ,ao lsokvksa dks cspuk o [kjhnuk
eksckby okf.kT; (M-Commerce) dgykrk gSArkj&foghu ;qf;ksa ij fo"k; lqph igqpkuk (Con-

tent delivery) vf/kd lqjf{kr, vf/kd rst, vf/kd vljnkj rFkk vf/kd O;kid gSA fokh; lsok
tSl&
s eksckby cSfdax, bZ&VsfMx vkfn, nqjlapkj tSl&
s fcy iseaVs vkfn, ;k=k ds nkSjku oLrqvksa dks
[kjhnuk,cspuk ,ao Hkqxrku djuk,lqpuk lsok tSl&
s fokh; lekpkj, ;krk;kr lqpuk vkfn,eksckby
okf.kT; ds mnkgj.k gSA

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2.3 bZ&okf.kT; ds ykHk (Advantage of E-Commerce)

1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

3.1

bZ&okf.kT; ds eq[; ykHk fuEufyf[kr gSa&


oLrq ,oa lsokvksa dks pquus ls iwoZ srk ?kj cSBs fofHkUu fosrkvksa dh osc lkbV ij tkdj
mldh foks"krkvksa o dherksa vkfn dh rqyuk dj ldrs gSaA ftlls srk dks cgqr de iz;kl
essa bfPNr oLrq ds ckjs esa iw.kZ tkudkjh rFkk p;u ds fy, vusd fodYi miyC/k gksrs gSA
bZ&okf.kT; ls mRiknd rFkk srk ds e/; e/;LFkksa dh Ja[kyk NksVh gks tkrh gS rFkk foi.ku
ykxr esa deh vk tkrh gSA ftlls mRiknd, srkvks dks rqyukRed :i esa de ewY; ij oLrq
dks ; djus ds volj iznku djrs gSA
bZ&okf.kT; esa O;kikfjd lwpukvksa dk vknku-iznku baVjusV ds ek/;e ls vkWu-ykbu gksrk
gSA ftlls O;kikfjd lwpukvksa ds vknku-iznku dh ykxr o le; esa deh vkrh gSA
bZ&okf.kT; ls O;kikj esa [kphZys kks :e, deh'ku ,tsVa o lsYl eSu dh vko;drk ugha gksrh
gSA ftllssa ijEijkxr O;olk; dh rqyuk esa foi.ku ykxr de gks tkrh gSa rFkk foi.ku
lqfo/kktud, ljy o vljnkj gks tkrk gSA
bZ&okf.kT; esa mRiknksa ,ao lsokvksa dh tkudkjh O;kikfjd laLFkk dh osclkbV ij miyC/k
gksrh gSA vr% fo'o ds fdlh Hkh LFkku ls dksbZ Hkh O;f bu osc lkbVks ds ek/;e ls mRiknksa
,ao lsokvksa dks izkIr dj ldrk gSA bl izdkj O;kikjh dks ,d fooO;kih cktkj miyC/k
gksrk gSA
B2G bZ&okf.kT; us Ykkblsal izkIr djus dh f;kfof/k, ljdkj ls lEcaf/kr vU; dk;Zdyki
rFkk izkfIr izf;k (Procurement Process) dks ikjn'khZ cuk fn;k gSA

bZ&yfuZax (E-Learning)e

bZ&yfuZax(Electronic Learning) dks fMlVsUl yfuZax (distance learning),fMlVsUl


,T;qds'ku(distance education), vkHkklh yfuZax(virtual learning ), vkWuykbu yfuZax(online
learning),vkWuykbu f'k{kk(online education) rFkk osc vk/kkfjr izf'k{k.k(web-based training) ds
uke ls Hkh tkuk tkrk gSA bySDVkfs ud rjhdks ds }kjk lh[kus, izf'k{k.k ;k f'k{kk ds izksxzkeksa dk
izfriknu djuk bZ&yfuZx
a dgykrk gSA bZ&yfuZax esa izf'k{k.k, 'kS{kf.kd ;k lh[kus dh lkexzh dks
dEI;qVj ;k bySDVksfud ;qf ds mi;ksx ls miyC/k djk;h tkrh gSA
bZ&yfuZx
a esa baVjusV, baVjkusV/,DlVkusV, vkWfM;ks o ohfM;ks Vsi, mixzg izlkj.k, baVj,fDVo
Vsyhfotu, lhmh&jkse vkfn ds }kjk fo"k;&oLrq dk izfriknu fd;k tkrk gSAfMlVsUl ,T;qds'ku
bZ&yfuZx
a ds fodkl dk vk/kkj gSAbZ&yfuZx
a "vkWu fMekaM" gks ldrh gSA ;g le;,mifLFkfr rFkk
;k=k gh fnDdrksa ls futkr fnykrh gSA

3.22 bZ&yfuZax ds izdkj (Types of E-Learning)


bZ&yfuZax ds eq[; :i ls rhu izdkj dh gksrh gS&
1. vuvkSipkfjd bZ&yfuZax (Informal e-learning) - tc dksbZ O;f Kku o`f) ;k vius

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dkS'ky (skill) dks lq/kkjus ds fy, baVjusV ij miyC/k lalk/kuksa tSl&


s vksiu&dksl&
Z os;j
vkfn dk mi;ksx djrk gS rks bls vuvkSipkfjd bZ&yfuZx
a dgrs gSA
2. dksjiksjsV bZ&yfuZax (Corporate e-learning) : tc O;kikfjd laxBu vius deZpkfj;ks
bySDVkfs ud rjhdks ds }kjk izf'kf{kr djrhs gS rks bl izdkj dh bZ&yfuZax gks dksjiksjsV
bZ&yfuZx
a dgrs gSAdksjiksjsV bZ&yfuZx
a dk mi;ksx izkQ
s s'kuyl~ dh m|ksx es lQyrk ds
fy, rFkk muds Kku dks le&lkef;d cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
3. 'kSf{kd bZ&yfuZax (Academic e-learning )-baVjusV ij miyC/k fMxzh izkx
s zkeksa ds
ek/;e ls fMxzh izkIr djuk 'kSf{kd bZ&yfuZax dgykrk gSA

3.3 bZ&yfuZax dh fo/kk (Modes of E-Learning)


vktdy bZ&yfuZax ds fy, dbZ rjhds miyC/k gSA ,d izf'k{kq viuh vko';drk ,ao
lqfo/kk ds vuqlkj buesa ls fdlh ,d fo/kk ;k ,d ls vf/kd fo/kk ds feJ.k dk mi;ksx vius
Kku o/kZu ds fy, dj ldrk gSAbZ&yfuZax ds fy, miyC/k dqN fo/kk, fuEu izdkj gS&

a esa izf'k{kq dEI;qVj ds ek/;e ls


'kq) vkWuykbu (Purely online) & vkWuykbu yfuZx
lapkj dj v/;;u lkexzh izkIr djrk gSA
flaUksUl (Synchronous) : flaUksUl yfuZax esa izf'k{kq ,oe~ izf'k{kd HkkSfrd :i ls
nqj&nqj gksus ds ckotqn okLrfod le; esa ,d nqljs ls vU;ksU; fdz;k djrs gSA tSl&
s ykbo
jsfM;ks izlkj.k lquuk] ykbo Vsyhfotu izlkj.k ns[kuk] vkfM;ks@ohfM;ks dkWsaflax] ykbo
lSVsykbV izlkj.k] vkWuykbu ysDpj vkfn
vflaUksUl (Asynchronous) : vflaUksUl yfuZax esa izf'k{kq ,oe~ izf'k{kd HkkSfrd :i
ls nqj&nqj gksrs gS rFkk muds e?; okLrfod le; esa vU;ksU; fz;k ugh gksrh gSSA tSls&
baVjusV ;k lhMh&jkse ij miyC/k v/;;u lkexzh] vkfM;ks@ohfM;ks Vsi ij miyC/k
v/;;u lkexzh] bZ&esy lan's k vkfn
mins'kd lss ekxZnf'kZr leqg (Instructor-led group)
Lo&v/;;u (Self-study)
fo"k; fo'ks"kK ds lkFk Lo&v/;;u (Self-study with subject matter expert)
fefJr bZ&yfuZax (Blended e-Learning)
osc vk/kkfjr bZ&yfuZax (Web-based e-Learning )
dEI;wVj vk/kkfjr bZ&yfuZax(Computer-based e-Learning ) (CD-ROM/DVD)
vkWfM;ks o ohfM;ks Vsi ls bZ&yfuZax (e-Learning through Video/audio tape)

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3.4 bZ&yfuZax izfriknu ds rjhds

(Delivery Methods of E-Learning)

vktdy bZ&yfuZax esa v/;;u lkexzh ds izfriknu ds fy, fuEu rjhdks dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gS&

cqfyVu CkskMZ flLVe (bulletin board system)

HTML

ikojikabV izLrqfr

oscdkLV

iPod ds fy, iksMdkLV

CykWx (Blog)

baVjusV VsyhQksuh

PDA ;k eksckby ij bZZ&cqDl

baVjusV ij LVhfeax vkWfM;ks

baVjusV ij LVhfeax ohWfM;ks

LVSfVd osc ist

osc ist ;k laxzg.k ek/;e (lhMh&jkse@MhohMh) ij baVj,fDVo daVUs V

vkWuykbu VsLV o fDot(Quiz)

baVj,fDVo VqYl tSl&


s osc Qksje] pSV :e] vkfM;ks@ohfM;ks dkWafs lax vkfn

foZpq;y&fj;YVh jksy Iysf;ax xse (virtual-reality role-playing games)

ist

3.5 bZ&yfuZax ds ykHk (Advantage of E-Learning)


bZ&yfuZax ds eq[; ykHk fuEufyf[kr gSa&
1. izf'k{kq tc rd fo"k; oLrq dks le> ugh ysrk gS rc rd og bldh iquZjko`fk dj ldrk gSA
2. ;g baVj,fDVo (Interactive) gksrh gS rFkk izf'k{kq viuh le>us dh xfr ls izf'k{k.k izkIr dj
ldrk gSA
3. izf'k{k.k izfriknu vklku rFkk (affordable) gksrk gSA
4. lh[kus dk i;kZoj.k vUos"kh (exploratory) rFkk (collaborative) gksrk gSA
5. izf'k{kq fdlh Hkh le; izf'k{k.k izkIr dj ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

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6. izf'k{k.k lkexzh dks fdlh Hkh IysVQkeZ (tSl&


s foaMks, ;qfuDl, eSd vkfn) ij miyC/k osc czkmtj
lkWVos;j dh lgk;rk ls ,Dlsl (access) fd;k tk ldrk gSA
7. izf'k{k.k lkexzh dk lLrs esa fo'o Hkj esa forj.k fd;k tk ldrk gSA
8. pqafd izf'k{k.k baVjusV ij fn;k tkrk gS vr% ;k=k ds le; o [kpZ dh cpr gksrh gSA
9. izf'k{kd vklkuh ls fo"k;&oLrq (Content) esa ifjorZu dj ldrk gSA
10.fo"k;&oLrq (Content) ds ,Dlsl (access) dks vklkuh ls fu;af=r fd;k tk ldrk gSA
11.izf'k{kq dks izf'k{k.k dk 'kqYd vnk djus ds dbZ vklku fodYi miyC/k gksrs gSA
12.izf'k{kq dks vU; izf'k{k.k lalk/kuks dk lh/kk ,Dlsl (access) miyC/k gksrk gSA

3.6 bZ&yfuZax dh gkfu;kW (Disadvantage of E-Learning)


bZ&yfuZax dh eq[; gkfu;kW fuEufyf[kr gSa&
1. izf'k{kq dks dEI;wVj dh vk/kjHkqr tkudkjh gksuh pkfg,A
2. izf'k{k.k dh f;kfof/k cSaMfoM~Fk rFkk czkmtj ds dkj.k lhfer gks tkrh gSA
3. vktdy miyC/k czkmtjksa esa fo"k;&oLrq dh lhfer QkWjesafVx laHko gksrh gSA
4. izf'k{k.k vuqiz;ksx rFkk fo"k;&oLrq dks MkmuyksM djus esa le; yxrk gSA
5. izf'k{kq dk eqY;kadu (assessment) rFkk iquZfuos'ku (feeback) lhfer gksrk gSA
6. izf'k{k.k lkexzh rS;kj djus esa le; yxrk gS rFkk bldks rS;kj djus dk izkjafHkd [kpZ fuf'pr
o vf/kd gSA
7. izf'k{k.k lkexzh rS;kj djus ds fy, dEI;wVj dh tkudkjh vko';d gSA

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
ukxfjdksa , m|e lk>snkjksa (Business Partner) rFkk deZpkfj;ksa ds ykHk ds fy, rduhdksa ds

mi;ksx ds ek/;e ls ljdkjh lsokvksa dh igqp (Access) rFkk izfriknu (Delivery) dks c<kok
nsus dh izf;k dks bZ&'kklu dgrs gSA
bZ&'kklu dh fuEukfdr foek,a gS&(i) ljdkj ls ukxfjd (G2C) (ii) miHkksDkk ls ljdkj
(C2G) (iii)ljdkj ls ljdkj (G2G) (iv)ljdkj ls O;kikj (G2B)
Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk 2002 esa bZ&kklu ds fy;s 12&fcUnq dh U;wure dk;Z lwph (12-point inimum
agenda for E-Governance) rS;kj dh xbZA

AglaSem School

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jk"Vh; bZ&kklu ;kstuk (NeGP) dsUnzh; lwpuk izk|


S ksfxdh foHkkx rFkk fMikZeVas vkWQ ,MfefuLVfs Vo
fjQkeZ ,aM ifCyd xzhfo;sl
a (Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievance)
}kjk rS;kj dh x;h gSA
NeGP dk eq[; ms'; ukxfjdks rFkk m|eksa dks iznku dh tkuh okyh ljdkjh lsokvksa ds izfriknu
dks lq/kkjukA
bySDVkfs ud okf.kT; (Electronic Commerce) ;k bZ&okf.kT;((E- Commerce) dk vFkZ gS
bUVjusV ds ek/;e ls O;kikj djuk
bZ&okf.kT; fuEu izdkj dk gksrk gS&(i) O;kikj ls O;kikj (B2B) (ii) O;kikj ls xzkgd (B2C)
(iii) O;kikj ls ljdkj (B2G) (iv) xzkgd ls xzkgd (C2C) (v) eksckby okf.kT;(M-Commerce)

bZ&cktkj (e-Market) os osc lkbV gS tgkW ij srk ,ao fosrk ijLij vU;ksU; f;k dj
O;kikfjd xfrfof/k;k (Business Transaction) djrs gSA
rkj&foghu rduhd (Wireless Technology) tSls& lsY;qyj Qksu, ilZuy fMftVy vflLVsaV
(Personal Digital Assistance) (PDA) dh enn ls mRiknks ,ao lsokvksa dks cspuk o [kjhnuk
eksckby okf.kT; (M-Commerce) dgykrk gSA
bySDVkfs ud rjhdks ds }kjk lh[kus, izf'k{k.k ;k f'k{kk ds izksxzkeksa dk izfriknu djuk bZ&yfuZax
dgykrk gSA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu %
1. jk"Vh; bZ&'kklu ;kstuk (National e-Governance Plan) (NeGP)dh 'kq:vkr gqbZ Fkh&
(va)

1977

(c)

1998

(l)

2006

(n)

2008

( )

vfr y?kqRrjkRed izu %


1. ICT dk iqjk uke crkb;sA
2. NeGP dk iqjk uke crkb;sA
3. jk"Vh; lqpuk dsUnz (National Informatic Center) dh LFkkiuk dc gqbZ Fkh?
4. bZ&cktkj (e-Market) dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A
5. flaUksUl yfuZax dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A

AglaSem School

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y?kqRrjkRed izu %
1. bZ&'kklu ds ykHk crkb;sA
2. bZ&'kklu ds fopkj.kh; eq[; fo"k;ksa dks le>kb,A
3. bZ&iztkra= ls vki D;k le>rs gSA
4. eksckby okf.kT; ls vki D;k le>rs gSA
5. bZ&okf.kT; ds eq[; ykHk crkb;sA
6. bZ&yfuZax esa v/;;u lkexzh ds izfriknu ds rjhdks dks le>kb,A
7. bZ&yfuZax ds eq[; ykHk crkb;sA
8. bZ&yfuZx
a dh gkfu;kW crkb;sA
fucU/kkRed
ucU/kkRed izu %
1. bZ&'kklu ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k,A
2. bZ&'kklu ds fy, Hkkjr ljdkj ds 12&fcUnq U;qure dk;Z lwph dh foospuk dhft,A
3. jk"Vh; bZ&kklu ;kstuk ij fuca/k fyf[k,A
4. bZ&okf.kT; ls vki D;k le>rs gSAbZ&okf.kT; ds fofHkUu izdkjksa dh foospuk dhft,A
5. bZ&yfuZax ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k,A
mRrj %
1. l