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SECTION 8.3 32. Describe the set of points in the complex plane that satisfy the following.

(a) z 4 (c) z 1 1
n

POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRES THEOREM

445

34. (a) Verify that

1i

i.

(b) z i 2 (d) z 3

(b) Find the two square roots of i. (c) Find all zeros of the polynomial x 4 1.

33. (a) Evaluate 1i for n 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. (b) Calculate 1i57 and 1i1995. (c) Find a general formula for 1in for any positive integer n.

8.3 POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRES THEOREM


Figure 8.6
Imaginary axis

(a , b ) r b

At this point we can add, subtract, multiply, and divide complex numbers. However, there is still one basic procedure that is missing from our algebra of complex numbers. To see this, consider the problem of finding the square root of a complex number such as i. When we use the four basic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division), there seems to be no reason to guess that i 1i . That is, 2

a 0
Real axis

1i

i.

Complex Number: a + bi Rectangular Form: (a, b) Polar Form: (r, )

To work effectively with powers and roots of complex numbers, it is helpful to use a polar representation for complex numbers, as shown in Figure 8.6. Specifically, if a bi is a nonzero complex number, then we let be the angle from the positive x-axis to the radial line passing through the point (a, b) and we let r be the modulus of a bi. Thus, a r cos , b r sin , and r a 2 b2

and we have a bi r cos r sin i from which we obtain the following polar form of a complex number.

Definition of Polar Form of a Complex Number

The polar form of the nonzero complex number z a bi is given by z r cos i sin where a r cos , b r sin , r a 2 b2, and tan ba. The number r is the modulus of z and is called the argument of z.

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REMARK:

The polar form of z 0 is given by z 0 cos i sin where is any

angle. Because there are infinitely many choices for the argument, the polar form of a complex number is not unique. Normally, we use values of that lie between and , though on occasion it is convenient to use other values. The value of that satisfies the inequality <
Principal argument

is called the principal argument and is denoted by Arg(z). Two nonzero complex numbers in polar form are equal if and only if they have the same modulus and the same principal argument.

EXAMPLE 1

Finding the Polar Form of a Complex Number Find the polar form of the following complex numbers. (Use the principal argument.) (a) 1 i (b) 2 3i (c) i

Solution

(a) We have a 1 and b 1, so r 2 1 2 12 2, which implies that r 2. From a r cos and b r sin , we have cos a 1 2 r 2 2 and sin b 1 2 . r 2 2

Thus, 4 and

z 2 cos i sin . 4 4

(b) Since a 2 and b 3, we have r 2 2 2 32 13, which implies that r 13. Therefore, cos a 2 r 13 and sin b 3 r 13

and it follows that arctan (3/2). Therefore, the polar form is z 13 cos arctan

3 3 i sin arctan 2 2

13 cos 0.98 i sin 0.98. (c) Since a 0 and b 1, it follows that r 1 and 2, so we have z 1 cos

i sin . 2 2

The polar forms derived in parts (a), (b), and (c) are depicted graphically in Figure 8.7.

SECTION 8.3
Figure 8.7
Imaginary axis

POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRES THEOREM

447

Imaginary axis 4 3

Imaginary axis

z = 2 + 3i

z=i

1 2

Real axis

2 1

z=1i

1 2

Real axis Real axis

(a) z =

2 cos + i sin 4 4

[ ( )

( )]

(b) z = 13[cos(0.98) + i sin(0.98)]

(c) z = 1 cos + i sin 2 2

EXAMPLE 2

Converting from Polar to Standard Form Express the following complex number in standard form.

z 8 cos i sin 3 3


1 3 4 43i. 2

Solution

Since cos(3 12 and sin 3 32, we obtain the standard form

z 8 cos i sin 3 3

8 [ 2 i

The polar form adapts nicely to multiplication and division of complex numbers. Suppose we are given two complex numbers in polar form z1 r1 cos1 i sin1 and z 2 r2 cos2 i sin2. Then the product of z1 and z 2 is given by z1 z 2 r1 r2 cos1 i sin1cos2 i sin2 r1r2 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 i cos 1 sin 2 sin 1 cos 2. Using the trigonometric identities cos 1 2 cos 1 cos 2 sin 1 sin 2 and sin 1 2 sin 1 cos 2 cos 1 sin 2 we have z1z 2 r1r2 cos1 2 i sin1 2. This establishes the first part of the following theorem. The proof of the second part is left to you. (See Exercise 63.)

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Theorem 8.4 Product and Quotient of Two Complex Numbers

Given two complex numbers in polar form z1 r1cos 1 i sin 1 and z2 r2 cos 2 i sin 2

the product and quotient of the numbers are as follows. z1z2 r1r2 cos1 2 i sin1 2 z1 r1 z 2 r2 cos1 2 i sin1 2, z2 0
Product Quotient

This theorem says that to multiply two complex numbers in polar form, we multiply moduli and add arguments, and to divide two complex numbers, we divide moduli and subtract arguments. (See Figure 8.8.)
Figure 8.8
Imaginary axis Imaginary axis

z1z2

z2

z1

z2 r2 r1

1 + 2 r 2 r1r2

r1

z1
Real axis

r1 r2

z1 z2
Real axis

1 2

To multiply z1 and z2: Multiply moduli and add arguments.

To divide z1 by z2: Divide moduli and add arguments.

EXAMPLE 3

Multiplying and Dividing in Polar Form Determine z1z2 and z1z2 for the complex numbers z1 5 cos

i sin 4 4

and

z2

1 cos i sin . 3 6 6

Solution

Since we are given the polar forms of z 1 and z 2, we can apply Theorem 8.4 as follows.

multiply

z1z2 5

3 cos 4 6 i sin 4 6 3 cos 12 i sin 12


1 5

}
add

}
add

z1 5 cos i sin z2 13 4 6 4 6

divide

15cos 12 i sin 12

}
subtract

}
subtract

SECTION 8.3
REMARK:

POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRES THEOREM

449

Try performing the multiplication and division in Example 3 using the stan3 1 i. 6 6

dard forms z1 52 52 i 2 2 and z2

DeMoivres Theorem
Our final topic in this section involves procedures for finding powers and roots of complex numbers. Repeated use of multiplication in the polar form yields z r cos i sin z 2 r cos i sin r cos i sin r 2 cos 2 i sin 2 z3 r cos i sin r 2 cos 2 i sin 2 r 3 cos 3 i sin 3. Similarly, z4 r4 cos 4 i sin 4 z 5 r 5cos 5 i sin 5. This pattern leads to the following important theorem, named after the French mathematician Abraham DeMoivre (16671754). You are asked to prove this theorem in Chapter Review Exercise 71.

Theorem 8.5 DeMoivres Theorem


EXAMPLE 4

If z r cos i sin and n is any positive integer, then zn r ncos n i sin n.

Raising a Complex Number to an Integer Power Find 1 3i12 and write the result in standard form.

Solution

We first convert to polar form. For 1 3i, we have r 12 3 2 2 and tan 3 3 1

which implies that 23. Therefore, 1 3i 2 cos

2 2 i sin . 3 3

By DeMoivres Theorem, we have

1 3i12

2cos 3

i sin

2 3

12

212 cos

12(2) 12(2) i sin 3 3

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4096 cos 8 i sin 8 4096 1 i 0) 4096.

Recall that a consequence of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra is that a polynomial of degree n has n zeros in the complex number system. Hence, a polynomial like px x6 1 has six zeros, and in this case we can find the six zeros by factoring and using the quadratic formula. x6 1 x3 1x3 1 x 1x 2 x 1x 1x 2 x 1 Consequently, the zeros are x 1, x 1 3i , 2 and x 1 3i . 2

Each of these numbers is called a sixth root of 1. In general, we define the nth root of a complex number as follows.

Definition of n th Root of a Complex Number

The complex number w a bi is an n th root of the complex number z if z w n a bin . DeMoivres Theorem is useful in determining roots of complex numbers. To see how this is done, let w be an n th root of z, where w scos i sin and z r cos i cos .

Then, by DeMoivres Theorem we have w n s n cos n i sin n and since w n z, it follows that s n cos n i sin n r cos i sin . Now, since the right and left sides of this equation represent equal complex numbers, we n can equate moduli to obtain sn = r which implies that s r and equate principal arguments to conclude that and n must differ by a multiple of 2. Note that r is a n positive real number and hence s r is also a positive real number. Consequently, for some integer k, n 2k, which implies that

2k . n

Finally, substituting this value for into the polar form of w, we obtain the result stated in the following theorem.

SECTION 8.3

POLAR FORM AND DEMOIVRES THEOREM

451

Theorem 8.6 n th Roots of a Complex Number

For any positive integer n, the complex number z r cos i sin has exactly n distinct roots. These n roots are given by r cos
n

2 k 2 k i sin n n

where k 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1.
Figure 8.9
Imaginary axis

Note that when k exceeds n 1, the roots begin to repeat. For instance, if k n, the angle is
REMARK:

2 n r

2 n 2 n n
2 n

which yields the same value for the sine and cosine as k 0.
Real axis

nth Roots of a Complex Number

The formula for the nth roots of a complex number has a nice geometric interpretation, as shown in Figure 8.9. Note that because the nth roots all have the same modulus (length) n n r , they will lie on a circle of radius r with center at the origin. Furthermore, the n roots are equally spaced along the circle, since successive nth roots have arguments that differ by 2n. We have already found the sixth roots of 1 by factoring and the quadratic formula. Try solving the same problem using Theorem 8.6 to see if you get the roots shown in Figure 8.10. When Theorem 8.6 is applied to the real number 1, we give the nth roots a special namethe n th roots of unity.
Figure 8.10
Imaginary axis

1 + 3i 2 2

1+ 3 i 2 2

Real axis

1 3 1 3i i 2 2 2 2 6th Roots of Unity

EXAMPLE 5

Finding the n th Roots of a Complex Number Determine the fourth roots of i.

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Solution

In polar form, we can write i as i 1 cos i sin 2 2

so that r 1, 2. Then, by applying Theorem 8.6, we have i14 1 cos


4

2
k

2k 2 2k i sin 4 4 4

cos

8 2 i sin 8 2 .

Setting k 0, 1, 2, and 3 we obtain the four roots z1 cos z 2 cos z3 cos z4 cos

i sin 8 8
5 5 i sin 8 8 9 9 i sin 8 8 13 13 i sin 8 8

as shown in Figure 8.11.

In Figure 8.11 note that when each of the four angles, 8, 58, 98, and 138 is multiplied by 4, the result is of the form 2 2k.
REMARK:

Figure 8.11

cos 5 + i sin 5 8 8

Imaginary axis

cos + i sin 8 8
Real axis

cos 9 + i sin 9 8 8

cos 13 + i sin 13 8 8

SECTION 8.3

EXERCISES

453

SECTION 8.3

EXERCISES
25. 7 cos 0 i sin 0 26. 6cos i sin

In Exercises 14, express the complex number in polar form. 1. Imaginary


axis Real axis

2.

Imaginary axis 3 2 1

In Exercises 2734, perform the indicated operation and leave the result in polar form. 27. 3 cos 3

3i

1 1 2

i sin 3 3

4cos 6 i sin 6

28.
1 Real axis

4 cos 2 i sin 2 6cos 4 i sin 4


i sin 3 3

2 2i
Imaginary axis 3 2 1 Real axis 2 3

29. 0.5cos i sin 0.5cos i sin 30. 3 cos

3.

4.

Imaginary axis 3 2 1 1 Real axis

3 cos 3
1

i sin

2 3

1 + 3i

31.

6
6 5 4 3 2

2[cos(23) i sin(23)] 4[cos(29) i sin(29)] cos(53) i sin(53) cos i sin 12[cos(3) i sin(3)] 3[cos(6) i sin(6)] 9[cos(34) i sin(34)] 5[cos(4) i sin(4)]

32.
1 2

33.

In Exercises 516, represent the complex number graphically, and give the polar form of the number. 5. 2 2i 7. 21 3 i 9. 6i 11. 7 13. 1 6i 15. 3 i 6. 3 i 8.
5 2

34.

10. 4 12. 2i 14. 22 i 16. 4 2i

In Exercises 3544, use DeMoivres Theorem to find the indicated powers of the given complex number. Express the result in standard form. 35. 1 i 4 37. 1 i
10 3

36. 2 2i 6 38. 3 i 40. 5 cos


7

In Exercises 1726, represent the complex number graphically, and give the standard form of the number. 17. 2 cos

39. 1 3i 41. 3 cos

i sin 9 9

i sin 2 2

18. 5 cos

3 3 i sin 4 4

5 5 i sin 6 6

42. cos

5 5 i sin 4 4

10

19.

3 5 5 cos i sin 2 3 3

20.

3 7 7 cos i sin 4 4 4

43. 2 cos

i sin 2 2

44. 5 cos

3 3 i sin 2 2

21. 3.75 cos

i sin 4 4

22. 8 cos

i sin 6 6

23. 4 cos

3 3 i sin 2 2

24. 6 cos

5 5 i sin 6 6

In Exercises 4556, (a) use DeMoivres Theorem to find the indicated roots, (b) represent each of the roots graphically, and (c) express each of the roots in standard form. 45. Square roots: 16 cos i sin 3 3

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COMPLEX VECTOR SPACES 2 2 i sin 3 3

46. Square roots: 9 cos

66. Show that the negative of z rcos i sin is z r cos i sin . 67. (a) Let z r cos i sin 2 cos iz, and zi in the complex plane. (b) What is the geometric effect of multiplying a complex number z by i ? What is the geometric effect of dividing z by i ? 68. (Calculus) Recall that the Maclaurin series for e x, sin x, and cos x are ex 1 x x 2 x3 x 4 . . . 2! 3! 4!

47. Fourth roots: 16 cos

4 4 i sin 3 3

i sin . Sketch z, 6 6

48. Fifth roots: 32 cos 49. Square roots: 25i

5 5 i sin 6 6

50. Fourth roots: 625i

125 1 3i 51. Cube roots: 2 52. Cube roots: 42 1 i 53. Cube roots: 8 55. Fourth roots: 1 54. Fourth roots: i 56. Cube roots: 1000

sin x x cos x 1

In Exercises 5762, find all the solutions to the given equation and represent your solutions graphically. 57. 59. 61. 63. x4 i 0 x 5 243 0 x 3 64i 0 Given two complex numbers 58. x 3 1 0 60. x 4 81 0 62. x 4 i 0 z 1 r1cos 1 i sin 1 and

x 3 x5 x 7 . . . 3! 5! 7! x 2 x 4 x6 . . . . 2! 4! 6!

(a) Substitute x i into the series for e x and show that ei cos i sin . (b) Show that any complex number z a bi can be expressed in polar form as z rei. (c) Prove that if z rei, then z rei. (d) Prove the amazing formula ei 1.

z 2 r2cos 2 i sin 2 with z 2 0 prove that z 1 r1 z 2 r 2 cos 1 2 i sin 1 2. 64. Show that the complex conjugate of z rcos i sin is z r cos i sin . 65. Use the polar form of z and z in Exercise 64 to find the following. (a) zz (b) zz, z 0