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AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 305

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izk|


S ksfxdh
(Multimedia and Web Technology)
ek/;fed fk{kk cksMZ] jktLFkku] vtesj }kjk
d{kk XI
ds uohure ikB~;e gsrq Lohd`r ikB~; iqLrd
ys [ kd %
MkW 'kSy sU nz dqekj xqI rk] (la
d)
la; kst d
lgk;d vkpk;Z] frd kkLk fokx ,ao mi funs'kd, baQksuVs lsVa j,
jktLFkku fo'ofo|ky;] t;iqj
frokjh]] lgk;d vkpk;Z
MkW vt; frokjh
fr:ifr dkWyt
s vkWQ VsDuhdy ,T;wd's ku] t;iqj
xqjehr flag f<Yyksa] izoDrk
jktdh; efgyk ikWfyVsfDud egkfo|ky;] t;iqj
Mh- ih 'kekZ] izoDrk
,u-vkbZ-Vh-] lqjrdy

jktdh; fo|ky;ksa es a fu%'kqYd forj.k gsr q

ek/;fed fk{kk cksMZ jktLFkku] vtesj

2012

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 306

iz k DdFku
dEI;wVj foKku&eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh fo"k; dks ,sfPNd fo"k; ds :i
esa ek/;fed f'k{kk cksM]Z jktLFkku }kjk lfEefyr fd;k x;k gSA bldk mn~n's ; dEI;wVj fo"k;
ds ckjs esa xgjkbZ ls v/;;u rFkk fo'ks"kKksa dh deh dks iwjk djuk gSA ;g iqLrd ,sfPNd fo"k;
ds :i esa dEI;wVj foKku& eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh fo"k; p;u djus okys
fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds fy, fy[kh xbZ gSA
vkt dksbZ Hkh tkudkjh bUVjusV ds }kjk Kkr dh tk ldrh gSA bUVjusV ij cuh
osclkbV bu lHkh tkudkfj;ksa dks j[krh gSA osclkbV dks ge ,pVh,e,y esa cukrs gSaA
fdlh osc lkbV dks cukus ds fy, vktdy ,pVh,e,y (HTML), ,Dl,e,y
(XML), lh,l,l(CSS) o SUx Hkk"kk dk mi;ksx djrs gS rFkk osc lkbV esa eYVhehfM;k

lkexzh Mkyh tkrh gSA bu eYVhehfM;k lkefxz;ksa dks rS;kj djus ds fy, QksVks'kkWi tSls VwYl
dh vko';drk gksrh gSA bl fo"k; esa bu lHkh dk lekos'k fd;k x;k gS ftudh vko';drk
,d osc lkbV cukus esa gksrh gSA
bl iqLrd dks pkj Hkkxksa esa foHkDr fd;k x;k gS izFke Hkkx esa dEI;wVj gkMZos;j (
dEI;wVj lkWVos;j o ekbZkslkWV fo.Mkst ( f}rh; Hkkx esa ,pVh,e,y (HTML)(MkWD;qesaV
vkWCtsDV ekWMy( ,DlVasflcy ekdZvi ySaXosat (XML)( r`rh; Hkkx esa fl SU
(VB Script) rFkk prqZFk Hkkx esa xzkfQDl ds vk/kkjHkwr(,uhes'ku o eYVhehfM;k (fp= laiknu

djus okys lkWVos;j dks foLr`r :i ls le>k;k x;k gSA bl iqLrd esa vf/kdkf/kd mnkgj.kksa
dks lfEefyr djrs gq, izR;sd fo"k; dks le>kus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA iqLrd esa rduhdh
'kCnksa dks vaxzsth esa j[krs gq, Hkh Hkk"kk dks ljy] Li"V ,oa cks/kxE; cukus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k
gSA vko';drkuqlkj vaxzsth 'kCn dks"Vd esa Hkh fn;s x;s gSaA
vk'kk gS] dEI;wVj v/;;u djus okys fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk lkekU; ikBdksa ds
fy, Hkh ;g iqLrd mi;ksxh fl) gksxhA vkidks bl iqLrd ds ckjs esa dksbZ lq>ko nsus gks rks
vki ij esy Hkst ldrs gSA

la;kstd ,oa ys[kd x.k

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 307

fo"k; lwph
INDEX

bdkbZ 1
dEI;wVj flLVe (Computer System)
1 dEI;wVj dk ifjp; (Introduction to Computer)

1 & 45

2 dEI;wVj lkWVos;j (Computer Software)

46 & 56

3 ekbZkslkWV fo.Mkst (Microsoft Windows)

57 & 127

bdkbZ 2
,p- Vh- ,e- ,y- (HTML)
1 ,p- Vh- ,e- ,y- dk ifjp; (Introduction to HTML)
2 ewy osc lkbV dks cukuk (Designing the Website)
3 lqph izdkj ds Vsxl (List Type Tags)
4 ,p- Vh- ,e- ,y- dk ifjp; (Introduction to HTML)
5 MkWD;qesaV vkWCtsDV ekWMy (Document Object Model)
6 ,DlVasflcy ekdZvi ySaXosat (eXtensible Markup Language)

128 - 135
136 - 160
161 - 182
183 - 196
197 - 208
209 - 219

bdkbZ 3
osc fL
fIVax (Web Scripting)
fLfIVa
1 fl SU (VB Script)

220 - 243

bdkbzZ 4
eYVhehfM;k ,oa vkFkfjax Vwy (Multimedia and Authoring Tool)
1 xzkfQDl ds vk/kkjHkwr (Basics of Graphics)
244 - 259
2 ,uhes'ku o eYVhehfM;k (Animation and Multimedia)
259 - 271
3 fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j (Image Editing Softwares) 272 - 304

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 1

dEI;wVj dk ifjp;
(Introduction to Computer)
1-1 izLrkouk (Introduction)
dEI;wVj dk vkfo"dkj chloha lnh dh ,d egku miyfC/k gSA vkt dEI;wVj dks
fdlh ifjp; dh vko;drk ugha gSA vkt thou dk dksbZ ,slk {ks= ugha gS ftlesa dEI;wVj
dk mi;ksx ugha fd;k tk jgk gksA oSKkfud vuql/a kku] O;kikj] m|ksx] i;kZoj.k] ekSle foKku]
vUrfj{k vfHk;ku] lapkj] ;krk;kr] fpfdRlk] fk{kk] euksjatu vkfn lHkh {ks=ksa esa dEI;wVj dk
mi;ksx vifjgk;Z gks pqdk gSA foo Hkj ds dEI;wVjksa ds ijLij tqM+ko ls cus lapkj rU=
bUVjusV dk izHkko bruk tcjnLr jgk gS fd blus ,d u, ;qx ^^lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ;qx^^ dk
lw=ikr dj fn;k gSA vkt ds bl lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh ds ;qx esa dEI;wVj ds fcuk thou dh
dYiuk djuk vlEHko gSA
ekuork ds fodkl ds lHkh {ks=ksa eas dEI;wVj dk ;ksxnku jgk gSA dEI;wVj us vusd
tfVy leL;kvksa dks lqy>k;k gS rFkk cgqr ls vlEHko dk;ksZ dks lEHko cuk;k gSA Hkkjr
tSls&fodklkhy nsk ds fy, rks dEI;wVj vR;Ur vko;d gS] D;ksafd dEI;wVj jk"V dh
vkfFkZd fLFkfr dks lq/kkjus essa egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk ldrs gSaA

1-2 dEI;wVj D;k gS (What is a Computer)


dEI;wVj kCn dh mRifk vaxzsth ds dEI;wV (Compute) kCn ls gqbZ ftldk vFkZ
gS&x.kuk ;k fxurh djukA okLro esa dEI;wVj ds vkfo"dkj dk ewy ms; kh?kz x.kuk djus
okyh ekhu dk fuek.kZ djuk gh FkkA fdUrq vkt dEI;wVj }kjk fd;k tkus okyk 80 izfrkr
ls vf/kd dk;Z xf.krh; ;k lka[;dh; fr dk ugha gksrkA vr% dEI;wVj dks ek= ,d x.kuk
djus okyh ;qfDr (Device) ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr djuk blds 80 frkr dk;Z dks misf{kr
djuk gSA dEI;wVj esa x.kuk djus dh {kerk ds vfrfjDr rkfdZd kfDr ,oa eSeksjh dk Hk.Mkj
gksrk gS rFkk iyd >idrs gh ;g funsZkksa dh ikyuk dj ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 2

vkt dEI;wVj dh vf/kekU; ifjHkk"kk fuEu gS %&


dEI;wVj ,d Lopkfyr bysDVkWfud ekhu gS] ftlesa ge vifj"r vkadM+s nsdj
izksxzke ds fu;U=.k }kjk mUgsa vFkZi.w kZ lwpukvksa esa ifjofrZr dj ldrs gSAa
vifj"d`r vkadM+s (Raw Data) lwpukvksa] vkadM+ksa vkfn ds :i esa dEI;wVj dks fn,
tkus okys vkxe (Inputs) gksrs gSAa mnkgj.k ds fy, ;fn ge fdlh d{kk esa fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh vad
rkfydk cukuk pkgrs gSa rks blds fy, mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa ds jksy uEcj] uke] d{kk] fo"k;] izkIrkad
vkfn dh vko;drk gksxhA bUgh tkudkfj;ksa dks vifj"d`r vkadM+s dgk tkrk gSA

fp= 1-1 dEI;wVj


dEI;wVj dh fdlh fofk"V Hkk"kk esa fy[ks x, funsZkksa ds lewg dks izksxzke (Program)
dgrs gSaA dEI;wVj bu izkx
s zkeksa }kjk fu;fU=r gksrs gSaA ;gka Hkh ge vad rkfydk dk mnkgj.k
ysrs gSAa vad rkfydk fudkyus ds fy, Hkh ,d izkx
s kz e cukuk iM+rk gSA eku yhft, bl izksxkz e
esa ifgys funsZk ds vUrxZr jksy uEcj Hkjuk gS] fQj uke] fQj d{kk vkSj fQj vxys funsZkksa
ds vUrxZr fo"k; okj izkIrkad Hkjus gSaA mlds ckn og izksxzke iyd >idrs gh fcuk fdlh
ekuoh; Je ds lHkh izkIrkadks dk ;ksx] izfrkr] Js.kh] ojh;rk ekad vkfn tkudkfj;k ns
nsxkA
s kz e ds ek/;e ls izkIr gksus
vFkZi.w kZ lwpuk,a (Meaning ful Information) dEI;wVj izkx
okys os ifj.kke gS ftuls dksbZ vFkZ fudyrk gks rFkk os mi;ksxh gksA vFkZi.w kZ lwpuk,a
vO;ofLFkr] ,dkdh] ewy vkadM+ksa dk O;ofLFkr :i gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, vad rkfydk esa tc
ifj.kke ds :i esa izkIrkdksa dk ;ksx] izfrkr] Js.kh] ojh;rk ekad vkfn fudkyrs gSa rks bUgs
vFkZiw.kZ lwpuk,a dgk tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 3

1-3 dEI;wVj ds fofo/k mi;ksx (Different Uses of Computer)


dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx cM+k O;kid gSA vkt thou esa dEI;wVj dh mi;ksfxrk bruh
vf/kd gks xbZ gS fd vkt dk ;qx gh dEI;wVj ;qx dgykrk gSA
dEI;wVj ds vkfo"dkj ls cgqr lh x.kuk, tks fd ekuo ds ok dh ckr ugha Fkh] vc
vklku gks xbZ gSA oLrqr% dEI;wVj dk vfo"dkj gh x.kuk dks Lopkfyr ,oa ifjkq)rk ls djus
ds ms; ls gqvk FkkA ,sls {ks= ftuesa le;c)rk ,oa ifjkq)rk dh vR;f/kd vko;drk gksrh
gS dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx vifjgk;Z gSA ekSle lEcU/kh iwokZuqeku] vUrfj{k vuql/a kku lEcU/kh
izf;k,] ukfHkdh; la;=ksa dk lapkyu vkfn ,sls dqN fofk"V {ks= gSa ftudk dEI;wVj ds fcuk
fodkl gh lEHko ugha FkkA pUnzek ij ekuo dk dne dEI;wVj dh ifjkq) ,oa rhoz xfr x.kuk
ds dkj.k gh lEHko gks ik;k gSA
dEI;wVj ds mi;ksx ls lapkj {ks= esa kfUrdkjh ifjorZu vk, gSAa vkt ek= dqN cVu
nckdj foo ds fdlh Hkh dksus esa cSBs O;fDr ls lEidZ fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj og Hkh cgqr
de [kpZ esaA bUVjusV rks lwpuk izlkj.k ,oa lwpuk izkfIr dk ,d cgqr lkDr ek/;e gSA ;g
lwpukvksa ,oa Kku dk vFkkg Hk.Mkj Hkh gS tgk ls dksbZ Hkh lwpuk ,oa tkudkjh iyHkj esa izkIr
dh tk ldrh gSA ijh{kk ifj.kke /kksf"kr gksrs gh bUVjusV ls ijh{kkfFkZ;ksa dks vius ifj.kke ,oa
izkIrkadks dh tkudkjh gks tkrh gSA

fp= 1-2 bUVjusV ij ek/;fed f'k{kk cksMZ jktLFkku] vtesj dh osclkbV dk


gks e is t
bUVjusV ij miyC/k VsyhQksu Mk;jsDVh ls fdlh ds Hkh VsyhQksu uEcj Kkr fd, tk
ldrs gSAa jsy] cl] gokbZ tgkt dh le; lkfj.kh rFkk buds pyus dh okLrfod fLFkfr Kkr

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 4

dh tk ldrh gSA Hkkjrh; jsy dh ,d lkekU; iSlsUtj Vus dh orZeku fLFkfr dh tkudkjh
bUVjusV ij miyC/k jgrh gSA bUVjusV ij foo ds lHkh izeq[k lekpkj i= miyC/k gSAa
bUVjusV ls vki foo ds fdlh Hkh dksus esa cSBs jktLFkku ds lekpkj i= ds fdlh Hkh {ks=h;
ifjfk"B dks i<+ ldrs gSAa ?kj cSBs Vsu dk fjtosZku djok ldrs gS]a VsyhQksu fcy] cSd
a cSyUs l
vkfn dh tkudkjh ys ldrs gSaA kk;n gh dksbZ ,slh lwpuk ;k tkudkjh gks] tks bUVjusV ij
miyC/k ugha gSaA vuqla/kku dkkZvksa vkSj ys[kdksa ds fy, rks bUVjusV ,d cgqr vPNs lUnHkZ
L=ksr dk dk;Z djrk gSA bUVjusV ij miyC/k bZ&esy ds }kjk lUnskksa dks ,d dEI;wVj ls nwljs
dEI;wVj ij Hkstk tk ldrk gSaA bZ&esy ls lUnsk Hkstus esa cgqr de [kpZ vkrk gS rFkk le;
dh Hkh cpr gksrh gSA ftl {k.k lUnsk Hkstk tkrk gS og nwljs gh {k.k foo ds fdlh Hkh dksus
esa fLFkr dEI;wVj ij igqap tkrk gSA ,d vU; lqfo/kk ftls pSfVax (Chatting) dgk tkrk gS
ds }kjk lUnskksa dk vknku&iznku rRdky fd;k tk ldrk gSA bUVjusV ij miyC/k ,d vU;
lqfo/kk ftls usV VsyhQksuh (Net Telephony) dgrs gSa] dk mi;ksx dj fdlh Qksu ls Hkh
lEidZ LFkkfir fd;k tk ldrk gSA usV VsyhQksuh esa lkeus okys O;fDr ds ikl dEI;wVj gksuk
t:jh ugha gSA usV VsyhQksuh ls fonskksa esa ckrphr djus dk [kpZ cgqr gh de vkrk gSA vc
usV VsyhQksuh Hkkjr esa Hkh oS/k gks xbZ gSA fofM;ks dkWusaflax esa rks VsyhQksu ij ckrphr djrs
gq, ,d nwljs dks ns[kk Hkh tk ldrk gSA

fp= 1-3 bZ&esy dk izk:i


O;kikfjd txr esa Hkh dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx [kwc c<+k gSA lk/kkj.k fglkc&fdrkc ;k
ys[kk ds la/kkj.k ls ysdj jk"Vh; ,oa vUrjkZ"Vh; ks;j cktkj dk izcU/ku vkt dEI;wVjksa }kjk
fd;k tk jgk gSA dEI;wVj vkSj bUVjusV ds la;ksx ls ,d ubZ O;kikj iz.kkyh izpyu esa vkbZ

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 5

gS ftls bZ&dkelZ (E-Commerce) dgrs gSaA oLrqvksa vkSj lsokvksa dks bUVjusV ds tfj;s
[kjhnuk ,oa cspuk gh bZ&dkelZ dgykrk gSA blls mRikndksa ,oa fosrkvksa dks oLrqvksa ,oa
lsokvksa ds fooO;kih cktkj feys gSa rFkk O;kikfjd lwpukvksa ds vknku&iznku ds le; ,oa
ykxr esa Hkkjh deh gqbZ gSA vkt x`gf.k;k bUVjusV ds }kjk vius ?kjsyw mi;ksx dh oLrq,a ?kj
cSBs [kjhn jgh gS]a ?kj cSBs flusek ds fVdV] gksVyksa dh cqfdax ,oa ;k=k fVdVksa ds vkj{k.k djk,
tk jgs gSaA
bZ&dkelZ dk gh ,d Hkkx gS bZ&cSfa dxA
bUVjusV ds tfj;s [kkrk /kkjd vius cSad [kkrs
dk cSyUs l ns[k ldrs gS]a ,d [kkrs ls nwljs [kkrs
esa jkfk LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrs gSaA VsyhQksu]
fctyh] ikuh dk fcy Hkj ldrs gSa vFkok dksbZ
ysu&nsu dj ldrs gSaA bZ&cSfa dax ds gh vUrxZr
cSadksa }kjk ,d vkSj lqfo/kk vius xzkgdksa dks
miyC/k djkbZ tk jgh gS& og gS ,-Vh-,e(A.T.M.)A ,-Vh-,e- dk iwjk uke gS vkWVksefs Vd
Vsyj e'khu (Automatic Teller Machine)
vFkkZr Lopkfyr x.kd e'khuA ,-Vh-,e- }kjk
tekdrkZ fdlh Hkh le; rFkk fdlh Hkh LFkku
ij jde fudyok ldrk gSA blfy, ,-Vh-,edks izpfyr vFkZ esa ,uh Vkbe euh (Any Time
Money) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA

fp= 1-4 ,-Vh-,e-

dk;kZy;ksa esa Vkbi jkbVj dk LFkku rks dEI;wVj us ys gh fy;k gS] blds vfrfjDr
dk;kZy;ksa esa gksus okys lHkh dk;ksZa dk ys[kk&tks[kk] laLFkkiu fooj.k] osru fooj.k vkfn la/
kkj.k dk dk;Z Hkh dEI;wVj gh djrk gSA dEI;wVj us ^^isij ySl vkWfQl** dh vo/kkj.kk dks tUe
fn;k gSA iz'kklfud fu;U=.k ds fy, bZ&xousZal dk lgkjk fy;k tk jgk gSA
iqLrdky; esa iqLrdksa dk lEiw.kZ C;kSjk] iqLrdky; lnL;ksa dk iwjk fjdkMZ] iqLrdksa
dks nsuk] ykSVkuk vkfn dk vfHkys[k dEI;wVj }kjk vklkuh ls j[kk tk ldrk gSA
izdk'ku] eqnz.k dk;ksZa esa Hkh vc dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx gksrk gSA ;s dk;Z MsLdVkWi
ifCyf'kax (Desk Top Publishing - DTP) ds vUrxZr vkrs gSaA ijEijkxr NikbZ dk dk;Z cgqr
gh nq"dj ,oa Jelk/; gqvk djrk Fkk] fdUrq vc dEI;wVj ds mi;ksx ls ;g cgqr gh vklku
gks x;k gSA
fpfdRlk ds {ks= esa jksxksa ds funku] muds bZykt] 'kY; f;k] jksfx;ksa dh xgu fuxjkuh
vkfn dk;ksaZ esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx [kwc fd;k tk jgk gSA vYVklkm.M (Ultrasound), lhVh Ldsu
(CT Scan/dEI;wVjkbTM Vkseksxkz Qh] ,e- vkj- vkbZ- (M.R.I.) vkfn dqN ijh{k.k ,sls gSa ftudk
mi;ksx fofHkUu chekfj;ksa ,oa fofr;ksa dk irk yxkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA bu ijh{k.kksa esa
dEI;wVj tfur fp=ksa ds ek/;e ls jksxksa dk funku cM+h vklkuh ls gks tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 6

vfu;fer n; /kM+du okys jksfx;ksa esa /kM+du fu;fU=r djus okyk midj.k
^^islisdj** ,d NksVk lk dEI;wVj gh gSA vkuqofa 'kd vfHk;kfU=dh (Genetic Engineering) ds
{ks= esa tgk fofHkUu Mh-,u-,- dh lajpukvksa dk v/;;u fd;k tkrk gS] dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx
vifjgk;Z gSA Mh-,u-,- fQaxj fizfVax ds }kjk vusd my>s gq, vijkf/kd izdj.kksa dks lqy>k;k
tkrk gSA tSo&fpfdRlk foKku vkSj dEI;wVj ds la;ksx ls foKku dh ,d ubZ 'kk[kk
^ck;ksbUQkjesfVDl* (Bio-informatics) vfLrRo esa vkbZ gSA

fp= 1-5 vYVklkm.M Ldsu

fp= 1-6 lh-Vh- Ldsu

f'k{kk ds {ks= esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx cgqr gh izHkkoh :i esa gks jgk gSA d{kk (Class
room) esa foKku izk;kstukvksa ds fuekZ.k] fjiksVZ rS;kj djus] tkudkfj;k ,df=r djus rFkk
vUrZf;kRed vf/kxe iwy (Interactive Learning Pool) ds :i esa dEI;wVj dk izpyu c<+k gSA
dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx f'k{kd ds iwjd ds :i esa fd;k tk jgk gSA dEI;wVj vk/kkfjr f'k{k.k
(Computer Based Teaching - CBT) ds vUrxZr ,sls vusd lkWVos;j miyC/k gSa tks fofHkUu
fo"k;ksa dh ec) tkudkjh nsrs gSAa eYVhehfM;k /ofu] fp=] ,fues'ku ,oa ohfM;ks ls ;qDr lhch-Vh- lkWVos;j fdlh Hkh fo"k; dks izHkkoh <ax ls le>kus esa cgqr mi;ksxh gSA vktdy bUVjusV
ds ek/;e ls vkWuykbu yfuZx
a ,oa Vfs uax lEHko gSA blds vUrxZr fo|kFkhZ vius ?kj esa cSBs gq,
vius f'k{kd ls ckr dj ldrk gS rFkk viuh ftKklk, 'kkUr dj ldrk gSA vkt vkHkklh d{kk
d{k (Virtual Class Room) okLrfodrk cu x, gSAa
vfHk;kfU=dh {ks= esa Hkh dEI;wVj us viuk deky fn[kk;k gSA fdlh Hkou] oLrq]
dyiqtZs vkfn ds fuekZ.k esa dkSu ls inkFkZ dk mi;ksx csgrj gksxk rFkk D;k os vko';d ruko
o rki vkfn lgu dj ldsax]s vkfn dk fu/kkZj.k dEI;wVj ,M~M bfUtfu;fjax (CAE) ls cM+h
vklkuh ls fd;k tk ldrk gSA cMs+ Hkou] iqy] gokbZ tgkt vkfn ds fuekZ.k esa lh-,-bZ- dk
iz;ksx lqj{kk n`f"V ls vfr vko';d gSA dEI;wVj ,M~M fMtkbZfuax (CAD) ds }kjk fdlh Hkh oLrq
dk Hkhrjh&ckgjh] foLr`r ,oa f=vk;keh Lo:i rS;kj dj Lhu ij ns[kk tk ldrk gSA dkxt
ij fufeZr fdlh ?kj ds uD'ks dks ns[kdj lk/kkj.kr% ;g irk ugha pyrk fd ml ?kj dk
okLrfod :i D;k gksxk rFkk iwjk cuus ij og dSlk fn[ksxkA fdUrq CAD ds ek/;e ls ;g
lc ?kj cuus ls iwoZ gh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ,slh ifjfLFkfr;k tgk ekuo ds fy, dk;Z djuk
ladVe; gks ldrk gS] ogk jkscksV dk mi;ksx izkjEHk gks x;k gSA jkscksV dEI;wVj lapkfyr
;kfU=d ekuo gksrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 7

dEI;wVj dk euksjt
a u ds {ks= esa Hkh cgqr mi;ksx gks jgk gSA vkt vusd ,sls dEI;wVj
xse miyC/k gSa tks u dsoy euksjatu gh djrs gSa vfirq Kkuo/kZu Hkh djrs gSa rFkk cPpksa dh
ckSf)d ,oa rkfdZd {kerk dk Hkh fodkl djrs gSaA dEI;wVj xse brus yksdfiz; gSa fd NksVs
cPpksa dks gh ugha] cM+h mez ds yksxksa dks Hkh ;s vkdf"kZr djrs gSAa fQYeksa esa dEI;wVj dh lgk;rk
ls fo'ks"k izHkko (Special effects) ;qDr ,sls n`'; rS;kj dj fy, tkrs gSa] ftudk okLro
esa dksbZ vfLrRo ugha gksrkA vkius tqjkfld ikdZ] xksMftyk] ,ukdksM
a k] fyfVy LVqvkVZ vkfn
fQYesa ns[kh gksaxhA bu lHkh fQYeksa esa fo'ks"k izHkko mRiUu djus ds fy, dEI;wVj dk gh iz;ksx
fd;k x;k gSA dEI;wVj dh gh enn ls iqjkuh izfl) Hkkjrh; fQYe ^eqxy&,&vkte* o ^u;k
nkSj* tks CySd ,.M OgkbV Fkh] ds jaxhu laLdj.k rS;kj dj fy, x;s gSAa
Vh-oh- pSuyksa ds izlkj.k esa Hkh dEI;wVj us LFkku cuk fy;k gSA dEI;wVj dh lgk;rk
ls izlkj.k djus okys pSuy fMftVy pSuy dgykrs gSAa budk izlkj.k lkekU; pSuy dh rqyuk
esa csgrj gksrk gSA
laxhr dh ubZ&ubZ /kqusa cukus esa Hkh dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx gksus yxk gSA ,d dEI;wVj
vusd ok| ;U=ksa dh /ofu mRiUu dj ldrk gSA dEI;wVj }kjk laxhr jpuk djuk E;wftdy
bULV;qesUV fMftVy bUVjQsl (MIDI) dgykrk gSA
dEI;wVj vkt gekjs ?kjksa esa Hkh izo's k dj x;k gSA tgk ;g f'k{kk] euksjt
a u] i= ys[ku]
bZ&esy] pSfVax] bUVjusV ls fofHkUu tkudkfj;k izkIr djus vkfn fofHkUu dk;ksZa esa iz;qDr gksrk
gSA
bl izdkj ge ns[ksa rks ik;saxs fd dEI;wVj ls gekjs thou dk dksbZ Hkh {ks= vNwrk ugha
jg x;k gSA vkt ;g dsoy fdlh oxZ fo'ks"k ds fy, gh ugha] cfYd gj ,d O;fDr ds fy,
mi;ksxh gks x;k gSA

11-44 dEI;wVj dh fo'ks"krk, (Characteristics of Computer)


dEI;wVj vk/kqfud ;qx ds fodkl esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgk gSA vkb, ns[ksa
fd dEI;wVj esa ,slh dkSu lh fo'ks"krk, gSa tks bls bruk egRoiw.kZ cuk jgh gSaA dEI;wVj dh
eq[; fo'ks"krk, fuEu gSa %&
1- xfr (Speed) %& dEI;wVj cgqr rhoz xfr ls dk;Z djrk gSA og tfVy ls tfVy
x.kukvksa dks Hkh dqN lSd.Mksa esa gy dj nsrk gSA ,d ilZuy dEI;wVj vjcksa x.kukvksa
dks ,d lSd.M ls Hkh de le; esa dj ldrk gSA fdlh dk;Z dks ;fn dEI;wVj ,d
feuV esa iwjk djrk gS rks bl dk;Z dks ekuo }kjk iwjk djus esa mldk lEiw.kZ thou
yx tk,xkA
2- 'kq)rk (Accuracy) %& dEI;wVj ls izkIr ifj.kke ges'kk 'kq) gksrs gSaA dEI;wVj dks
,d ckj lgh funsZ'k nsus ds ckn og lkjs ifj.kke lgh fudkyrk gSA dEI;wVj dHkh
xyrh ugha djrkA dEI;wVj ls izkIr ifj.kkeksa esa gksus okyh xyfr;k ekuoh; xyfr;ksa
ds dkj.k gksrh gSaA dEI;wVj esa [kjkch vkus ls ;k okbjl vk tkus ls Hkh og xyr
ifj.kke fudky ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 8

3- l{kerk (Diligency) %& dEI;wVj dk;Z djrs&djrs dHkh Hkh Fkdrk ugha gS rFkk
fujUrj dbZ ?kaVs dk;Z djus ds ckn Hkh mlh ,dkxzrk ,oa xfr ds lkFk dk;Z djrk
jgrk gSA
4- Lej.k 'kfDr (Power of Remembering) %& dEI;wVj esa Hkh ekuo efLr"d dh
rjg Lej.k 'kfDr (Memory) gksrh gSa] ftlesa yk[kksa&djksM+ksa vkadM+s (Data) laxzg
djds j[ks tk ldrs gSaA vko';drkuqlkj bu vkadM+ksa dks dHkh Hkh fQj ls ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
5- O;kid mi;ksfxrk (Versatility) %& dEI;wVj dk iz;ksx vusd rjg ds dk;ksZa esa
fd;k tkrk gSA Ldwy] dkWyt
s ] vLirky] m|ksx] ?kj] dk;kZy;] vuqla/kku] ekSle
foKku] euksjt
a u vkfn vusd {ks=kssa esa dEI;wVj dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gSA
6- Lopkyu (Automation) %& dEI;wVj esa Lopkyu dk xq.k gksus ls blds iz;ksx ls
ekuo Je ,oa le; dh cpr gksrh gSA
7- laxzg {kerk (Storage) %& dEI;wVj dh laxzg {kerk cgqr vf/kd gksrh gSA blesa
yk[kksa&djksM+ksa vkadMs+a laxzg djds j[ks tk ldrs gSaA

1-5 dEI;wVj dh lhek, (Limitations of Computer)


bruh fo'ks"krkvksa ds ckotwn dEI;wVj dh dqN lhek, Hkh gSa %&
1- dEI;wVj esa lkspus o le>us dh {kerk ugha gksrhA ;g ,d tM+ e'khu gS rFkk dsoy
fn;s x;s funsZ'kksa ij gh dk;Z djrh gSA cqf)erk dh n`f"V ls nks o"kZ dk ckyd Hkh
,d dEI;wVj ls vf/kd cqf)eku gksrk gSA orZeku esa dqN mPp dksfV ds dEI;wVjksa esa
f=e cqf) (Artificial Intelligence) Mkyus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA lEHko gS fd
dqN le; ckn ,sls dEI;wVj vk tk;sa tks lksp Hkh ldrs gksaA
2- dEI;wVj esa Lo;a =qfV lq/kkj {kerk dk vHkko ik;k tkrk gSA blesa fn;s x;s funsZ'k
iw.kZ:i ls lgh vkSj lVhd gksus pkfg,A D;ksafd dEI;wVj Lo;a mlesa lq/kkj ugha dj
ldrkA og Lo;a dqN ugha djrk mls tks funsZ'k fn;k tkrk gS ftruk dgk tkrk gS
og flQZ mruk gh dk;Z djrk gSA
3- dEI;wVj ds }kjk HkkSfrd dk;Z djuk yxHkx vlaHko gSA

1-6 dEI;wVj rU= dh bdkb;k (Units of Computer System)


dEI;wVj rU= eq[;r% rhu bdkb;ksa ls feydj cuk gksrk gSA 1- flLVe ;wfuV
(System Unit)] 2- buiqV ;wfuV (Input Unit) 3- vkmViqV ;wfuV (Output Unit)
1-

flLVe ;wfuV (System Unit) %& ;g dEI;wVj dk eq[; Hkkx gS] ftlesa dsUnzh;
lalk/ku bdkbZ (Central Processing Unit) vFkok lh-ih-;w- gksrk gSA flLVe ;wfuV
,d ckWDl gksrk gS] ftlesa lh-ih-;w- ds vykok dEI;wVj dh dbZ vU; ;qfDr;k
(devices) rFkk ifjiFk (Circuit) yxs gksrs gSa] tks ,d eq[; ifjiFk cksMZ ;k enj cksMZ
(Mother Board) ij la;ksftr jgrs gSA bl izdkj dEI;wVj dk vf/kdrj ifjiFk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 9

flLVe ;wfuV esa gh gksrk gSA


2-

buiqV ;wfuV (Input Unit) %& dEI;wVj flLVe ;wfuV esa MkVk rFkk izksxzke
fooj.kksa dh izfof"V ds fy, iz;qDr dh tkus okyh ;qfDr;k (Devices) buiqV ;wfuV
vkxe bdkbZ dgykrh gSaA dh&cksMZ] ekml] ykWih fMLd vkfn buiqV fMokbl ds
dqN mnkgj.k gSaA budh vkxs foLr`r ppkZ dh tk,xhA

3-

fuxZe bdkbZ (Output Unit) %& dEI;wVj flLVe ;wfuV ls izkIr fu"d"kksaZ dks
fy[kus rFkk mu fu"d"kksZa dks ekuoh; Hkk"kk esa izLrqr djus okyh ;qfDr;k vkmViqV ;wfuV
fuxZe bdkbZ dgykrh gSaA ekWuhVj] fizUVj vkfn dqN lkekU; fuxZe ;qfDr;k (Output
Devices) gSaA budh ppkZ Hkh vkxs dh tk,xhA

fp= 1-7 dEI;wVj dk CykWd js[kkfp=

1-7

dsUnzh; lalk/ku bdkbZ (Central Processing Unit) vFkok


lh-ih-;w- (C.P.U.)

;g dEI;wVj dk fnekx gksrk gSA ;g funsZ'kksa dk f;kUo;u (Execution) djus ds


fy, mUgsa i<+rk gS] O;k[;k djrk gS] fu;U=.k (Control) djrk gS vkSj lax.kuk (Calculation)
djrk gSA okLro esa ge dEI;wVj dks tks Hkh funsZ'k nsrs gSa oks igys lh-ih-;w- esa tkrs gSa vkSj
lh-ih-;w- gekjs funsZ'kkuqlkj fu"d"kZ ekWuhVj ij fn[kkrk gSA ;g dguk xyr ugha gksxk fd
dEI;wVj esa ;fn lh-ih-;w- ugha gS rks dEI;wVj dqN Hkh ugha dj ldrkA
ftl rjg gekjk fnekx gekjs leLr 'kjhj ij fu;U=.k j[krk gS] Bhd mlh izdkj
lh-ih-;w- dEI;wVj ds 'ks"k lHkh Hkkxksa tSl&
s eSeksjh] buiqV o vkmViqV fMokblst vkfn ds dk;ksZa

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 10

ij fu;U=.k j[krk gS vkSj muls dk;Z djokrk gSA izksxzke vkSj MkVk] blds fu;U=.k esa eSeksjh
esa laxfz gr gksrs gSaA blh ds fu;U=.k esa vkmViqV ekWuhVj ds Lhu (Screen) ij fn[kkbZ nsrk
gS vFkok fizUVj ds }kjk dkxt ij Nirk gSA lh-ih-;w- yk[kks&
a djksMk+ sa x.kuk, o fu.kZ; lSd.Mksa
esa dj ldrk gSA
lh-ih-;w- dks rhu Hkkxksa esa ckVk tk ldrk gS %&
1-

fu;U=.k bdkbZ (Control Unit) vFkok lh-;w- (C.U.)

2-

vadxf.krh; o rkfdZd bdkbZ (Arithmetic Logic Unit) vFkok


,-,y-;w- (A.L.U.)

3-

eSeksjh (Memory) vFkok laxzg.k bdkbZ (Storage Unit)

ekbksdEI;wVj esa lh-ih-;w- (C.P.U.) ,d NksVk lk ekbksizkl


s slj gksrk gSA vU; cM+s
dEI;wVjksa esa ,d ls vf/kd ekbksizkslslj gks ldrs gaSA ekbksizkl
s slj ls gh dEI;wVj ds dbZ
dk;Z lapkfyr gksrs gaSAekbksikz slslj dh vkUrfjd lajpuk esa fuEu eq[; Hkkx gksrs gaS %&
lh-;w- (C.U.), ,-,y-;w- (A.L.U.), jftLVj (Register)] vkUrfjd cl (Internal Bus)A
ekbksizkslslj ds vkfo"dkj ls igys
dEI;wVj dk ifjiFk dbZ Vkfa tLVjksa (Transistors)
dks la;ksftr dj cuk;k tkrk FkkA dEI;wVj dks
vf/kd n{k] dk;Z&dq'ky ,oa mi;ksxh cukus ds
fy, blds izkl
s slj ds ifjiFk esa Vkfa tLVjksa dh
la[;k esa vR;f/kd o`f) gksrh xbZA blls VkaftLVjksa
dk ifjiFk tfVy gksrk x;k vkSj ifjiFk esa vf/kd
rki mRiUu gksus ls buds [kjkc gksus dh leL;k
mRiUu gksus yxhA vr% ,d ,sls iqtZs dh vko';drk
gqbZ ftlesa vusd Vkfa tLVjksa ds rqY; ifjiFk gksA
,slk iqtkZ gh ekbksizkl
s slj dgykrk gSA

fp= 1-8 ekbksizkslslj

lcls igyk ekbksizkl


s slj lu~ 1970 esa baVsy dkiksZjs'ku (Intel Corporation) us
Intel 4004 ds uke ls rS;kj fd;k] ftlesa yxHkx 2300 Vkfa tLVjksa ds cjkcj {kerk FkhA
ekbksizkl
s slj yxHkx vk/ks bap dk flfydkWu /kkrq ls fufeZr vk;rkdkj VqdM+k gksrk gS] tks
,d [kksy esa NksVs&NksVs duSDVlZ (Connectors) ds lkFk O;ofLFkr jgrk gSA piVk gksus ds
dkj.k bls fpi (Chip) Hkh dgrs gSaA baVsy 4004 fpi ds ckn ekbksikz slslj dh rduhd
fujUrj fodflr gksrh xbZ vkSj budh {kerk o xfr c<+rh xbZA orZeku esa fofHkUu xfr ,oa
x.ku {kerk okys ekbksikz slslj miyC/k gSa] ftuesa bUVsy isfUV;e&4] ,-,e-Mh- (AMD),
lkbfjDl vkfn ekbksizkslsljksa ds uke mYys[kuh; gSA
1 -7 .11 fu;U=.k bdkbZ (Control Unit) vFkok lh-;w- (C.U.)
lh-ih-;w- esa dUVksy ;wfuV dh cgqr vge~ Hkwfedk gSA uke ds vuq:i ;g dEI;wVj dh
lwpukvksa ds vknku&iznku ij o dEI;wVj ds vU; midj.kksa ij iwjk fu;U=.k j[krh gSA dUVky
s

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 11

;wfuV ds izeq[k dk;Z fuEufyf[kr gSa %&


(I)

;g dEI;w V j dh leLr vkUrfjd f;kvks a dk la p kyu djrh gS A

(II)

;g buiqV&vkmViqV fvk;ksa dks fu;fU=r djrh gSA

(III)

;g eSeksjh ls izksxkz e i<+rh gS] mudh O;k[;k djrh gS rFkk ,-,y-;w- o eSeksjh esa okafNr
f;k lEiUu djus ds fy, rnkuqlkj funsZ'k nsrh gSA

(IV)

;g ,-,y-;w- dks ;g crkrh gS fd MkVk eSeksjh esa dgk fLFkr gS] D;k f;k djuh gS
rFkk izf;k ds i'pkr fu"d"kZ@ifj.kke (Result) dgk laxzfgr gksuk gSA
;s lHkh funsZ'k fo|qr ladsrksa ds :i esa flLVe cl (System Bus) dh fu;U=d cl
(Control Bus) ds ek/;e ls dEI;wVj ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa rd lapfjr gksrs gSAa vusd rkjkas
dk lewg cl dgykrh gSA

1-7-2 vadxf.krh; rkfdZd bdkbZ (Arithmetic Logic Unit), ,-,y-;w- (A.L.U.)


;g ;wfuV vadxf.krh; f;k, rFkk rkfdZd f;k, (Logical Operations) djrh gSA
vad xf.krh; f;kvksa esa tksM]+ ckdh] xq.kk] Hkkx lfEefyr gSA ALU esa ,d ,slk bysDVkWfud
ifjiFk gksrk gS tks vad xf.krh; x.kuk, djus esa l{ke gksrk gSA
rkfdZd f;kvksa esa ,-,y-;w- nks la[;kvksa ;k MkVk dh rqyuk dj] fu.kZ; ysus dk dk;Z
djrk gSA rqyuk ds ifj.kke gk vFkok ugha esa gksrs gSa] ftlls fu.kZ; ysus esa lgk;rk feyrh
gSA
,-,y-;w- dUVky
s ;wfuV lh-;w- dh fuxjkuh esa dk;Z djrk gSA ;g eSeksjh ls MkVk izkIr
djrk gS] ml ij x.kuk, djrk gS vkSj ifj.kke iqu% eSeksjh dks gh ykSVk nsrk gSA ,-,y-;w- ds
dk;Z djus dh xfr vfr rhoz gksrh gSA ;g yxHkx nl yk[k x.kuk, izfr lSd.M dh xfr ls
djrk gSA ,-,y-;w- esa vusd jftLVj (Register) vkSj ,D;qeysVj (Accumulators) gksrs gSa tks
x.kukvks ds nkSjku {kf.kd laxzg gsrq eSeksjh dk dk;Z djrs gSAa
,-,y-;w- esa MkVk izkl
s sl gksus ds ckn ifj.kke dks ;k rks izn'kZu ds fy, vkmViqV
midj.kksa esa Hkst fn;k tkrk gSa ;k mUgsa eSeksjh esa laxzfgr dj fy;k tkrk gSA
1 - 7 -3

eSeksjh (Memory)

euq"; ds fnekx esa ;kn j[kus dh {kerk gksrh gS ftls Le`fr (Memory) dgrs gSaA blh
izdkj dEI;wVj esa MkVk rFkk funsZ'kksa dks laxzg djus dh {kerk gksrh gS] tks dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh
dgykrh gSA dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh og bysDVkWfud LFkku gS tgk MkVk] lwpuk vkSj izkx
s kz e laxfz gr
jgrs gSa vkSj vko';drk gksus ij rRdky miyC/k gks ldrs gSaA eSeksjh izR;sd dEI;wVj dk ,d
egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gSA fcuk eSeksjh ds dEI;wVj dk;Z ugha dj ldrkA
eSeksjh esa laxgz ds fy, vusd LFkku (Locations) gksrs gSa] ftudh la[;k fuf'pr gksrh
gSA eSeksjh dh {kerk (Memory Capacity) vFkok eSeksjh dk vkdkj (Memory Size) bu

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 12

LFkkuksa dh la[;k ij fuHkZj djrk gSA eseskjh esa izR;sd LFkku dh ,d igpku la[;k gksrh gS]
ftls ,Msl (Address) dgrs gSaA
eSeksjh dks eq[; :i ls nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gS %&
(I)

eq[; eSeksjh (Main Memory)

(II)

ck eSeksjh (External Memory)

tc eSeksjh 'kCn dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS rks mldk vk'k; eq[; eSeksjh (Main
Memory) gh gksrk gSA bls izkFkfed eSeksjh (Primary Memory) vFkok vkUrfjd eSeksjh
(Internal Memory) Hkh dgk tkrk gSA ;g lh-ih-;w- dk gh Hkkx gksrh gSA eq[; eSeksjh rhoz
xfr okyh gksrh gS rFkk izkFkfed rF;kasa dh lax.kuk] izksxkz e esa fyf[kr funsZ'kksa ds vuqlkj djrh
gSA ;g e/;orhZ rFkk vfUre nksuksa fu"d"kksZa (Results) dks laxfz gr djus ds fy, Hkh iz;Dq r gksrh
gSA eSeksjh ,d v)Zpkyd fpi (Semiconductor Chip) gksrh gSA
eq[; eSeksjh dks lkekU;r nks Hkkxksa esa ckVk tkrk gS %&
;h eSeksjh vFkok jsUMe ,Dlsl eSeksjh (Random Access Memory (I) vLFkk
vLFkk;h
RAM)
;g lcls T;knk iz;ksx esa vkus okyh eSeksjh gSA dh&cksMZ vFkok vU; fdlh buiqV
fMokbl ls buiqV fd;k MkVk izf;k ls igys RAM esa gh laxfz gr gksrk gS vkSj lh-ih-;w- }kjk
ogk ls vko';drkuqlkj izkIr dj fy;k tkrk gSA RAM esa laxzfgr MkVk ;k funs'Z k dHkh Hkh
,Dlsl (Access) fd;k tk ldrk gS rFkk dHkh Hkh i<+k ,oa iqu% fy[kk tk ldrk gS (That
can be read from as well as written to)A RAM esa lafpr lwpukvksa dks ge ekbkslSd.M
ds nlosa fgLls esa iqu% xzg.k dj ldrs gSAa
RAM esa MkVk ;k izksxkz e vLFkkbZ :i ls laxfz gr jgrs gSAa dEI;wVj dks cUn (Switch
Off) djus vFkok fo/kqr vkiwfrZ cUn gks tkus ij RAM esa laxfz gr MkVk feV tkrk gSA blfy,
RAM dks vLFkk;h ;k vfLFkj (Volatile) eSeksjh dgrs gSaA
(II) LFkk;h eSeksjh vFkok jhM vkWuyh eSeksjh (Read Only Memory - ROM)

bl eSeksjh esa laxfz gr izkx


s kz e ifjofrZr vFkok
u"V ugha fd, tk ldrs gS]a mUgsa dsoy i<+k tk
ldrk gSA ;g eSeksjh LFkk;h ;k fLFkj (Non-Volatile) gksrh gSA vr% dEI;wVj dks cUn (Switch Off)
djus vFkok fo|qr vkiwfrZ cUn gks tkus ij ;g u"V
ugha gksrhA bl eSeksjh dk mi;ksx ewyHkwr funsZ'kksa
(Basic Instructions) ds laxg
z .k ds fy, fd;k tkrk
gSA ROM ds mi;ksx dk lcls vPNk mnkgj.k
BIOS (Basic Input Output System) gS] ftlesa
dEI;wVj dk Booting izksxzke laxzfgr gksrk gSA tc

fp=
p= 1-9 jse fpi

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 13

dEI;wVj pkyw (Turn On) gksrk gS rks og blls Lor% gh lwpuk xzg.k dj Boot gks tkrk gSA
ROM dk mi;ksx Lopkfyr e'khuks]a f[kykSuksa vkfn esa Hkh gksrk gSA

fp= 1-10 jkse


ROM rhu izdkj dh gksrh gSa %&
(a)ihjkse (PROM- Programmable Read Only Memory) %& bl eSeksjh esa dsoy

,d gh ckj fy[kk tk ldrk gSA fdUrq ckj&ckj i<+k tk ldrk gSA


(b)bZihjkse (EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) %& bl

eSeksjh esa vko';drk gksus ij izksxzke feVk;k tk ldrk gS] vkSj u;k izksxzke Mkyk tk
ldrk gSA bl eSeksjh dks feVkus ds fy, ijkcSaxuh fdj.kksa dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
(c)bZbZihjkse (EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory) %& bl eSeksjh esa izksxzke dks vko';drk gksus ij fo|qr rjaxksa }kjk feVk;k

tkrk gSa vkSj u;k izksxzke Mkyk tk ldrk gSA


MkVk dks LFkk;h :i ls laxzfgr djus ds fy, ck eSeksjh (External Memory) dh
vko';drk gksrh gSA bls f}rh;d eSeksjh (Secondary Memory) Hkh dgrs gSaA ;g eSeksjh
pqEcdh; (Magnetic) vFkok izdk'kh; (Optical) gksrh gSA blesa laxzfgr MkVk ges'kk lqjf{kr
jgrk gS rFkk dEI;wVj dks cUn djus ij Hkh u"V ugha gksrk gSA gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd]
eSxusfVd Vsi vkfn f}rh;d eSeksjh ds mnkgj.k gaSA bUgsa f}rh;d laxzg.k ;qfDr;k (Secondary Storage Devices) Hkh dgrs gSaA

1-8

eSeksjh dh bdkb;k (Units of Memory)

eSeksjh esa lwpuk fcV (Bit) ds :i esa laxzg dh tkrh gSA Bit ckbujh fMftV (Binary
Digit) ls feydj cuk 'kCn gSA dEI;wVj dh iwjh vkUrfjd f;k ckbujh vad iz.kkyh (Binary
Nuumber System) ij gh vk/kkfjr gSA ckbujh vad iz.kkyh esa dsoy nks gh vad ^0* o ^1*
gksrs gSaA ,d fcV dk eku 0 vFkok 1 'kwU; vFkok ,d gh gks ldrk gSA fdlh bysDVkWfud
ifjiFk ij ;fn fuxZe (Output) ds :i esa dqN foHko gks rks mls ,d rFkk foHko dqN Hkh u
gks rks 'kwU; ls fu:fir fd;k tkrk gSA dEI;wVj ds bysDVkWfud ifjiFk esa 1 dk vFkZ ^iYl
(Pulse) mifLFkr* gS] tcfd 0 dk vFkZ ^iYl (Pulse) vuqifLFkr* gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 14

dEI;wVj esa lHkh MkVk 0 vFkok 1 esa gh laxzfgr gksrk gSA fdUrq ekuo }kjk dEI;wVj
dks lkjh lwpuk, 0 vFkok 1 fcV ds :i esa nsuk nq"dj dk;Z gSA vr% mi;ksxdkkZ dEI;wVj
dks leLr buiqV viuh gh Hkk"kk esa nsrk gS vkSj dEI;wVj Lo;a mls viuh Hkk"kk (Bit :i) esa
ifjofrZr dj ysrk gSA mnkgj.k ds :i esa dh&cksMZ ij tc A ^dh* dks nck;k tkrk gS rks
dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh esa 1000001 vafdr gks tkrk gSA
;|fi Bit eSeksjh dh izkFkfed bdkbZ gS fdUrq ;g vR;f/kd NksVh gksus ds dkj.k izk;%
bldk mi;ksx eSeksjh ds ekiu esa ugha fd;k tkrkA lkekU;r% eSeksjh ekiu esa ckbV (Byte)
bdkbZ dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA vkB fcV ls feydj ,d ckbV dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA fcV
vkSj ckbV ds chp dh ,d vkSj bdkbZ fuCcy (Nibble) gSA ,d fuCcy esa pkj ckbujh vad
gksrs gSA vr% ;g ckbV dh vk/kh gksrh gSA
123-

45-

6-

7-

eSeksjh dh fofHkUu bdkb;k fuEu izdkj ls O;Dr dh tk ldrh gSa %&


fcV (Bit) & eSeksjh dh lcls NksVh bdkbZ ckbujh vad iz.kkyh esa bldk eku 0
vFkok 1 gksrk gSA
fuCcy (Nibble) & 4 fcV ds lewg dks fuCcy dgrs gSaA
vr% 1 fuCcy
4 fcV
ckbV (Byte) & 8 fcV ds lewg dks ckbV dgrs gSA lkekU;r% ,d djsDVj vad
;k v{kj dks ,d ckbV ls O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA vr% vr% 1 ckbV

8 fcV
fdyksckbV (Kilobyte- KB) & 1024 ckbV dks 1 fdyksckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 fdyksckbV
1024 ckbV
esxkckbV (Megabyte- MB) & 1024 fdyksckbV dks 1 esxkckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 esxkckbV 1024 fdyksckbV
1024 X 1024 ckbV
xhxkckbV (Gegabyte- GB) & 1024 esxkckbV dks 1 xhxkckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 xhxkckbV 1024 esxkckbV
1024 X 1024 fdyksckbV
VsjkckbV (Terabyte- TB) & 1024 xhxkckbV dks 1 VsjkckbV dgk tkrk gSA
vr% 1 VsjkckbV 1024 xhxkckbV
1024 X 1024 X 1024 ckbV
1024 X 1024 esxkckbV
1024 X 1024 X 1024 fdyksckbV
1024 X 1024 X 1024 X 1024 ckbV

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 15

1-9

buiqV ;qfDr;k (Input Devices)

buiqV ;qfDr;ksa dh lgk;rk ls mi;ksxdrkZ (User) }kjk dEI;wVj esa vkadMs+] lwpuk,a
rFkk funsZ'k Mkys tkrs gSaA ;s ;qfDr;ka ekuoh; Hkk"kk esa fn, x, MkVk vkSj funsZ'kksa dks dEI;wVj
ds le>us ;ksX; ladrs ksa esa ifjofrZr djrh gaSA ;s v{kjksa] la[;kvksa vkSj vU; fpUgksa dk dEI;wVj
dh Hkk"kk 0 ,oa 1 fcV esa vuqokn Hkh djrh gSa rkfd dEI;wVj mUgsa le> ldsA blds i'pkr
gh MkVk izf;k (Data Processing) lEHko gks ikrh gSA bl izdkj buiqV ;qfDr;k eq[;r% nks
ms';ksa dh iwfrZ djrh gSa %&
1 vkdM+ksa o funsZ'kksa dks dEI;wVj rd ys tkukA
2 vkdM+ksa o funsZ'kksa dks e'khuh Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr djukA
buiqV ;qfDr;k mruh gh iqjkuh gSa] ftruk fd dEI;wVj] fdUrq le; ds lkFk&lkFk
buesa [kwc ifjorZu gqvk gSA vkt dh&cksMZ] ekml] LdSuj] tkW;fLVd] ykbViSu] vkWIVhdy
ekDlZ jhMj] vkWIVhdy dSjsDVj jhMj vkfn vusd buiqV ;qfDr;k izpyu esa gSA buesa ls dqN
izeq[k buiqV ;qfDr;ksa ds lEcU/k esa vkidks ;gk crk;k tk jgk gSA
1-9-1 dh&cks M Z (Key-Board)
;g lokZf/kd iz;qDr gksus okyk ,oa egRoiw.kZ buiqV midj.k gSA ;g ,d rjg ls
VkbijkbVj dk la'kksf/kr :i gSA blesa dqaft;ksa (Keys) dh la[;k VkbijkbVj ls vf/kd gksrh
gSA lkekU;r% budh la[;k 101 ls 108 rd gksrh gSA dh&cksMZ ij lHkh v{kj (Characters),
la[;k,a (Numbers) rFkk vU; fpUg gksrs gSa] ftuds }kjk MkVk buiqV fd;k tkrk gSA
dh&cksMZ ,d dscy ds ek/;e ls flLVe ;wfuV ls tqM+k jgrk gSA dscy dk Iyx
flLVe ;wfuV ds ihNs fufeZr ,d lkWdVs esa yx tkrk gSA
dh&cksMZ esa ,d dh&cksMZ ,udksMj (Key-Board Encoder) gksrk gS] tks bldh fdlh
dqath (Key) dks nckus ij MkVk dks 8 fcV 1 vkSj 0 ds dksM esa cnyus dk dk;Z djrk gSA

fp= 11.11
11 dh&cksMZ
dh&cksMZ dh dqaft;k VkbijkbVj dh rqyuk esa vklkuh ls ncrh gSa rFkk nckus ds ckn
rqjUr vaxy
q h mBk ysuh iM+rh gSA ;fn 0-5 lSd.M ls vf/kd le; rd ,d gh dqt
a h dks nckdj
j[kk tk, rks dh&cksMZ ckj&ckj ,d gh djsDVj ds ladrs dEI;wVj esa izfo"V djrk tk,xkA
blls Lhu ij ogh djsDVj vusd ckj iznf'kZr gks tk,xkA bl f;k dks VkbieSfVd
(Typematic) dgrs gSa] bl f;k dh nj 10 ckj izfr lSd.M gksrh gSA
sa

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 16

1-9-2 ekml (Mouse)


dEI;wVj ds lapkyu ds fy, iz;qDr gksus okys egRoiw.kZ midj.kksa esa ls ekml Hkh ,d
gSA orZeku esa miyC/k vkWijsfVax flLVeksa dks ns[krs gq, rks yxrk gS fd ekml ds cxSj dEI;wVj
dk lapkyu djuk Hkh vlEHko gSA ;g ,d NksVk lk midj.k gksrk gS ftldk vkdkj pwgs tSlk
gksus ds dkj.k bls ekml dgk tkrk gSA
ekml dks fdlh lery lrg ij j[ks
ekml iSM (Mouse Pad) ij j[kdj gkFk ls
b/kj&m/kj ljdk;k tkrk gSA bleas nks ;k rhu cVu
gksrs gSAa ekml ds cVu dks vaxy
q h ls nck;k tkrk
gSA bl f;k dks ^fDyd* dgrs gSAa ekml dks ekml
iSM ij b/kj&m/kj ljdkus ij ekWuhVj ij ,d rhj
dh vkd`fr dk fp Hkh b/kj&m/kj pyrk
fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA bl rhj ds fp dks ekml ikWbUVj
(Mouse Pointer) ;k ekml dlZj (Mouse Curfp= 1-12 ekml
sor) dgrs gSAa
vf/kdka ' k ekml ds uhps dh rjQ ,d ckW y gks r h gS tks ekml dks
b/kj&m/kj ljdkus ij ?kwerh gSA bl ckWy ds nksuksa rjQ nks ifg;s gksrs gSa] tks ckWy ds vuq:i
?kwers gSaA ekml esa yxs lsUlj (Sensor) buds ?kweus dh xfr dks uksV dj dEI;wVj dks lUns'k
Hkstrs gSAa vktdy fcuk ckWy okys ekml Hkh izpyu esa vk x, gSa] ftUgsa vkWIVhdy ekml
(Optical Mouse) dgrs gSaA buesa QksVks fMVsDVj yxs gksrs gSa] tks ekml dh yEcor~ o {kSfrt
xfr dks lsUl djrs gSa rFkk dEI;wVj dks lwpuk Hkstrs gSaA dqN ekml esa Lhu dks LkWy djus
okyk Hkh cVu gksrk gSA ,sls ekml dks LkWy ekml (Scroll Mouse) dgrs gSaA
ekml ,d cgqr gh mi;ksxh buiqV midj.k gSA blds mi;ksx ls dEI;wVj esa funsZ'kksa
dk izs"k.k dkQh vklku gks x;k gSA ekml }kjk dEI;wVj dks cgqr rhoz xfr ls pkfyr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA fp= vkfn xzkfQDl ds fy, Hkh ;g mi;ksxh gSA
ekml dk mi;ksx lkekU;r% fuEu izdkjksa ls fd;k tkrk gS %&
* flaxy fDyd (Single Click) %& ck;sa cVu ds ,d ^fDyd* ls Lhu ij
^vkCtsDV* ;k ^vkWI'ku* dk p;u fd;k tkrk gSA
* Mcy fDyd (Double Click) %& ck;sa cVu ls yxkrkj nks ckj ^fDyd* djus
ls ^vkWCtsDV* [kqy tkrk gSA
* jkbV fDyd (Right Click) %& nk;sa cVu dks ,d ckj fDyd djus ij 'Context
Menu' [kqyrk gS ftlesa dbZ ^vkWI'ku* gksrs gSaA
* Msx ,.M MkWi %& flaxy fDyd }kjk fdlh vkWCtsDV dks ^lsysDV* djds rFkk ck;sa
cVu dks nck, gq, ekml dh lgk;rk ls bls Lhu ij dgha Hkh j[kk tk ldrk
gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 17

1-9-3 tkW; fLVd (Joystick)


orZeku ;qx rhoz ,oa vfr okLrfod fn[kkbZ iM+us
okys 3D xseksa dk ;qx gSA ftlds ikl loksZre lk/ku gSa
ogh budk lEiw.kZ vkuUn mBk ldrs gSaA izkjEHk esa dsoy
dh&cksMZ rFkk ekml dh enn ls gh dEI;wVj ij xse [ksys
tkrs FksA fdUrq vkt bl dk;Z ds fy, vusd midj.k
miyC/k gS]a ftuesa tkW;fLVd lcls ize[q k gSaA tkW; fLVd
esa pkjksa fn'kkvksa esa ?kweus okyk ,d gSaMy (Handle) gksrk
gS] tks fd Lhu ij fp=ksa dks fgykus o pykus vkfn dk
dk;Z djrk gSA bl gSM
a y esa ,d cVu Hkh gksrk gS] tks xsEl
esa Qk;j (Fire) vkfn djus ds dke vkrk gSA
fp= 1-13 tkW; fLVd
1-9-4 ykbV iSu (Light Pen)
;g iSu dh vkd`fr dk ,d izdk'k laosnh midj.k gS] tks ,d rkj dh lgk;rk ls
dEI;wVj ls tqM+k gksrk gSA ;g Lhu ij lh/ks fy[kus dk dk;Z djrk gSA vr% bldk mi;ksx
xzkfQDl vkfn cukus ds dk;ksZa (Computer Aided Design) esa fd;k tkrk gSA dEI;wVj esa
ykbV iSu dk mi;ksx djus ds fy, fo'ks"k izdkj ds lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx djuk iM+rk gSA

fp= 1-14 ykbV iSu


1-9-5 vkWIVhdy djSDVj jhMj (Optical Character Reader-OCR)
vkWIVhdy djSDVj jhMj (OCR) Nis gq,]
Vkbi fd, gq, rFkk gLrfyf[kr vYQkU;wefs jd djsDVjksa
(Alphanumeric Characters) dks i<+us dk dk;Z djrk
gSA OCR ,d izdk'k fo|qr ;qfDr (Photo Electric
Device) ds }kjk djsDVlZ dks LdSu djrk gS rFkk
ijkofrZr izdk'k ds MkVk dks ckbujh MkVk 1 vkSj 0
esa cnydj dEI;wVj eas buiqV dj nsrk gSA dEI;wVj
budh igpku dEI;wVj esa iwoZ esa laxzfgr QkWUVl~ ls
djrk gSA ;fn LdSu fd;k gqvk djsDVj dEI;wVj esa
fp= 1-15 vkslhvkj (OCR)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 18

igys ls laxfz gr ugha gS rks mldh igpku ugha gks ikrhA OCR dh i<+us dh xfr 3000 djsDVj
izfr lSd.M rd gksrh gS fdUrq lkekU;r% 300 ls 800 djsDVj izfr lSd.M i<+us okys OCR
gh fMtkbu fd, tkrs gSaA bl xfr ij i<+us dh ifj'kq)rk mPp dksfV dh gksrh gS rFkk ,sls
djsDVj Hkh i<+us esa vk tkrs gSa tks cukoV esa FkksM+s fHkUu gkas ;k dqN vLi"V gksaA
OCR esa izk;% nks izdkj ds ekud QkWUVl~ laxzfgr gksrs gSaA ;s QkWUVl~ gaS& OCRA(American Standard) rFkk OCR-B (Europian Standard)A buesa ls OCR-A QkWUVl~
vf/kd izpfyr gaSA fdUrq vktdy ,sls OCR Hkh vk x, gaS tks fofHkUu eqfnzr ,oa Vkbi fd,
gq, djsDVj ds vfrfjDr Li"V gLrkfyf[kr djsDVj Hkh i<+ ysrs gaSA

fp= 1-16 ekud vkslhvkj QkWUVl~


OCR us igys ls eqfnzr vFkok fyf[kr MkVk dks dEI;wVj esa izfo"V djokuk cgqr gh
vklku cuk fn;k gSA blls ekuoh; Je dh rks cpr gksrh gh gS lkFk gh dk;Z dh ifj'kq)rk
Hkh mPp dksfV dh gksrh gSA ftu dk;kZy;ksa esa fcy ;k iphZ QkM+dj nh tkrh gS ogka OCR
vf/kd mi;ksxh gksrk gSA dEI;wVj }kjk Nis gq, fcy dk nwljk vk/kk iUuk ml le; iqu% MkVk
,UVh djus ds dke vk tkrk gS tcfd miHkksDrk fcy dh jkf'k tek djokus gsrq bls izLrqr
djrk gSA
199-66 esXusfVd bad djsDVj jhMj (Magnetic Ink Character Reader- MICR)
bl midj.k dk iz;ksx eq[;r% cSadksa esa cM+h
la[;k esa tek gksus okys pSdksa dks tkapus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA cSd
a ds pSd esa uhps dh vksj MICR }kjk cSd
a dh
dksM la[;k,a] xzkgd dh [kkrk la[;k rFkk pSd dh jkf'k
,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh pqEcdh; L;kgh (Magnetic Ink) ls
Nkih tkrh gSA fdlh pSd dks i<+us ds fy, mls MICR
dss jhfMax gSM (Reading Head) ds uhps ls xqtkjrs gaS tks
cM+s vUrjky dks 1 ds :i esa rFkk NksVs vUrjky dks 0 ds
:i esa i<+rk gSA MICR dsoy 10 vadksa ,oa 4 fo'ks"k
fp= 1-17 MICR
djsDVj dks gh i<+ ldrk gSA
MICR ls pSd vR;f/kd ifj'kq)rk ls i<+s tk ldrs gaSA pSdksa dh izkslsflax xfr Hkh
c<+ tkrh gSA MICR ls i<+s x, MkVk dks lh/ks dEI;wVj esa Mkyk tk ldrk gSA MICR djsDVlZ
e'khu ,oa ekuo nksuksa }kjk gh i<+s tk ldrs gSaA

fp= 1-18 MICR Fonts

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 19

1-9-7 vkWIVhdy ekdZ jhMj (Optical Mark Reader -OMR)


;g ,d ,slk midj.k gS ftldk mi;ksx dkxt ds fdlh LFkku fo'ks"k ij isfUly
;k isu ds fp (Mark) dh mifLFkfr rFkk vuqifLFkfr tkpus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA blesa
fpfr (Marked) dkxt ij izdk'k Mkyk tkrk gS vkSj ijkofrZr izdk'k dks tkpk tkrk gSA
tgk fp ugha gksrk gS dkxt ds ml Hkkx ls iwjk izdk'k ijkofrZr gks tkrk gS fdUrq tgka
fp mifLFkr gksrk gS ogka ls ijkofrZr izdk'k dh rhozrk de gks tkrh gSA bl rduhd }kjk
dsoy Nis gq, dkMZ ;k QkeZ ij fuf'pr LFkkuksa ij cus pkSdksj] vk;rkdkj ;k xksykdkj [kkus
(Boxes) fpfr gSa ;k ugha] tkpk tk ldrk gSA
OMR cgqp;ukRed mn~ns';fu"V (Multiple choice Objective Type) ijh{kk dh
mkj iqfLrdk,a tkpus ds fy, iz;Dq r gksrk gSA bu ijh{kkvksa esa iz'ukoyh ds izR;sd iz'u ds
lEeq[k pkj ;k ikap mkjksa ds fodYi fn, gksrs gSa ftuesa ls lgh mkj ds fodYi dks mkj
i=d (Answer Sheet) esa lEcfU/kr iz'u ds lkeus fn, [kkuksa esa ls lEcfU/kr [kkus dks HB
isfUly ;k dkys isu ls Hkj dj pquuk gksrk gSA cktkj dk losZ{k.k rFkk tula[;k losZ{k.k
lEcU/kh iz'uokfy;ksa dks tkapus ds fy, Hkh bl rduhd dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA

fp= 1-19 OMR Sheet

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 20

OMR vR;f/kd rhoz xfr ls dk;Z djrk gSA blls ,d feuV esa yxHkx 300&400

i=d tkps tk ldrs gaSAlkFk&lkFk ,d eksVh iqLrd dks Hkh LdSu fd;k tk ldrk gS ysfdu
;g midj.k iksVZcs y ugha gS tcfd gSaM&gSYM LdSuj iksVcsZ y gSA fdUrq gSM
a &gSYM LdSuj ekuo
fu;fU=r gksus ds dkj.k bldh viuh lhek,a gaSA
ySV cSM LdSujksa esa L=ksr fyf[kr lwpuk ;k vkd`fr dks lery lrg ij j[kk tkrk
gS rFkk bl ij yksjkslsaV cYc dh enn ls mPp ?kuRo okyh izdk'k fdj.ksa Mkyh tkrh gaSA
LdSfuax ;wfuV eksVj dh enn ls LdSu gsrq L=ksr ls fujUrj ijkofrZr gks jgh izdk'k fdj.kksa dks
xzg.k djrk gqvk vkxs dh vksj c<+rk gSA LdSuj dh eksVj dks fdruk ?kqekuk gS] fdl xfr ls
,oa dgka rd ?kqekuk gS] ;g fu.kZ; dEI;wVj }kjk lkWVos;j ds ek/;e ls fd;k tkrk gSA
LdSfuax ;wfuV esa lSaflax gSM (Sensing Head) yxk gksrk gS tks ijkofrZr izdk'k
fdj.kksa dks xzg.k dj ,d vU; midj.k ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) ds ek/;e ls
fMftVy :i esa ifjofrZr dj nsrk gSA dEI;wVj esa ;g lwpuk laxfz gr gks tkrh gS ftls ekWuhVj
Lhu ij iznf'kZr djrk gSA Lhu ij iznf'kZr fp= NksV&
s NksVs fcUnqvksa (Dots) ls feydj cuk
gksrk gS ftUgsa fiDlsy (Pixel) dgrs gaSA LdSuj dk vkWIVhdy jstksY;w'ku (Resolution) 300
ls 1600 fiDly izfr bap rd gks ldrk gSA bls DPI (Dots Per Inch) ls iznf'kZr fd;k tkrk
gSA jstksY;w'ku ftruk vf/kd gksxk LdSuj dh xq.kokk mruh gh vf/kd gksxhA 'osr&';ke
LdSujksa esa ,d gh izdk'k L=ksr gksrk gS tcfd jaxhu LdSujksa esa rhu izdk'k L=ksr rhu ewy
jaxksa&yky] uhys o gjs ds fy, vyx&vyx gksrs gaAS
LdSujksa dh fxurh vktdy vkerkSj ij iz;ksx fd, tkus okys ifjkh; midj.kksa esa
gksus yxh gSA MsLdVkWi ifCyf'kax esa budk [kwc mi;ksx gks jgk gSA OCR, MICR, OMR vkfn
Hkh LdSujksa ds gh mnkgj.k gSaA
1-9-8 LekVZ dkMZ jhMj (Smart Card Reader)
LekVZ dkMZ ,d NksVk lk IykfLVd dk dkMZ gksrk gS ftlesa ,d ekbksfpi yxh gksrh
gSA bl ekbksfpi esa cgqr lkjh lwpuk,a laxzfgr jgrh gSaA LekVZ dkMZ vkWu ykbu Hkxqrku
O;oLFkk dk ,d lk/ku gS ftldk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh oLrq ds ; ds fy, vFkok viuh igpku
crkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

fp= 1-20 LekVZ dkMZ


fp= 1-21 LekVZ dkMZ
LekVZ dkMZ esa fufgr lwpuk,a LekVZ dkMZ jhMj }kjk i<+h tkrh gSaA vfkdka'k LekVZ
dkMZ jhMj esa ,d LykWV (Slot) gksrh gS ftlesa LekVZ dkMZ Mkyk tkrk gSA dqN gh {k.kksa esa
tc LekVZ dkMZ jhMj }kjk lwpuk,a i<+ yh tkrh gaS rks bls ckgj fudky fy;k tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 21

vc rks ,ls LekVZ dkMZ jhMj vk x, gSa ftuesa dkMZ Mkyus dh vko';drk gh ugha gksrh
vkSj os dqN nwjh ls gh LekVZ dkMZ esa fufgr lwpuk,a i<+ ysrs gaAS
;wjksi esa LekVZ dkMZ cgqr vf/kd izpyu esa gaSA Hkkjr esa vHkh LekVZ dkMZ dk vf/kd
izpyu ugha gS fdUrq fudV Hkfo"; esa ;gk Hkh ;g viuk egRo fl) djus esa dke;kc gksxkA
1-9-9 ckj dksM jhMj (Bar Code Reader)
ckj dksM jhMj ,d gSaM&gSYM ;k fLFkj (Stationary) buiqV midj.k gS ftldk
mi;ksx fdlh ckj dksM esa fufgr lwpukvksa dks xzg.k djus rFkk i<+us ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
ckj dksM fHkUu&fHkUu eksVkbZ okyh dbZ /oZz (Vertical) js[kkvksa dk ,d lSV gksrk gSA js[kkvksa
ds chp dh nwjh vafdr dh tkrh gSA igpku i=ksa (Identity Card) rFkk Mkd i=ksa (Postal
Mail) ij Hkh ckj dksM dk mi;ksx e'k% O;fDr rFkk xarO; LFkkuksa dh tkudkjh ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA ckj dksM jhMj esa ,d LdSuj rFkk ,d fMdksMj gksrk gSA fMdksMj ckj dksM esa fufgr
lwpukvksa dks vadksa ;k v{kjksa esa ifjofrZr dj dEI;wVj dks Hkst nsrk gS tgk ij ;s laxzfgr gks
tkrh gSa rFkk ekuhVj ds Lhu ij ns[kh tk ldrh gSA ckj dksM ds :i esa mRikndksa }kjk
vius mRiknksa ij ,d fof'k"V igpku vafdr dh tkrh gSA igpku i=ksa (Identity Card) rFkk
Mkd i=ksa (Postal Mail) ij Hkh ckj dksM dk mi;ksx e'k% O;fDr rFkk xarO; LFkkuksa dh
tkudkjh ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ckj dksM jhMj esa ,d LdSuj rFkk ,d fMdksMj gksrk gSA
fMdksMj ckj dksM esa fufgr lwpukvksa dks vadksa ;k v{kjksa esa ifjofrZr dj dEI;wVj dks Hkst nsrk
gS tgk ij ;s laxzfgr gks tkrh gSa rFkk ekuhVj ds Lhu ij ns[kh tk ldrh gSA

fp= 1-22 ckj dksM jhMj


fp= 1-23 ckj dksM dk uewuk
1-9-10 fMftVy dSejk (Digital Camera)
fMftVy dSejs ds }kjk QksVks ysus ds i'pkr mls fMftVy MkVk esa cny fn;k tkrk
gSA fMftVy dSejs dh dk;Z i)fr ijEijkxr dSejksa ls feyrh&tqyrh gSA blesa Hkh ftl n`';
dh QksVks ysuh gksrh gS mls ,d ySal dh lgk;rk ls Qksdl fd;k tkrk gS] ysfdu n`'; dks
laxgz djus dk ek;e fHkUu gksrk gSA ijEijkxr dSejksa esa bl dk;Z ds fy, ,d izdk'k laosnh
QksVksxzkQh fQYe dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA tc ;g fQYe izdk'k ds lEidZ esa vkrh gS rks
bl ij yxs jlk;uksa esa ifjorZu gks tkrk gSA bu ifjorZuksa dks fQDLpj (Fixture) ds }kjk LFkkbZ
dj fy;k tkrk gS rFkk QksVks izkIr djus ds fy, MoyilZ }kjk Moyi dj fy;k tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 22

fMftVy dSejksa esa bl dk;Z ds


fy, pktZ diYM fMokbl (Charge
Coupled Device- CCD) dk iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA CCD ,d bysDVkfud fpi gS
ftlesa cgqr lkjs NksV&
s NksVs QksVks Vkfa tLVj
,d tky ds :i esa yxs gksrs gaSA tc ;s
izdk'k ds lEidZ esa vkrs gSa rks izdk'k dh
izcyrk ds vuq:i fo|qr mRikfnr djrs
gSaA ,d VkaftLVj QksVks ds ,d fiDly dk
dk;Z djrk gSA vr% fiDly ftrus vf/kd
gksx
a ]s jstkWY;w'ku (Resolution) Hkh mruk gh
vf/kd gksxk vkSj QksVks Hkh Li"V vk,xhA
eksukskse fMftVy dSejksa esa ,d fiDly ds
fy, ,d gh VkaftLVj dk iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gS fdUrq jaxhu fMftVy dSejksa esa
izR;sd fiDly ds fy, rhu Vkfa tLVjksa dk
iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks rhu ewy jaxksa
yky] gjs ,oa uhys ds fy, iz;qDr gksrs gaSA
fp= 1-24 fMftVy dSejk
QksVks Vkfa tLVj fujUrj fo|qr mRlftZr djrs gSa ftUgsa ,ukykWx Vw fMftVy duoVZj
(ADC) }kjk fMftVy lwpukvksa esa cny fn;k tkrk gSA ;s lwpuk,a ,d fo'ks"k midj.k
fMftVy flXuy izkslslj (DSP) dks Hksts tkrs gSa tgka QksVks ds fofHkUu ?kVd tSls czkbVusl]
dkUVkWLV rFkk Li"Vrk bR;kfn dk lek;kstu fd;k tkrk gSA rRi'pkr bu lwpukvksa dks dSejs
dh vkUrfjd eSeksjh esa laxzfgr dj fy;k tkrk gS vFkok gksLV dEI;wVj dks Hkst fn;k tkrk
gSA dEI;wVj esa fofHkUu lkWVos;j dh lgk;rk ls QksVks esa bPNkuqlkj la'kks/ku] ifjorZu]
lEiknu fd;k tk ldrk gSA
lkekU;r% fMftVy dSejksa esa O;wQkbUMj ds LFkku ij LCD Lhu yxk gksrk gSA bl
Lhu ij ml n`'; dks ns[kk tk ldrk gS ftldh QksVks ysuh gksrh gSA Lhu dk mi;ksx dSejs
esa laxzfgr fdlh Hkh QksVks dks ns[kus ds fy, Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA
1-9-11 osc dsejk (Web Camera)
vkWu ykbu buiqV midj.k gS ftldh lgk;rk ls
ykbo rLohjsa (Live Picture) ns[kh tk ldrh gaAS osc
dsejksa dk mi;ksx vkWu ykbu ohfM;ks pSfVax o ohfM;ksa
dkUsfa lx esa rFkk fMikVZeUs Vy LVksl]Z esyks]a HkhM&HkkM+ Hkjs
LFkkuksa ,oa vU; LFkyksa ij gj le; utjsa j[kus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA
1 - 9 - 12 ekbks Q ks u (Microphone)

fp= 1-25 osc dSejk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 23

ekbksQksu ,d buiqV midj.k gS tks /


ofu dks fMftVy :i esa ifjofrZr dj dEI;wVj dks
izsf"kr djrk gSA ;|fi orZeku esa dEI;wVj ds lkFk
bldk dksbZ vf/kd mi;ksx ugha gks jgk gS fdUrq
Hkfo"; esa blds dh&cksMZ ,ao ekml dk LFkku ysus
dh lEHkkouk gSA dEI;wVj esa tSls&tSls ekuoh;
vkokt dks le>us dh lkeF;Zrk c<+rh tk,xh]
ekbksQksu dk mi;ksx Hkh c<+rk tk,xkA
26 ekbksQksu
fp= 11.26
1-9-13 Vp Lhu (Touch Screen)
Vp Lhu ekuo vaxqfy;ksa ds Li'kZ ds izfr laosnu'khy gksrs gaSA Vp Lhu dh lrg
ij cgqr ls Li'kZ laosnh izksxzkEM Li'kZ fcUnq (Programmed Touch Points) gksrs gSaA izR;sd
Li'kZ fcUnq }kjk mls Li'kZ djus ij fof'k"V buiqV ladrs mRiUu fd, tkrs gSaA Vp Lhu ij
lkekU;r% ,d ehuw iznf'kZr gksrk gSA bu ehuw esa
ftl fodYi dks pquuk gks mls vaxqyh ls Nwuk
gksrk gSA Vp Lhu cgqr gh fe=or (User Friendly)
gksrs gSa rFkk bUgas iz;ksx djus ds fy, dEI;wVj
fo'ks"kK gksuk vko';d ugha gSA Vp Lhu dk
mi;ksx mu LFkkuksa ij gksrk gS tgka vke yksxksa dks
dksbZ tkudkjh izkIr djuh gks vFkok dksbZ fo'sk"k
dk;Z djuk gksA cM+s&cM+s jsYos LVs'kuksa ij Vsu dh
fLFkfr] fdjk;k vkfn dh tkudkjh izkIr djus
rFkk ATM esa ls jkf'k fudyokus ds fy, pkgh xbZ
lwpuk,a ATM dks nsus ds fy, Vp Lhu dk gh
iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
1-9-14 ck;ksesfVd lsUlj (Biometric Sensor)

ck;ksefs Vd lsUlj ,d ,slk midj.k gS tks ekuo fp= 1-27 Vp Lhu


ds fofHkUu tSfod vfHky{k.kksa tSls vaxqyh dh Nki] vk[k
ds jsfVuk ,oa vkbfjl dh cukoV] vkokt] psgjs dh
fo'ks"krkvksa vkfn dks ekirk gS vkSj mudk fo'ys"k.k Hkh
djrk gSA
ck;ksefs Vd lsUlj esa ,d jhMj vFkok LdSfuax
;qfDr gksrh gS tks fo'ks"k lkWVos;j dh enn ls] tSfod
vfHky{k.kksa dh LdSu dh xbZ lwpukvksa dks fMftVy izk:i
esa ifjofrZr dj nsrh gSA bl rjg ls izkIr MkVk dk
dEI;wVj esa igys ls miyC/k MkVkcsl ls feyku fd;k fp= 1-28 fQaxj fizVa LdSuj
tkrk gSA bl rduhd ls lafnX/k O;fDr;ksa esa ls vijk/kh dk irk yxkus vFkok fdlh O;fDr

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 24

dh lgh igpku djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA


1-10 vkmViqV ;qfDr;k (Output Devices)
vkmViqV ;qfDr;k os lk/ku gSa ftudh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj mi;ksxdrkZ (User) ls
izkIr vkdM+ksa] lwpukvksa] funsZ'kksa vkfn ds ifj.kke izf;k (Processing) ds i'pkr mi;ksxdrkZ
dks izLrqr djrk gSA ;s ;qfDr;k 0 vkSj 1 fcV dh dEI;wVj Hkk"kk dks ekuoh; Hkk"kk esa vuqokfnr
dj ifj.kke iznf'kZr djrh gSaA ekuhVj] LihdlZ] fizUVlZ] IykWVj vkfn vkmViqV ;qfDr;ksa ds
izeq[k mnkgj.k gSaA
dEI;wVj ls izkIr ifj.kke izk;% nks izdkj ds gksrs gSa %&
lkWV dkWih (Soft Copy) %& ;fn ifj.kke dks Lhu ij ns[kk tk lds vFkok /ofu ds
1lkW
1
:i esa izkIr fd;k tk, rks ;g lkWV dkWih dgykrh gSA bl izdkj ifj.kkeksa dks ykWih]
dkEiSDV fMLd (C.D.) ;k ekbksfQYe vkfn ij laxzfgr fd;k tk;s rks ;g Hkh lkWV dkWih
dgykrh gSA
2
gkMZ dkWih (Hard Copy) %& tc izkIr ifj.kkeksa dks fizUVj vFkok IyksVj }kjk dkxt
2gkMZ
ij fizUV fd;k tkrk gS] rks ;g gkMZ dkWih dgykrh gSA ;g ifj.kkeksa dh LFkk;h dkWih gksrh
gSA
ekWuhVj] LihdlZ] fizUVlZ] IyksVj vkfn vkmViqV ;qfDr;ksa ds dqN mnkgj.k gSaA ;gk
ij ekWuhVj ,oa fizUVlZ ds ckjs esa foLrkj ls crk;k tk,xkA
1-10-1 ekWuhVj (Monitor)
;g vkmViqV ;qfDr;ksa esa lokZf/kd dke esa vkus okyk midj.k gSA mi;ksxdRkkZ
(User) ekWuhVj ds }kjk gh dEI;wVj ls vUrZf;k (Interact) djrk gSA ;g ,d Vh-oh- dh
vkd`fr dk gksrk gS] bls fotqvy fMLIys ;wfuV (Visual Display Unit - VDU) Hkh dgrs gSaA
ekbksdEI;wVj esa eq[;r% nks izdkj ds ekWuhVj dke esa fy;s tkrs gSa&
1- lh-vkj-Vh- ekWuhVj 2- ,Q-ih-Mh ekWuhVj
lh-vkj-Vh ekWuhVj (CRT - Cathode Ray Tube Monitor)
vf/kdka'k dEI;wVlZ esa blh izdkj dk ekWuhVj dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA ;g cgqr dqN
?kj esa dke vkus okys Vsyhfotu ds leku gksrk gSA bl izdkj ds ekWuhVj esa dSFkksM js fiDpj
V~;wc (Cathode Ray Picture Tube) gksrh gS rFkk bldk Lhu QkWLQksjl ysi ;qDr gksrk gSA
dSFkksM V~;wc ls bySDVkWu fudydj tc Lhu ij fxjrs gSa rks Lhu ml LFkku ij pedus
yxrk gSA
Lhu ij dksbZ Hkh vkd`fr NksVs&NksVs fcUnqvksa ls feydj cuh gksrh gS] ftUgsa fiDlsy
(Pixels) dgrs gSaA izR;sd fiDlsy bySDVkWu ds ,d iqat ls pedrk gSA ;s fiDlsy ckj&ckj
pedrs o fuf"; gksrs jgrs gSa ftls fjs'k (Refresh) dgrs gSAa fjs'k nj 30 ckj izfr lSd.M
gksrh gSA fjs'k nj de gksus ij fiDpj fgyrh ;k ygjkrh gqbZ fn[kkbZ nsrh gS] D;ksafd
QkWLQksjl ds d.k viuh nhfIr (Glow) tYnh&tYnh [kks nsrs gSaA izR;sd fiDlsy dh ped

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 25

bySDVkWu iqt
a (Beam) dh rhozrk ij fuHkZj djrh gS rFkk bldh rhozrk bySDVkWu xu ds oksYVst
ij fuHkZj djrh gSA

fp= 1-29 lh-vkj-Vh- ekWuhVj

fp= 1-30 dSFkksM js V~;wc

eksukskse ;kfu CySd ,.M OgkbV ekWuhVj esa ,d bySDVkWu xu gksrh gS tcfd jaxhu
ekWuhVj esa rhu bySDVkWu xu gksrh gSa tks yky] gjs vkSj uhys jax ds fy, vyx&vyx yxk;h
tkrh gSaA blds vykok jaxhu ekWuhVj ds Lhu ij ,d fiDlsy ds fy, rhu QkWLQksjl d.k
dk ysiu fd;k tkrk gS] QyLo:i izR;sd fiDlsy ,d bySDVkWu iqt
a ls rhu izdkj ds jax
mRiUu dj ldrk gSA yky] gjs vkSj uhys jax ds vykok vU; jax rFkk muds 'kSM (Shades)
bySDVkWu iqat dh rhozrk dks ?kVk&c<+kdj
mRiUu fd, tkrs gSAa
Lhu ds izfr bdkbZ {ks=Qy esa mifLFkr fcUnqvksa dh la[;k ekWuhVj dk jstksyw'ku
(Resolution) dgykrk gSA jstksyw'ku dk rkRi;Z Lhu ds fp= dh Li"Vrk (Sharpness) ls
gSA Lhu ij ftrus vf/kd fiDlsy gksaxs] Lhu dk jstksyw'ku mruk gh vf/kd gksxkA nwljs
'kCnksa esa ;g Hkh dgk tk ldrk gS fd fp= mruk gh Li"V gksxkA
lh-vkj-Vh- ekWuhVj lLrs gksrs gSa rFkk mPp dksfV dk jaxhu vkmViqV nsus esa l{ke gksrs
gSaA
2

,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVj (FPD - Flat

Panel Display Monitor)

;s ubZ rduhd ij vk/kkfjr ekWuhVj gSaA


buesa vkosf'kr jlk;uksa vkSj xSlksa dks dkap dh IysVksa
ds e/; la;ksftr fd;k tkrk gSA ;s iryh fMLIys
fMokblsl ySV iSuy fMLIys dgykrh gSaA ,Q-ihMh- ekWuhVj vR;f/kd piVs] otu esa gYds vkSj de
fo/kqr [kir djus okys gksrs gSaA fdUrq ;s eagxs gksrs
gSa rFkk budk jstksy'w ku Hkh de gksrk gSA ,Q-ihMh- ekWuhVj eq[;r% ySiVkWi (Laptop) dEI;wVj esa
iz;qDr gksrs gSaA
,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVj rhu izdkj ds gksrs gSa&

fp= 1-31 ,ylhMh ekWuhVj

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 26

1 nzoh; fLVy fMLIys ekWuhVj (LCD- Liquid Crystal Display Monitor),


2 xSl IykTek fMLIys ekWuhVj (GPD- Gas Plasma Display Monitor),
3 bySDVksY;wfeuslsV fMLIys ekWuhVj (EL- Electroluminescent Display Monitor)
LCD ekWuhVj dk fjtksy'w ku de gksrk gS] ftlls Lhu ij fMLIys lgh ugha vkrkA
GPD vkSj EL ekWuhVj esa ;|fi fjtksyw'ku LCD ekWuhVj dh rqyuk esa vf/kd gksrk gS fdUrq
vHkh ;s cgqr eagxs gSaA
1-10-2 fizUVlZ (Printers)
fizUVj vkmViqV dks dkxt ij Nkidj izLrqr djrk gSA dkxt ij vkmViqV dh
izfrfyfi gkMZ dkWih dgykrh gSA fizUVj dEI;wVj ls izkIr fMftVy lwpukvksa dks ekuoh; Hkk"kk
esa ifjofrZr dj rst xfr ls dkxt ij Nkirk gS ftls ekuo i<+ ldrk gSA
fizUVlZ dks lkekU;r% nks izdkjksa esa ckaVk tkrk gS&
1- bEiSDV fizUVlZ
2- ukWu bEiSDV fizUVlZ
bEiSDV fizUVlZ (Impact Printers)
1
bl izdkj ds fizUVlZ esa /kkrq dk ,d NksVk gFkkSMk+ (Hammer) ;k fizUV gSM (Print
Head) L;kgh ds fjcu ij izgkj (Strike) djrk gSA fjcu ds uhps og dkxt j[kk tkrk gS
ftl ij fizUV djuk gksrk gSA tc fizUV gSM }kjk izgkj fd;k tkrk gS rks fizUV gSM ij ml
le; mifLFkr djsDVj dkxt ij fizUV gks tkrk gSA bl Js.kh esa fuEu fizUVlZ vkrs gS&
a
(I)
MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj (Dot Matrix Printer - DMP) %& bl fizUVj ds fizUV
gSM esa vusd fiuksa (Pins) dk ,d eSfVDl (Matrix) gksrk gSA izR;sd fiu ds fjcu o dkxt
ij izgkj ls ,d fcUnq (Dot) curk gSA vusd MkWVl
~ feydj djsDVj cukrs gSaA fizUV gSM esa 7]
9] 14] 18] ;k 24 fiuksa dk /okZ/kj lewg gksrk gSA fiuksa dh la[;k fturh vf/kd gksrh gS]
fizfUVax mruh gh vkd"kZd gksrh gSA djsDVj ec)rk ds lkFk ,d ds ckn ,d Nirs tkrs
gSaA
MkWV eSfVDl fizUVlZ dh xfr 30 ls 600 djsDVj izfr lSd.M (Character Per
Second - CPS) gksrh gSA buesa Bksl eqnzk v{kj (Solid Fonts) ugha gksus ds dkj.k ;s fofHkUu
vkdkj] izdkj ,oa Hkk"kk ds djsDVj Nki ldrs gSAa buls xzkQ] pkVZl~ vkfn Hkh cuk, tk ldrs
gSAa fdUrq budh NikbZ dh Li"Vrk Bksl eqnzk v{kj fizUVlZ dh rqyuk esa de gksrh gSA ;s fizUVlZ
nk;sa ls ck;sa ,oa ck;sa ls nk; vFkkZr nksuksa vksj ls fizfUVax dj ldrs gSaA fizfUVax ykxr de
vkus ls budk mi;ksx fizfUVax gsrq lokZf/kd gksrk gSA

(II)

Msth Oghy fizUVj (Daisy Wheel Printer) %& ;g fizUVj MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj
fp= 1-32 MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj

fp= 1-33 MkWV eSfVDl fizUV~l

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 27

ls vf/kd Li"V vkmViqV nsrk gSA ;g lkWfyM QkWUVl~ okyk fizUVj gSA bldk fizUV gSM
IykfLVd ls fufeZr ,d xksy p (Wheel) ds :i esa gksrk gS] ftldh vkd`fr Msth xqycgkj
ds iq"i tSlh gksrh gSA blh dkj.k bls Msth Oghy (Daisy Wheel) uke fn;k x;k gSA

fp= 1-34 Msth Oghy fizUVj


p esa iq"i dh ia[kqfM+;ksa ds leku vusd rkusa (Spokes) gksrh gSa rFkk izR;sd rku ij ,d
djsDVj dk Bksl QksUV mHkjk jgrk gSA p dkxt dh {kSfrt fn'kk esa xfr djrk gSA tc Nius
;ksX; djsDVj dk Liksd fizUV iksft'ku ij vkrk gS rks ,d NksVk gFkkSM+k (Hammer) Liksd ij
izgkj djrk gS ftlls ml ij mHkjk QkWUV dkxt ij Ni tkrk gSA NikbZ ds fy, p vkSj
dkxt ds chp esa fjcu gksrk gSA
Msth Oghy fizUVj ,d /kheh xfr dk fizUVj gSA bldh Nkius dh xfr izk;% 90 CPS
gksrh gSA fdUrq blds vkmViqV dh Li"Vrk mPp dksfV dh gksrh gSA blfy, bldk mi;ksx
i= vkfn Nkius esa gksrk gS vkSj ;g ySVj DokfyVh fizUVj (Letter Quality Printer) dgykrk
gSA bl fizUVj ls dsoy oks gh djsDVj Nkis tk ldrs gSa tks blds fizUVj gSM esa mifLFkr gksrs
gSaA blls xzkfQDl vkfn dh NikbZ ugha dh tk ldrhA bldh izfr i`"B NikbZ ykxr Hkh
vis{kkd`r vf/kd vkrh gSA
(III) pSu fizUVj (Chain Printer) %& bl fizUVj esa /kkrq ls fufeZr fuf'pr xfr ls ?kweus
okyh ,d pSu gksrh gSa ftls fizUV pSu (Print Chain) dgrs gSaA pSu esa djsDVj gksrs gSaA pSu dh
izR;sd dM+h (Link) es ,d djsDVj dk QkWUV gksrk gSA pSu {kSfrt (Horizontally) pyrh gS rFkk
dkxt pSu ds lkis{k /okZ/kj (Vertically) pyrk gSA ftl LFkku ij dksbZ djsDVj fizUV gksuk
gksrk gS ml LFkku ij gFkkSMs+ (Hammer) dk izgkj gksrk gS ftlls djsDVj dkxt ij Ni tkrk
gSA bl fizUVj ls iwjh iafDr ykbu ,d lkFk Nirh gSA ;g ,d mPp dksfV dk fizUVj gSA
blds Nkius dh xfr 300 ls 3000 ykbu izfr feuV gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 28

fp= 1-35 pSu fizUVj


(IV) cS.M fizUVj (Band Printer) %& ;g fizUVj pSu fizUVj ds leku gh gksrk gSA bl
fizUVj esa pSu ds LFkku ij LVhy dk cS.M gksrk gSA 'ks"k NikbZ izf;k pSu fizUVj ds leku gksrh
gSA
(V)
Me fizUVj (Drum Printer) %& bl fizUVj esa ,d csyukdkj vkd`fr dk rst
?kweus okyk Me (Drum) yxk gksrk gS ftldh lrg ij djsDVj yxs jgrs gSaA tc Me ?kwerk
gS rks rhoz xfr ds gFkkSMs+ (Hammer) }kjk Nkis tkus okys djsDVj ij izgkj fd;k tkrk gS
ftlls og djsDVj dkxt ij Ni tkrk gSA Me ds izR;sd ?kw.kZu esa ,d iafDr (Line) Nirh
gSA ;g Hkh ,d mPp xfr dk fizUVj gSA

fp= 1-36 M e fizUVj


lhfj;y ,oa ykbu fizUVj (Serial and Line Printer)
lhfj;y fizUVj e ls ,d ds ckn ,d v{kj fizUV djrk gSA budh xfr vis{kkd`r
/kheh gksrh gSA mnkgj.k& MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj] Msth Oghy fizUVjA
ykbu fizUVj vR;f/kd rhoz xfr ls izpkfyr gksrs gSa rFkk ,d ckj esa iwjh iafDr (Line)
fizUV djrs gSaA pSu fizUVj] cS.M fizUVj] Me fizUVj vkfn ykbu fizUVlZ ds mnkgj.k gSA ykbu
fizUVlZ dsoy ogha iz;qDr gksrs gSa] tgka mPp xfr o Rofjr ifj.kke dh vf/kd vko';drk gks

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 29

rFkk xq.kork dh de vko';drk gksA

fp= 1-37 ykbu fizUVj


ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ (Non-Impact Printers)
ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ djsDVlZ dks jklk;fud] rkih; vFkok bysDVkfud ek/;e ls
Lo:i iznku djrs gSaA bu fizUVlZ esa fizUV gSM vkSj dkxt ds e/; lEidZ ugha gksrk gSA bu
fizUVlZ dh NikbZ dh xq.kork mRd`"V gksrh gSA fdUrq bu fizUVlZ ls ,d ckj esa dsoy ,d gh
izfr fizUV gks ldrh gS rFkk buds fy, fo'ks"k vkSj eagxs dkxt dh vko';drk gksrh gSA
ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ Hkh dbZ izdkj ds gksrs gSaA ;gka rhu izdkj ds ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVlZ
dh ppkZ dh xbZ gSA

rkih; fizUVj (Thermal Printer) %&


rkih; fizUVj esa fizfUVax gSM dh fiuksa dks fo/kqr }kjk
xeZ fd;k tkrk gS] rRi'pkr bUgsa dkxt ij nck;k
tkrk gSA tc xeZ fiusa fo'ks"k m"ek laons h dkxt dks
Li'kZ djrh gSa rks fiu }kjk xeZ fd, x, {ks= dk jax
ifjofrZr gks tkrk gS] QyLo:i ogka dkyk ;k Hkwjk
djsDVj cu tkrk gSA bl fizUVj ds fy, iz;qDr gksus
okyk dkxt fo'ks"k jklk;fud ysiu }kjk m"ek
laons h cuk;k tkrk gSA
(I)

fp= 1-38 rkih; fizUVj


badtSV fizUVj (Inkjet Printer) %& bl fizUVj ds fizUV gSM esa vusd ckjhd
fNnzksa okys uksty yxs gksrs gSa ftuls ,d fo'ks"k izdkj dh L;kgh cwanksa dh ckSNkj ds :i esa
dkxt ij QSd
a h tkrh gS] ftlls dkxt ij djsDVj ,oa vkd`fr;ka Ni tkrh gSaA bl fizUVj
esa cgqr vf/kd ?kuRo okyh L;kgh (High Density Ink) gksrh gS tks ,d fo'ks"k izdkj ds iSd
esa jgrh gS ftls dkjfVt (Cartridge) dgrs gSaA L;kgh dh cwUnksa dh ckSNkj dkxt ij lgh
LFkku ij fxjs blds fy, uksty dks fo/kqr bysDVksM ls funsZf'kr fd;k tkrk gSA bl fizUVj
dk vkmViqV vf/kd Li"V gksrk gS] D;ksafd izR;sd djsDVj vusd MkWVl
~ ls feydj cuk gksrk
gSA vkmViqV dh fizUV DokWfyVh 300 ls 600 dpi (dots per inch) gksrh gSA orZeku esa ,d ls
(II)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 30

vf/kd fizfUVax gSM okys bad tSV fizUVj Hkh


miyC/k gSa] ftudh lgk;rk ls fofHkUu jaxksa okyh
jaxhu fizfUVax dh tk ldrh gSA
izkjEHk esa bad tSV fizUVj vR;f/kd eagxs
Fks] fdUrq vkt budh dher cgqr de gks xbZ gSA
bl fizUVj dh eq[; leL;k fizUV gSM ds uksty ds
fljksa ij L;kgh te tkus (Ink Clogging) ls fNnzksa
dk cUn gks tkuk gSA bldh fizfUVax ykxr Hkh
rqyukRed :i ls vf/kd gksrh gSA

fp= 1-39 badtsV fizUVj

ystj fizUVj (Laser Printer) %& ;g


orZeku dk lcls vf/kd fodflr fizUVj gSA ;g
ystj fdj.kksa (Laser Beam) ij vk/kkfjr gksrk
gSA fdlh djsDVj dks Nkius ds fy, ml ij ystj
fdj.ksa Mkyh tkrh gSaA blesa djsDVj dks Nkius ds
fy, Vksuj (Toner- ,d fo'ks"k L;kgh dk ikmMj
iz;Dq r gksrk gSA
(III)

ystj fizUVj eagxs gksrs gSa ysfdu vis{kkd`r


vf/kd rhoz xfr rFkk mPp DokWfyVh dh NikbZ
djus esa l{ke gksus ds dkj.k ;s vktdy lokZf/kd
yksdfiz; gSaA jaxhu ystj fizUVj mPp DokWfyVh dk
jaxhu vkmViqV nsrs gSaA buesa fo'ks"k Vksuj gksrk gS]
ftlls fofo/k jaxksa ds d.k miyC/k jgrs gSAa IykfLVd
fp= 1-40 ystj fizUVj
'khV ;k vU; fdlh 'khV ij Hkh ;s fizUVlZ vkmViqV
dks Nki ldrs gSaA
1-10
10-- 3 IykWVj (Plotter)
IykWVj dk mi;ksx cM+s vkdj ds uD'ks] pkVZ] f=foe; js[kk fp= xzkQ] fMtk;u]
bysDVkfud lfdZV vkfn fizUV djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA IykWVlZ izk;% nks izdkj ds gksrs
gaS& Me isu IykWVj rFkk ysV cSM IykWVjA
1-

Me isu IykWVj (Drum Pen Plotter)


bu IykWVjksa esa isu (Pen) gksrs gaS tks xfr'khy gksdj dkxt dh lrg ij vkd`fr dk
fuekZ.k djrs gaSA dkxt ,d Me ij p<+k gksrk gS tks vkxs dh vksj ?kwerk jgrk gS ftlls dkxt
Hkh vkxs dh vksj pyrk jgrk gSA isu dEI;wVj }kjk fu;fU=r gksrs gSa rFkk ;kfU=d dykdkj
dh rjg dk;Z djrs utj vkrs gaSA jaxhu IykWVj esa vyx&vyx jaxks dh L;kgh ds isu gksrs gSaA
;g IykWVj dkQh cM+s fp=ksa dks cgqr gh rhoz xfr ls cuk nsrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 31

fp= 1-41 Me isu IykWVj


2- ySV cSM IykWVj (Flat Bed Plotter)
ysV cSM IykWVj esa dkxt dks ,d lery lrg tSls cSM (Bed) ;k Vs (Tray) esa fLFkj
voLFkk esa j[kk tkrk gSA blesa dkxt lkekU;r% xfr ugha djrk gSA bldh ,d Hkqtk ij isu
(Pen) gksrk gS tks fp= cukus ds fy, eksVj dh lgk;rk ls dkxt ds 'X' v{k ij nk;sa&ck;sa
rFkk 'Y' v{k ij ij&uhps xfr djrk gSA isu dh xfr dEI;wVj }kjk fu;fU=r gksrh gSA ysV
cSM IykWVj ls vis{kkd`r NksVs vkdkj ds fp= izkIr fd, tk ldrs gSaA

fp=
p= 1-42 ySV cSM IykWVj
vktdy IykWVlZ esa isu ds LFkku ij ,d Vksuj cSM (Toner Bed) dk iz;ksx Hkh gksus
yxk gS] tks ftjkWDl e'khu dh Vs ds leku dk;Z djrk gSA fdUrq ;gka izdk'k ds LFkku ij
NksVs&NksVs rkjksa (Wires) ds ,d tky (Matrix) ls dkxt dks vkosf'kr (Charged) fd;k
tkrk gSA tc vkosf'kr dkxt dks Vksuj (Toner) ls xqtkjk tkrk gS rks ;g dkxt ds vkosf'kr
fcUnqvksa ij fpid tkrk gS ftlls fp= (Image) mHkj vkrk gSA bl rduhd dks bysDVkLs VsfVd
rduhd (Electrostatic Technique) dgrs gSaA bysDVksLVsfVd IykWVj dh xfr rks rhoz gksrh gS
fdUrq blls izkIr fp=ksa dh Li"Vrk isu IykWVj dh rqyuk esa de gksrh gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 32

1 - 10
10-- 4 LihdlZ (Speakers)
LihdlZ vkmViqV midj.k gSa tks
dEI;wVj ls izkIr fMftVy lwpukvksa dks
/ofu esa ifjofrZr djrs gaSA LihdlZ dk
mi;ksx eYVhehfM;k vuqiz;ksxksa (Multimedia Applications) esa [kwc gksrk gSA tgk
lsfeukj vkfn esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx gksrk
gS ogk Hkh /ofu izlkj.k esa LihdlZ mi;ksxh
gksrs gSA

fp= 1-43 LihdlZ

1-11 laxzg.k ;qfDr;ka (Storage Devices)


dEI;wVj ds MkVk vkSj izksxzke rkRdkfyd rFkk Hkfo"; ds mi;ksx gsrq laxzfgr djds
j[ks tkrs gSaA ftu ek/;eksa esa bUgsa laxzfgr fd;k tkrk gS] mUgsa nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk
ldrk gS& 1- izkFkfed laxzg.k ek/;e (Primary Storage Media) rFkk 2- f}rh;d laxzg.k
(Secondary Storage Media)

izkFkfed laxzg.k ek/;e esa MkVk vkSj izkx


s zke dsoy rkRdkfyd :i ls laxzfgr fd,
tk ldrs gSaA dEI;wVj dh eseksjh (Memory) izkFkfed laxzg.k ek/;e dk mnkgj.k gS] ftldk
v/;;u ge iwoZ v/;k; esa dj pqds gSaA f}rh;d laxzg.k ek/;e ds vUrxZr os ;qfDr;ka
lfEefyr dh tkrh gSa] ftuesa MkVk] izksxzke vkSj izf;k ifj.kkeksa dks rkRdkfyd rFkk Hkfo";
esa ckj&ckj mi;ksx gsrq LFkkbZ :i ls laxzfgr dj lqjf{kr j[ks tkrs gSaA ;gk ge ,slh gh dqN
izeq[k ;qfDr;ksa ds ckjs esa v/;;u djsaxsA
1-11-1 pqEcdh; Vsi (Magnetic Tape) %& pqEcdh; Vsi ekW;yj (Mylar) IykfLVd dh
cuh gksrh gS ftldh lrg ij vk;ju&vkWDlkbM (Iron-Oxide) dh pqEcdh; ijr dk ysiu
p<+k gksrk gSA pqEcdh; Vsi 1/2 bap] 1/4 bap] 8mm, 3mm vkfn fofHkUu pkSM+kbZ dh gksrh gSaA
pqEcdh; Vsi 250MB, 500MB, 2GB, 10GB vkfn fofHkUu laxzg.k {kerkvksa esa miyC/k gSaA

fp= 1-44 pqEcdh; Vsi ;wfuV

fp= 1-45 pqEcdh; Vsi

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 33

pqEcdh; Vsi dk mi;ksx izk;% cSdvi (Backup) MkVk ds :i esa fd;k tkrk gSA
;|fi orZeku esa cgqr vf/kd laxzg.k {kerk dh rduhdh dk fodkl gks pqdk gS] fdUrq
pqEcdh; Vsi ds NksVs vkdkj rFkk de dher gksus dss dkj.k budk mi;ksx vkt Hkh MkVk
laxzg.k gsrq fd;k tkrk gSA pqEcdh; Vsi ,slk MkVk] ftldk mi;ksx ckj&ckj ugha gksrk gS]
ds laxzg.k gsrq vf/kd mi;qDr gksrh gSA pqEcdh; Vsi esa MkVk dks ec) :i ls gh vfHkxe
(Access) fd;k tk ldrk gS] blfy, bldk vfHkxe le; (Access Time) dkQh vf/kd
gksrk gSA blh izdkj bl ij MkVk fy[kus esa Hkh vU; ;qfDr;ksa dh rqyuk esa vf/kd le; yxrk
gSA
1-11-2 pqEcdh; fMLd (Magnetic Disk) %& pqEcdh; fMLd ,d mi;ksxh ,oa
vR;f/kd izpfyr laxzg ;qfDr gSA blesa lh/kh vfHkxe (Direct Access) fof/k ls MkVk dks
rhoz xfr ls izkIr ,oa laxzg fd;k tk ldrk gSA lh/kh vfHkxe fof/k esa fdlh vfHkys[k dks
iwoZorhZ vfHkys[kksa dks i<+s fcuk] izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
pqEcdh; fMLd eq[; :i ls nks izdkj dh gksrh gSa& 1- gkMZ fMLd (Hard Disk) vkSj
2- fMLdsV~l (Diskettes)
gkMZ fMLd (Hard Disk) esa ,Y;wehfu;e ;k vU; /kkrq ls fufeZr pdfr;ka ;k IysVlZ
(Platters) gksrh gaS ftudh nksuksa lrgsa pqEcdh; vk;ju vkWDlkbM ls ysfir jgrh gSaA gkMZ
fMLd dh laxgz .k {kerk cgqr vf/kd gksrh gS rFkk blls MkVk izkIr djus dh xfr Hkh rhoz gksrh
gSA gkMZ fMLd dk mi;ksx ekbks dEI;wVj] feuh dEI;wVj vkSj esuse dEI;wVj rhuksa esa gh
MkVk laxzg.k ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA orZeku esa vusd izdkj dh gkMZ fMLd miyC/k gSsa A
fMLdsV~l (Diskettes) IykfLVd dh pdfr;k (Disks) gksrh gSa tks IykfLVd ds [kksy
esa lqjf{kr jgrh gSaA budh laxzg.k {kerk gkMZ fMLd dh rqyuk esa cgqr de gksrh gSA bUgsa
lkekU;r% ykWih fMLd (Floppy Disk) ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA ;s LFkkukUrj.kh; gksrh gSa
rFkk dEI;wVj ls fudkydj ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij vklkuh ls yk;h o ys tk;h ldrh
gSaA budk mi;ksx izk;% ekbks dEI;wVjksa esa gksrk gSA
1-11-3 gkMZ fMLd (Hard Disk) %& gkMZ fMLd NksVs dEI;wVj tSls ekbks dEI;wVj ,oa
feuh dEI;wVj esa MkVk laxzg.k ds fy, dke esa yh tkrh gSA ;g flLVe ;wfuV ds vUnj yxh
gksrh gSA bldh vR;f/kd laxzg.k {kerk ds dkj.k bls ekl LVksjst fMokbl (Mass Storage
Device) rFkk flLVe ;wfuV ds vUnj yxh gksus ds dkj.k vkWu ykbu LVksjt
s fMokbl (Online
Storage Device) Hkh dgrs gSaA orZeku esa 80GB, 160GB vkSj 240GB laxg
z .k {kerk dh gkMZ
fMLd vf/kd izpfyr gSA
gkMZ fMLd ij cgqr&lh lwpuk,a LFkkbZ :i ls laxzfgr gksrh gSaA vkijsfVax flLVe]
dEikbyj] ,lsEcyj] MkVkcsl] ,Iyhds'ku izksxzke vkfn Hkh gkMZ fMLd ij gh laxzfgr gksrs gSAa
vr% gkMZ fMLd lokZf/kd izpfyr vko';d ,oa LFkkbZ laxgz .k ;qfDr gSA
gkMZ fMLd esa ,Y;wehfu;e ;k vU; /kkrq ls fufeZr pdfr;ksa ;k fMLd IysVj (Disk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 34

Platters) dk lewg gksrk gSA izR;sd IysVj ij pqEcdh; vk;ju vkWDlkbM dk ysiu gksrk gSA
IysVlZ dh nksuksa lrgksa ij ladUs nzh; VSDl (Tracks) vkSj lSDVj (Sectors) gksrs gSaA MkVk bUgh
VSDl ,oa lSDVj esa laxzfgr jgrk gSA lHkh fMLd IysVj ,d fLi.My (Spindle) esa fijksbZ gksrh

gSA
izR;sd IysVj dk vyx ls jhM@jkbV gSM gksrk gSA lHkh jhM@jkbV gSM~l ,d gh
Hkqtk ;k vkeZ (Arm) ij da/ksuqek lajpuk esa yxs jgrs gSaA bl Hkqtk dks ,Dlsl vkeZ (Access
Arm) dgrs gaSA izR;sd gSM ?kwerh gqbZ fMLd dh lrg ij mi;qDr VSd ij igaqp tkrk gSA bl
izdkj MkVk jhM@jkbV djus dh f;k lh/kh gksrh gSA izR;sd MkVk dh fLFkfr dk ,d irk
;k fMLd ,Ml
s (Disk Address) gksrk gS ftlesa lrg la[;k] Vd
S la[;k vkSj lSDVj la[;k
gksrh gSA blh dh lgk;rk ls ,Dlsl vkeZ MkVk dks [kkstrk gSA

fp= 1-46 gkMZ fMLd

fp= 1-47 gkMZ fMLd dh vkUrfjd


lajpuk ,oa dk;Zfof/k

gkMZ fMLd ,oa jhM@jkbV gSM ;s lHkh ,d gok cUn pSEcj esa lhy gksrs gSa ftlls
ogka rd /kwy ugha tk ikrh gSA ;g pSEcj ckgj ls ns[kus esa yap ckDl tSlk yxrk gSA
1-11-4 ykWih fMLd (Floppy Disk) %& ykWih fMLd ek;yj IykfLVd (Mylar Plastic) ls fufeZr ,d o`rkdkj pdrh gksrh gS] ftldh lrg ij vk;ju vkWDlkbM pqEcdh;
inkFkZ dk ysiu gksrk gSA bldh nksuksa lrgksa ij Hkh gkMZ fMLd ds leku ladsUnzh; VSDl
(Tracks) vkSj lSDVlZ (Sectors) gksrs gSaA MkVk bUgha VSDl vkSj lSDVlZ esa laxzfgr gksrk gSA
ykWih fMLd dh lqj{kk gsrq bls IykfLVd ds vkoj.k esa j[kk tkrk gS tks bls [kajksp
vkfn ls cpkrk gSA blds vkoj.k esa ,d Hkkx [kqyk gksrk gS] ftlls jhM@jkbV gSM MkVk dks
fMLd ij laxzfgr ;k izkIr dj ldsA bl [kqys Hkkx dks ,Dlsl foUMks (Access Window)
dgrs gSaA
ykWih fMLd vkSj mlds vkoj.k esa ,d fNnz gksrk gS ftls bUMsDl gksy (Index Hole)
dgrss gSaA bUMsDl gksy tc Hkh QksVks lsUlj (Photo Sensor) ds uhps vkrk gS rks bldk vFkZ
gksrk gS fd jhM@jkbV gSM vc orZeku VSd ds izFke lsDVj ij fLFkr gks x;k gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 35

ykWih ds ,d vksj dqN Hkkx dVk gqvk gkssrk gS] ftls jkbV izksVsDV ukWp (Write
Protect Notch) dgrss gSAa bldk mi;ksx fMLd ij MkVk dks jkbV (Write) ;k laxzg.k ls
cpkus esa fd;k tkrk gSA tc ;g ukWp [kqyk gksrk gS rks ge MkVk dks i<+ Hkh ldrs gSa vkSj fy[k
Hkh ldrs gSa fdUrq tc bls fdlh fLVdj ;k Vsi ls cUn dj fn;k tkrk gS rks fMLd ij MkVk
dks dsoy i<+k tk ldrk gS] fy[kk ugha tk ldrk gSA
ykWih fMLd izk;% nks vkdkjksa esa miyC/k gksrh gSa& 1- ekbks ykWih (Micro
Floppy) rFkk 2- feuh ykWih (Mini Floppy)
ekbks ykWih dk O;kl 3-5 bap gksrk gSA ;g ykWih IykfLVd ds dBksj vkoj.k esa
cUn jgrh gSA blfy, vf/kd lqjf{kr gSA blesa 1.44MB MkVk laxzfgr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
vktdy 2.8MB MkVk laxzg djus okyh 3-5 bap O;kl dh ykWih Hkh vk x;h gSA
feuh ykWih dk O;kl 5-25 bap gksrk gSA ;g yphys vkoj.k esa vkrh gS] blfy,
lqjf{kr ugha gSAbldh laxzg.k {kerk Hkh de gSA blesa dsoy 1-2 MB MkVk laxfz gr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA vr% feuh ykWih dk izpyu cgqr de gSA
ykWih ikuh] vf/kd rki ,oa pqEcdh; {ks= esa j[kus ls [kjkc gks tkrh gSA tksj ls iVdus]
esXusfVd inkFkZ ds gkFk yxkus ls Hkh bldk MkVk [kjkc gks tkrk gSA vr% buds mi;ksx esa dkQh
lko/kkuh cjrus dh vko;drk jgrh gSA

fp= 1-48 ykWih fMLd ijh lrg

fp= 1-49 ykWih fMLd fupyh lrg

1 -11
11-5
-5 lh-Mh- jkse ;k dkWEiSDV fMLd (C.D. ROM or Compact Disk)
lh-Mh- jkse ,d izdkkh; (Optical) laxgz .k ;qfDr (Storage Device) gS ftlesa
laxfz gr MkVk dks dsoy i<+k tk ldrk gSA ROM 'kCn Read Only Memory dk laf{kIr :i
gSA lh-Mh- jkse esa yslj (LASER) fdj.kksa dh lgk;rk ls MkVk dks jhM (Read) vkSj jkbV
(Write) fd;k tkrk gSA ;g fMLd jsftu (Resin) tSls inkFkZ ikWyhdkcksZusV ls cuh gksrh gSA
bldh lrg ij ,Y;wehfu;e ;kSfxdksa dk ysiu gksrk gS ftlls blesa izdk'k dks ijkofrZr
(Reflect) djus dk xq.k vk tkrk gSA MkVk laxg
z .k dh izf;k esa lh-Mh- jkse dh ijkorZd lrg
ij mPp rhozrk 25 esxkokV okyh yslj fdj.k Mkyh tkrh gS ftlls ogka ,d vfr lw{e xM~<k

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 36

;k fiV (Pit) cu tkrk gSA ;g fiV ^1 fcV* dk lwpd gSA lrg ij tgk fiV ugha gS] og ^0
fcV* dk lwpd gSA ,sls fiV jfgr LFky dks ys.M (Land) dgrs gSaA

fp= 1-50 lh-Mh-

fp= 1-51 lh-Mh- jkse Mkbo

lh-Mh- jkse esa MkVk dks fMLd ls i<+us ds fy, de rhozrk 5 esxkokV okyh yslj
fdj.ksa Mkyh tkrh gSaA ijkofrZr yslj fdj.kksa dks QksVks fMVsDVj (Photodetector) }kjk tkpk
tkrk gSA yS.M ls ijkofrZr fdj.k dh rhozrk esa dksbZ vUrj ugha vkrk fdUrq fiV ls ijkofrZr
fdj.k vusd fn'kkvksa esa QSy tkrh gS ftlls fiV dh mifLFkfr dk irk py tkrk gSA ijkofrZr
izdk'k ds bl vUrj dks fo/kqr ladrs ksa 0 vkSj 1 fcV esa ifjofrZr dj fy;k tkrk gS ftlls
MkVk dh tkudkjh gks tkrh gSA
lh-Mh- jkse esa Hkh MkVk laxzg.k ds fy, VSDl dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;s VSDl
lsDVj (Sector) esa caVs jgrs gSAa fdUrq CD-ROM ds VDS l ykWih fMLd ;k gkMZ fMLd dh rjg
cUn u gksdj fujUrjrk fy, gksrs gSa ftudh yEckbZ yxHkx ikp fdyksehVj gksrh gSA ;s
lfiZykdkj :i esa O;ofLFkr gksrs gSaA lh-Mh- jkse dh laxzg.k {kerk vf/kd gksrh gSA ,d lhMh- jkse esa 650MB rd MkVk laxzfgr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldh MkVk LFkkukUrj.k nj Hkh
vf/kd gksrh gSA lh-Mh- jkse dk mi;ksx eYVhfefM;k] dEI;wVj xsEl vkfn esa fd;k tkrk gSA
vktdy lh-Mh- jkse dk mi;ksx fofHkUu 'kS{kf.kd tkudkfj;ka] fp= vkfn ds laxzg.k gsrq Hkh
cgqr vf/kd gks jgk gSA
1-11
11--6 fMftVy ohfM;ks fMLd (Digital Video Disk )
fMftVy ohfM;ks fMLd (DVD) ns[kus esa fcYdqy lh-Mh- tSlh gh yxrh gS ysfdu
nksuksa esa dbZ fHkUurk,a gSaA DVD esa CD dh vis{kk 7-5 xquk vf/kd MkVk laxzfgr fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ,d lk/kkj.k DVD dh laxzg.k {kerk yxHkx 4.7GB gksrh gSA dqN DVD esa rks
17GB rd MkVk laxzg fd;k tk ldrk gSA DVD dk O;kl 4.7 bap gksrk gSA
CD dh rjg DVD ij Hkh MkVk VSDl ds :i esa laxfz gr fd;k tkrk gS tks dbZ lSDVjksa
esa caVs gksrs gaAS fdUrq DVD esa CD dh rqyuk esa fiV~l (Pits) dk vkdkj cgqr vf/kd lw{e rFkk
VSDl ds e/; dh nwjh Hkh cgqr de gksrh gSA QyLo:i DVD dh {kerk CD dh rqyuk esa cgqr
vfkd c<+ tkrh gSA DVD dh ,d vkSj fo'ks"krk ;g gS fd ;g jhM ys;j ds Qksdl dks cny
dj ,d ls vf/kd rF;ksa dks jhM dj ldrk gSA DVD esa MkVk nks irksZ esa fy[kk tkrk gS blls
bldh laxgz .k {kerk esa vkSj o`f) gqbZ gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 37

bldh mez Hkh CD dh Hkkfr de ls de nl o"kZ gSA DVD jhM ,oa jkbV djus ds
fy, MhohMh Mkbo (DVD Drive) dh vko';drk gksrh gSA MhohMh Mkbo lhMh dks Hkh jhM
,oa jkbV dj ldrh gSaA ueh] rkieku tSls i;kZoj.kh; dkjd CD dh rjg DVD dks Hkh
izHkkfor ugha djrs gaS fdUrq bls [kajksp ls cpkuk vko';d gSA [kajksp ls DVD iw.kZr% csdkj
gks ldrh gSA /kwy Hkh DVD dks jhM djus esa ck/kk mRiUu djrh gSA vr% bls ges'kk doj
esa j[kuk pkfg,A

fp= 1-52 MhohMh Mk bo


1-11
11--7 fti Mkbo (Zip Drive)
fti Mkbo] ykWih fMLd ds i'pkr pqEcdh; ek/;e (Magnetic Media) dh nqfu;k
dk nwljk vk'p;Z gSA lh-Mh- jkbVj ls iwoZ fti Mkbo gh lcls vf/kd izpfyr cSdvi
midj.k FkhA fti Mkbo lh-Mh- jkbVj ls dkQh fdQk;rh gSA blesa MkVk laxzg.k ds fy,
tks midj.k dke esa fy;k tkrk gS mls fti dkWfVZt (Zip Cartridge) dgrs gSaA fti dkWfVZt
ykus ys tkus esa lqfo/kk tud rFkk vf/kd fo'oluh; gSA fti dkWfVZt esa yxHkx 100 MB
MkVk laxzfgr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldk vkdkj 4 oxZ bap gksrk gS rFkk eksVkbZ ykWih ls
yxHkx nqxuh gksrh gSA bls vklkuh ls tsc esa j[kk tk ldrk gSA fti Mkbo izk;% dEI;wVjksa
esa ugha gksrs blfy, fti Mkbo ds }kjk MkVk LFkkukUrj.k djrs le; fti Mkbo ,oa Mkboj
dh Hkh lkFk esa vko';drk gksrh gSA fti Mkbo dks bULVky djuk cgqr vklku gksrk gSA

fp= 1-53 fti Mkbo ,oa fti dkWfVZt

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 38

fti fMLd dkWfVt


Z dk pqEcdh; ysi ykWih fMLd dh rqyuk esa dgha vf/kd csgrj
,oa mPp xq.kokk dk gksrk gSA blfy, fti Mkbo ds jhM@jkbV gSM dk vkdkj dkQh NksVk
gksrk gS ftlls bleas VSDl dh la[;k dgha vf/kd gksrh gS rFkk izfr VSd lSDVjksa dh la[;k
Hkh T;knk gksrh gSA jhM@jkbV gSM ds nks vksj ia[k (Wings) yxs gksrs gSAa ;s ia[k gSM dh xfr
dks fu;fU=r djrs gaSA
fti fMLd esa MkVk ykWih fMLd dh Hkkfr o`rkdkj VSDl ij laxzfgr gksrk gS] fdUrq
izfr VSd lSDVjksa dh la[;k fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh gSA fti Mkbo ds lkFk ,d leL;k ;g gS fd
orZeku esa miyC/k vkWijsfVax flLVe fti Mkbo dks liksVZ ugha djrs gaSA vr% vyx ls Mkboj
baLVky djuk iM+rk gSA
1 -11
11--8 is u / QyS ' k M k bo / bUVs f yts U V fLVd (Pen/Flash Drive /Intelligent
Stick)

;g MkVk LFkkukUrj.k
,oa laxzg.k ds fy, ,d vk'p;Z
pfdr djus okyh fo'ks"krkvksa
;qDr uohure ;qfDr gSA MkVk
LFkkukUrj.k ,oa laxzg.k ds fy,
vc rd izpfyr ;qfDr;ksa tSls
ykWih] fti fMLd] lhMh vkfn
izR;sd ds lkFk viuh leL;k,a
gS fo'ks " kdj fHkUu ifj/kh;
midj.kksa ;qDr dEI;wVjksa esa budk
fp= 1-54 bUVsfytsUV fLVd
mi;ksx ugha fd;k tk ldrkA
tcfd bUVsfytsUV fLVd dk mi;ksx fdlh Hkh dEI;wVj ds lkFk fd;k tk ldrk gSA
bls dEI;wVj ds USB iksVZ esa yxk;k tkrk gS bldk vkdkj bruk NksVk gksrk gS fd
bls tsc ,oa ilZ esa vklkuh esa j[kk tk ldrk gSA budk vkdkj fHkUu&fHkUu gksrk gS fdUrq
lkekU;r% ;s 1-67 bap yEch] 0-7 bap pkSMh+ vkSj 0-1 bap eksVh gksrh gaSA vktdy buls Hkh NksVh
bUVsfytsUV fLVd miyC/k gaSA vkdkj esa NksVh gksus ds lkFk&lkFk budh fo'oluh;rk]
dk;Z{kerk] laxzg.k {kerk vkfn Hkh deky dh gksrh gSA budh laxzg.k {kerk fHkUu&fHkUu gksrh
gSA lkekU;r% 1 GB, 2 GB, 4 GB ;k 8 GB {kerk dh fLVd miyC/k gSA
1 .11
11
11.99 Cyw&js&fMLd (Blue-Ray-Disc)
Cyw&js&fMLd] CD rFkk DVD dh Hkkafr ,d vkfIVdy fMLd ek/;e gS A bldh
HkkSfrd foek,a ekud DVD rFkk CD ds leku gksrh gaSA Cyw&js&fMLd dh laxgz .k {kerk 25
GB izfr flaxy ys;j rFkk 50 GB M~;wy ys;j gksrh gSA Cyw&js&fMLd dks i<+us ds fy,
Cyw&ok;ksysV ystj dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA blh dkj.k bldk uke Cyw&js&fMLd iM+k gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 39

bldk eq[; mi;ksx gkbZ MsfQusku ohfM;ks] Iys LVsku- 3 fofM;ks xse rFkk vU; MkVk dks
laxzfgr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
1 .11
11
10 eSeksjh fLVd (Memory Stick)
11.10
eSeksjh fLVd ,d gVk;h tk ldus okyh ySk
eSeksjh gS A eSeksjh fLVd dk mi;ksx oguh; ;qfDr
(Portable Device) tSls ysiVksi] fofM;ks dSejk]
QksVksxzkfQd dSejk] eksckby esa laxzg.k ek/;e ds :i esa
fd;k tkrk gSA izkja fEHkd eSeksjh fLVd dh laxgz .k {kerk
128 MB Fkh A vkt cktkj esa vf/kdre 32 GB
laxzg.k {kerk dh eSeksjh fLVd miyC/k gSA

fp= 1-55 eSeksjh fLVd

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1- dEI;wVj rU= ds eq[; Hkkx % (1) flLVe ;wfuV (2) buiqV ;wfuV (3) vkmViqV ;wfuV
2- lsUVy izkslsflax ;wfuV (CPU) % ;g dEI;wVj dk fnekx gksrk gSA bldk eq[; dk;Z
izkx
s zkeksa dks f;kfUor djuk gSA
3- ,-,y-;w- % ;g ;wfuV vadxf.krh; ,oa rkfdZd f;k, djus dk dk;Z djrh gSA
4- eseksjh izkFkfed laxzg.k ;qfDr gSA
5- eSeksjh % dEI;wVj dk dk;Zdkjh laxzg gS tgk MkVk] lwpuk vkSj izksxzke laxzfgr jgrs gSa vkSj
vko';drk ds le; rRdky miyC/k gks tkrs gSAa
6- eSeksjh dks eq[;r% nks Hkkxksa esa ckVk tkrk gS& (1) eq[; eSeksjh (2) ck eSeksjhA
7- eq[; eSeksjh dks nks Hkkxkssa esa foHkDr fd;k tkrk gS& (1) vLFkkbZ eSeksjh -RAM (2) LFkkbZ
eSeksjh - ROM
8- fcV % eSeksjh dh lcls NksVh bdkbZ gSA ckbujh vad iz.kkyh esa bldk eku 0 vFkok 1 gksrk
gSA
9- ckbV % vkB fcV ds lewg dks ckbV dgrss gSaA lkekU;r% ,d djsDVj vad ;k v{kj dks
,d ckbV ls O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA
10- dEI;wVj ds lh-ih-;w- ls tqMs+ fofHkUu midj.kksa ,oa ;qfDr;ksa dks ifj/kh; ;qfDr;k (Peripheral Devices) dgk tkrk gSA
11- buiqV ;qfDr;ksa (Input Devices) dh lgk;rk ls mi;ksxdrkZ (User) }kjk dEI;wVj esa
vkadMs+] lwpuk,a rFkk funsZ'k Mkys tkrs gSaA
12- dh&cksMZ ,d lokZf/kd iz;Dq r gksus okyk egRoiw.kZ buiqV midj.k gSA ;g VkbijkbVj
dk la'kksf/kr :i gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 40

13- dEI;wVj ds lapkyu ds fy, iz;qDr gksus okys egRoiw.kZ midj.kksa esa ls ekml Hkh ,d gSA
ekml dk vkdkj pwgs tSlk gksus ds dkj.k bls ekml dgk tkrk gSA
14- ekml ds lapkyu dks ekWuhVj dh Lhu ij n'kkZus ds fy, ,d rhjuqek fp Lhu ij
gksrk gS ftls ekml ikWbUVj dgrs gSAa
15- tkW; fLVd Lhu ij fp=ksa dks fgykus o pykus vkfn dk dk;Z djrk gSA bldk mi;ksx
eq[;r% dEI;wVj xsEl [ksyus esa fd;k tkrk gSA
16- ykbV iSu Lhu ij lh/ks fy[kus dk dk;Z djrk gSA bldk mi;ksx xzkfQDl vkfn cukus
ds dk;ksZa (Computer Aided Design) esa fd;k tkrk gSA
17- vkWIVhdy djsDVj jhMj (OCR) Nis gq,] Vkbi fd, gq, rFkk gLrfyf[kr vYQkU;wefs jd
djsDVjksa dks i<+us dk dk;Z djrs gaSA
18- MICR dk iz;ksx eq[;r% cSadksa esa tek gksus okys pSd
a ksa dks tkpus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
19- OMR dkxt ds fdlh LFkku fo'ks"k ij isfUly ;k isu ds fp dh mifLFkfr rFkk
vuqifLFkfr dks tkpus dk dk;Z djrk gSA
20- LdSuj (Scanner) fdlh fp=] QksVksxkz Q] vkd`fr] VSDLV vkfn dks lhks dEI;wVj esa buiqV
djrk gSA
21- LekVZ dkMZ jhMj LekVZ dkMZ dks i<+us dk dk;Z djrk gSA LekVZ dkMZ vkWu ykbu
Hkqxrku O;oLFkk rFkk viuh igpku crkus dk ,d lk/ku gSA
22- ckj dksM jhMj dk mi;ksx fdlh ckj dksM esa fufgr lwpukvksa dks xzg.k djus rFkk i<+us
ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
23- fMftVy dSejk QksVks [khpusa ds i'pkr QksVks dks fMftVy MkVk esa ifjofrZr djrk gSA
24- osc dSejk ,d vkWu ykbu midj.k gS ftldh lgk;rk ls ykbo rLohjsa (Live Pictures) dEI;wVj Lhu ij ns[kh tk ldrh gaSA
25- ekbksQksu /ofu dks fMftVy MkVk esa ifjofrZr djrk gSA
26- Vp Lhu ekuo vaxfq y;ksa ds Li'kZ ds izfr laons u'khy gksrs gaSA Vp Lhu dk mi;ksx mu
LFkkuksa ij gksrk gS tgka vke yksxksa dks dEI;wVj ls dksbZ tkudkjh izkIr djuh gks ;k dksbZ
fo'ks"k dk;Z djuk gksA
27- ck;ksefs Vd lsUlj ekuo ds fofHkUu tSfod vfHky{k.kksa dh fo'ks"krkvksa dks ekirk gSA rFkk
mudk fo'ys"k.k Hkh djrk gSA
28- vkmViqV ;qfDr;k (Output Devices) os lk/ku gSa ftudh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj mi;ksxdrkZ
(User) ls izkIr vkdM+ka]s lwpukvksa] funsZ'kksa vkfn ds ifj.kke izf;k ds i'pkr mi;ksxdrkZ
dks izLrqr djrk gSA
29- ekWuhVj vkmViqV dks n`'; :i esa Lhu ij iznf'kZr djrk gSA ekWuhVj eq[;r% nks izdkj
ds gksrs gaS&1- lh-vkj-Vh- ekWuhVj] 2- ,Q-ih-Mh- ekWuhVjA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 41

30- fizUVj vkmViqV dks dkxt ij Nkidj gkMZ dkWih ds :i esa izLrqr djrk gSA fizUVlZ
eq[;r% nks izdkjksa esa ckaVs tkrs gSa&
1- bEiSDl fizUVlZ] 2- ukWu bEiSDV fizUVlZA
31- bEiSDV fizUVj ds eq[; mnkgj.k gS&
a 1- MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj 2- Msth Oghy fizUVj 3- psu
fizUVj 4- cS.M fizUVj 5- Me fizUVj
32- ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVj ds eq[; mnkgj.k gSa& 1- rkih; fizUVj 2- bad tSV fizUVj 3- yslj
fizUVj
33- MkVk] lwpuk] izkx
s zke vkfn dks rkRdkfyd ,oa Hkfo"; esa mi;ksx gsrq laxzfgr djds j[kk
tkrk gSA
34- IykWVj dk mi;ksx cM+s vkdj ds uD'ks] pkVZ] js[kkfp=] xzkQ vkfn fizUV djus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA
35- LihdlZ dEI;wVj ls izkIr fMftVy lwpukvksa dks /ofu esa ifjofrZr djrs gSA
36- pqEcdh; Vsi] pqEcdh; fMLd] gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd] lh-Mh- jkse f}rh;d laxzg.k
;qfDr;ka gSaA
37- dkWEiSDV fMLd (CD) MkVk laxzg.k dh ,d izdk'kh; ;qfDr gSA
38- fMftVy ohfM;ks fMLd (DVD) Hkh MkVk laxzg.k dh ,d izdk'kh; ;qfDr gS fdUrq bldh
{kerk CD dh rqyuk esa cgqr vf/kd gksrh gSA
39- fti Mkbo MkVk laxzg.k ,oa LFkkukUrj.k dh ,d mke pqEcdh; ;qfDr gSA
40- bUVsfytsUV fLVd MkVk LFkkukUrj.k ,oa laxgz .k dh vusd foy{k.k xq.kksa okyh uohure
;qfDr gSA

vH;klkFkZ iz'u
cgqp;ukRed iz'u %
1-

2-

3-

dEI;wVj esa MkVk Lohdkj djus okyh ;qfDr gS&


v lh-ih-;w-

c lh-;w-

l buiqV ;wfuV

n vkmViqV ;wfuV

dEI;wVj dh fdlh fof'k"V Hkk"kk esa fy[ks funsZ'kksa ds lewg dks dgrs gSa&
v izkx
s zke

c MkVk

l lwpuk,a

n mijksDr lHkh

,d ckbV esa gksrs gSa&


v 4 fcV

c 8 fcV

l 16 fcV

n 32 fcV

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 42

4-

5-

6-

U;wesfjd dh iSM dk eq[;r% mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS&


v VSDLV izkslsflax esa

c xzkfQDl dk;ksZa esa

l cSafdx dk;ksZa esa

n mDr lHkh esa

ekml gS ,d&
v buiqV midj.k

c vkmViqV midj.k

l laxzg.k midj.k

n mDr esa ls dksbZ ugha

VkbieSfVd dh nj gksrh gS&


v 20 ckj izfr lSd.M c 10 ckj izfr lSd.M
l 5 ckj izfr lSd.M

7-

8-

9-

n 1 ckj izfr lSd.M

fdlh dkxt ij fizUVj }kjk Nik gqvk vkmViqV dgykrk gS&


v gkMZ dkWih

c lkWV dkWih

l ekbks fQYe

n ykWih

lh-vkj-Vh dh vkUrfjd lrg ij ysfir jgrk gS&


v dSfY'k;e inkFkZ

c QkWLQksjl inkFkZ

l fLVy inkFkZ

n vk;ju vkWDlkbM

fizfVax dh og rduhd tks VkbijkbVj dh rduhd ds leku gksrh gS&


v Vkbi eSfVd fizafVax c bEiSDV fizafVx
l ukWu bEiSDV fizafVx

10-

11-

12-

13-

n yslj fizafVx

Me fizUVj gS&
v djsDVj fizUVj

c ykbu fizUVj

l ist fizUVj

n xzkfQDl fizUVj

izkFkfed laxzg.k ek/;e gS&


v gkMZ fMLd

c eSeksjh

l lh-Mh- jkse

n pqEcdh; Vsi

izdk'kh; rduhd dk iz;ksx gksrk gS&


v gkMZ fMLd esa

c ykWih fMLd esa

l bad tSV fizUVj esa

n lh-Mh- jkse esa

ekbks ykWih dh lkekU;r% laxzg.k {kerk gksrh gS&


v 1.2 MB

c 650 MB

l 1.44 MB

n 2.8 MB

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 43

14-

15-

16-

17-

18-

19-

20-

cSfa dax esa vf/kd mi;ksx esa fy, tkrs gaS&


v OMR

c MICR

l OCR

n Boarcode Reader

cgqp;ukRed iz'uksa dh tkap fdl midj.k }kjk dh tkrh gS&


v OCR

c ORR

l MICR

n OMR

Nis gq, v{kjksa dks i<+us okyk midj.k gS&


v OCR

c OMR

l MICR

n Biometric Sensor

pqEcdh; L;kgh dk mi;ksx fdlesa fd;k tkrk gS&


v OCR

c OMR

l MICR

n mDr lHkh esa

ykbu fizUVj mi;ksxh gS&


v fctyh ds fcyksa dks Nkius esa

c fMtkbu cukus esa

l lqUnj i= fy[kus esa

n 'kks/k i= Nkius esa

QksVks dkWih e'khu ds fl)kUr ij dkSu lk fizUVj dk;Z djrk gS&


v badtSV fizUVj

c MkWV&eSfVDl fizUVj

l MSth Oghy fizUVj

n yslj fizUVj

eksVh iqLrd dh LdSfuax ds fy, dkSulk LdSuj mi;qDr gS&


v 'khV&QhM LdSuj

c ysV cSM LdSuj

l gSaM&gSYM LdSuj

n mijksDr lHkh

vfry?kq kjkRed iz ' u %


1- dEI;wVj rU= dh eq[; bdkb;ksa ds uke fyf[k,A
2- buiqV bdkbZ ds mnkgj.k crkb,A
3- vadxf.krh; ,oa rkfdZd bdkbZ ds dk;Z fyf[k,A
4- flLVe ;wfuV ds vUrxZr vkus okys Hkkxksa ds uke fyf[k,A
5- fuCcy (Nibble) fdls dgrss gSaA
6- MICR dk iwjk uke fyf[k,A
7- OCR esa lokZf/kd izpfyr ekud QkWUV dk uke crkb,A

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 44

8- LekVZ dkMZ ds :i esa ml vo;o dks D;k dgrs gaS ftlesa miHkksDrk ds lEcU/k esa tkudkjh
laxfz gr jgrh gSA
9- fofHkUu fuekZrk vius mRiknksa ij fof'k"V igpku ds fy, D;k vafdr djrs gaS\
10- ohfM;ksa pSfVax ds fy, fdl dSejs dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\
11- fMftVy dSejs esa n`'; dks laxzg (Capture) djus ds fy, fdl ;qfDr dk iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gS\
12- ADC dk iwjk uke crkb,A
13- LihdlZ dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj ds fdl QhYM esa gksrk gS\
14- vaxqyh ds fpksa dh cukoV rFkk mldk fo'ys"k.k fdl midj.k }kjk fd;k tkrk gS\
15- ekWuhVj ds Lhu ds NksV&
s NksVs fcUnqvksa dks D;k dgrs gSa\
16- MkVk dks fMLd ij i<+us o fy[kus dk dk;Z fdlds }kjk gksrk gS\
17- MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj fdl izdkj ds fizUVj dk mnkgj.k gS\
18- ykWih fMLd vkSj mlds vkoj.k esa fLFkr fNnz dks D;k dgrs gSa\
19- ekbks ykWih dk O;kl fdruk gksrk gS\
20- MhohMh dh lkekU;r% laxzg.k {kerk fdruh gksrh gS\
21- MkVk laxzg.k ,oa LFkkukUrj.k dh lcls NksVh ;qfDr dk uke crkb,A
y?kqkjkRed iz'u %
1- RAM vkSj ROM D;k gSa\ budk iwjk uke fyf[k,A
2- yslj fizUVj fdl rduhd ij dk;Z djrk gS\
3- bEiSDV fizUVj o ukWu&bEiSDV fizUVj esa vUrj crkb,A
4- LdSuj ds mi;ksx crkb,A
5- CRT dSFkksM&js&V~;wc ekWuhVj esa Lhu dh Hkhrjh lrg ij QkLQksjl dh ijr D;ksa
p<+kbZ tkrh gS\
6- MSth&Oghy fizUVj dh D;k lhek,a gS\
7- ySVj DokfyVh fizafVx (Letter Quality Printing) D;k gS\
8- LdSuj fdlh L=ksr i`"B ds fp= dks dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh esa fdl izdkj igqpkrk gS\
9- fMftVy dSejk ,d lk/kkj.k izdk'kh; dSejs ls fdl izdkj fHkUu gS\
10- lkWV dkWih vkSj gkMZ dkWih esa vUrj crkb,A
11- ekml dk mi;ksx fdu&fdu dk;ksZa esa gksrk gS\
12- tkW; fLVd vkSj ykbV iSu ds dk;Z fyf[k,A

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 45

13- lhMh jkse ,oa MhohMh ds mi;ksx esa D;k lko/kkfu;k j[kh tkuh pkfg,\
fucU/kkRed iz 'u %
1- dEI;wVj ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dk o.kZu dhft, rFkk bldk CykWd js[kkfp= cukb,A
2- dEI;wVj esa eSeksjh dh vko';drk D;ksa gksrh gS\ dEI;wVj eSeksjh ds fofHkUu izdkjksa dk o.kZu
dhft,A
3- MkWV eSfVDl fizUVj dh f;k fof/k dk lfp= o.kZu dhft,A
4- ekWuhVj fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSa\ izR;sd dk lfp= o.kZu dhft,A
5- IykWVj D;k gS\ blds izdkjksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
6- vkmViqV dks dkSu&dkSu lh xq.kokk (Quality) esa Nkik tk ldrk gS\ izR;sd dk lfp=
o.kZu dhft,A
7- LdSuj fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSa\ LdSuj dh f;k iz.kkyh rFkk blds mi;ksx fyf[k,A
8- fuEu ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k,&
v LekVZ dkMZ jhMj
c ck;ksefs Vd lsl
a j
l ckj dksM jhMj
n Vp Lhu
9- gkMZ fMLd dh lajpuk o dk;Z iz.kkyh lfp= le>kb,A
10- lh-Mh-jkse D;k gS\ bldh dk;Z iz.kkyh rFkk blds mi;ksx fyf[k,A
11- MhohMh D;k gS bldh fo'ks"krk,a crkb,A MhohMh lhMh jkse dh rqyuk esa fdl izdkj
csgrj gS\

mkjekyk
cgqp;ukRed iz'u %
1- l

2- v

3- c

4- l

5- v

6- c

7- v

8- c

9- c

10- c

11- c

12- n

13- l

14- c 15- n 16- v

17- l

18- v

19- n

20- c

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 46

dEI;wVj lkWVos;j
(Computer Software)
2-1

izLrkouk (Introduction)

foxr o"kksaZ es O;kolkf;d izkx


s zkfeax us fofHkUu mUur fdLe ds lkWVos;j ,oa izksxzke dh
lgk;rk ls gekjs MsLdVkWi dEI;wVjksa dks fdlh Hkh izdkj dk dk;Z djus dh l{kerk iznku dh
gSA ;g ikB lEkfiZr gS lkWVos;j dks ftlus dEI;wVj dks ,d /kjsyw uke nsus dk mRd`"V dk;Z
fd;k gSA
dEI;wVj dk dk;Z nks Hkkxks ls lapkfyr gksrk gSA
1

gkMZo;
s j (Hardware)

lkWVos;j (Software)

2 -2

gkMZos;j rFkk lkWVos;j (Hardware & Software)

gkMZos;j rFkk lkWVos;j feydj ,d lEiw.kZ rU= dk fuekZ.k djrs gSaA dEI;wVj rU=
ds vUrxZr tks Hkh midj.k] oLrq,] izkx
s zke vkfn vkrs gaS] os lHkh ;k rks gkMZos;j ds vUrxZr
vkrs gSa ;k fQj lkWVos;j ds vUrxZrA vr% bu nksuksa dk Kku gksuk vko';d gSA
gkMZos;j (Hardware) %& dEI;wVj flLVe ds os lHkh HkkSfrd (Physical) ,oa ewrZ (Tangible) Hkkx ftUgsa ge ns[k ldrs gSa rFkk Nw Hkh ldrs gSa] gkMZos;j dgykrs gSaA lh-ih-;w-]
dh&cksMZ] ekml] fizUVj] Lihdj vkfn gkMZos;j ds mnkgj.k gSaA bu lHkh Hkkxksa dks ge ns[kus
ds lkFk&lkFk Nw Hkh ldrs gSaA
lkWVos;j (Software) %& dEI;wVj ls dk;Z djokus ds fy, gesa dEI;wVj dks crkuk gksxk
fd mls D;k djuk gSA bl dk;Z ds fy, gesa dEI;wVj dks funsZ'k nsus iM+rs gSaA bu funsZ'kksa dks
gh lkWVos;j dgk tkrk gSA bu funsZ'kksa ds lewg dks izksxzke Hkh dgk tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 47

lkWVos;j gh gkMZo;
s j dks f;k'khy cukrk gSA dksbZ Hkh gkMZo;
s j rHkh dk;Z djrk
gS] tc mls mlls lEcfU/kr lkWVos;j ls funsZ'k feyrs gSaA lkWVos;j bysDVkWfud :i esa gksrs
gSa ftUgsa ns[kk ;k Nqvk ugha tk ldrkA
2.3

lkWVos;j ds izdkj (Types of Software)

lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj rFkk mi;ksxdrkZ ds e/; dh f;kvksa dks lapkfyr djus ds
fy;s fd;k tkrk gS rFkk budk mi;ksx fdlh dk;Z dks dEI;wVjkbTM djus ds fy;s Hkh fd;k tkrk
gSA ;s rhu izdkj ds gksrs ga%S &
1 flLVe lkWVos;j (System Software)
2 ,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j (Application Software)
3 ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j ( Utility Software)
2.4

flLVe lkWVos;j (System Software)

dEI;wVj dks lapkfyr djus okys lkWVos;j] tks dEI;wVj ij fdlh izksxzke ds
f;kUou ds fy, vko';d gksrs gSa] flLVe lkWVos;j dgykrs gSaA ;s dEI;wVj dks vf/kd
izHkko'kkyh ,oa mi;ksxh cukrs gSaAflLVe lkWVos;j izkx
s kz ekas dk og lewg gS tks fd dEI;wVj ds
HkkSfrd Hkkxksa rFkk lkWVos;j dks fu;fU=r djrk gSA flLVe lkWVos;j ds vHkko esa dEI;wVj ij
,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA flLVe lkWVos;j dEI;wVj
fo'ks"kKksa }kjk rS;kj fd;s tkrs gSaA ;s dEI;wVj rU= dk ,d vR;ko';d Hkkx gSaA;g dEI;wVj
mi;ksx
s drkZ rFkk dEI;wVj gkMZo;s j ds e/; dh f;kvksa dks fu;fU=r djrk gS rFkk ;g ,Iyhdsku
lkWVos;j dks Hkh f;kfUor djrk gS blfy;s bls ,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j dk vk/kkj Hkh dgk tkrk
gSA
flLVe lkWVos;j ds dk;Z%&
1

flLVe lkWVos;j vU; lHkh lkWVos;jkas dk fu"iknu djrk gSA

;g mi;ksxdrkZ rFkk dEI;wVj gkMZos;j ds e/; lEcU/k LFkkfir djrk gSSA

bldk mi;ksx fofHkUu lkWVos;jksa ds fuekZ.k ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA

dEI;wVj L=ksrkas tSls eSeksjh] izkl


s l
s j] buiqV vkmViqV fMokbl dks fu;fU=r djrk gSA

flLVe lkWVos;j esa vxzfyf[kr izksxzke lfEefyr gksrs gSa %&


1

vkWijsfVax flLVe (Operating System)

;wfVfyVh izkx
s kz e (Utility Program)

izkx
s kz feax Hkk"kk,a (Programming Languages)

Hkk"kk lalk/kd (Language Translator)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 48

2.4.1

vkWijsfVax flLVe (Operating System) %&

,sls izksxzkeksa dk lewg tks dEI;wVj ds leLr dk;ksZa dk lapkyu djrk gS] vkWijsfVax
flLVe dgykrk gSA ;g dEI;wVj vkSj mi;ksxdkkZ (User) ds chp ;kstd dM+h Hkh gksrk gSA
tSls gh ;wtj dEI;wVj vkWu djrk gS] vkWijsfVax flLVe dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh esa laxfz gr gks tkrk
gS vkSj fQj dEI;wVj dh leLr f;kvksa dk lapkyu djrk gSA MS-DOS, WINDOWS,
UNIX, LINUX, SOLARIS, BhartiOO vkfn dqN izpfyr vkWijsfVax flLVe gSaA
2.4.2

;wfVfyVh izksxzke (Utility Program) %&

;s izksxzke dEI;wVj ds fofHkUu Hkkxkssa ds j[k&j[kko rFkk ejEer dk dk;Z djrs gSAa
mnkgj.k&fMLd fjdojh izkx
s zke] MkVk cSdvi izksxzke vkfnA
2.4.3

izksxzkfeax Hkk"kk,a (Programming Languages) %&

dEI;wVj dks fn, tkus okys funsZ'k dEI;wVj dh Hkk"kk esa gh fn, tkrs gS]a D;ksfa d dEI;wVj
viuh Hkk"kk gh le>rk gS] euq"; dh Hkk"kk ughaA vkt fofHkUu fo'ks"krkvksa okyh fofo/k dEI;wVj
izksxkz feax Hkk"kk,a miyC/k gSAa izR;sd Hkk"kk ds vius ekud vkSj fof'k"V fu;e gSAa csfld] dkscksy]
QksjVku] ikLdy] lh] tkok] vkWjd
s y vkfn izkx
s kz feax Hkk"kkvksa ds dqN mnkgj.k gSA
2.4.4

Hkk"kk lalk/kd (Language Translator) %&

;s ,sls izksxkz e gSa tks ,d Hkk"kk esa funsZ'k Lohdkj dj vU; Hkk"kk esa mlds lerqY; funsZ'k
rS;kj djrs gSaAdEikbyj (Compiler), bUVjizsVj (Interpreter), vlsEcyj (Assembler) Hkk"kk lalk/kd ds dqN mnkgj.k gSA
dEikbyj & ;g ,d flLVe lkWVos;j gS ftldk mi;ksx mPp Lrjh; izkxs kz feax Hkk"kk
dks ekhuh Hkk"kk es ifjofrZr djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS dEikbyj iwjs izkx
s ke dks ,d lkFk
dEikby djrk gS rFkk fofHkUu =qfV;ksa dks muds ykbu uEcj ds lkFk iznfkZr djrk gS
dEikbyj }kjk izkx
s kz e fu"iknu ds le; izkxs kz e dk eSeksjh es gksuk t#jh ugha gSA
&os Hkk"kk izkslslj tks mPp Lrjh; izksxzkfeax Hkk"kk dks iafDr nj iafDr ekhuh
bUVjizsVj &
Hkk"kk es ifjofrZr djrs gSa bUVjizVs j dgykrs gSAa fdlh Hkh iafDr esa =qfV gksus ij og rRdky
iznfkZZr dj nsrk gSA bUVizsVj }kjk izksxkz e fu"iknu ds le; izksxzke dk eSeksjh eas gksuk
vko;d gSA
vlsEcyj &
&;g vlsEcyh Hkk"kk eas fy[ks izkx
s kz e dks ekhuh Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr djrk gSA

2.5 ,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j (Application Software)


,Iyhdsku lkWVos;j izkx
s kz eksa dk og lewg gS tks fdlh fo'ks"k rFkk fuf'pr dk;ksaZ dks djus
ds ms'; ls cuk, x, gks A dk;Z ds vk/kkj ij budk fuekZ.k fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk esa fd;k tk ldrk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 49

gSA MkWDVj] bUthfu;j] fMtkbuj] ,MoksdVs vkfn dks viuh fHkUu vko';drkvksa gsrq fHkUu&fHkUu
izdkj ds izksxzkeksa dh vko';drk gksrh gSA ;s is'ksoj O;fDr ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j ds iz;ksx ls
vius dk;ksZa dk fu"iknu cgqr gh csgrj <ax ls dj ldrs gSaA vkt cSafdax] chek] QSDVjh]
vLirky] bathfu;fjax vkfn esa budk dkQh mi;ksx gksus yxk gSA f'k{kk cksMZ ,oa fo'ofo|ky;ksa
}kjk ijh{kk ifj.kke rS;kj djus] dk;kZy;ksa esa osru fcy cukus ds fy, Hkh fofHkUu ,Iyhds'ku
lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ;s izkx
s kz e dEI;wVj dks fofk"V dk;Z djus dh l{kerk
iznku djrs gSa tSls oMZ izkl
s fs lax] bUosUVh dUVky
s ] is&jksy] jsYos vkj{k.k vkfn ;s lHkh lkWVos;j
bl Js.kh ds vUrxZr vkrs gaAS
oMZ izkslslj (Word Processor )
oMZ izkslslj ,d ,slk lkWVos;j gS tks 'kCnksa esa fy[ks x/kka'k ds ij dk;Z dj ldsaA
fdlh Hkh i= vFkok x|ka'k dks Vkbi djds bl izdkj ls iznf'kZr djuk fd og lqUnj fn[ks
lkFk gh lkFk i<+us esa Hkh vklku gksA ;s dk;Z oMZ izkslslj }kjk fd;s tkrs gSaA dEI;wVj dh
lgk;rk ls oMZ izkslslj }kjk ge os lHkh dk;Z dj ldrs gSa tks fd ,d O;fDr iSu] dkxt]
'kCndks"k] }kjk dj ldrk gSA ;s dk;Z dEI;wVj }kjk rhoz xfr ls lEikfnr fd;s tk ldrs gSaA
dEI;wVj ij oMZ izkl
s slj }kjk Vkbi fd;s i= dk izk:i vPNk fn[ksxk] i<+us ;ksX; ;k i<+us
esa vklku gksxkA cktkj esa dbZ izdkj ds izkx
s zke miyC/k gSa tks i= Vkbi djus vFkok i= dks
O;kdj.k ds vuqlkj vPNs rjhds ls fy[kus esa enn djrs gSASa
oMZ izkl
s l
s j esa lk/kkj.kr% fuEu izdkj dh lqfo/kk,a miyC/k gksrh gSa tks vko';drkuqlkj
mi;ksx esa yh tk ldrh gSAa
1
Vkbi fd;s x;s 'kCnksa dk jax] vkdkj o vkd`fr cnyukA
2
'kCnksa ds uhps js[kk [khapuk] 'kCnksa dks xgjs djuk vFkok 'kCnksa dks frjNs dj nsukA
3
fofHkUu iafDr;ksa ds izFke v{kjksa ;k vfUre v{kjksa dks ,d lh/k esa j[kuk ;k v{kjksa dks
iafDr ds fcYdqy e/; esa j[kukA
4
'kCnksa dh Lisfyax dh xyfr;k nwj djus dh {kerkA
5
ist ds pkjksa rjQ ckWMZj cukukA
6
fofHkUu iafDr;kas dks o.kZekuqlkj O;ofLFkr djukA
7
izR;sd ist ij gSMj ;k QqVj MkyukA
8
fofHkUu izdkj ds fp=@xzkQ Mkyuk vkfnA
blds vfrfjDr Hkh fofHkUu izdkj dh lqfo/kk,a gksrh gSaA ftuds ckjs esa ge
ekbkslkWV oMZ esa i<a+sxsA bu lqfo/kkvksa dk mi;ksx dj ge fofHkUu izdkj ds dk;Z
tSls O;olkf;d i= ys[ku] lekpkj i= dk lEiknu] lk/kkj.k i= ys[ku vkfn dk;Z
vklkuh ls dj ldrs gSaAcktkj esa fofHkUu izdkj ds oMZ izkl
s slj miyC/k gSaA muesa
dqN eq[; fuEu gSa 1
oMZ LVkj
(Word Star)
2
,e- ,l- oMZ (M.S. Word)

2.5.1

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 50

3
4
5

oMZ ijQsDV
lkWVoMZ
v{kj

(Word Perfect)
(Soft Word)
(Akshar)

LizsM'khV (Spreadsheet)
LizsM'khV, iafDr (ROW) rFkk LrEHk (Column) esa O;ofLFkr MkVk ,oe~ VsDlV dh
Vscy gksrh gSA LizsM'khV esa mifLFkr izR;sd eku (MkVk ;k VsDlV) dk nqljs eku ls iwoZ
fu/kkZfjr lEcU/k gksrk gSA ;fn fdlh eku esa ifjofrZr fd;k tkrk gS rks mlls lEcaf/kr eku
esa Lor% ifjorZu gks tkrk gSA
LizsM'khV, vuqiz;ksx lkWVos;j ds ,sls oxZ dks fu#fir djrk gS ftudh enn ls
LizsM'khV dks bysDVkfs ud #i esa cuk;k ,ao ifjofrZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA LizsM'khV izR;sd
MkVk@VsDlV dks ,d lSy (Cell) esa MkVk ds izdkj (Type) dks vklkuh ls ifjHkkf"kr fd;k
tk ldrk gSAlSy (Cell) ds uke dks yscy (Label) rFkk buds e/; laca/k dks QkWea Zwyk
(Formula) dgrs gSALizsM'khV esa mifLFkr iafDr;ksa (ROWS) rFkk LrEHkksa (Columns) dh
pkSM+kbZ rFkk pkbZ dks vklkuh ls ifjofrZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
LizsM'khV dk iz;ksx ctV rS;kj djus ] lkexzh izca/ku] ykxr izc/a ku] vk;dj x.kuk
vkfn esa fd;k tk ldrk gSAcktkj esa miyC/k dqN LizsM'khV vuqiz;ksx lkWVos;j fuEu gS
1
yksV~l&123
(Lotus-123)
2
,e- ,l- ,Dlsy (M.S. Excel)
2.5.2

izLrqrhdj.k VwYl (Presentation Tools )


izLrqrhdj.k VwYl mi;ksxdrkZ dks LykbM 'kks rFkk fjiksVZ ds fy, mPp dksfV
dh best cukus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA izLrqrhdj.k VqYl dk mi;ksx lgt ,ao
vljnkj izLrqrhdj.k djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS bldk mi;ksx &
1. izkt
s Ds Vj ij fn[kkus ds fy, Vklisjsalh dk fuekZ.k
2. fo'ks"k ,ao izHkkoh dEI;wVj Ldzhu dk fueZk.k
3. fdlh lsfeukj ds fy, izLrqrhdj.k dk fueZk.k
4. Ldzhu ij #ijs[kk vkfn crkus okyh izLrqfr dk fueZk.k vkfn esa fd;k tkrk gSA ,e,l- ikojikabV (M.S. Powerpoint ) bldk mnkgj.k gSA
25.3

MkVkcsl iSutesaV flLVe (Database Management System )


,d dk;Z ls lEcaf/kr MkVk ;k lqpukvksa ds leqg dks tc O;ofLFkr <+x ls j[kk tkrk
gS rks ml MkVkcsl dgrs gaSA Mhch,e,l ,d izksxkekas dk leqg gS tks MkVk@lajpuk laxzfgr
djus]la'kksf/kr djus rFkk mlls dksbZ vU; lwpuk fudkyus vFkok tksM+us dh lqfo/kk iznku
djrs gSA blesa MkVk dks ,df=r dj ,d funsZf'kdk cuk yh tkrh gS] ftlls fofHkUu lwpuk
izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA Mhcsl&III (Dbase-III), ,e ,l ,Dlsl (MS Access) vkfn blds
mnkgj.k gaSA

2.5.4

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 51

;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j (Utility Software)


os izkx
s kz e tks dEI;wVj flLVe vkSj lkWVos;j ds j[k&j[kko rFkk ejEer ds fy;s fodflr
fd;s tkrs gS ;wfVfyVh lkWQVos;j dgykrs gSaA ;s izksxzkeksa es ,fMfVax djus mudh =qfV;k nwj
djus vkfn dk;Z djrs gaSA ;wfVfYkVh izksxkz e dks loZj ( Server) izksxzke Hkh dgrs gSaA
;s lkWVos;j le;&le; ij dEI;wVj ij pydj dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh dks xfr'khy o
vf/kd vkdMs+ xzg.k djus yk;d cuk ldrs gSAa bu lkWVos;j ds }kjk vko';d vkdMksa dks
cSdvi cukdj j[k ldrs gSaA mUgsa iqu% iz;ksx dj ldrs gaS fo.Mks&98 vkWijsfVax flLVe ds
lkFk ;s lkWVos;j Vwy Hkh 'kkfey gSaA ;fn ;s Vwy viuh vko';drk dks iwjk ugha dj ik jgsa
gks rks ge vU; lkWVos;j dks mi;ksx esa ys ldrs gSAa tSls ukWjVu ;wfVfyVh] Mcaffee, Quick
Heal vkfnA
2.6

;s lHkh lkWVo s ; j dEI;w V j ij fdlh u fdlh izdkj dh


lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSa vr% bUgs ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j (Utility Software) dgrs gSaA ;s
;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j lkekU;r% fuEu dk;ksaZ ds fy, iz;ksx esa yk;s tkrs gSa %&
1

gkMZ fMLd dks lgh j[kus ds fy, LdSu fMLdA

gkMZfMLd dks xfr'khy cuk;s j[kus ds fy, fMLd MhsxesUVj

Qkbyksa dks cSdvi ysus o cSdvi dks iqu% dEI;wVj ij Mkyus ds fy, fjLVksj izksxkz eA

fMLd ij vf/kd vkadM+s Hk.Mkfjr djus ds fy, dEizsflax izksxzkeA

dEI;wVj ij ok;jl dh tkap djus o mls gVkus ds fy, ,UVh ok;jl izksxzke vkfnA

QksYMj / Qkby eSustesUV Vwy (Folder/File Management Tool)


Qkby eSustesUV Vwy
w dk vFkZ mu lkWVos;j ls gS tks Qkby o QksYMjksa dks O;ofLFkr
djus ds fy, iz;qDr gksrs gSaA fofHkUu dEI;wVj mi;ksxdrkZ vyx&vyx rjhdksa ls Qkbyksa dks
O;ofLFkr j[krs gSaA fo.Mks esa fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj rFkk ekbZ dEI;wVj uked nks lkWVos;j
miyC/k gaS ftudk iz;ksx dj ge Qkbyksa] QksYMjksa vkfn dks bPNkuqlkj O;ofLFkr dj ldrs
gSaA

2-6.11
2-6

fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj (Window Explorer)


;g ,d ,slk izksxzke gS ftldk mi;ksx dj ge ykWih] gkMZ fMLd ;k vU; fMLd
ij mifLFkr Qkby] o QksYMjksa dks ns[k ldrs gSa o mUgsa O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSaA bl izksxzke
ls Qkby dks ,d LFkku ls vU; LFkku ij dkWih dj ldrs gS]a LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrs gSa] gVk
ldrs gSa vkfnA
2-6.22 fMLd eSustesUV Vwy (Disk Management Tool)
2-6
fMLd eSustesUV Vwy mu lkWVos;jksa dks dgrs gaS tks gekjh gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd
vkfn dks O;ofLFkr djus ds dke vkrs gSaA ftlls fd gkMZ fMLd ;k vU; fMLd rhoz xfr ls

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 52

dk;Z djus esa l{ke jg ldsaA cktkj esa bl dk;Z ds fy, fofHkUu lkWVos;j miyC/k gSaA buesa
ls dqN lkWVos;j tSls LdSu fMLd] fMsxesUVj vkfn vklkuh ls de dher ij izkIr fd;s
tk ldrs gSa ge dsoy LdSu fMLd o fMsxesUVj ds ckjs esa i<sxsaA
fMLd dks fMsxesUV djuk (Defragmentation of Disk)%&
%&
fo.Mks vkWijsfVax flLVe Hkh vU; vkWijsfVax flLVe dh rjg fMLd ij tgka Hkh [kkyh
LFkku gksrk gS ogha ij vkdM+s fy[k nsrk gSA vFkkZr~ vkdM eSeksjh esa ekxr LFkkuksa ij Hk.Mkfjr
ugha jgrsA tc ge fdlh Qkby ;k vkdM+ksa dkss eSekssjh ij Hk.Mkfjr djrs gSa rks Qkby ds
vyx&2 Hkkx vyx&2 [kkyh LFkkuks ij HkaMkfjr gks tkrs gaS ijUrq vkWijsfVax flLVe dks ;g
/;ku jgrk gS fd ,d Qkby ds fofHkUu Hkkx eSeksjh esa dgka&dgk ij gSa ]vkSj mudk e D;k
gSaA vr% Qkby dks i<+us ij dksbZ Hkh ijskkuh ugha gksrhA
tc ge Qkby dks i<uk pkgsa rks vkWijsfVx flLVe Qkby ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks eSeksjh
esa vyx&vyx LFkku ij Hk.Mkfjr gksus ds dkj.k Qkby dks i<+us esa vf/kd le; yxrk gSA
Qkby dks vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij VqdM+ksa esa Hk.Mkfjr gksuk sxesUVku (Fragmentation)
dgykrk gSA ftrus vf/kd VqdM+as gksaxs mruh gh dEI;wVj dh xfr /kheh gksxhA
;fn ge Qkby ds bu VqdM+ksa dk yxkrkj ,d LFkkuksa ij Hk.Mkfjr dj ldsa rks
dEI;wVj dh xfr c<+ ldrh gSA Qkby ds fofHkUu VqdMs+a tks fd eSseksjh esa vyx&vyx LFkku
ij Hk.Mkfjr gS]a dks yxkrkj ,d lkFk Hk.Mkfjr djuk fMsxesUVsku dgykrk gSA blfy, gesa
dEI;wVj ij ,d eghus esa ,d ckj fMsxesUVsku lkWVos;j pyk ysuk pkfg;sA ftlls fd
Qkby ds fofHkUu Hkkx yxkrkj ,d LFkkuksa ij Hk.Mkfjr jg ldsaA vkSj dEI;wVj dh xfr rst
jg ldsA
2-6.33 LdSufMLd Vwy (Scandisk Tool)
2-6
tSlk fd ge tkurs gSa fd dEI;wVj vius vki esa ,d dfBu dkEWiysDl flLVe gSA
dEI;wVj ij dk;Z djus ds nkSjku dEI;wVj esa fofHkUu izdkj ds vkUrfjd f;k,a lEiUu gksrh
gSaA bu f;kvksa ds ckjs es gesa tkudkjh Hkh ugha gskrh gS tSls fofHkUu Qkbyksa dks izkFkfed
eSeksjh esa Mkyuk] budks ekuqlkj fu"ikfnr djuk] vuko';d Qkbyksa dks izkFkfed eSeksjh ls
f}rh;d eSeksjh esa Mkyuk vkfnA bu f;kvksa ds lEiknu ds nkSjku dEI;wVj esa xyfr;k gksus
dh laEHkkouk cuh jgrh gSA ;fn le;&le; ij bu xyfr;ksa dks lq/kkjk u tk;s rks xEHkhj
ifj.kke gks ldrs gSAa
bu xyfr;ksa ls cpus ds fy, ;k xyfr;ksa ds dkj.k gksus okys ifj.kkeksa ls cpus ds
fy, LdSufMLd lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx djuk pkfg;sA ;g lkWVos;j gkMZfMLd dks lqjf{kr
j[krk gSA ftl izdkj MkWl vkWijsfVax flLVe esa pSd fMLd dek.M dk;Z djrk FkkA mlh izdkj
LdSu fMLd fo.Mks vkWijsfVax flLVe esa dk;Z djrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 53

2-6
2-6.44

uj (Virus Scanner / Cleaner)


yhuj
ok;jl LdSuj / Dyh

ok;jl
tho foKku esa ok;jl dk vFkZ dhVk.kqvksa ls gksrk gS tks ;fn 'kjhj ds vUnj
izos'k dj tk;as rks 'kjhj lkekU; dk;Z ugha dj ikrkA blh izdkj dEI;wVj fo"k; esa ok;jl
dk vFkZ mu izksxzkeksa ls gksrk gS tks ;fn dEI;wVj esa izos'k dj tk;sa rks dE;wVj esa ok;jl ds
izos'k ds dkj.k fofHkUu izdkj dh ijs'kkfu;k mRiUu gks ldrh gSaA vr% ok;jl ,d fo'ks"k
izdkj ds izksxzke gSa tks oSls rks vU; lkWVos;j izksxzke dh rjg gh gksrs gSaA ijUrq ;s izksxzke
dEI;wVj o mlesa Hk.Mkfjr vkdM+ksa dks uqdlku igqapkus ds fy, gksrs gSaA ;s ok;jl dEI;wVj
dh vU; Qkbyksa ds lkFk feydj dEI;wVj dh lkekU; dk;Z iz.kkyh dks ckf/kr dj nsrs gSaA
bu ok;jl izksxzke dh fo'ks"krk ;s gksrh gSa fd ;s Lor% gh viuh izfrfyfi rS;kj dj
ldrs gSa rFkk lk/kkj.kr% ;s fdlh vU; Qkby ds lkFk tqM+dj laxzfgr gksrs gSaA vFkkZr~ ;fn
ge bu ok;jl izksxzke dh Qkby <wa<+s rks ;s Qkbysa ugha feysxhA
ok;jl gks rks mls fudkysaA
,aVhok;jl izksxzke (Anti-Virus Program)
ftl izdkj ok;jl ,d izkx
s zke gS vkSj bldh ,d fo'ks"k izdkj ds dk;Z djus dh
{kerk gSA mlh izdkj cktkj esa ,sls izksxzke Hkh miyC/k gSa tks bu ok;jl izksxzke dh mifLFkr
dks tkap ldrs gSa vkSj bUgs dEI;wVj esa ls gVk ldrs gSaA ijUrq ;g vko';d ugha gS fd dksbZ
Hkh ,aVh ok;jl izksxzke lHkh izdkj ds ok;jl dh mifLFkfr dh tkap dj ldrs gksa vkSj mUgas
gVk ldrs gksaA
tSlk ge i< pqds gSa fd ;s ok;jl izksxzke gksrs gaS rks budh ,d fo'ks"k dk;Z fof/k Hkh gksxhA
bl fo'ks"k dk;Z fof/k ds vk/kkj ij gh budh mifLFkfr dh tkap lEHko gSA ;fn ok;jl dh
dk;Z fof/k bl izdkj dh gks fd ,aVh ok;jl mldh igpku dj lds rks ,aVh ok;jl ml
ok;jl dh u rks mifLFkfr crk;sxk vkSj u gh mls fudky ik;sxkA vr% ;g vko';d gS fd
,aVh ok;jl ,slk gksuk pkfg;s tks yxHkx lHkh izpfyr ok;jl dh igpku djus dh {kerk
j[krk gksA gkykafd ;g lEHko ugha gS fd ,d ,aVh ok;jl lHkh ok;jl dks igpku ldaAs ij
ftruk vf/kd laEHko gks ,aVh ok;jl le;kuqlkj viMsVsM djrs jguk pkfg, ftlls fd ;g
izpfyr ok;jl dh igpku dj ldsaA
fofHkUu ,aVhok;jl izkx
s zke cktkj esa miyC/k gSA tSls ukWjVu ,aVh ok;jl] vkbZ- ,oh- Vh-] LekVZMkWx vkfn bu lHkh ,aaVhok;jl dh dk;Ziz.kkyh vyx&vyx gksrh gSA ijUrq lHkh
,aVhok;jl ,d&,d djds lHkh Mkbo dh tkap djrs gSa vkSj fQj muesa ls ok;jl gVkrs gSaA
tc Hkh fdlh ,aVhok;jl izksxzke dks pyk,a rks igys dEI;wVj dks ,slh ykWih ;k
lhMh ls cwV djsa tks ok;jl xzflr u gksA bl ykWih dks jkbV izksVDV j[ksaA cwV djus ds ckn
,aVhok;jl izksxzke pyk,aA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 54

egRoiw . kZ fcUnq
1-

dEI;wVj dk dk;Z nks Hkkxksa ls lapkfyr gksrk gS gkMZo;


s j ,oa lkWVos;j

2-

gkMZos;j dEI;wVj ds HkkSfrd Hkkxksa dks n'kkZrk gSA

3-

izksxzke] izksxkz eksa dk lewg lkWVos;j dgykrk gSA

4-

lkWVos;j rhu izdkj ds gksrs gSaA 1- flLVe lkWVos;j 2- ,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j 3;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j

5-

dEikbyj] bUVjizsVj] vlsEcyj] vkWijsfVax flLVe] flLVe lkWVos;j ds mnkgj.k gSA

6-

vkWijsfVax flLVe nks izdkj ds gksrs gaS 1- flaxy ;wtj 2- eYVh ;wtj

7-

MkWl fMLd vkWijsfVax flLVe dk laf{kIr uke gSA

8. ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j % ,sls lkWVos;j ftudk mi;ksx dj gekjs dEI;wVj dks LoLF; vFkkZr
rst xfr ls pyus yk;d o vf/kd vkdM+s xzg.k djus yk;d vkfn cuk ldrs gSA
9.

ok;jl% ,sls izksxzke ftuds dEI;wVj ij vkus ls dEI;wVj dh dk;Ziz.kkyh vFkok vkdMs+
[kjkc gks ldrs gSaA buesa Lo;a dks dkWih djus dh {kerk gksrh gSA

10. ,aVh ok;jl+ & ,sls izksxzke tks dEI;wVj ij ok;jl dh mifLFkfr dks n'kkZrk gSA vkSj
ok;jl dks dEI;wVj esa ls fudkyus dk dk;Z djrk gSA mnkgj.k& ukWjVu ,aVh ok;jl]
LekVZ MkWx] vkbZ-,-oh]Vh vkfn
13. ok;jl ls lqj{kk& bl gsrq ckgj dh Qkbyksa ;k ykWfi;ksa dk mi;ksx de ls de djsaA
ikbjsVsM lkWVos;j dk mi;ksx u djsaA vokaNuh; yksxksa ds dEI;wVj iz;ksx ij izfrca/k
gks vkfnA
12. Qkby eSustesUV %&,sls lkWVos;j ftudk iz;ksx fofHkUu Qkbyksa ;k QksYMjksa dks
O;ofLFkr djus ds dke vkrs gSA O;ofLFkr djus ls rkRi;Z Qkby dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs
LFkku ij ys tkuk] Qkby gVkuk] Qkby <w<+uk ]QksYMj cukuk vkfn ls gSA mnkgj.k%&
fo.Mkst ,DlIyksjj] ekbZ dEI;wVj vkfnA
13
13. fo.Mkst ,DlIyksjj pykuk%& LVkVZ&izksxzke&fo.Mkst ,DlIyksjj
14. fMLd eSustesaUV Vwy%& ,sls lkWVos;j ftudk iz;ksx dj gkMZ fMLd] ykWih fMLd
vkfn dks LoLFk vFkkZr rst xfr'khy j[k ldrs gSAa mnkgj.k %& fMLd fMsxesUVj] LdSu
fMLd vkfnA
15. fMLd fMsxesUVj%& ;g lkWVos;j fMLd ij Hk.Mkfjr Qkby ds Hkkxksa dks ,d lkFk
ikl&ikl ykrk gS ftlls Qkby dks i<us esa de le; yxsA
16. LdSu fMLd%& ;g lkWVos;j fMLd ij fLFkr dfBukbZ;ksa tSls cSM lsDVj] vkfn dks lgh
dj ldrk gSA rFkk fMLd ls lEcfU/kr vU; tkudkfj;ksa dks iznf'Zkr djrk gSA
tSls dqy txg] dqy QksYMj ] dqy Qkby] Nqih Qkbyks dh la[;k] [kkyh txg vkfn A

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 55

vH;klkFkZ iz'u
cgq p ;ukRed iz ' u
1- dEI;wVj esa iz;ksx fd, tkus okys HkkSfrd midj.k dgykrs gaSA
v lkWVos;j

c gkMZos;j

l ykWih

n lh-ih-;w-

2- lWkVos;j fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gSaA


v nks

c pkj

l rhu

n buesa ls dksbZ ugha-

3- ,sIyhds'ku lkWVos;j D;k gS\


v lkWVos;j

c flLVe lkWVos;j

l gkMZos;j

n ,sIyhds'ku

4- izksxkz feax Hkk"kk esa fy[ks izksxkz e dks dEI;wVj dh Hkk"kk e'khuh Hkk"kk esa ifjofrZr djus dk
dk;Z dkSu djrk gS\
v dEikbyj

c bUVjizVs j

l v vkSj c nksuksa

n buesa ls dksbZ ugha

5- dkSu gkMZos;j dh Js.kh esa ugha vkrk gSA


v ykWih
l jSe

c ekWuhVj
n foUMkst

6- fuEu esa ls ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j dkSulk gS\


v Word processor
c Spread sheet
l DBMS
n linker
7- ok;jl ,d izdkj ds
v izkx
s zke gksrs gSaA
c thok.kq gksrs gSaA
l mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA n midj.k
8- fMLd fMQzsxesUVj dks dg ldrs gSAa
v Qkby eSutesUV Vwy
c fMLd eSustesUV Vwy
l ,UVh ok;jl
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA
9- ok;jl
v vkadMs+ [kjkc dj ldrs gSAa
c gkMZ fMLd dks [kjkc dj ldrs gSA
l dEI;wVj dh dk;Ziz.kkyh [kjkc dj ldrs gSaA
n mijksDr lHkh A

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 56

vfry?kq kjkRed iz' u


1- gkMZos;j fdls dgrs gaS \
2- lkWVos;j fdls dgrs gaS \
3- lkWVos;j fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gaS \
4- vlsEcyj fdls dgrs gaS \
5- vkWijsfVax flLVe fdls dgrs gS \
6- LdSu fMLd lkWVos;j fdl dke vkrk gSa \
7- ok;jl ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
8- ,aVhok;jl ls vki D;k le>rs gaS \
9- ;wfVfyVh lkWVos;j fdls dgrs gSa \
10- fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj fdl dke vkrk gaS \
y?kq kjkRed iz ' u
1- vkWijsfVax flLVe dh fo'ks"krkvksa dks le>kb;sA
2- flLVe lkWVos;j dks le>kb;sA
fucU/kkRed iz ' u
1- lkWVos;j D;k gS\ ;s fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gaS \ izR;sd dks mnkgj.k lfgr Li"V dhft,A
2- vkWijsfVax flLVe ds eq[; dk;kasZ dk o.kZu dhft,A
3- Qkby eSustesUV Vwy ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \ fdlh ,d Qkby eSustesUV Vwy ij fVIi.kh
fyf[k;sA
4- fMLd eSut
s esUV Vwy ls D;k vk'k; gS \

mkjekyk
1- c 2- l 3- v 4- l 5- n 6- n 7- v 8- c 9- n

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 57

ekbZ ksl kW V fo.Mkst


(Microsoft Windows)
3-1 fo.Mkst (Windows)
fo.Mkst ,d vkWijsfVax flLVe gS ;g lkWVos;j dEI;wVj ds leLr ?kVdksa dks fu;af=r
,oa O;ofLFkr djrk gSA blfy, ;g ,df=r dj dk;Z dks ,d lkFk djus esa l{ke gSA
;g ,d izfl} vkWijsfVax flLVe gS bldk yxHkx lHkh dEI;wVjksa esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk
gSA th;wvkbZ (Graphical user interface) ij vk/kkfjr gksus ls fo.Mkst dk;Z djus ds
fy, ,d vPNk fe=or okrkoj.k iznku djrk gS pwafd blesa iz;ksxdrkZ dks fofHkUu
dek.M ;kn djus dh vko';drk ugha jgrhA Qkby] izksxzke] vFkok dek.M dks pquus
ds fy, Lhu ij Icon dh O;oLFkk iznku gksrh gSA blesa miyC/k yxHkx lHkh izkx
s zkeksa
esa ehuw] Mk;yksx ckWDl] LkWy ckj bR;kfn dh O;oLFkk leku gh gksrh gSA

fo.Mkst ,Dlih esa u;k D;k gS\ (What is new in Windows XP)
fo.Mkst ,Dlih eas fuEufyf[kr u;s xq.k gSa ftlds dkj.k iz;ksxdrkZ bls ialn djrk
gSA
1- u;k Lyhd yqd (New sleek look)
2- fo'oluh;rk (Reliability)
3- vklku iz;ksx (Ease of Use)
4- n{krk (Performance)
5- fMftVy ehfM;k (Digital Media)
6- lqj{kk ,oa xksiuh;rk (Security & Privacy)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 58

3-2 MsLdVkWi (Desktop)


;g Lhu dk og {ks= gksrk gS ftlesa fo.Mkst ds vkbdu] ehuw rFkk Mk;ykWx ckDl
iznf'kZr gksrk gSA fo.Mkst ,Dl-ih- esa MsLdVkWi ij T;knkrj [kkyh {ks= gksrk gS ftlesa
lk/kkj.kr;k ekbZ dEI;wVj] fjlkbfdyfcu (Recycle Bin) dk Icon gksrk gSA

MsLdVkWi ds vo;o (Element of Desktop)


3-2-1- VkLd ckj (Task bar)
blesa LVkVZ cVu gksrk gSA ;g MsLdVkWi ds uhps ,d ckj ds :i esa iznf'kZr gksrk
gSA VkLdckj Nqik;k tk ldrk gS bls vko';drkuqlkj ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij
ys tk;k tk ldrk gS tSls nk;ha rjQ] ck;haa rjQ vFkok MsLdVkWi ds ij ds fgLls
esa n'kkZ;k tk ldrk gSA
3-2-2- VkLdckj cVu (Taskbar button)
og cVu tks VkLdckj ij py jgh ,sIyhds'ku (Running Application) ds fy,
iznf'kZr gksrs gSaA VkLdckj cVu ds uke ls tkus tkrs gSA

LVkVZ cVu (Start Button)

vkbdu (Icon)

VkLd ckj (Taskbar)

MsLdVkWi (Desktop)

1% MsLdVkWi (Desktop)
fp= 33.1%

?kMh (Clock)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 59

3-2-3- LVkVZ cVu (Start Button)


VkLdckj ij ck;ha rjQ izkbZejh cVu LVkVZ cVu gksrk gSA bl cVu ij fDyd djus
ls vkidh Lhu ij LVkVZ ehuw fn[kkbZ nsxk ftlesa ls vki fdlh fodYi dks pqu ldrs
gaS vFkkZr LVkVZ ehuw ls vki dEI;wVj ds fdlh Hkh izksxkz e ds Hkkx dks Access dj ldrs
gaSA
3-2-4- vkbdu (Icon)
,d NksVk fp= tks Lhu ij fdlh Object dks n'kkZus ds fy, iz;ksx esa yk;k tkrk
gS] vkbdu dgykrk gSA bls iz;ksxdrkZ }kjk ifjofrZr fd;k tk ldrk gS ;g
iz;ksxdrkZ dks lqfo/kk iznku djrk gS bldks nckus ij blls lEcfU/kr dEI;wVj dh
f;k dks fu;af=r djrk gS] blds fy, mi;ksxdrkZ dks dek.M ;kn j[kus dh
vko';drk ugha gksrh gSA

LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsa


fp= 3.2% LVkVZ cVu (Start Button)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 60

3-3- fo.Mkst dh lajpuk (Structure of Windows)


lHkh fo.Mkst lajpuk esa leku gksrh gSA vkids ikl fofHkUu pqukoksa ds fy, vkbdu
;qDr fo.Mks gks ldrh gS vFkok ,d ,slh fo.Mks tks fd fofHkUu izksxzkEl ds fy, Lhu
fn[kk;sA foUMks dks [kksyus ds fy, bl ij vk/kkfjr vkbdu ij Mcy fDyd djsaA O;w
ehuw esa ls Vwyckj ij fDyd djsa mlds ckn vU; Vwyckj ,Ml
s ] fyaDl vkfn dks lysDV
djsaA LVsVl ckj foaMkst esa ls pqus x;s vkbVEl ds ckjs esa lwpuk nsrk gSA Lksy ckj
rHkh fn[kkbZ nsrk gS tcfd fo.Mks ij lHkh vkbVe fQV uk vk jgs gksA
;fn vki ekml ds ikWbUVj dks fo.Mks ds fdlh Hkh fdukjs ij ys tkdj ewo djk;saxs
rks ekml ikWbUVj viuh vkfr cny ysxkA rFkk nksgjs ikWbaV okyk gks tk;sxk tks fd
fo.Mks ds vkdkj dks cny ldus dk ladrs gksxkA bls fjlkbt ikbUVj dgrs gSaA
dUVksy vkbdu

VkbVyckj

fefuekbt

eSDlhekbt@fjLVksj
Dykst

ehuw ckj
Vwyckj
LkWy ,jks
LkWyckj
LykbMj
LVsVl ckj

fp= 3.3 % foUMkst dh lajpuk (Structure of Windows)

fjlkbt
ikWbUVlZ

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 61

3-3-1 fo.Mks dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ys tkuk


(Moving a Window)

tc rd fd fo.Mks dk vkdkj iwjh Lhu ftruk cM+k uk gks tk;s vki mls ,d
LFkku ls nwljs LFkku rd ys tk ldrs gSaA ;g ml fLFkfr esa ykHkdkjh gksrk gS tcfd
vki dks cgqr lkjh fo.Mkst [kksydj viuk ,d MsLdVkWi O;ofLFkr djuk gksrk gSA
1- ekml ds ikWbVa j dks VkbVy ckj ij ,d LFkku fpfUgr (Locate) dj O;ofLFkr djsAa
2- ekml ikWbUVj dks u;s LFkku ij Msx djsaA
3- tc fo.Mks vkids vko';drkuqlkj lgh LFkku ij vk tk;s rks ekml cVu NksMsA
VkbVyckj ij ekml ikWbUVj j[k dj foUMks
dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ys tkuk

fp=
p= 3.4: foUMks dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij ys tkuk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 62

33---22 3 .3-

fo.
Mks
M ks
fo.M

d
dksks

eSD
SDlhekbZt
lhekbZt ]
e SDlhekbZt]

fefue
kbt
fefuekbt

,oa

fjL
fjLVksj
Vksj

djuk
d juk

(Maximize, Minimize & Restore a Window)

fo.Mks dks iwjh Lhu ij djus ds fy, eSDlhekbZt fd;k tkrk gS] vkSj fefuekbZt djds
,d cVu ds vkdkj esa VkLdckj ij fy;k tkrk gS] rFkk fjLVksj djus ij ;g iqu% vius ewy
vkdkj esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA
eSDlhekbZt foUMks

fefuekbZt cVu

fjLVksj cVu

fp= 3.5% foUMks dks eSDlhekbZt] fefuekbZt vFkok fjLVksj djuk


(Maximize, Minimize & Restore a Window)

tc fo.Mks vius ewy vkdkj ;k eSDlhekbZt gks rks fefuekbZt cVu ij fDyd djus
ij og NksVh gksdj VkLd cVu ij vk tk;sxhA blls vkids ikl nwljh foaMks esa dke
djus ds fy, txg cu tk;sxhA tc vki mls iqu% fjLVksj djuk pkgrs gS rks VkLd
ckj ij tkdj fDyd dj nasA
chp dk cVu rhu esa ls eSDlhekbZt djus ds fy, gksrk gS vxj fo.Mks igys ls
eSDlhekbZt gS rks og cVu Lor% fjLVksj djus dk dk;Z djrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 63

3.3-3 foUMks dk vkdkj cnyuk (Change of Window Size)


;fn fo.Mks eSDlhekbZt ;k fefuekbZt uk gks rks mldks fjlkbt fd;k tkrk gSA
vFkkZr vkdkj cnyk tk ldrk gSA
1- ekml ds ikWbUVj dks fo.Mks ds fdlh fdukjs ij j[ksa ;g nks fljksa okyk ikWbaVj cu
tk;sxkA
2- ikWbUVj ds ckgj dh rjQ fo.Mks dk vkdkj cMk djus ds fy, Mx
s djs vFkok vUnj
dh vksj mldk vkdkj NksVk djus ds fy, Msx djasA fo.Mks dk eu pkgk vkdkj
gksus ij ekml cVu dks NksM nsaA

fp= 3.6%% foUMks dk vkdkj cnyuk


3.3-44- fo.Mks dks O;ofLFkr djuk (Arrange a Window)
;fn vki vius MsLdVkWi ij cgqr lkjh fo.Mkst [kksyrs gaS o pkgrs gSa fd ;s Lor% vPNs
o lqUnj <ax ls O;ofLFkr gks tk;s rks mls ewo djus o fjlkbt djus dh vis{kk dSldsM ;k
Vkby vkWI'ku dk bLrseky djsAa
1- VkLd ckj ds nka;h vksj 'kkVZdV ehuw ds fy, fDyd djsaA
2- ds'kdsM fo.Mks ij fDyd djsa igys okyh dks NksMdj vU; lHkh ds dsoy VkbVy
ckj fn[kk;h ns bl izdkj ,d ds ij ,d O;ofLFkr djsa Vkby fo.Mks v/kksor` lHkh
fo.Mkst dks fjlkbt djas ,oa Lhu ij ,d js[kk esa O;ofLFkr djsa Vkby fo.Mks
m/oZ lHkh fo.Mkst dks fjlkbt djds Lhu ij dkWyEl esa O;ofLFkr djsa

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 64

1-2-5- vkbdkWu O;ofLFkr djuk (Arrange an Icon)


;fn vkids QksYMj esa vkbdu n'kkZ;s x;s gks rks vki mUgas fofHkUu izdkj ls iqu%
O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij ;gak fn[kk;k x;k gS fd vki vkbdkWu
dks fdl izdkj O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gaSA
1- nk;ka fDyd fdlh lkQ LFkku ij MsLdVkWi ;k QksYMj ij djsa rkfd 'kkWVZdV ehuw
vk tk;sA
2- ikWbUVj dks vjsUt vkbdu ckbZ (Arrange icon by) ij nwljk ehuw ysus ds fy,
ysdj vk;sA
3- mfpr Js.kh esa ykus ds fy, ,d vkWI'ku ij fDyd djsa ;fn vkWVks vjsUt lysDV
uk fd;k tk ldsA
lkekU; :i ls vki mUgsa viuh fLFkfr esa Msx djds Hkh O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gaSA blds
vfrfjDr vki Auto Arrange dks Select djds vius vkbdu dks vklkuh ls LrEHk esa
Hkh O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gaSA
-6 LkWfyax (Scrolling)
3.3--6
;fn fo.Mks bruh cM+h ugha gS fd mlesa lHkh lwpuk, Lor% fn[kkbZ ns tk;s rks LkWy
ckj iznf'kZr gks tkrk gSA bl izdkj LkWy ckj dk bLrseky djds ge fo.Mkst esa n'kkZ;h
xbZ lHkh lwpuk,a ns[k ldrs gSaA

Slider

Scroll bar

Scroll
arrow

fp= 3.7%% LkWfyax (Scrolling)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 65

1- LykbMj dks nksuksa LkWy ,sjks ds chp ykdj Drag djsaA


2- LkWy ckj ij fo.Mkst dk ckn okyk vkbVe tks fd fn[kkbZ ugh ns jgk gks ds fy,
fDyd djsa
3- fdlh Hkh ,d LdzkWy ladsr ij tkdj click djs rkfd fo.Mkst esa uhps dh
lwpuk fn[kkbZ nsus yxsA yxkrkj LdzkWy ds fy, Scroll arrow ij ekml button
dks yxkrkj nck dj j[kasA
3.3--7
-7 foUMks dks cUn djuk (Closing a Window)
Wordpad fo.Mks ds Close cVu ij fDyd djsaA Wordpad pad cUn tks tk;sxkA Start
ehuw ls Select programs, accessories & wordpad ij fDyd djus ls okfil [kqy tk;sxkA

vFkok
Keyboard ls Alt + F4 dks nckus ls Application fo.Mks cUn gks tk;sxh

vFkok
Shortcut ehuw ij tkdj Close () dk cVu nckus ls Application fo.Mks cUn gks tkrh gSA

3-4 ekbZZ dEI;wVj (My computer)

files in your
main hard disk
files in your
floppy disk drive

files in your DVD/CDROM drives

fp= 3.8% ekbZZ dEI;wVj (My Computer)


MsLdVkWi ij miyC/k bl Icon ls gesa dEI;wVj es miyC/k Mkbo] QksYMj rFkk vU;
tkudkfj;k feyrh gSA gkMZ fMLd dh tkudkjh ds fy, Icon ij fDyd djrs gSa rc gesa mlesa
laxf` gr Qkbyksa dh tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gSA fdlh Qkby o QksYMj ds vkbdu eas laxf` gr Qkby

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 66

o QksYMjkas dh tkudkjh feyrh gSA ij ,Ml


s ckj dks ns[kus ls gesa irk pyrk gSa fd ge fdl
Mkbo ds fdl QksYMj esa dke dj jgs gaAS ekbZZ dEI;wVj esa ,d Vwy ckj gksrk gS ftlesa fofHkUu
dk;kaZs ds fy, cVu fn;s x;s gksrs gSaA ,Ml
s ckj esa orZeku QksYMj dk irk gksrk gSA ftldh Qkby
uhps fn[kk;h nsrh gSA
ftl vkbdu dks vki MsLdVkWi ij ykuk pkgrs gSa ml ij ekml dk nk;k cVu nckdj
ckgj [khap yk;s] nk;k cVu NksMas ;gak iqu% ,d ehuww iznf'kZr gksxk ftlesa Create shortcut here
dk fodYi gksxk bl ij fDyd djus ls vkbdu dk 'kkWVd
Z V MsLdVkWi ij cu tk;sxkA

3-4-1- ,Iyhds'ku LVkVZ djuk

(Start an Application)

Start cVu nckrs gh vkids dEI;wVj esa Install fd;s x;s lHkh program vkidks

eokj viuh Lhu ij fn[kk;h nsus yxrs gaSA


1- Start ij Click djas] vkSj ekml ikbUVj dks ml izkx
s zke ij ys tk;as ftl izksxzke
dks vki pykuk pkgrs gSa ,oa iqu% fDyd djasA
2- ml izksxzke@Documet dk cVu VkLd ckj ij vk tk;sxk o vkidh foUMks ij
eupkgk program [kqy tk;sxkA
3- ml Program dks cUn djus ds fy, fo.Mks ds nk;as dksus esa fLFkr Close cVu ij
fDyd djus ls og cUn gks tk;sxkA Program file menu ls exit button ij fDyd
djds mls cUn djasA
3-4-2 u;k vkbdu cukuk ( Create a New Icon)
ekbZ dEI;wVj esa tkdj ftl Qkby dk 'kkWVZdV cukuk gS ml ij ekml ikWbUVj
dks ys tkdj ekml dk nk;ka cVu fDyd djsaA
;gk ij vkidks ,d 'kkWVd
Z V ehuww miyC/k gksxk ftlesa Create shortcut dk ,d
option gksxkA ml ij Click djus ls ,d u;k vkbdu Lo;a cu tk;sxkA bls ;fn vki
MsLdVkWi ij ys tkuk pkgrs gSa rks ekbZ dEI;wVj dh fo.Mks dks NksVk djsa rkfd MsLdVkWi
fn[kk;h nsus yxs blds ckn vkbdu ij ekml ikbUVj ykdj ck;k cVu nck;s j[krs Msx
djrs gq, vkbdu dks MsLdVkWi ij ys vk;as ftlls fd ,d vkbdu dh dkWih MsLdVkWi ij
vk tkoasA ;fn vki vkbdu dh dkWih ugh pkgrs gSa rks dh cksMZ ls f'kV cVu nck;s j[krs
gq, vkbdu Msx djds MsLdVkWi ij ys vk;sa ftlls ml LFkku ls vkbdu gV dj MsLdVkWi
ij vk tk;sxkA
vFkok
ftl vkbdu dks vki MsLdVkWi ij ykuk pkgrs gaS ml ij ekml dk nk;k cVu
nckdj ckgj [khap yk;sa] nk;ka cVu NksMsa ;gk iqu% ,d ehuw iznf'kZr gksxk ftlesa Create
Z V MsLdVkWi ij
Shortcut here dk fodYi gksxk ml ij fDyd djus ls vkbdu dk 'kkWVd
cu tk;sxkA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 67

3-5 QksYMj (Folder)

Open a folder (from My computer or Windows Explorer

Move the pointer over New, and then


click on Folder to create a new folder

fp= 33.99 u;k QksYMj cukuk (Create Folder)

5-1 u;k QksYMj cukuk (Create Folder)


3.5-1
tgk gesa u;k QksYMj cukuk gS ml LFkku ij tkdj ekml dk nk;k cVu nckus
ij ,d ehuww iznf'kZr gksxk ftlesa New dk fodYi pquus ls ,d vU; menu iznf'kZr gksxkA
blesa folder dk fodYi pquk tk;s rks ,d u;k QksYMj cu tkrk gSA blds uhps New folder
fy[kk jgrk gsSA ;gk ge dksbZ Hkh u;k uke bl QksYMj ds fy, ns ldrs gaS uke dh vf/kdre
lhek 255 v{kj gks ldrh gS ysfdu blesa / , \, : , *, ?, ", <, >, vkfn dk mi;ksx ugha fd;k
tk ldrkA blds vykok dksbZ Hkh v{kj ge bLrseky dj ldrs gaSA
3-5-2 Qkby ;k QksYMj dks vkWiu djuk (Open a File/Folder)
vki ftl Qkby@QksYMj dks [kksyuk pkgrs gaS ml Qkby okys Icon ij Mcy
fDyd djsa rks og file/folder open gks tk;sxhA ;gak ij /;ku j[ksa fd Icon foUMkst ds }kjk
le>h tkus okyh fdlh Qkby dk gh gksuk pkfg,A
3-5-3 Qkby@QksYMj dks u;k uke nsuk (Rename File/Folder)
bPNkuqlkj Qkby dks pqu dj ekml dk ck;k cVu nck;as ftlls fd ,d 'kkWVd
Z V

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 68

ehuww vk tk;sxk bl ehuww ls fjuse dk fodYi pqus VsDLV djlj Qkby ds uke ij feysxkA
vc vki bl Qkby ;k QksYMj dks u;k uke ns ldrs gaSA blds fy, Enter dh nck;sa ;k ekml
ikWbUVj dks Qkby use ds ckgj fDyd djds u;k uke lqfuf'pr djsaA
3-5-4- Qkby@QksYMj fMyhV djuk (Delete a File/Folder)
foUMkst ,Dlih esa fdlh Qkby@QksYMj dks fMyhV djuk vklku o lqjf{kr gSaA ekbZZ
dEI;wVj ij tks Qkby@QksYMj vki fMyhV djuk pkgrs gaS mUgsa lqfuf'pr djsaA
1- ,d ;k vf/kd Qkby@QksYMj dks select djsaA
2- File ehuw ls fMyhV dk fodYi pqusA
3- foUMkst ij vki dk vfUre fu.kZ; tkuus dh lwpuk vk;sxh ml ij tkdj vki yes
dk fodYi pquAs blls og Qkby@QksYMj fjlkbdy fcu esa pyk tk;sxkA ;fn vki
bls ges'kk ds fy, gVkuk pkgrs gs rks dh cksMZ ij f'kV cVu nckrs gq, fMyhV cVu
nck;s rc ;g QksYMj ges'kk ds fy, fMyhV gks tk;sxk bls okil izkIr ugh fd;k tk
ldsxkA

Click on Delete from


the File menu

Select one or more


files/folders

fp= 3.10% Qkby@QksYMj fMyhV djuk (Delete a File/Folder)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 69

3-5-5- dV] dkWih ,oa isLV djuk (cut, copy & paste)
bl fodYi ds }kjk vki viuh Qkby dks mlh drive ;k fdlh vU; Drive esa ys tk
ldrs gSaA blds fy, vki Vwy ckj esa cut cVu dks nck;s] blds ckn vki ftl LFkku ij mls
ys tkuk pkgrs gsS og txg ,Msl ckj ls pqus ogk igaqpus ds ckn isLV cVu nck;s] dh cksMZ
ls bulVZ dh nckus ij Hkh isLV fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;fn vki mldh vksj izfrfyfi;k pkgrs
gS rks dV isLV dh ctk;s dkWih cVu nck;aAs

3-6 dEI;wVj dks can djuk (Closing a Computer)

11% dEI;wVj cUn djuk (Closing a Computer


fp= 33,11%
LVS.M ckbZ (Stand by)% bl fodYi dk mi;ksx fctyh cpr gsrq fd;k tkrk gSA
blesa ekWuhVj can gks tkrk gSA tc ekml ;k dh cksMZ dh dksbZ dqath nckrs gaS rks
dEI;wVj iqu% iwoZ fLFkfr esa vk tkrk gSA
VuZ vkWQ (Turn off)% bl fodYi ls vki dEI;wVj cUn dj ldrs gaSA ;g foUMkst
dh orZeku O;oLFkk ,oa vU; lwpukvksa dks gkMZ fMLd ij laxzfgr dj nsrk gSA
fjLVkVZ (Restart)% foUMkst dh O;oLFkk ,oa vU; lwpukvksa dks laxzfgr djrs gq, ;g
dEI;wVj dks iqu% izkjEHk dj nsrk gSA

3-7 dqath iVy ds 'kkWVZdV (Key Board Shortcut)


;fn vki ckj ckj ekml }kjk dk;Z ugha djuk pkgrs vFkok ekml dh dksbZ vU;
leL;k gS rks vki fujk'k uk gksA vkidk daqth iVy vkidh gj leL;k dk lek/kku
djsxk tSlk fd vxz fyf[kr lkj.kh esa crk;k x;k gSA
Alt + Enter

p;fur object dh properties n'kkZus ds fy,

Alt+f4

Explorer dks cUn djus gsrq

Back Space

'kq:vkrh QksYMj ij ys tkus ds fy,

Ctrl + C

fpfUgr

Vs D LVA

vkfn

dks

fDyi

cks M Z

ij

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 70

dkWih djus ds fy,A

3-8

Ctrl + V

orZ e ku bUl'kZu ikba V okyh fL Fkfr


fDyicksMZ ij dkWih fd;s x;s Vs D LV
isLV djus ds fy,

Ctrl+X

fpfUgr Vs D LV dks orZ e ku LFkku ls gVkus


ds fy,

Ctrl +Z

orZeku f;k dks nksgjkus ds fy,

Ctrl+B

Qks U V dks cks Y M djus vFkok uk djus ds fy,


Delete fpfUgr object dks fjlkbdy fcu esa
Mkyus ds fy,

F2

Qkby@Object dks fjuse djus ds fy,

F3

orZ e ku QksYM j ds
iznf'kZr djus ds fy,

F4

,Msl Vwy ckj [kksyus ds fy,

F5

,Dliyksjj foUMks dks fjs'k djus ds fy,

Shift+delete

fpfUgr Qkby@QksYMj ds fcuk


fcu esa Hksts ges'kk ds fy, Delete djukA

Shift + F10

fpfUgr Qkby@Qks Y Mj ds fy, context ehuw w


[kksyukA

lkFk

Dialog ckDl

ij
dks

dks

fjlkbdy

%&
LVkVZ cVu (Start Button)%&

fo.Mks dh vkjfEHkd Lhu ij tks MsLdVkWi iznf'kZr gksrk gS ml ij ck;ha vksj dqN
vkbZdu o uhps dh vksj ,d VkLd ckj iznf'kZr gksrk gSA vkjfEHkd MsLdVkWi ij tks vkbdu
iznf'kZr gksrs gSa muesa ls eq[;r% fuEu gaAS
1 ekbZ dEI;wVj (My Computer)
2 ekbZ MkD;wesUV (My Document)
3 fjlkbfdy fcu (Recycle Bin)
4 bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj (Internet Explorer)
5 usVodZ uscjgqM+ (Network Neighbourhood)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 71

6 vkmVyqd ,Dlizsl (Outlook Express)


7 fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj (Window Explorer)
8 vkWuykbu lfoZl (Online Service)
9 izksxzke ds 'kkWVZdV vkbdu (Shoricut Icons Of Program)
lHkh vkbdu MsLdVkWi ij ck;ha vksj o.kZe ds vuqlkj O;ofLFkr :i esa iznf'kZr gksrs
gSaA Lhu ds uhps dh vksj VkLd ckj iznf'kZr gksrk gSA bl VkLd ckj ij cka;ha vksj ,d cVu
gksrk gS bl cVu ij 'Start' fy[kk gksrk gSA bl cVu dks gh LVkVZ cVu dgrs gSAa tSlk fd
uke ls bafxr gksrk gS bl cVu dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj ij dk;Z vkjEHk djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk
gSA tc ge LVkVZ cVu ij ekml fDyd djrs gaS rks ,d ehuw iznf'kZr gksrk gSA bl ehuw dks
LVkVZ ehuw dgrs gSA bl LVkVZ ehuw esa fofHkUu dk;Z lEiknu djus gsrq fHkUu&fHkUu fodYi gksrs
gSaA

3-8-1 LVkVZ ehuw

(Start Menu)

LVkVZ ehuw ds fofHkUu fodYikas dk iz;ksx fofHkUu dk;ksaZ ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;s
fofHkUu fodYi o muds iz;ksx fuEukuqlkj gaAS

fp= 33.12
12 LVkVZ ehuw
3-8-1-1 izksxzke (Program) %& LVkVZ ehuw ds bl fodYi ds vkxs nk;sa rhj dk fu'kku gSA
;g rhj dk fu'kku mi ehuw dh mifLFkfr dks bafxr djrk gSA bl mi ehuw esa mu lHkh izksxkz eksa
dh lwph gksxh tks orZeku esa dEI;wVj ij bUlVky (Install) gaSA buds vfrfjDr Hkh MkWl
vkWijsfVax flLVe ij tkus ds fy;s ,d fodYi gksrk gS ftlls fd dek.M ykbu }kjk Hkh fdlh
izksxzke dks pyk;k tk ldsA bUVjusV ,DlIyksj fodYi ds }kjk bUVjusV dh fofHkUu lkbVksa
ij tk;k tk ldrk gS rFkk fo.Mks ,DlIyksj ds }kjk dEI;wVj ij fLFkr fofHkUu Qkbyksa o

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 72

QksYMjksa ij dk;Z fd;k tk ldrk gSA


gks ldrk gS fd dksbZ izksxkz e dEI;wVj ij bUlVky rks gks ijUrq izksxzke ehuw dh fyLV
eas u gksA ;fn ,slk gks rks vklkuh ls izksxzke ehuw esa tksM+k tk ldrk gSA izzksxzke ehuw esa tksM+uk
ikB esa vkxs i<+sxasA
3-8-1-2 QsojsV (Favorites) %&
izkx
s zke ehuw ds bl fodYi esa mu izksxzkeksa dh lwph gksrh gS tks gesa ilanhnk gSA bu
ilanhnk izksxzkeksa dh lwph esa ls fdlh Hkh izkx
s zke ij lh/ks gh fDyd djds pyk;k tk ldrk
gSA
3-8-1-3 MkWD;wesUV (Documents) %&
bl fodYi esa mu Qkbyksa dh lwph jgrh gS] ftuesa geus vHkh&vHkh dk;Z fd;k gS
vFkok ftUgsa vHkh&vHkh [kksyk gSA foUMks vkWijsfVax flLVe mu Qkbyksa ds uke ;kn j[krk gS
ftUgs geus orZeku l= esa [kksyk gSA fo.Mkst bu Qkbyksa ds uke dks bl fodYi dh lwph
esa tksMr+ k jgrk gSA
ge bu Qkbyksa ds ukeksa dks nLrkost (Document) fodYi dh lwph esa ls fuEu izdkj
ls gVk ldrs gSA
1

LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsaA

LVkVZ ehuw esa ls lsafVx (Settings) fodYi dk p;u djsaA

iznfkZr mi ehuw esa ls ^^VkLd ckj o LVkVZ ehuw^^ (Taskbar & Start Menu) fodYi
dk p;u djsaA

iznfkZr ckWDl esa ls ^^LVkVZ ehuw izkx


s kz e^^ (Start Menu Program) VSc dk p;u djsAa

MkWD;weasV ehuw esa ls fDy;j fodYi dk p;u djsaA

vUr esa Ok ;k Close cVu ij fDyd djsaA

3-8-1-4 lsfVax (Setting) %&


LVkVZ ehuw ds bl fodYi dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj flLVe ds xq.k/keZ tSls fizUVj ds xq.k/
keZ] VkLd ckj ds xq.k/keZ vkfn dks cnyus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA tc LVkVZ ehuw ds bl miehuw
dk p;u djrs gSa rks ,d miehuw iznfkZr gksrk gS ftlesa dUVky
s iSuy] fizUVj] VkLdckj o LVkVZ
ehuw ,oa ,fDVo MsLdVki uked fodYi gSA bu fodYiksa esa dUVksy iSuy fodYi ds }kjk
fo.Mks ds dk;Z ,oa iznkZu dks O;o;fLFkr fd;k tk ldrk gS] fizUVj fodYi ds }kjk fizUVj
dks flLVe esa tksM+ ldrs gaS ;k ekWfMQkbZ dj ldrs gSAa blh izdkj VkLdckj fodYi ds }kjk
VkLd ckj ds iznkZu dks O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSa vkSj LVkVZ ehuw ,oa ,fDVo MsLdVkWi fodYi
ds }kjk MsLdVkWi ds iznkZu dks O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 73

3-81-5 QkbUM (Find) %&


3-8-1-5
bl fodYi ds }kjk ge dEI;wVj flLVe esa fLFkr fdlh Hkh Qkby vFkok QksYMj dks
<w<a ldrs gaSA Qkby vFkok QksYMj dks <wa<us dk dk;Z mlds uke vFkok Qkby esa fLFkr kCnksa
ds vk/kkj ij fd;k tk ldrk gSA Qkby <w<a us dk dk;Z iwjs dEI;wVj] fdlh foks"k Mkbo vFkok
foks"k QksYMj ds vUnj fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;fn ge yksdy ,fj;k usVodZ ij dk;Z dj jgs
gaS rks bl fodYi ds }kjk fdlh dEI;wVj dks Hkh <wa<+ ldrs gaSA <wa<+us dk vk/kkj fdlh Qkby
dk uke] Qkby dh fLFkfr ;k og fnukad Hkh gks ldrh gS] ftl fnukad dks Qkby vfUre ckj
laikfnr vFkok cukbZ xbZ FkhA ,d ckj Qkby dks <wa<+us ds ipkr~ Qkby dks [kksyk tk ldrk
gS] Qkby dks vU; LFkku ij LFkkukUrfjr fd;k tk ldrk gS]vFkok vU; LFkku ij Hk.Mkfjr
fd;k tk ldrk gSA fdlh Qkby dks <w<a us ds ckn vk;s ifj.kke dks Hkh fdlh ubZ Qkby esa
Hkh Hk.Mkfjr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
fdlh Qkby vFkok QksYMj dks <wa<+uk %&
;fn ge fdlh Qkby vFkok QksYMj dk uke Hkwy x;s gks vFkok Qkby fdl QksYMj
vFkok fdl LFkku ij Hk.Mkfjr gS] ;g Hkwy x;s gks rks bls Qkb.M fodYi ds }kjk fuEu izdkj
ls <wa<+ ldrs gaAS Qkby dks <wa<+rs le; fuEu nks ifLFkfr;k gks ldrh gSaA
i

tc Qkby dk uke Kkr gks %&


;fn gesa Qkby dk iwjk uke ;k vkafkd uke ;kn gks rks Qkby dks <wa<us dh fof/k fuEu

gSA
(A)

LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djas] fQj Qkb.M fodYi dk p;u djsa] vkSj vUr esa Qkby ;k
QksYMj fodYi dk p;u djsaA
,slk djus ij Lhu ij Qkb.M Mk;ykWx ckWDl
iznfkZr gksxkA blesa ls Name & Location VSc dk p;u djsaA

fp= la- 33.13


13 Qkb.M Mk;ykWx ckWDl

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 74

(B)

Qkby dk iwjk uke vFkok vkafkd uke okbYM dkMZ v{kj (? ;k *) ds lkFk Named
ckWDl esa Vkbi dj nsaA

(C)

yqd bu (Look In) ckWDl esa ml QksYMj ;k Mkbo dk uke Vkbi djsaA tgk ij Qkby
dks <wa<uk gSAa ;fn gesa Mkbo vFkok QksYMj ds uke dk /;ku u gks rks Mki Mkmu fyLV
vFkok czkmt cVu dk mi;ksx djds mifLFkr Mkbo ;k QksYMj dk p;u dj ysaA ;fn
ge iwjs dEI;wVj vFkkZr dEI;wVj ij fLFkr lHkh Mkboks esa <wa<uk pkgrs gaS rks (My
Computer" dk p;u djsaA

(D)

vUr esa 'Find Now' cVu ij fDyd djsaA


bl izdkj <w<a us ij ftl Qkby dk uke fn;s x;s uke ls esy [kkrk gks mu lHkh Qkbyksa
ds uke dh lwph iznf'kZr gksxhA lwph esa ls fdlh Hkh Qkby ij Mcy fDyd djds mls
[kksy ldrs gSaA vko';drk gksus ij Qkbyks ds uke dh lwph dks fdlh vU; Qkby esa
Hk.Mkfjr Hkh dj ldrs gSaA

(ii)

tc Qkby ds uke ds vfrfjDr vU; ckrsa Kkr gksA


;fn gesa Qkby ds uke ls lEcfU/kr dksbZ Hkh tkudkjh u gks vkSj ;g tkudkjh gks fd
Qkby yxHkx fdl fnukad dks cukbZ vFkok vfUre ckj [kksyh xbZ FkhA bl fLFkfr esa
Qkby dks fnukad ds vk/kkj ij <w<a uk gksxk] fnukad ds vk/kkj ij Qkby dks <wa<us ds
fy, Qkb.M Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa date VSc dk mi;ksx djuk gksxkA fnukad ds vk/kkj ij
Qkby dks <wa<us dh fof/k fuEu gSA

(A)

LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djs]a Qkb.M fodYi ij dlZj yk;s rFkk Qkby ;k QksYMj (File
or Folder) fodYi dk p;u djsa

(B)

,slk djus ij Qkb.M Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznfkZr gksxk blesa Date VSc dk p;u djsaA

fp= 3.14
14 fnukad ds vk/kkj ij Qkby <wa<uk
(C)

iznfkZr ckWDl esa fnukad ds rhu fodYi gS buesa ls dksbZ ,d fodYi dk vko;drkuqlkj

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 75

p;u djsaA
1 Between %& bl fodYi dk p;u rc djsa] tc Qkby fdUgha foks"k fnukadks ds
e/; cukbZ vFkok [kksyh xbZ gksA
2 During the Previous month / Day %& bl fodYi dk mi;ksx rc djrs gSa tc
gesa xr fnuksa vFkok efgukas esa cukbZ ;k [kksyh xbZ Qkbyksa dks <wa<uk gksaA
ijksDr fodYiksa esa ls mi;qDr fodYi dk p;u djs rFkk vko;d fnukad Vkbi
dj nsaA
(D)

vUr esa Find Now cVu ij fDyd djsaA

mijksDr fof/k ds }kjk ge Qkby cukus dh fnukad ;k vfUre ckj [kksyh xbZ fnukad
ds vk/kkj ij Qkby dks <wa<+ ldrsa gaSA
;fn gesa Qkby dks vfUre ckj [kksyus dh fnukad dk Hkh Kku u rks Qkby esa Vkbi
kCnksa ds vk/kkj ij Hkh Qkby dks <wa<k tk ldrk gSA
tSls ekuk gesa ;g Kkr gks fd Qkby esa ,d izkFkZuk i= gS tks fd uxj fuxe ds
ps;jeSu dks lEcksf/kr fd;k x;k gSA rks ^^uxj fuxe^^ kCn ds vk/kkj ij Qkby dks <wa<k tk
ldrk gSA bl izdkj <wa<us ds fy, Qkb.M Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa Name & Location VSc ij
fDyd djsAa
bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl ds Containing ckWDl esa og kCn Vkbi dj nas ftlds vk/kkj ij
Qkby <wa<uh gSA tSls mijksDr mnkgj.k ds vuqlkj ;g uxj fuxe Vkbi dj nsaA vUr esa
Find cVu ij fDyd djasA bl izdkj ls Qkb.M fodYi ds }kjk ge fdlh Qkby vFkok
QksYMj dks <w<a ldrs gSaA
3-8- 1-6 gSYi (Help) %&
LVkVZ ehuw ds bl fodYi dk iz;ksx fo.Mks vkWijsfVax flLVe ds ckjs esa fdlh Hkh izdkj
dh enn ysus ds fy;s djrs gSaA tc Hkh ge LVkVZ ehuw ds bl fodYi dk p;u djrs gSa rks
fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe ij enn gsrq Qkbyksa dh lwph iznfkZr gksrh gSA ;s Qkbys foUMkst
vkWijsfVax flLVe bUlVky djrs le; gh bUlVky dh tkrh gSA
Eknn izkIr djuk
1fo.Mksa ls enn izkIr djus ds fy, LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djus ds ckn LVkVZ ehuw esa
ls gSYi fodYi dk p;u djsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 76

15 gS Yi fo.Mkst
fp= 33.15
2-

tSlk fd gSYi fo.Mks ds fp= esa fn[kk;k gS] blesa 3 rhu fofHkUu VSc ek%
Contents, Index ,oa Search gSA ;s rhuksa VSc rhu fofHkUu izdkj ls enn izkIr djus ds fy;s
gSA
(A) dUVsUV~l

(Contents) %& bl VSc dk iz;ksx fofHkUu Jsf.k;ksa (Categories) ds

vk/kkj ij enn izkIr djus ds fy;s djrs gSaA bl VSc dk p;u djus ij gSYi ckWDl esa
fofHkUu Jsf.k;ksa dh ,d lwph iznfkZr gksxhA gesa ftl Js.kh ;k fcUnq ij enn izkIr djuh
gS mlds vuq:i ,d Js.kh dk p;u dj ysaA gks ldrk gS fd Js.kh ds vUnj iqu% fofHkUu
fcUnq gks] blesa ls dksbZ ,d vko;d fcUnq dk p;u djasA bl izdkj rc rd fcUnqvksa
dk p;u djrs jgs tc rd gesa vko;d enn u izkIr gksA enn iznfkZr gksus ij enn
dks /;kuiwoZd i<+s o mldk vuqlj.k djsaA
(B) bUMsDl (Index) %& bl VSc dk p;u djus ij gSYi ckWDl esa lHkh fcUnqvksa dh

,d lwph iznfkZr gksrh gSA bl lwph esa ls fdlh Hkh fcUnq dk p;u dj ml fcUnq ij enn
izkIr dj ldrs gSaA ;fn iwjh lwph fo.Mks ij u iznfkZr gks rks m/okZ/kj LkWy ckj dk
iz;ksx djsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 77

16 bUMsDl VSc ds lkFk gSYi fo.Mkst


fp= 33.16
(C) lpZ (Search) %& ;fn gesa fdlh foks"k kCn ij enn pkfg;s vkSj og kCn u rks
Content VSc dh lwph esa gks vkSj u Index VSc dh lwph esa gks rks] dsoy ml foks"k kCn
ds vk/kkj ij Hkh enn izkIr dj ldrs gSA bl izdkj dh enn izkIr djus ds fy, Search
VSc dk p;u djasA gSYi fo.Mks esa ,d Type in the key word to find ckWDl iznfkZr
gksxkA bl ckWDl esa og kCn Vkbi djs ftl kCn ij gesa enn pkfg;sA kCn Vkbi dj
Enter dqath nckus ij ml kCn ij enn Lhu ij iznfkZr gks tk;sxhA

fp= 33.17
17 lpZ VSc ds lkFk gSYi fo.Mkst

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 78

3-8-1-7 ju

(Run) %&

tks yksx funsZk ykbu dek.M ykbu ij dke djuk ilUn djrs gaS muds fy;s Hkh
fo.Mks vkWijsfVax flLVe lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA ftl izdkj ls fMLd vkWijsfVx flLVe
(DOS) esa fdlh izksxkz e dks pykrs Run djrs gaS] mlh izdkj LVkVZ ehuw ds ju (Run) fodYi
ds }kjk fdlh pyus ;ksX; izksxzke dks pyk ldrs gSaA izksxzke dks pykus ds fy, LVkVZ ehuw ds
ju (Run) fodYi dk p;u djsaA ,slk djus ij Lhu ij ju (Run) Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznfkZr
gksxkA ftl izksxzke dks pykuk gS ml dk uke iwjs ikFk (Path) ds lkFk ju (Run) Mk;ykWx
ckWDl esa Vkbi djsa o Run cVu ij fDyd djsaA ;fn Qkby dk iw.kZ ikFk (Path) dk Kku
u gks rks Browse cVu ij fDyd djds iw.kZ ikFk (Path) dk p;u djsaA bl izdkj Run
fodYi ds }kjk fdlh Hkh izksxzke dks pyk ldrs gaAS
3-8-1-8
1-8
3-8-

ykWx vkWQ (Log Off) %&

LVkVZ ehuw ds bl fodYi dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj flLVe dks ykWx vkWQ djus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gS A tc ge fdlh dEI;wVj dks ykWx vkWQ djrs gaS rks dEI;wVj ds lHkh izksxzke
cUn gksrs gSa] ;fn dEI;wVj usVodZ ls tqM+k gks rks bldk lEcU/k usVodZ ls gV tkrk gS rFkk
dEI;wVj vU; mi;ksxdkkZ gsrq miyC/k gks tkrk gSA ykWx vkWQ djus ij dEI;wVj cUn ugha
gksrk dsoy ml mi;ksxdkkZ dk dke can djrk gS tks ml ij dk;Z dj jgk FkkA
1-9 kVMku (Shut Down) %&
3-83-8-1-9
LVkVZ ehuw ds bl fodYi dk iz;ksx rc djrs gS tc geas dEI;wVj dks cUn (Shut
down) djuk gks vFkok dEI;wVj dks DOS Mode eksM esa vkjEHk djuk gksaA tc ge bl
fodYi dk p;u djrs gSa rks Lhu ij kVMkmu Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznfkZr gksxkA bl ckWDl esa
rhu fodYi gksxas ,d dEI;wVj dks cUn djus ds fy, Shut down, nwljk dEI;wVj dks iqu%
pykus ds fy, Restart o rhljk dEI;wVj dks iqu% DOS Mode eksM esa pykus ds fy, Restart
in DOS Mode. mi;qDr fodYi p;u dj OK cVu ij fDyd djsaA

fp= 33.18
18 'kVMkmu Mk;ykWx ckWDl

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 79

3-9- VkLd ckj dks laokjuk (Customization Of Task Bar)


TkSlk fd ge i<+ pqds gaS fd VkLd ckj MsLdVkWi ij uhps dh vksj fLFkr gksrk gS ftl
ij LVkVZ cVu o vU; Vwy gksrs gSaA fo.Mkst esa tks Hkh izksxzke [kqyk gS] mldk ,d cVu VkLd
ckj ij iznfkZr gksrk gSA ;fn ,d ls vf/kd izksxzke [kqys gkas rks izR;sd izkx
s zke ds cVu VkLd
ij iznfkZr gksxsa rFkk muesa ls ,d f;kkhy (Active) gksxkA ge VkLd ckj ds LFkku ,oa
iznkZu dks cny ldrs gSa] vFkok vkd"kZd cuk ldrs gSA
A VkLd ckj dk vkdkj o LFkku cnyuk (Changing size and Place of Task
Bar)%&
;fn VkLd ckj dk LFkku cnyuk gks rks ekml }kjk VkLd ckj dk p;u dj MSx djsAa
MSx djus ls iwoZ tc VkLd ckj dk p;u djsa rc ;g /;ku j[kas fd ekml ikWbUVj VkLd ckj
ij fLFkr fdlh cVu vFkok Vwy ij u gksA
VkLd ckj dk vkdkj cnyus ds fy, ekml ikWbUVj dks VkLd ckj ds fdukjksa ij
yk;sA ekml ikWbUVj dh vkd`fr nks&fljkas ds rhj dh vkd`fr esa cny tkrh gSA vc ekml
dks ml fnkk esa MSx djsa ftl fnkk esa VkLd ckj dks cM+kuk vFkok NksVk djuk gksA
B VkLd ckj ds cVu (Buttons on Task Bar) %&
VkLd ckj ds ij LVkVZ cVu ds vfrfjDr ,MSl Vwy ckj] fyad Vwyckj] MsLdVkWi
Vwyckj] fDod ykWUp Vwy ckj Hkh gks ldrs gaSA buds vfrfjDr ge u, Vwy Hkh cuk ldrs gaAS
VkLd ckj ij nk;ha vksj gkMZos;j tSls fizUVj] Lihdj] ?kM+h bR;kfn ds cVu iznfkZr gksrs gSaA
ge bu cVuksa dk iz;ksx dj dEI;wVj dk le;] fnukad] Lihdj dh vkokt bR;kfn cny ldrs
gSA
VkLd ckj ij Vwyckj iznfkZr djuk %&
VkLd ckj ij Vwyckj iznfkZr djus ds fy, VkLd ckj ds [kkyh LFkku ij ekml ds
nk;sa cVu dks fDyd djsAa ,slk djus ij ,d ehuw iznfkZr gksxk blesa Vwyckj fodYi dk p;u
djasA vc iznfkZr miehuw dh lwph esa ls fdlh Hkh Vwy dk p;u djsaA

fp= 33.19
19 VkLd ckj ij Vwy ckj [kksyuk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 80

;s Vwy ckj fuEu gaSA


(i)

,Msl Vwyckj (Address Tool Bar) %&

bl Vwy ckj ds }kjk ge bUVjusV czkmtj dks fcuk [kksys lh/ks gh ,Msl ckj ij osc
,Msl Vkbi dj osc ist [kksy ldrs gSaA

20 VkLdckj ij Vwy ckj [kksyuk


fp= 33.20
(ii)

fyad Vwyckj (Link Tool Bar) %&

bl Vwy ckj ij fofHkUu osclkbVksa ds fyad Mky ldrs gaS ftlls fd ckj&ckj osc
irk Vkbi u djuk iM+s] lh/ks gh osc fyad ij fDyd dj osc ist ij tk ldsA
fVIi.kh & ,Ml
s Vwyckj ,oa fyad Vwy ckj] VkLd ckj ij iznfkZr gksuk ;k u gksuk bUVjusV
ls tqM+us ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ;fn dEI;wVj bUVjusV ls tqMk+ u gks rks ;s nksuksa ckj dEI;wVj ij
iznfkZr ugha gksxhaA
MsLdVkWi Vwyckj
(iii)
(Desktop Tool Bar) %&
bl Vwy ckj ds }kjk dEI;wVj ds MsLdVkWi ij iznfkZr lHkh vkbduksa dks VkLd ckj
ij iznfkZr dj ldrs gSAas
fDod ykap Vwyckj (Quick Launch Tool Bar) %&
(iv)
bl Vwyckj ij bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj] vkmVyqd ,Dlizsl] ds vkbdu bR;kfn gksrs gSaA

3-10- iznkZu ds xq.k/keZ lokajuk (Customization of display properties)


;fn fo.Mkst }kjk fufpr MsLdVki Lhu mi;ksxdrkZ dks ilUn u gks rks bls cM+h
vklkuh ls cnyk tk ldrk gSA fo.Mkst }kjk mi;ksxdrkZ dks fo.Mkst ds fofHkUu xq.k/keksZ
dks cnyus ds vklku rjhds miyC/k djk;s x;s gSaA buesa ls ,d gS MsLdVkWi ds iznkZu dks
cnyukA ge MsLdVkWi ds yxHkx izR;sd bdkbZ tSls iznfkZr MsLdVkWi dk jax] Lhu dk
fjtksY;qqku] vkbduksa dk vkdkj vkfn dks cny ldrs gSA lk/kkj.kr;k ge Lhu ds lEiw.kZ
{ks=Qy dks iz;ksx esa ysrs gSaA bl Lhu ;k MsLdVkWi ij 'kkWVZdV vkbdu cuk ldrs gS]a iwoZ
esa cus QksYMj ;k Qkby dks MsLdVkWi ij j[k ldrs gSaA gks ldrk gS fd ftl izksxzke dk
'kkWVZdV vFkok vkbdu geus MsLdVkWi ij j[kk gS og izksxzke LVkVZ ehuw ds izksxzke miehuw esa
Hkh gksA fdlh 'kkWVZdV dk QksYMj vFkok vkbdu cukus ls ;g lqfo/kk fey tkrh gS fd ml
vkbdu ij Mcy fDyd djds Hkh ml izksxzke dks pyk;k tk ldrk gSA
iznkZu ds xq.k/keksZ esa ifjorZu djus ds fy;s gesa Display Properties Mk;ykWx
ckWDl dks [kksyuk gksxkA ;g Mk;ykWx ckWDl LVkVZ ehuw ds lSfVax fodYi ds dUVksy iSuy

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 81

(Control Panel) fodYi ds }kjk ;k ikWivi ehuw ds }kjk [kksyk tk ldrk gSA

fMLIys izksiVhZt (Display Properties) Mk;ykWx ckWDl [kksyuk %&


LVkVZ ehuw ds }kjk %&
(A)
lcls igys LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsAa LVkVZ ehuw esa ls lSfVax fodYi dk p;u djsAa
vc iznf'kZr mi ehuw eas ls Control Panel fodYi dk p;u djsAa ,slk djus ij fo.Mkst
,d dUVky
s iSuy Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznfkZr dj nsxkA bl ckWDl esa ls Display fodYi dk p;u
djsAa
(B) ikWivi ehuw }kjk %&

ikWivi ehuw ds }kjk fMLIys izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl [kksyus ds fy;s ekml ikWbUVj
ds MsLdVkWi ds [kkyh LFkku ij yk;sa rFkk ekml ds nk;sa cVu ij fDyd djsaA ,slk djus ls
MsLdVkWi ij ,d ehuw iznfkZr gksxkA bls ge ikWivi ehuw dgrs gSA bl ehuw esa ls
Properties fodYi dk p;u djsaA ,slk djus ij Lhu ij fMLIys izksiVhZt (Display
Properties) Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznfkZr gksxkA

fp= 33.21
21 fMLIys izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl
tSlk fd fp= esa fn[kk;k x;k gS bl fMLIys izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa fofHkUu VSc

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 82

gSa tSls Background, Screen Saver, Appearance vkfnA izR;sd VSc vyx&vyx lSfVax ds
fy, iz;ksx esa vkrs gaSA ge buesa ls dqN ds ckjs esa i<s+xsaA
(i)

oky isij (Wall Paper ) %&

MsLdVkWi ij tks vkd`fr iznfkZr gksrh gS mls oky isij ;k cSdxzkm.M dgrs gSAa
MsLdVkWi ij iznf'kZr oky isij ;k cSdxzkm.M dks cnyus ds fy, fMLIys izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx
ckWDl esa Background VSc dk p;u djsaA Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa fofHkUu oky isijksa ds ukeksa dh
lwph esa ls fdlh Hkh ,d oky isij dk uke p;u djsaA vUr esa OK cVu ij fDyd djsaA ;fn
Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa iznfkZr lwph esa ls dksbZ Hkh oky isij ilUn u gks rks fcV eSi (Bit Map)
QkWjesV esa Hk.Mkfjr fdlh Hkh Qkby dks oky isij ds :i esa iznfkZr djus ds fy, Browse
cVu dk mi;ksx djs rFkk Hk.Mkfjr vU; fdlh Hkh fcV eSi Qkby dk p;u djsaA bl izdkj
fcV eSi Qkby dk uke Mk;ykWx ckWDl dh lwph esa tqM tk;sxkA Mk;ykWx ckWDl dh lwph esa
tqM+us ds ckn lwph es ls p;u dj OK cVu nck;saA
(ii)

Lhu lsoj (Screen Saver) %&

fp= 33.22
22 Lhu lsoj VSc ds lkFk fMLIys izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 83

;fn dEI;wVj pkyw gks rFkk cM+h nsj ls bl ij dk;Z u fd;k x;k gks vFkkZr~ u ekml
dks fgyk;k x;k gks vkSj u gh dqath iVy ij dksbZ dqath nckbZ xbZ gks] rks ekWuhVj ij ,d
foks"k izdkj dh vkd`fr iznfkZr gksrh gSA T;ksa gh ge ekml dks fgyk;s ;k dksbZ dqath nck;s
rks ;g vkd`fr gV tkrh gS bl vkd`fr dks Lhu lsoj dgrs gaSA iqjkus le; esa tc dEI;wVj
u;s&u;s Fks rc] ;fn Lhu cM+h nsj rd vifjofrZr jgs rks ekWuhVj ds [kjkc gks tkus dk [krjk
jgrk FkkA vr% ,d ,slh vkd`fr dh vko;drk gksrh Fkh tks Lhu ij yxkrkj ?kwerh jgs
;k Lhu dks ifjofrZr djrh jgs ftlls fd ekWuhVj lqjf{kr jgsAa Lhu lsoj dks ifjofrZr djus
ds fy;s fMLiys izksiVhZ Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa ls Screen Saver VSc dk p;u djsaA
fMLIys izksiVhZ MkW;ykWx ckWDl esa fofHkUu Lhu lsoj ds ukeks dh lwph iznfkZr
gksxhA bl lwph esa ls dksbZ ,d uke dk p;u djsaA p;fur Lhu lsoj dks ns[kus ds fy,
Preview cVu ij fDyd djsaA fizO;w ns[kus ds ckn iqu% fMLIys izksiVhZ MkW;ykWx ckWDl ij
vkus ds fy;s ekml ij fDyd djs ;k dqath iVy ij dqath nck;sA vUr esa OK cVu
nckdj Lhu lsoj dks fu;r dj nsaA
(iii)

,ih;jsUl (Appearance) %&

fp= 3 .23
23 ,ih;jSUl VSc ds lkFk fMLIys izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 84

fMLIys izksiVhZ Mk;ykWx ckWDl ds Appearance VSc dk mi;ksx fofHkUu


Mk;ykWx ckWDl ds jax ] Mk;ykWx ckWDl ds v{kjksa ds QkWUV bR;kfn ifjorZu djus ds fy,
djrs gSaA fMLIys izksiVhZ Mk;ykWx ckWDl ds Apperance VSc dk p;u djsaA buesa ls
fdlh Hkh rRo dk p;u dj ifjorZu dj ldrs gaSA

3-11 ,lsljht (Accessories) %&


LVkVZ ehuw ds izksxzke miehuw esa lcls ij fLFkr fodYi dk uke ,lsljht gSA bl
miehuw esa fofHkUu fodYi gS tSls euksjt
a u (Entertainment)] dsydwysVj] [ksy (Games)]
uksViSM (Notepad)] flLVe Vwy (System Tool) vkfnA
,lsljht miehuw dks p;u djus ds fy, lcls igys LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsa] vc
LVkVZ ehuw esa ls izksxzke fodYi ij ekml ikWbUVj yk;s] vUr esa ,lsljh fodYi ij ekml
ikWbUVj yk;sA

24 ,lsljht ehuw dk p;u


fp= 33.24
;fn gekjs dEI;wVj ij ,lsljh miehuw esa eYVhehfM;k izksxkz e u gks rks bls fuEu fof/
k ls Mkyk tk ldrk gSA
1-

dUVky
s iSuy fo.Mks [kksys rFkk blesa ls Add/Remove Program fodYi dk p;u
djsAa

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 85

2-

iznf'kZr Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa ls "Windows Setup" VSc dk p;u djssaA

3-

Mk;ykWx ckWDl ij fo.Mkst ds izksxzke dh lwph iznf'kZr gksxhA bl lwph esa ls igys
,lsljh rFkk fQj blesa ls eYVhehfM;k izksxzke dk p;u djsaA

4-

iznf'kZr eYVhehfM;k izksxzkeksa esa ls tks&tks izksxzke Mkyus gks mudk p;u ,d&,d
djds dj ysaA

5-

vUr esa "OK" cVu ij fDyd djsasA

3-11-1 lh-Mh- Iys;j (C.D. Player) %&


lh-Mh- Iys;j Hkh ,d eYVhehfM;k izksxzke gS ftlds }kjk ge vkWfM;kss (Audio) lhMh- dks pyk ldrs gSA ;g vkWfM;kss lh-Mh- ;k rks lk/kkj.k vkWfM;kss lh-Mh- ;k fQj ,e-ih-3
(M.P.3) lh-Mh- gks ldrh gSA tSlk ge igys Hkh i<+ pqds gS fd lh-Mh- pykdj xkus lquus
ds fy, dEI;wVj ij eYVhehfM;k vFkkZr@ Lihdj] lh-Mh- Mkbo o lk.M dkMZ gksuk pkfg;sA
;fn gekjs ikl Lihdj u gks rks lh-Mh- Mkbo esa gSMQksu fiu ls gSMQksu yxkdj Hkh xkus lqus
tk ldrs gSA buds vfrfjDr eYVhehfM;k izksxzke Hkh gksuk pkfg, tks lh-Mh- dks pyk lds
tSls lh-Mh- Iys;j izksxzkeA
lh-Mh- Iys;j izkx
s zke }kjk lh-Mh- pykus dh fof/k
1- LVkVZ ij fDyd djsaA
2- LVkVZ ehuw es ls izksxzke fodYi ij ikWbUVj yk;sA
3- izksxzke ehuw esa ls ,lsljh fodYi ij ikWbUVj yk;saA
4- ,lsljh ehuw esa ls euksjatu (Entertainment) fodYi ij ikWbUVj yk;sA
5- blesa ls lh-Mh- Iys;j (CD Player) dk p;u djsaA
blls Lhu ij lh Mh Iys;j fMLIys gks tk;sxkA

fp= 33.25
25 lhMh Iys;j
vc vkWfM;kss lh-Mh-] dks lh-Mh- Mkbo esa Mkys rFkk lh-Mh- Iys;j ij iznf'kZr Iys

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 86

(Play) cVu ij fDyd djsaA lh-Mh- Iys;j izksxzke fcuk Iys cVu nck;as Lor% gh lh-Mh- dks

lh-Mh- Mkbo esa Mkyus ij pyk nsrk gSA vr% gesa Iys cVu dks fDyd djus dh vko';drk ugha
iM+sxhA ijUrq ;fn lh-Mh- dks Mkbo esa Mkyus ij Lor% lh-Mh- u pys rks Iys cVu ij fDyd
djasA ;fn ge ,d vkWfM;kss lh-Mh- dks lh-Mh- Mkbo esa Mkyuk rks pkgrs gSa] ijUrq bls pykuk
ugha pkgrs rks lh-Mh- dks lh-Mh- Mkbo esa Mkyrs le; f'kV (Shift) dqath nckdj j[ksaA lhMh- Iys;j ij iznf'kZr fofHkUu cVuksa dk mi;ksx fuEukuqlkj gSA
Iys (Play) %& Lhu ij iznf'kZr nk;sa rjQ ns[krk gqvk cM+k f=Hkqtkdkj cVu Iys cVu gSA
bldk mi;ksx lh-Mh- dks lh-Mh- Iys;j esa pykus ds fy;s djrs gSAa ,d ckj Iys cVu ij fDyd
djus ls lh-Mh- pyus yxrh gS rFkk bl cVu dk jax cny tkrk gS tks ;g bafxr djrk gS
fd lh-Mh- py jgh gS vr% bl cVu ij iqu% fDyd u djsaA
ikWt (Pause) %& ftl cVu ij nks m/okZ/kj js[kk;sa cuh gks mls ge ikWt cVu dgrs gSA
bldk mi;ksx lh-Mh- dks jksdus ds fy;s djrs gSA tSls gh ge bl cVu ij fDyd djsxs lhMh- Iys;j :d tk;sxk rFkk Iys cVu iqu% viuh iwoZ voLFkk esa vk tk;sxkA blls ;g iznf'kZr
gksrk gS fd lh-Mh- dks pykus ds fy, vc ges Iys cVu fDyd djuk gksxkA
LVkWi (Stop) %& ftl cVu ij oxkZdkj vkd`fr cuh gks] mls ge LVkWi cVu dgrs gSA bl
cVu dk mi;ksx Hkh lh-Mh- Iys;j esa py jgh lh-Mh- dks jksdus ds fy;s djrs gSA LVkWi cVu
o ikWt cVu esa ;g vUrj gS fd tgk LVkWi cVu nckus ds i'pkr iqu% Iys cVu nckus ls lhMh- vkjEHk ls pyrh gS tc fd ikWt cVu ls jksd dj iqu% Iys cVu nckus ij lh-Mh- ogha ls
pyrh gS tgk geus jksdh FkhA
iwoZ VSd (Previous Track ) %& ftl cVu ij ,d m/okZ/kj js[kk ls tqM+s gq;s] ck;sa rjQ
ns[krs gq;s nks rhj ds fu'kku dh vkd`fr cuh gks mls iwoZ VSd cVu dgrs gSA bldk mi;ksx
xkus ds vkjEHk ij tkus ds fy;s djrs gSaA ;fn ge xhr ds vkjEHk ij gS rks bl ij fDyd
djus ls fiNys xkus ds vkjEHk ij tk;k tk ldrk gSA
vxyk VSd (Next Track) %& ftl cVu ij ,d m/okZ/kj js[kk ls tqM+s] nk;s rjQ ns[krs
nks rhj ds fu'kku dh vkd`fr cuh gks] mls vxyk VSd cVu dgrs gSA bldk mi;ksx vxys
xkus ds vkjEHk ij tkus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn bl cVu ij nks ckj fDyd djsaxs rks
nks xkus vkxs pys tk;sxsaA
fLdi cSdoMZ (Skip Backward) %& ;g cVu iwoZ VSd cVu ds ikl fLFkr gSA bl cVu
ij ck;sa rjQ ns[krs gq;s nks rhj ds fu'kku dh vkd`fr cuh gksrh gSA bl cVu ij ,d ckj
fDyd djus ij ge xkus esa ,d lSd.M ihNs pys tk;sxsaA tSls ;fn 10 lSd.M ihNs ls xkuk
lquuk gks rks bl cVu ij nl ckj fDyd djsaA ;fn gesa T;knk ihNs tkuk gks rks bl cVu
dks nck;s j[ks rFkk rc NksM+s tc vki fu;r LFkku ij igqp pqds gksaA
fLdi QkjoMZ (Skip Forward) %& bl cVu ij nk;sa rjQ ns[krs gq;s nks rhj ds fu'kku
dh vkd`fr cuh gksrh gSA bl cVu ij ,d ckj nckus ls ge xkus esa ,d lSd.M vkxs pys
tk;sxAs ;fn T;knk vkxs tkuk gks rks bl cVu dks nck;s j[ks rFkk rc NksM+s tc vki fu;r

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 87

LFkku ij igqp pqds gksaA


btsDV (Eject) %& bl cVu ij ,d ij dks ns[krs gq;s f=Hkqt o mlds uhps ,d {kSfrt
js[kk dh vkd`fr cuh gksrh gSA bl cVu dk mi;ksx lh-Mh- Mkbo ls lh-Mh- cnyus ds fy;s
fd;k tkrk gSA bl ij fDyd djus ij lh-Mh- pyuk cUn gks tk;sxh rFkk Mkbo esa ls lhMh- ckgj fudy vk;sxhA vc ge lh-Mh- cny dj iqu% bl cVu ij fDyd djsa rks lh-MhMkbo esa vUnj pyh tk;sxhA
fMftVy jhMvkmV (Digital Readout) %& ;g cVu lh-Mh- ij VSd la[;k] fdruk le;
[kRe gks pqdk] fdruk le; vkSj gS vkfn lwpuk ns[kus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA ;s lwpuk,sa ns[kus
ds fy;s gesa lh-Mh- Iys;j ds View ehuw esa ls Disk / Track Information fodYi dks f;k'khy
(Enable) djuk gksxkA fMftVy jhMvkmV lwpuk fuEu rhu esa ls ,d izk:i esa (Format)
gksxhA
1 VSd la[;k o chrk gqvk le; (Track No. and Time Elapsed)
2 VSd la[;k o cpk gqvk le; (Track No. & Time Remaining)
3 fMLd o cpk gqvk le; (Disk & Time Remaining)
bu rhuksa izk:i esa ls izFke izk:i esa fMftVy jhMvkmV lwpuk iznf'kZr djrk gSA ;fn
nwljs uEcj ds izk:i esa ns[kuk gks rks bl fMftVy jhMvkmV ij ,d ckj fDyd djsa vkSj ;fn
rhljs vkdkj esa ns[kuk gks rks nks ckj fDyd djsAa blds vfrfjDr O;w (View) ehuw ds }kjk
Hkh jhMvkmV dk izk:i (Format) cny ldrs gSA
3.11.2 ehfM;k Iys;j (Media Player)

lhMh Iys;j izksxkz e dh rjg gh ,d vU; izksxzke ^ehfM;k Iys;j^ ds }kjk Hkh lhMh dks
pyk;k tk ldrk gSA ijUrq ehfM;k Iys;j ds }kjk fo.Mks ,fuesVsM Qkby .Avi] lkm.M
Qkby .Wave] fefMQkby -Mdi & .Rmi ,oa vU; fofHkUu izdkj dh Qkbyksa dks Hkh pyk;k
tk ldrk gSA gkykafd ehfM;k Iys;j izksxkz e ds }kjk ifj.kke dks lokajus ;k Bhd djus ds fy;s
mrus fodYi ;k lqfo/kk ugha gS ftruh fd lhMh Iys;j izksxzke esa miyC/k gSaA
ehfM;k Iys;j pykuk %&
1

LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsaA

LVkVZ ehuw esa ls izksxzke fodYi ij dlZj ykosaA

izksxzke ehuw esa ls ,lsljht fodYi ij dlZj ykoasA

,lsljht ehuw esa ,UVjVsuesUV fodYi ij dlZj ykosaA

vUr esa ehfM;k Iys;j fodYi ij fDyd djsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 88

26 ehfM;k Iys;j
fp=
p= 33.26
ehfM;k Iys;j esa fdlh Qkby dks pykus ds fy;s ml Qkby dk p;u djuk gksxkA
vkSj ehfM;k Iys;j esa Qkby dk p;u djus ds fy;s ehfM;k Iys;j esa ls Qkby ehuw dk p;u
djsaA Qkby ftl Mkbo ij fLFkr gS ml Mkbo o ikFk dk p;u dj Qkby dk p;u djsaA
Qkby ds p;u ds ipkr~ ehfM;k Iys;j ij Iys cVu ij fDyd djsaA ;fn fdlh foks"k izdkj
dh Qkby dk p;u djuk gks rks fMokbl Device ehuw ds ek/;e ls Qkby ds izdkj dk
p;u dj ldrs gSaA ehfM;k Iys;j ij iznfkZr cVu Hkh lhMh Iys;j ds leku gh dk;Z djrs
gSa dsoy nks cVu vfrfjDr gSA
1

vkjfEHkd p;u Start Selection cVu

vfUre p;u End Selection cVu

bu nksuksa cVuksa dk mi;ksx ge rc djrs gSa tc ge fdlh lkm.M] ewoh ;k ,fuesku


Qkby ds NksVs Hkkx dk p;u dj mls dkWih@isLV djuk pkgrs gksaA bu nksuksa cVuksa dk dk;Z
fuEukuqlkj gSA
vkjfEHkd p;u cVu %& bl cVu ij uhps dh rjQ ns[krk gqvk ,d NksVk lk rhj dk
fukku gSA bl cVu dk mi;ksx fdlh Qkby ds NksVs Hkkx dk p;u djrs le; vkjfEHkd
fcUnq crkus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
vfUre p;u cVu %& ;g cVu dsoy rHkh f;kkhy gksrk gS tc ge vkjfEHkd p;u cVu
dk mi;ksx dj pqds gkasA bl cVu dk mi;ksx Qkby ds Hkkx dk p;u djrs le; vfUre
fcUnq dks crkus dks fy;s djrs gaSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 89

ehfM;k Iys;j ds }kjk Qkby ds Hkkx dh izfrfyfi djuk %&


;fn gesa fdlh Qkby ds Hkkx dh izfrfyfi rS;kj djuh gks rks igys ehfM;k Iys;j
ds ek/;e ls ml Qkby ds Hkkx dk p;u dj fDyi cksMZ ij mldh izfrfyfi cukuh gksxhA
vc fDyi cksMZ ls bl Hkkx dh izfrfyfi fdlh Hkh Mkbo ij vklkuh ls dh tk ldrh gSA
fof/k %&
1

ehfM;k Iys;j esa ml Qkby dks pyk, ftl Qkby ds Hkkx dh izfrfyfi djuh gSA

tc ge Qkby esa ml LFkku ij igqps tgk ls izfrfyfi djuh gS rc vkjfEHkd p;u


cVu ij fDyd djsaA

Qkby dks pkyw j[krs gq;s ml fcUnq rd igqpus dh izfr{kk djsa tgk rd izfrfyfi
djuh gSA

vfUre fcUnq ij igqpus ij vfUre p;u cVu ij fDyd djsaA ehfM;k Iys;j vkjfEHkd
o vfUre fcUnq ds e/; ds Hkkx dks fp= ds :i esa iznfkZr djsxkA

Edit ehuw esa ls Copy fodYi dk p;u djsaA blls ehfM;k Iys;j }kjk p;fur Hkkx

dh fDyi cksMZ ij izfrfyfi rS;kj gks tk;sxhA vc isLV funsZ'k ds }kjk fdlh Hkh LFkku
ij izfrfyfi cukysaA
3.11.3 /ofu fjdkWMZj (Sound Recorder)

;fn gekjs dEI;wVj flLVe esa vkWfM;kss Audio buiqV fMokbl gks rks dEI;wVj ds
}kjk ge gekjh /ofu @ lkm.M dks fjdkMZ dj ldrs gSaA vkWfM;kssa buiqV fMokbl dksbZ Hkh
,slh fMokbl gks ldrh gSA tks /ofu dks bysDVhdy fo|qr flXuy ds :i esa dEI;wVj rd
s zke ds }kjk
igqpk;s tSls ekbksQksu] lhMh jkse CD Rom Iys;j vkfnA /ofu fjdkWMjZ izkx
tc /ofu dks fjdkWMZ djrs gSa rks Wave izdkj dh Qkby curh gSA
lkm.M fjdkWMZj izksxzke }kjk .Wave Qkby cukuk %&
1

LVkZV cVu ij fDyd dj ek% izkx


s kz e] ,lsljh] ,UVjVsuesVa o vUr esa lkm.M fjdkWMjZ
fodYi dk p;u djsaA ,slk djus ls Lhu ij lkm.M fjdkWMj iznfkZr gks tk;sxkA

lkm.M fjdkWMZj ds Qkby ehuw esas ls U;w New fodYi dk p;u djsaA

vc ftl le; ls fjdkWfMZx vkjEHk djuh gks rc lkm.M fjdkWMZj ds xgjs yky jax ds
cVu xksyk ij fDyd dj nsaA

mDr cVu ij fDyd djus ds ckn ekbksQksu ij cksyuk vkjEHk dj nsaA

tc fjdkWfMZx lekIr djuh gks rks Stop cVu] ftl ij dkys oxkZdkj dh vkd`fr cuh

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 90

gks] ij fDyd djsaA


6

Qkby ehuw esa ls lso Save fodYi dk p;u dj bls fdlh Hkh Qkby uke ls lso
Save dj ysaA

bl lso dh xbZ Qkby dks pykdj ns[kus ds fy;s nk;sa rjQ ns[krs gq;s rhj dh vkd`fr
cus gq;s cVu ij fDyd djsaA
Sound Recorder

fp= 3.27 /ofu lkm.M fjdkMZj


-4 okWY;we fu;a=d Volume Control
3-11
3-11-4

fp= 3.28
28 okY;we dUVksy iSuy

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 91

okWY;we fu;a=d ds }kjk ge /ofu Sound ds ifj.kke dh xq.kokk DokfyVh esa


ifjorZu dj ldrs gSA okWY;we dUVksy izksxzke dks pkyw djus dk lcls vklku rjhdk VkLd
ckj ij cus Lihdj ds fpUg ij ekml dk nk;kaa cVu fDyd djds blesa ls okWY;we dUVksy
fodYi p;u djus dk gSA nwljk rjhdk LVkZV ehuw ds ek/;e ls ,UVjVsuesUV ehuw ds }kjkA
,UVjVsuesUV ehuw ds ek/;e ls okWY;we dUVky
s izkx
s kz e pykus dh fof/k fuEu gSA
1

LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsaA

LVkVZ ehuw esa ls izksxzke fQj ek% ,lsljh] ,UVjVsuesUV fodYi ij ikWbUVj yk;sA

,UVjVsuesUV ehuw esa ls okWY;we dUVky


s iSuy fodYi ij fDyd djsaA
tSlk fp= 3.28 esa fn[kk;k gS fd okWY;we dUVksy iSuy ij fofHkUu 5ikp Hkkx gaS

ftuds uke ek% okY;we dUVky


s ] oso Wave] fefM MIDI] lhMh vkWfM;ks CD Audio
,oa ykbu bu Line in gSA bu fofHkUu Hkkxksa dk mi;ksx dj /ofu dh xq.kokk eas ifjorZu
fd;k tk ldrk gSA okY;we dUVksy iSuy ij fLFkr ,Mokal Advance cVu Vksu fu;a=.k
ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA
Vksu fu;a=d Tone Control %&
Vksu fu;a=.k ds fy; okWY;we dUVksy iSuy ij fLFkr Option ehuw esa ls ,Mokal
dUVksy fodYi dk p;u djus ij okWY;we dUVky
s iSuy ij ,d ,Mokal cVu iznfkZr gksxk]
bl cVu ij fDyd djsaA

29 ,Mokal okY;we dUVksy


fp= 3 .29

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 92

bl dUVksy ij iznfkZr LykbMj ds ek/;e ls Vksu dk Bass ;k Treble dks de ;k


vf/kd fd;k tk ldrk gSA

3-11
3-11.55

ekbkslkWV isUV (Microsoft-Paint)

tSlk uke ls Kkr gksrk gS fd ;g ,d ,slk lkWVos;j gS tks ekbkslkWV dEiuh }kjk
fufeZr gS rFkk isfUVx vFkkZr~ fp=] bR;kfn cukus ds dke vkrk gSA foUMkst 3-1 esa isUV cz'k
ds uke ls loZ izFke ;g lqfo/kk miyC/k djkbZ xbZ FkhA blesa cz'k dk iz;ksx dj ldrs gaS]
fofHkUu izdkj ds jax Hkj ldrs gSa] fMtkbu cuk ldrs gaS] rFkk fizUVj ds ek/;e ls fizUV dj
ldrs gaSA
isUV esa dk;Z djus ds fy, foUMkst ds LVkVZ ehUkww ds izksxkz e fodYi ij tk;ssxasA blds
i'pkr~ fp= ds vuqlkj ,lsljht fodYi] blds ckn isUV fodYi ij ekml ikWbUVj dks ys
tkdj fDyd djsaxs A ,slk djus ij vxys ist ij iznf'kZr fp= ds vuqlkj foUMks ekWfuVj ij
iznf'kZr gksxhA

fp= 33.30
30 ekbks lkWV isUV vkjEHk djuk
fp= esa n'kkZ;us qlkj ij VkbVy ckj] ehuw ckj o uhps dyj ckj rFkk cakbZ vksj Vwy
ckj gSA fo.Mks ds chp okys {ks= dks dk;Z {ks= dgrs gaSA Vwy ckj esa ls fdlh Hkh Vwy dks p;u

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 93

ekml fDyd }kjk djus ds ckn dk;Z {ks= esas ekml dks Msx djds ekml dk cVu nckrs
gq, ekml dks ?klhVds NksMus ij fp= cu tkrk gSA

31 ekbks lkWV isUV dh eq[; fo.Mks


fp= 33.31
fdlh Hkh Vwy ls fMtkbu cukus vFkok jax Hkjus ds fy;s igys mi;qDr Vwy dk p;u
djuk gksrk gSA ,slk djus ij ikWbUVj '+' dh vkd`fr esa ifjofrZr gks tkrh gSA vc ekml
ikWbUVj dks dk;Z {ks= ij ykdj vkjEHk fcUnq o vU; vko';d fcUnqqvksa dk p;u ekml ikWWbUVj
ls djuk gksrk gSA ge eq[;&eq[; Vwy ds ckjs esa ,d&,d dj i<sa+xsA
js[kk Line Vwy %&
bl Vwy dk iz;ksx dk;Z{ks= esa lh/kh js[kk cukus gsrq fd;k tkrk gSA js[kk cukus
ds fy, loZizFke ekml ikWbUVj dks bl Vwy ds mij ykdj ekml fDyd djsaA ,slk djus
ls ikWbUVj '+' ds fpUg esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA vc ikWbUVj dks dk;Z {ks= ds ml LFkku
ij ykrs gSa tgka ls js[kk cukuk vkjEHk djuk gSA ekml cVu nck;s j[krs gq;s ekml dks
js[kk ds vfUre fcUnq tgka rd js[kk [khapuh gks rd ys tkdj ekml cVu dks NksM+rs gSA
bl izdkj dk;Z {ks= esa fofHkUu lh/kh js[kk,a cukbZ tk ldrh gSA
o Vwy (Curve tool) :-

fp= 3 .32
32 okdkj js[kk,sa

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 94

bl Vwy dk mi;ksx o js[kk cukus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA js[kk Vwy dh rjg bl
Vwy dk p;u djus ds fy;s ekml ikWbUVj dks bl Vwy ij ykdj fDyd djsxaAs ,slk djus ij
ekml ikWbUVj '+' dh vkd`fr esa ifjofrZr gks tkosxkA vc ekml ikWbUVj dks doZ ds vkjEHk
fcUnq ij ekml fDyd ,oa Msx djds o cuk;k tk ldrk gSA
vk;r (Rectangle) Vwy %&
bl Vwy dk mi;ksx vk;r cukus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA loZizFke vk;r Vwy dk
p;u Vwy ij ekml ikWbUVj ykdj fDyd djds djus ij ikWbUVj '+' dh vkd`fr esa
ifjofrZr gksxkA blds ckn vk;r ds fod.kZ ij fLFkr nks fcUnq ekml }kjk crkus ls vk;r
dh vkd`fr dk;Z {ks= ij cuk ldrs gaS vk;kr ds fod.kZ ij fLFkr fcUnq dh fLFkfr fp=
esa fn[kk;suqlkj gksxhA
uksV%& ;fn vk;r cukrs le; f'kV dqath nck;s j[kas rks bl Vwy ls oxZ cuk ldrs gSaA
xksykdkj dksus okyk vk;r Vwy (Rounded Corner Rectangle) :ftl rjhds ls vk;r Vwy }kjk vk;r cukrs gaS mlh izdkj xksykdkj dksus okys vk;r
Vwy ds }kjk ,slk vk;r ;k oxZ cuk ldrs gaS ftlds lHkh dksus xksykdkj gksxsaA
1

2
2

33 vk;r vFkok oxZ ds fcUnq


fp= 33.33
v.Mkdkj Vwy (Elipse Tool) %&
bl Vwy dk iz;ksx v.Mkdkj vFkok o`kkdkj vkd`fr;ka cukus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk
gSA

34 v.Mkdkj o xksykdkj vkd`fr


fp= 33.34

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 95

bl Vwy }kjk vkd`fr cukus ds fy;s igys ekml ikWbaVj }kjk bl Vwy dk p;u
djsxasA ekml ikWbaVj '+' dh vkd`fr esa ifjofrZr gksxkA vc o`k ;k v.Mkdkj vkd`fr ds
izFke fcUnq ij ekml ikWbaVj ykdj] ekml cVu nck;s j[krs gq;s ekml dks Msx djsaxs rFkk
v.Mkdkj ;k o`k ds vfUre fcUnq ij ekml cVu dks NksM nsxasA bl Vwy ls vkd`fr cukrs
le; f'kV dqath nckdj j[ksa rks o`k cusxas vU;Fkk v.Mkdkj vkd`fr cusxhA
vkd`fr&foghu p;u Vwy (Free-form select)
bl Vwy dk iz;ksx dk;Z {ks= ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx dk p;u djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk
gSA bl Vwy dk p;u djus ds ckn dk;Z {ks= esa cuh gqbZ vkd`fr vFkok vkd`fr ds fdlh Hkkx
dk p;u dj ldrs gSaA bl izdkj p;u djus ds ckn p;fur vkd`fr vFkok p;fur {ks= dks
feVk ldrs gaS] vU;= LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrs gS] fDyi cksMZ ij Hk.Mkfjr dj ldrs gaS vkfnA
p;u Vwy (Select)
bl Vwy dk mi;ksx dk;Z {ks= ds fdlh Hkkx vFkok Hkkx esa cuh fMtkbu vFkok xzkQ
dks vk;rkdkj vkd`fr esa p;u djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA bl Vwy dk p;u djus ds mijkUr
ftl izdkj vk;r cukrs gaS] mlh izdkj vk;rkdkj {ks= dk p;u dj ldrs gSaA bl p;fur
Hkkx dks vc feVk ldrs gS]a vU;= LFkkukUrfjr dj ldrs gS]a fDyi cksMZ ij Hk.Mkfjr dj ldrs
gSa vkfnA
isfUly Vwy (Pencil Tool)
ftl izdkj dkxt ij isfUly }kjk fdlh Hkh izdkj dh vkfr cuk ldrs gaSA mlh
izdkj bl Vwy dk iz;ksx dk;Zdkjh {ks= ij fdlh Hkh izdkj dh vkfr cukus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA bl Vwy dk p;u djus ij ekml ikWbUVj isfUly dh vkfr esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk
gSA vc ekml cVu dks Msx djrs gq,s ekml dks iSM ij ?kqekdj dksbZ Hkh vkfr cuk ldrs
gSaA ftl fn'kk esa ekml dks pyk,xsa mlh fn'kk ds dk;Z{ks= esa js[kk cusxhA
vxys i`"B ij fp= esa vk;r] v.Mkdkj o isfUly ls cuh vkd`fr;kWa fn[kkbZ xbZ gSA

fp= 3.35 vk;r] v.Mkdkj ,oa isfUly Vwy ls cukbZ vkd`fr

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 96

cz'k Vwy (Brush Tool)


bl Vwy dk mi;ksx dk;Zdkjh {ks= ij dksbZ vkfr vFkokk xzkQ cukus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA bl Vwy ls vkfr mlh izdkj curh gS tSls fdlh cz'k ls dksbZ vkfr dkxt ij
cuk,aA cz'k Vwy dk p;u djus ij ikWbUVj cz'k dh vkfr esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA vc ekml
cVu dks Mx
s djds vkfr;k cuk ldrs gaSA cz'k dk vkdkj o jax viuh vko';drkuqlkj
ifjofrZr Hkh dj ldrs gSAa

36 cz'k Vwy ls cuh vkd`fr


fp= 33.36
Lizs cz'k Vwy Spray Brush Tool
ftl izdkj oLrqvksa ij Lizs jax fd;k tkrk gS mlh izdkj fdlh vkfr esa Lizs jax Hkjus
vFkok Lizs jax ls dksbZ vkfr cukus ds fy, bl Vwy dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA bl Vwy dk p;u
djus ij ikWbUVj Lizs dh vkfr ifjofrZr gks tkrh gS ikWbUVj dks dk;Zdkjh {ks= ij ykdj
ekml cVu nckus ls cgqr lh NksVh&2 fcUnqvksa ls feydj vkfr curh gSA ;fn ekml dks
Msx djs rks fcUnqvksa dh js[kk ls vkfr curh gSA ge viuh vko';rkuqlkj jax bR;kfn pqu
ldrs gSaA

fp= 3 .37
37 Lizscz'k }kjk cukbZ xbZ vkd`fr

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 97

v{kj Vwy (Text Tool %&


bl Vwy dk mi;ksx dk;Z{ks= esa fgUnh vFkok vaxzsth ds 'kCn fy[kus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA xzkQ vFkok fMtkbu dks Li"V djus ds fy, gesa 'kCnksa dk mi;ksx djuk iM+rk gS
,slk djus ls ge fMtkbu dks vklkuh ls le> ldrs gSaA

38 v{kj Vwy }kjk v{kj fy[kuk


fp= 33.38
dk;Z{ks= esa 'kCn fy[kus ds fy, igys bl Vwy dk p;u djsx
a As ,slk djus ij ikWbUVj
'+' dh vkd`fr esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA vc ftl LFkku ij 'kCn fy[kus gS ml LFkku ij ekml
ikWbUVj dks ykdj fDyd djus ls QkWjesfVax Vwy ckj izznf'kZr gksxkA viuh bPNkuqlkj QkWUV
o vkdkj dk p;u dj Vkbi djuk vkjEHk djsaA tks Hkh 'kCn geus Vkbi fd;s gS os 'kCn dk;Z
{ks= ds ml LFkku ij iznf'kZr gksxsa tgk geus ekml ikWbUVj dks fDyd fd;k FkkA v{kjksa dks
xgjk djus ds fy, B] v{kjksa ds uhps js[kk [khapus ds fy, U rFkk v{kjksa dks frjNs Italic
djus ds fy, I Vwy dk iz;ksx djsaxsA
izo/kZd Vwy (Magnifier Tool)
bl Vwy dk mi;ksx dk;Zdkjh {ks= esa cukbZ xbZ vkfr vFkok fdlh Hkkx dks cM+k
djds iznf'kZr djus ds fy, djrs gSaA tc bl Vwy dks p;u djrs gSa rks ikWbUVj izo/kZd vk
fr esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA vc bl ikWbUVj dks fdlh vkfr ;k Hkkx ij ykdj ekml dks
Msx djus ij] vkfr vFkok Hkkx] ftl ij ekml dks Mx
s fd;k x;k Fkk og Hkkx iwjh Lhu
ij cM+s :i esa iznf'kZr gksxkA
jax Hkjus dk Vwy Fill With Colour
bl Vwy dk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh vkfr esa bfPNr jax Hkjus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ftl
vkfr dks ge jax ls Hkjuk pkgrs gS og vkfr cUn vkfr gksuh pkfg,A

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 98

bl Vwy dk mi;ksx djus gsrq igys Vwy dk p;u djas blds ckn Lhu ds uhps
fn[kk, x,s jax ckj esa ls bPNkuqlkj dksbZ Hkh jax ilUn djsAa vc ikWbUVj dks fdlh cUn vk
fr ij ykdj fDyd djus ls vkfr esa jax Hkj tkrk gSaA
blh izdkj vU; Vwy gSa tSls Pick Colour, Eraser vkfn ;s lHkh Vwy Hkh blh izdkj
dk;Z djrs gSaA igys Vwy dk p;u djas fQj dk;Z{ks= ij ykdj ekml fDyd djus ls Vwy dk
dk;Z vkjEHk gks tkrk gSA
ehuw ckj (Menu Bar)
fdlh Hkh dek.M dk p;u Vwy ckj ds vfrfjDr ehuw ckj ls Hkh fd;k tk ldrk gSA
ge ehuw ckj esa fLFkr lHkh ehuwvksa dk ,d&,d dj v/;;u djsaxsA Vwy ckj ij rks dsoy oks
gh dek.M gksrs gSa ftudh vko';drk ckj&ckj gksrh gSA ehuw ckj esa lHkh dek.M fLFkr gksrs
gSAa ;s ehuw dze'k% File, Edit, View, Image, Colour o Help gSAa bu lHkh ehuw dk v/;;u
,d&,d djds djsaxsA
Qkby ehuw (File Menu)
bl ehuw esa Qkby ls lEcfU/kr dek.M ds fodYi gksrs gaSA ehuw ckj esa File ij ekml
ikWbUVj ykdj fDyd djus ij fp= la- 39 ds vuqlkj foUMksa iznf'kZr gksrh gSA bl ehuw esa fuEu
mi ehuw gSA

New
Open

Save

39 Qkby ehuw
fp= 33.39
;g mi ehuw ubZ Qkby cukus ds fy, iz;ksx esa vkrk gSA
;g mi ehuw iwoZ esa cuh gqbZ Qkbyksa esa ls ,d Qkby [kksyus ds fy, iz;ksx
esa vkrk gSA ;fn bl mi ehuw dk p;u djrs gSa rks Open Mk;ykWx ckWDl
iznf'kZr gksrk gSA bl ckWDl esa igys ls cuh gqbZ Qkbyksa dh lwph gksrh gSA
bl lwph esa ls dksbZ ,d Qkby dk p;u djsaA Open cVu nckus ls Qkby
[kqy tkrh gSA
iznf'kZr Qkby dks HkaMkfjr djus ds fy, bl mi ehuw dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
bl mi ehuw dk p;u djus ij Save as Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznf'kZr gksrk gSA
bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa Qkby dk uke Mkydj OK cVu nckus ls Qkby
fn, x, uke ls HkaMkfjr gks tkrh gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 99

Print Priview

bl mi ehuw dk mi;ksx Qkby dks dkxt ij fizUV djus ls iwoZ ;g ns[kus


ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS fd Qkby fdl izdkj ls dkxt ij NisxhA dkxt
ij Nkius ls iwoZ ges'kk bl mi ehuw dk mi;ksx dj ns[k ysuk pkfg, fd
dkxt ij iwjk xzkQ vFkok fMtkbu vk jgh gS ;k ughaA

Page Setup

40 Qkby dk fizO;w
fp= 33.40
bl mi ehuw dk mi;ksx ist dh yEckbZ] pkSMkbZ] ekftZu] gSMj] QqVj vkfn dks
lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

,fMV ehuw Edit Menu) :bl ehuw dk iz;ksx VsDLV ds lEiknu ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS tSls Qkby ds fdlh
Hkkx dks gVkuk] vU; txg Hkstuk vkfnA ehuw ckj ij ekml ikWbUVj dks ys tkdj Edit ij
fDyd djus ls Edit ehuw ds mi ehuw fp= ds vuqlkj iznf'kZr gksxsaA

fp= 33.41
41 ,fMV ehuw
blesa fuEu mi ehuw gaAS
1- Undo
bl mi ehuw dk iz;ksx Qkby esa dh xbZ vfUre fdz;k ds izHkko dks lekIr
djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA vfUre fdz;k ls iwoZ dh fdz;kvksa dk izHkko

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 100

lekIr ugha gksxkA


2- Repeat
bl ehuw dk iz;ksx dk;Z {ks= esa fd;s x;s ifjorZu dks lekIr djus ds ckn
mlh ifjorZu ds izHkko dks iqu% izkIr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
3- Cut
bl fodYi dk iz;ksx dk;Z{ks= esa fdlh p;fur Hkkx vFkok fdlh p;fur
fp= dks gVkdj fDyi cksMZ ij Hk.Mkfjr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
4- Copy
bl fodYi dk iz;ksx dk;Zdkjh {ks= esa fdlh p;fur fp= vFkok p;fur
Hkkx dks fDyi cksMZ ij Hk.Mkfjr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA Cut o Copy
fodYiksa esa dsoy bruk lk vUrj gS fd Cut ls p;fur Hkkx dk;Z{ks= ls feV
tkrk gS tcfd Copy fodYi ls p;fur dk;Z {ks= Hkkx ls feVrk ugha gSA
5- Paste
bl fodYi dk mi;ksx fDyi cksMZ esa Hk.Mkfjr Hkkx dks iqu% dk;Zdkjh {ks=
esa ykus gsrq fd;k tkrk gSA
mijksDr ehuw vFkok mi ehuw dk dqath iVy }kjk Hkh p;u dj ldrs gSaA dqath iVy
ij nck;h xbZ dqaft;ksa dks dek.M dh 'kkWVZdV dqath (Shortcut) dgrs gSaA
'kkWVZdV dqath (Shortcut)
ehuw @ miehuw

3-11
3-11.66

File Menu

Alt + F

Edit Menu

Alt + E

File - New

Ctrl + N

File - Save

Ctrl + S

Edit - Undo

Ctrl + Z

Edit - Repeat

F4

Edit - Cut

Ctrl + X

Edit - Copy

Ctrl + C

Edit - Paste

Ctrl + V

oMZ iSM (Wordpad)

foUMkst vkWijsfVax flLVe ds lkFk tks lqfo/kk,a nh xbZ gS muesa ls ,d lqfo/kk oMZ
iSM gSA ge oMZ iSM esa i= Vkbi djds fizUV dj ldrs gSaA bls ge oMZ izkslslj Hkh dg ldrs
gSaA ekbkslkWV oMZ esa dbZ lqfo/kk,a miyC/k gSa tks oMZ iSM esa ugha gSAa vFkkZr~ ;fn gekjs ikl
ekbkslkWV oMZ ugha gS rks dqN lhekvksa ds lkFk oMZ iSM ls dke pyk;k tk ldrk gSA oMZ
iSM esa miyC/k lHkh lqfo/kk,a ekbkslkWV oMZ esa gSa ijUrq ekbkslkWV oMZ esa miyC/k lqfo/
kk,a oMZ iSM esa ugha gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 101

oMZ iSM esa dke djus ds fy, fuEu izf;k viukbZ tkrh gSA
igys LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsAa vc izkx
s kz e ehuw ds Accessories vkSj vUr esa word
pad fodYi dk p;u djsaA

42 oMZ iSM vkjEHk djuk


fp= 33.42
,slk djus ij Lhu ij fuEu fo.Mks iznf'kZr gksxhA

fp= 33.43
43 oMZ iSM dh eq[; fo.Mks
bl fo.Mks esa lcls ij VkbVy ckj gS ftlesa ubZ Qkby dk uke (Document)rFkk
nk;ha vkSj oMZ iSM dks NksVk cM+k vFkok cUn djus ds fy, cVu gSAa VkbVy ckj ds uhps ehuw
ckj] mlds uhps LVS.MMZ Vwy ckj] mlds uhps QkWjesV Vwy ckj rFkk mlds uhps :yj js[kk gSA
dlZj izFke iafDr ij fLFkr gSA ;gka ge Vkbi djuk vkjEHk dj ldrs gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 102

ubZ Qkby [kksyuk (Opening New File)


ubZ Qkby [kksyus ds fy, dqath iVy ij Ctrl o N dqt
a h nck;sa ;k ekml }kjk Qkby
ehuw ds New fodYi dk p;u djasA

44 oMZ esa ubZ Qkby [kksyuk


fp= 33.44
oMZ iSM pkj fofHkUu izdkj dh Qkbyksa ds fodYi iznf'kZr djsxkA viuh bPNkuqlkj
Qkby dk p;u dj OK cVu ij fDyd djsaA
Hk.Mkfjr (Saved) Qkby dks [kksyuk (Opening Saved File)
Hk.Mkfjr Qkby dks [kksyus ds fy, Ctrl+O dqath nck;sa ;k Qkby ehuw ds Open
fodYi dk p;u djsaA oMZ iSM ,d Open Mk;ykWx ckDl iznf'kZr djsxkA bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl
esa mi;qDr Qkby dk p;u dj OPEN cVu ij fDyd djsaA
Qkby dks Hk.Mkj.k save djuk (Saving File)
oMZ iSM esa Qkby dks Hk.Mkj.k djus ds fy, Ctrl+S dqath nck;sa vFkok Qkby ehuw
esa ls Save fodYi dk p;u djsaA oMZ iSM Save As Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznf'kZr djsxkA ;gka File
Name fodYi esa bfPNr Qkby uke Vkbi dj Save cVu ij fDyd djsaA Qkby Save gks
tk;sxh rFkk dlZj iqu% Qkby ij vk tk;sxkA
oMZ iSM esa Qkby dks fizUV djuk (Printing File in Wordpad)
oMZ iSM esa Qkby dks fizUV djus ds fy, igys mls [kksyas (Open djsa mlds ckn dqt
a h
iVy ij Ctrl+P vFkok Qkby ehuw esa Print fodYi dk p;u djsaA ,slk djus ij Print
Mk;ykWx ckDl iznf'kZr gksxkA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 103

fp= 33.45
45 fizUV MkW;ykx ckWDl
;gka vko'drkuqlkj ist ekad o izfr;kas dh la[;k Vkbi dj OK cVu ij fDyd
djsAa
fizUV djus ls iwoZ ns[kuk (Print Preview)
Qkby dks dkxt ij fizUV djus ls iwoZ ;g ns[kus ds fy, fd fizUV dkxt ij fdl
izdkj fn[ksxk] fizUV fizO;w fodYi dk iz;skx djrs gSA fizUV fizO;w ns[kuss ds fy;s File ehuw esa
ls Print Preview fodYi dk p;u djsaA

fp= 33.46
46 fizUV fizO;w
fizUV fizO;w esa miyC/k fodYiksa Print, Next page, pre page, zoomout, close vkfn
dk iz;ksx dj vko'drkuqlkj fizO;w ns[ks tk ldrs gSaA tSls vxys ist dks ns[kus ds fy, Next
page, ,d le; ij ,d ist ns[kus ds fy, One page fodYi dk iz;ksx djsa vkfnA
ist dk vkdkj vkfn cnyuk (Changing Page Setup) :;fn mi;ksx drkZ oMZ esa fu/kkZfjr vkdkj ds ist dke esa ugha ysuk pkgs rks ist ds
vkdkj dks cny ldrs gSaA blds fy, Qkby ehuw ds fodYi Page Setup dk p;u djsaA oMZ
ist lsVvi Mk;ykWx ckDl iznf'kZr djsxkA ;gka miyC/k fodYiksa dk iz;ksx dj ist dk
vkdkj] ist dk ekftZu vkfn cny ldrs gaSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 104

Vkbi fd;s x;s 'kCnksa dk lEiknu djuk (Editing Typed Words)


Vkbi dj pqds 'kCnksa dks gVkuk] muds vkdkj c<+kuk] muds QkWUV cnyuk] ,d ls vf/
kd LFkku ij dkWih djuk] 'kCn <wa<uk vkfn dk;Z dks ge lEiknu djuk dgrs gaAS
'kCnks dks gVkuk (Deleting Words)
ftu 'kCnksa vFkok okD;ksa dks gVkuk gS mudks ekml }kjk vFkok dqt
a h iVy }kjk p;u
dj ysaA blds i'pkr~ Ctrl+X nck;sa vFkok Edit menu esa ls cut fodYi dk p;u djsaA
p;fur Hkkx Qkby ess ls gV tk;sxk rFkk mldh fDyi cksMZ ij dkWih gks tk;sxhA
'kCnkas dh ,d ls vf/kd LFkku ij dkWih djuk (Copying Words at more
than one Place)

ftu 'kCnksa dh ,d ls vf/kd LFkku ij dkWih djuh gks rks mudk p;u dj ysa rFkk
Ctrl+C dqaft;ka nck;sa ;k Edit ehuw esa ls Copy fodYi dk p;u djsAa p;fur Hkkx fDYki cksMZ
ij pys tk;sx
a saA
vc tgka mu p;fur 'kCnksa dh dkWih djuh gks ogka ij dlZj yk;sa rFkk Edit ehuw esa
ls Paste fodYi dk p;u djsa ;k dqath iVy ij Ctrl+V dqaft;ka ,d lkFk nck,aA
Qkby esa fdlh fo'ks"k 'kCn dks <wa<uk (Searching Specific words in File) :oMZ iSM esa Qkby esa Vkbi fd;s x;s 'kCnksa esa fdlh ,d 'kCn dks <a<w ldrs gSAa ,slk
djus ds fy, Edit ehuw esa ls Find fodYi dk p;u djasA ,slk djus ij oMZ iSM Find Mk;ykWx
ckWDl iznf'kZr djsxkA

fp= 33.47
47 QkbUM MkW;ykWx ckDl
bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl ds Find what fodYi ds vkxs ml 'kCn dks Vkbi dj nsa ftls
<aw<uk gSA mlds ckn Find Next cVu ij fDyd djsAa ,slk djus ls tks 'kCn ge <aw<uk pkg
jgs gSa ml 'kCn ij dlZj vk tk;sxkA ;fn Qkby esa 'kCn dks vkSj <aw<uk gS rks Edit ehuw esa
Find Next fodYi dks pqusA bl izdkj Qkby esa 'kCn dgka&dgka ij gS ;s <w<a ldrs gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 105

fdlh 'kCn dks vU; 'kCn ls cnyuk (Replacing Word with another Word)
Qkby esa fdlh 'kCn dks <wa<dj ml 'kCn dks vU; 'kCn ls cnyus ds fy, Edit ehuw
esa ls Replace fodYi dk p;u djsa ;k dqt
a h iVy ij Ctrl+H dqaft;ksa dks nck;saA ,slk djus
ij Replace Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznf'kZr gksxkA

fp= 33.48
48 fjIysl MkW;ykWx ckDl
bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl ds Find what eas <wa<s tkus okys 'kCn dks Vkbi djsa o Replace
with fodYi og 'kCn Vkbi djsa ftlls cnyuk gSA vc ;fn ,d&,d dj 'kCn cnyus gks
rks Replace cVu nck;aAs ;fn ,d lkFk lHkh 'kCnksa dks cnyuk gks rks Replace All cVu ij
fDyd djaAs
oMZ iSM vU; dek.M Hkh blh izdkj dk;Z djrs gSAa blds dk;Z djus ds rjhds Hkh fcYdqy mlh
izdkj gSa tSls ekbkslkWV oMZ esaA vr% 'ks"k dek.M ds ckjs esa ge foLrkj ls ekbkslkWV oMZ
esa i<sxAsa
3-12 dsydwysVj (Calculator)
fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe esa miyC/k ,sll
s jht esa ls ,d egRoiw.kZ ,sll
s jh dsydwyVs j
gSA ;g vadxf.krh; x.kukvksa ds fy;s mlh izdkj dke djrk gaS tSls vke dsydwysVj dke
djrs gSA dsydwyVs j ij dke djus ds fy, izkx
s zke ehuw ds ,slsljh fodYi esa ls dsydwysVj
fodYi dk p;u djsaA

fp= 33.49
49 dsydwysVj [kksyuk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 106

,slk djus ij Lhu ij Standard dsydwysVj iznf'kZr gksxkA

fp= 33.50
50 LVS.MMZ dsydwysVj
fo.Mkst esa dsydwysVj 2 izdkj ds gksrs gSaA
(1) Standard
(2) Scientific

fp= 3 .51 lkbfUVfQd dsydwysVj

LVS.MMZ izdkj dk dsydwysVj dsoy vadxf.krh; x.kukvksa ds fy, gh mi;ksxh gSA


tcfd Scientific dsydwysVj esa dbZ izdkj dh oSKkfudh x.kuk,a Hkh dh tk ldrh gSa tSls
f=dks.kferh; x.kuk,a] ckbujh x.kuk,a vkfnA
mi;ksxdrkZ vius bfPNr dsydwyVs j ij dk;Z djus ds fy, View ehuw ij fDyd djsa

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 107

rFkk bl ehuw esa ls Standard vFkok Scientific fodYi dk p;u djsaA


vc ftl izdkj lk/kkj.k dsydwysVj ij vadxf.krh; x.kuk,a djrs mlh izdkj bl
ij Hkh ekml }kjk vad okys cVu ij fDyd dj ds x.kuk,a dh tk ldrh gSA

3-13 foUMks ,DlIyksjj (Window Explorer)


tSlk fd ge igys i<+ pqds gaS fd fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe ds
lcls lkDr VwYl esa ls ,d gSA ;g gesa fofHkUu Qkbyksa ;k QksYMjksa ij dk;Z djus dh
lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA blds }kjk ge Qkbyksa vFkok QksYMjksa ij yxHkx leLr izdkj ds dk;Z
dj ldrs gSa tSls ,d Qkby dks ,d LFkku ls nwljs LFkku ij LFkkukUrfjr djuk] izfrfyfi
djuk] gVkuk ;k ;g Kkr djuk fd fdlh Mkbo ij fdruk LFkku fjDr gS vkfnA ;gkW rd
fd bl Vwy ds }kjk ge ;g Hkh Kkr dj ldrs gaS fd dksbZ foks"k ,DthD;wVscy pyus ;ksX;
Qkby fdl Mkbo o fdl LFkku ij lso gS ftlls fd bl Qkby dk kkWVd
Z V cuk;k tk ldsA
fo.Mksa ,DlIyksjj izksxkz e dks pykus ds fy, LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djsa] izkx
s kz e fodYi dk p;u
djsa rFkk bl izksxzke ehuw esa ls fo.Mksa ,DlIyksjj fodYi ij fDyd djsaA

52 fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj
fp= 3 .52
fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj ds fp= 3.52 esa ge ns[k ldrs gaS fd ;g nks Hkkxksa esa foHkDr gSA
ck;sa rjQ esa mu lHkh Mkbo o QksYMjksa dh lwph gksrh gS tks gekjs dEI;wVj ij miyC/k gaS

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 108

tcfd nk;sa Hkkx esa os lHkh QksYMj o Qkbys gSa tks ck;sa Hkkx dh lwph esa p;fur QksYMj ds
vUnj gSAa nksuksa Hkkxksa esa vko';drkuqlkj LkWy ckj gS ftlds ek/;e ls lwph dks ij@uhps
;k nk;sa@ck;sas fd;k tk ldrk gSA ck;sa rjQ dh lwph esa ns[ksa fd gkMZ fMLd C% o ykWih
Mkbo nksuksa ekbZ dEI;wVj QksYMj ls uhps gS rFkk MkWVM
s js[kk ls tqM+h gS rFkk ekbZ dEI;wVj iqu%
MsLdVkWi QksYMj ls uhps gS rFkk ;g Hkh MsLdVkWi ls MkWVsM js[kk ls tqM+k gSA bldk vFkZ ;g
gS fd gkMZ fMLd o ykWih fMLd nksuksa ekbZ dEI;wVj ds vUnj gaS rFkk ekbZ dEI;wVj QksYMj
MsLdVkWi ds vUnj gSA fo.Mkst ,DlIyksjj ds vuqlkj lHkh Mkbo ekbZ dEI;wVj QksYMj dk Hkkx
gSA ck;h rjQ iznfkZr lwph esa ftl QksYMj ls iwoZ /ku $ dk fpUg gS ml QksYMj ds vUnj
vkSj Hkh QksYMj gaS ftldh lwph iznfkZr djkuk pkgsa rks bu /ku $ fpUg ij fDyd djsaA fpUg
ij fDyd djus ls QksYMj ds vUnj mifLFkr mi QksYMjksa dh lwph iznfkZr gks tkrh gS rFkk
/ku ds fpUg ds LFkku ij _.k & fpUg iznfkZr gks tkrk gSA _.k dk fpUg ;g iznfkZr
djrk gS fd QksYMj ds vUnj mifLFkr QksYMjksa dh lwph iznfkZr gSA ;fn bl mi lwph dks
iqu% cUn djuk pkgsa rks _.k & fpUg ij fDyd djsaA blh izdkj ;fn fdlh QksYMj ds
uke ls iwoZ dksbZ Hkh fpUg u gks rks bldk vFkZ ;g gS fd bl QksYMj ds vUnj dksbZ Hkh mi
QksYMj ughaa gSA
3-13-1 fdlh QksYMj dks ns[kuk Exploring a Folder
;fn ge fdlh QksYMj ds vUnj fLFkr lcQksYMj o Qkbyksa dks ns[kuk pkgas rks fo.Mksa
,DlIyksjj dh ck;sa lwph esa bl QksYMj dk p;u dj ysaA lk/kkj.kr;k ck;sa lwph es ap;fur
QksYMj dh Qkbyksa o lcQksYMjksa ds uke o vkbdu nk;sa Hkkx esa iznfkZr gks tkrs gSA ;fn
nk;s Hkkx esa lcQksYMjksa o Qkbyksa ds uke iznfkZr u gkas rks ck;sa lwph esa fLFkr QksYMj ij dlZj
ykdj ekml dk nk;k cVu fDyd djsaA QksYMj ds ikl ,d ikWivi ehuw iznfkZr gksxk bl
ehuw esa ls ,DlIyksjj Explorer fodYi dk p;u djsAa ,slk djus ij p;fur QksYMj esa fLFkr
Qkbyksa o lcQksYMjksa ds uke o vkbdu nk;sas Hkkx esa iznfkZr gks tk;saxsA
3-13-2 fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj dks nks LFkkuksa ij [kksyuk (Opening Window Explorer
at two Places)

;fn ge fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj dk mi;ksx dj QksYMj @ Qkby dh ,d LFkku ls nwljs


LFkku ij izfrfyfi djuk pkgs ;k LFkkukUrfjr djuk pkgs rks ;g vPNk jgrk gS fd fo.Mks
,DlIyksjj dh nks fo.Mks Lhu ij [kksy yas vkSj Msx o MkWi izf;k ds ek/;e ls izfrfyfi
;k LFkkukUrfjr dj ldsAa fo.Mksa ,DlIyksjj dh nks fo.Mks Lhu ij [kksyus ds fy, izkx
s kz e ehuw
ds }kjk nks ckj ,DlIyksjj [kksy yasA vHkh ;s fo.Mks ,d ds ij nwljh [kqyx
s hA vc bUgsa
O;ofLFkr djus ds fy; dlZj dks VkLd ckj ij ykdj ekml dk nk;ka cVu fDyd djsaA
iznfkZr ikWivi ehuw esa ls Tile Horizontally ;k Tile Vertically fodYi dk p;u djsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 109

fp= 3 .53
53 nks fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj ij ,d lkFk dk;Z djuk
3-13-3 fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj ds Vwy ,oa mudk mi;ksx %&
fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj ds Vwyckj ij fofHkUu Vwy gaS ftudk mi;ksx djds ge fofHkUu
dk;Z rhoz xfr ls dj ldrs gSaA tc Hkh ge ekml ikWbUVj dks fdlh Vwy ds ij ykrs gSa rks
ml Vwy dk uke iznfkZr gksrk gSA bl uke ls Vwy ds dk;Z ds ckjs esa tkuk tk ldrk gSA
,DlIyksjj ds Vwy ckj ij fLFkr VwYl ds dk;Z ck;sa ls nk;sa ek% fuEu gaSA
1

,DlIyksjj esa iznfkZr ck;sa lwph esa igys p;fur QksYMj ij tkus ds fy;sA

,DlIyksjj esa iznfkZr ck;sa lwph esa vxys p;fur QksYMj ij tkus ds fy;sA

p;fur QksYMj lwph esa ,d Lrj ij ds QksYMj ij tkus ds fy,A

Pk;fur Qkby vFkok QksYMj dks dV djds fDyicksMZ ij Mkyus ds fy;sA

Pk;fur Qkby vFkok QksYMj dh fDyicksMZ ij izfrfyfi djus ds fy;sA

fDyi cksMZ ij Hk.Mkfjr Qkby vFkok QksYMj dh izfrfyfi fMLd ij djus ds fy;sA

vfUre f;k dks gVkus ds fy,A

p;fur QksYMj vFkok Qkby dks fMLd ls gVkus ds fy;sA

p;fur QksYMj vFkok Qkby ds xq.k/keZ cnyus ds fy;sA

10

fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj izkx


s zke ds iznkZu dk rjhdk cnyus ds fy;sA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 110

ge mijksDr VwYl dk iz;ksx dj fofHkUu dk;Z lEikfnr dj ldrs gSaA tSls Qkby
@ QksYMj dks gVkuk] vU;= LFkkukUrfjr djuk] izfrfyfi djuk] xq.k/keksZa ds ifjorZu djuk
bR;kfnA

3-14 bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj (Internet Explorer)


;fn gekjk dEI;wVj bUVjusV ls tqMk+ gqvk gS rks ge bUVjusV dk mi;ksx dj fofHkUu
izdkj dh tkudkfj;kWa izkIr dj ldrs gaS] fofHkUu yksxksa dks Email Hkst ldrs gaS] lwpukvksa dk
vknku&iznku dj ldrs gaS bR;kfnA ijUrq bUVjusV dk iz;ksx djus ds fy;s vko;d gS fd
ge ftl osclkbV dk mi;ksx djuk pkgrs gSa] mldk iw.kZ irk gesa Kkr gks vkSj gekjs ikl
,d osc czkmtj gks tks osc ist dks dEI;wVj ij iznfkZr dj ldsA fo.Mkst&98 vkWijsfVax
flLVe ds lkFk bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj uked osc czkmtj izksxzke kkfey fd;k x;k gSA bl
bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj uked osc czkmtj dk mi;ksx dj ge bUVjusV dk mi;ksx vklkuh ls
dj ldrs gSaA ftl izdkj ls fo.Mksa ,DlIyksjj ds ek/;e ls ge dEI;wVj ij fLFkr fdlh Hkh
Qkby@QksYMj ij vklkuh ls dk;Z dj ldrs gSa blh izdkj bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj ds ek/;e
ls bUVjusV ij fLFkr fdlh Hkh osclkbV dks [kksy ldrs gSa] ml ij dk;Z dj ldrs gSAa
lk/kkj.kr;k% geus ftl dEiuh ls bUVjusV lqfo/kk ys j[kh gS mldk vkbdu
MsLdVkWi ij cuk dj j[krs gSA bl vkbdu ij fDyd djsa rFkk ikloMZ Mkydj bUVjusV
dusDku pkyw djsaA vc bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj ds vkbdu ij fDyd dj bls pkyw djsaA

fp= 3.54 bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 111

3-14-1 bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj ds }kjk fofHkUu osc ist [kksy uk (Opening Web
Page Using Internet Explorer)

,d ckj bUVjusV ls tqM+us o bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj [kksyus ds ckn vklkuh ls fdlh


Hkh cso ist ij tk ldrs gaSA igyh ckj rks gesa mu osc istksa dk irk Vkbi djuk iM+sxk ftu
ij ge tkuk pkgrs gaSA tks&tks osc irs ge Vkbi djrs gSa mls ,DlIyksjj laxzfgr dj ysrk
gSA vr% ;fn iqu% gesa ,slh osclkbV [kksyuh gks tks ge igys [kksy dj cUn dj pqds gkas rks
gesa mldk irk nksckjk Vkbi djus dh vko;drk ugha gSA ,DlIyksjj esa Hk.Mkfjr irksa dh
lwph esa ls p;u djds gh osc ist dks [kksyk tk ldrk gSA bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj ds Vwyckj ij
fLFkr VwYl dk iz;ksx dj vklkuh ls ,oa rhoz xfr ls dk;Z fd;k tk ldrk gSA fofHkUu Vwy
o muds dk;Z fuEu izdkj gSa
Vwy dk uke

dk;Z

CkSd (Back)

iznfkZr osc ist ls iwoZ iznfkZr osc ist ij tkus ds fy;sA ;fn ge
osclkbV ds izFke ist gkse ist ij gS rks ;g Vwy dke ugha
djsxkA

QkWjoMZ Forward

bl Vwy ds }kjk ge osclkbV dk vxyk ist vFkok ns[ks x;s istksa


dh
J`[kayk esa vxyk ist ns[k ldrs gSA ;fn ge ist fgLVh
fyLV esa vfUre ist ij gksa rks ;g Vwy f;k'khy ugha jgsxkA

LVkWi Stop

tc ge fdlh osc ist ij tkus dk funsZ'k ns pqds gkas rFkk ml ist


ij tkuk ugha pkgrs rks bl Vwy dk iz;ksx dj fn;s x;s funsZ'k dks
lEikfnr gksus ls jksd ldrs gaAS

fjs'k Refresh

osc ist dks lgh <ax ls iznf'kZr djus ds fy,A ;fn bUVjusV dh
xfr /kheh gks rks oscist dk izn'kZu iw.kZ :i ls ugha gksrk ml
fLFkfr esa bl Vwy ij fDyd dj osc ist ds izn'kZu dks lgh dj
ldrs gSaA

gkse Home

osc lkbV ds eq[; gkse ist ij tkus ds fy,A

lpZ Search

bl cVu ij fDyd djus ls Lhu ij ,d lpZ&batu iznf'kZr


gksxk] ftldh lgk;rk ls fdlh uke ;k LFkku ds vk/kkj ij osc
lkbV <w<+h tk ldrh gSA

QsojsV Favorites

bl cVu ij fDyd djus ls QsojsV lkbVksa@ MkWD;weUs V dh lwph


iznf'kZr gks tk;sxhA bl lwph esa ls fdlh Hkh irs ij fDyd dj ml
lkbV ij tk ldrs gSaA QsojsV ehuw esa Add fodYi dk iz;ksx dj
fdlh Hkh lkbV ds irs dks bl lwph esa Mkyk tk ldrk gSA

fgLVh History

bl cVu ij fDyd djus ls ,DlIyksjj mu lHkh osclkbVksa ds irkas


dh lwph iznf'kZr djrk gSa ftu ij ge dEI;wVj pykus ds ckn ls

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 112

tk pqds gaSA buesa ls fdlh Hkh irs ij fDyd djds ml osclkbV


ij tk ldrs gSA
pSuy Channels

bl Vwy ds }kjk mu lkbVkas ij tk ldrs gSa tks fd bUVjusV lsok


iznkrk }kjk p;fur fdlh fo'ks"k fo"k; ij gks tSls euksjatu]
O;olk; vkfn fo"k;ksa ij p;fur lkbVasA

Qqy Lhu Full Screen ,DlIyksjj dks iwjh Lhu ;k NksVh Lhu ij iznf'kZr djus ds fy,
bl cVu dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA
esy Mail

bl cVu dk mi;ksx esy Hkstus] esy izkIr djus] URL irk Hkstus
;k U;wt xzqi i<+us vkfn ds fy, djrs gSAa

fizUV Print

iznf'kZr osc ist dks fizUV djus ds fy, bl Vwy dk mi;ksx djrs
gaSA

,fMV (Edit)

bl ij fDyd djus ls UV ist izksxkz e pysxk ftlds }kjk oscist


cuk ldrs gSa ;k lEiknu dj ldrs gaAS

oscist tc Lhu ij iznf'kZr gksrk gS rks bl ist ij dqN lwpuk,Wa fp=] vkokt]
bR;kfn gksrh gSA blds vfrfjDr oscist ij dqN ,sls LFkku Hkh gksrs gS ftu ij fDyd djus
ls Lhu ij u;k ist iznf'kZr gks tkrk gSA bu LFkkuksa dks fyad fcUnq fyad ikWbUV dgrs gSAa
bu fcUnqvksa ij ekml ikWbUVj ykus ij ekml ikWbUVj dk vkdkj gkFk dh vkd`fr esa ifjofrZr
gks tkrk gSA lk/kkj.kr% fyad fcUnq ij fy[ks 'kCn fHkUu jax ds gksrs gaS rFkk buds uhps js[kk
cuh gksrh gSaA
3-14-2 bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj }kjk E-mail Hkstuk (Sending E-Mail Using Internet
Explorer)

oSls rks E-mail Hkstus ;k i<+us ds fy;s vkmVyqd ,Dlizl


s Outlook Express izkx
s kz e
dk mi;ksx djuk T;knk lqfo/kktud gksrk gSA ijUrq bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj ds }kjk Hkh E-mail
Hkstk ;k i<+k tk ldrk gSA blds }kjk E-mail Hkstus dh fof/k fuEu gSA
1-

bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj izksxzke dks pykdj blds Qkby ehuw esa ls U;w fodYi ds ckn
eSlst Message fodYi dk p;u djsasA

2-

iznf'kZr ist ds To fodYi ds vkxs mldk irk fy[ks tgk E-mail Hkstuh gSA

3-

Subject fodYi ds vkxs E-mail dk fo"k; Vkbi djs nsa ftlls fd lan's k i<+us okys dks

fo"k; Kkr gks lds fd fdl fo"k; ij lan's k gSA


4-

lans'k {ks= eSlst ,fj;k esa fDyda djs o lan's k Vkbi dj nasA

5-

vUr esa Send fodYi ij fDyd dj nsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 113

fp= 33.55
55 E-mail Hkstuk
bl izdkj ls bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj dk iz;ksx dj E-mail Hkstk tk ldrk gSA

3-15 dUVksy iSuy

(Control Panel)

dUVksy iSuy izksxkze ,d ,sls izksxzkeksa dk lewg gS ftldk mi;ksx dEI;wVj flLVe
ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks fu;af=r djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gS tSls dEI;wVj ds fofHkUu lkWVos;j
dks gVkuk ;k tksMu+ k] fofHkUu gkMZo;
s j dEI;wVj ij yxkdj f;k'khy cukuk] dEI;wVj flLVe
ds le;] fnukad cnyuk] ekWMse yxkuk] ikloMZ Mkyuk] ekml dh dk;Z iz.kkyh cnyuk
bR;kfnA dUVksy iSuy izkx
s zke dks pykus ds fy, LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djs] LVkVZ ehuw es ls
lsfVax fodYi] vkSj lsfVax ehuw es ls dUVky
s iSuy fodYi dk p;u djsaA
dUVksy iSuy esa fofHkUu izdkj ds dk;ksZ ds fy, fofHkUu vkbdu gSA tks dk;Z
lEikfnr djuk gS mlds vuq:i vkbdu dk p;u djsaA ge fizUVj tksM+uk] ekml dh lsfVax
cnyuk] {ksf=; lsfVax cnyuk] gkMZos;j o lkWVos;j gVkuk ,oa tksM+uk vkfn ds ckjs esa i<sx
a As

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 114

fp= 3.56 dUVksy iSuy


3-15-1 u;s izksxzke tksM+uk@gVkuk (Add/Remove New Program)
fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe esa u;s izksxzke tksM+us ;k gVkus ds fy, dUVksy iSuy esa ls
Add/Remove Program vkbdu ij fDyd djsaA ,slk djus ij Lhu ij Add/Remove
Program uked fo.Mks iznf'kZr gksxhA bl fo.Mks ij rhu fofHkUu VSc e'k% fuEu 3 dk;ksZ
ds fy;s gaS%&
1-

,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j tksM+uk@gVkukA

2-

fo.Mkst ds Hkkx dks tksM+uk@gVkukA

3-

LVkVZ vi fMLd cukukA

fp= 3.57 ,M@fjewo izksxzke fo.Mks

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 115

3-15-1-1,Iyhds'ku lkWVos;j tksM+us@gVkus ds fy;s (Add/Remove Application


Software):

fo.Mks esa ls bUlVky@vubUlVky (Install/uninstall) VSc ij fDyd djaAs tks izkx


s kz e
tksM+uk pkgrs gaS mldh lh-Mh- ;k ykWih lh-Mh- Mkbo ;k ykWih Mkbo esa MkysAa vc izksxzke
tksMu+ s (Install) djus dh izf;k vkjEHk gks tk;sxh rFkk bl nkSjku izkx
s kz e esa crk;s x;s funs'Z kks
dk vuqlj.k djsaA
3-15-1-2 fo.Mkst ds Hkkx dks tksM+us @gVkus ds fy;s (Add/Remove Window
Components):

fo.Mks esa fo.Mkst lsVvi (Windows Setup) VSc ij fDyd djsaA bl VSc ij fDyd
djus ij Lhu ij fo.Mkst ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dh ,d oxhZdr` lwph iznf'kZr gksxhA ;fn lwph
ds fdlh Hkh oxZ ds vU; Hkkxksa ds ckjs eas tkuuk pkgs rks ml oxZ dk p;u dj fMVsy (Detail)
cVu ij fDyd djsAa bl oxhZd`r lwph esa ls fdlh Hkh oxZ dk p;u dj OK cVu ij fDyd
djus ls p;fur oxZ ds Hkkx fo.Mks esa tqM+ tk;sxsaA
;fn oxhZdr` lwph eas ls dksbZ oxZ p;fur gks rFkk Hkwjs (gray) jax esa gS rks ml oxZ
ds iwjs Hkkx fo.Mks eas u tqM+dj dqN p;fur Hkkx gh tqMsxsaA bl oxZ esa ls dkSu&2 ls Hkkx
fo.Mkst esa tqM+saxs ;g tkuus ds fy, fMVsy cVu ij fDyd djds ns[k ldrs gaAS
;fn fo.Mks t ds ;s Hkkx lh-Mh- ds }kjk bUlVky dj jga s gks rks
lh-Mh- Mkbo esa Mkydj OK cVu ij fDyd djsaA
3-15-1-3 LVkVZvi fMLd cukuk (Creating Startup Disk)
;fn gekjs dEI;wVj dks lhMh ls cwV djuk pkgsa rks gekjs ikl LVkVZvi fMLd dk gksuk
vko';d gSA ;fn ge LVkVZvi fMLd cukuk pkgas rks Add/Remove Program Properties
fo.Mks esa ls LVkVZvi fMLd VSc ij fDyd djsAa lhMh Mkbo esa lhMh ;k ykWih Mkbo esa ykWih
Mkydj Create cVu ij fDyd djasA
3-15-2 u;s gkMZos;j tksMuk (Add New Hardware)
fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe dk iz;ksx djrs gq;s dEI;wVj ij u;k gkMZos;j tksM+uk
cgqr gh vklku gSA dEI;wVj dks cUn djs] tks gkMZos;j tksM+uk gS mls dEI;wVj ls tksMas rFkk
dEI;wVj dks iqu% pkyw djsaA fo.Mkst u;s gkMZos;j dks Lo;a igpku ysxk rFkk ml gkMZos;j
dks f;k'khy cukus dss fy;s vko';d dk;Zokgh dj ysxkA bl izf;k dks Iyx ,.M Iys eksM
ds vuq:i dgrs gaSA ;fn u;k gkMZo;
s j Iyx ,.M Iys eksM ekud ls cus gaS rks fo.Mks Loa; bUgsa
igpku dj f;k'khy cuk ysrk gSA tks gkMZos;j Iyx ,.M Iys ekud ls ugha cus gS mUgs
dEI;wVj ij tksMd
+ j dUVky
s izkx
s kz e ds }kjk f;k'khy cuk ldrs gSA vr% dEI;wVj ls gkMZo;s j
tksMu+ s ds i'pkr dEI;wVj pkyw djsa ,oa LVkVZ cVu ds ek/;e ls lsfVax o dUVky
s iSuy fodYi

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 116

dk p;u dj ysaA dUVksy iSuy fo.Mks eas ls ,M U;w gkMZos;j fotkMZ (Add New Harware
Wizard) }kjk iznf'kZr lwpukvksa dks /;ku iwod
Z i<sa o muds vuq:i Next cVu] Cancel cVu
;k Back cVu ij fDyd djrs gq;s vkxs c<+saA Cancel cVu dk iz;ksx izf;k dks cUn djus
ds fy;s djrs g]S Next cVu dk iz;ksx vkxs c<+us ds fy,] tcfd Back cVu dk iz;ksx ,d
dne ihNs tkus ds fy, djrs gSaA ,M U;w gkMZos;j fotkMZ (Add New Harware Wizard) ds
izFke ist ij Next cVu fDyd djus ls ;g u;s gkMZos;j dh igpku djsxk rFkk gels iwNx
s k
fd u;k gkMZos;j lwph esa fn[kk;s uke dk gS vFkok ughaA D;k ;gh gkMZos;j gS ;fn ;gh
gkMZos;j gS rc rks ;l (yes) fodYi dk p;u djsa vU;Fkk uks (No) fodYi dk p;u dj
Next cVu ij fDyd djsaA

fp= 3.58 u;k gkMZos;j tksMuk


;fn fo.Mkst u;s gkMZos;j dks ugha igpku lds rks gkMZos;j dh lwph [kkyh gksxh
,slh fLFkfr esa Lhu ij ,d vU; fo.Mks iznf'kZr dj gels ;g iwNx
s k fd D;k iqu% ,sls gkMZo;s j
dh igpku djuh gS tks Iyx ,.M Iys ekud ds ugha gS ;gk yes fodYi dk p;u dj iqu%
gkMZos;j ds igpku dh izf;k vkjEHk djus ds fy, Next cVu ij fDyd djsaA bl izdkj
gkMZos;j dh igpku gksus ds ckn fotkMZ gkMZos;j cukus okyh dEiuh ds uke o muds mRikn

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 117

ds ekWMy dh lwph iznf'kZr djsxkA

fp= 3.59 u;k gkMZos;j tksMus dh izf;k es gkMZos;j cukus okyh dEiuh o
gkMZos;j dk ekWMy p;u djuk
bu lwfp;ksa esas ls lgh fodYi dk p;u dj Next cVu ij fDyd dj nsaA bl izdkj
ls fo.Mks ml gkMZos;j dk lapkyd Mkboj dEI;wVj ij Mky nsxk ftlls fd gkMZos;j
f;k'khy gks tk;sA ;fn gkMZos;j dk lapkyd lhMh ij gks rks Next cVu ij fDyd djus
ls iwoZ lhMh dks dEI;wVj ij Mky nsaA

3-16 fizUVj dks tksM+dj f;k'khy cukuk (Add Printer)


ftl izdkj ls vU; gkMZo;
s lZ dks dEI;wVj ij tksMd
+ j f;k'khy cuk;k tkrk gS mlh
izdkj fizUVj dks tksM+dj f;k'khy cuk;k tk ldrk gSA dsoy gesa bruk lk /;ku j[kuk gS
fd tgk gkMZos;lZ dks tksM+us ds fy, dUVky
s iSuy esa ls ,M U;w gkMZos;j vkbdu ij fDyd
djrs Fks ijUrq fizUVj tksM+us ds fy, fizUVj vkbdu ij fDyd djuk gksxkA
dEI;wVj ls fizUVj dks tksM+ nas vkSj dUVksy iSuy esa ls fizUVj vkbdu ij fDyd dj
fuEu fof/k dk vuqlj.k djsaA
1-

,M fizUVj (Add Printer) fodYi ij fDyd djsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 118

2-

tc ,M fizUVj fotkMZ vkjEHk gks tk;s rks ogk ij Next cVu ij fDyd djsaA

3-

fizUVj cukus okyh dEiuh o ekWMy dk uke iznf'kZr lwph esa p;u djsaA

4-

dEI;wVj ds ftl iksVZ ij fizUVj dks tksM+k x;k gS mldk uke p;u djsaA lk/kkj.kr;k
Lpt1 iksVZ ij ge fizUVj tksMrs gSaA vr% tc rd fo'ks"k ifjfLFkfr;k u gks bls Lpt1
ij gh j[ksaA

5-

fizUVj dks ftl uke ls tkuuk pkgrs gaS og uke Vkbi djsasA

6-

,d tkap ist (Test Page) fizUV djds ns[k ysaA

7-

vUr esa Finish cVu ij fDyd djsaA

fp= 3.60 fizUVj dks tksM+dj f;k'khy cukuk


fizUVj dks gVkuk (Remove Printer)% ;fn fdlh fizUVj dks dUVksy iSuy ds fizUVj
fodYi ls gVkuk gks rks izksxzke ehuw ds lSfVax fodYi esa ls fizUVj fodYi dk p;u djsaA vc
ftl fizUVj dks gVkuk gS bl fo'ks"k fizUVj ds vkbdu ij ekml dk nk;ka cVu fDyd djsaA
iznf'kZr ikWivi ehuw esa ls fMyhV (Delete) fodYi dk p;u djasA gels tc iqu% iwNk tk;s

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 119

fd D;k okLro esa bl fizUVj dks gVkuk pkgrs gSa rks ;gk gk (yes) fodYi ij fDyd dj
nsAa

1-15 flLVe le; o fnukad cnyuk (Setting System date & time)
dEI;wVj flLVe dh ?kM+h dk le; o fnukad cnyuk pkgas rks blds fy;s dUVksy
iSuy esa fLFkr fnukad o le; (date & time) fodYi dk p;u djuk gksxkA blds p;u djus
ij fnukad o le; Mk;ykWx ckWDl Lhu ij iznf'kZr gksxk bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa fLFkr le;]
fnukad] fnukad dk izk:i] le; dk izk:i vkfn ds fodYiksa dk mi;ksx djds lEcfU/kr eku
dks ifjorZu djsaA
lk/kkj.kr;k% dEI;wVj dh ?kM+h dk le; MsLdVkWi ij fLFkr VkLd ckj ij nk;ha rjQ
iznf'kZr gksrk gSA ijUrq ;fn ge o"kZ] fnukad o fnu ds ckjs esa tkuuk pkgas rks ekml ikWbUVj
dks VkLd ckj ij fLFkr ?kM+h ds fp= ij j[kasA ekml ikWbUVj ds Vwy fVi ij o"kZ] fnukad o
fnu Hkh iznf'kZr gks tk;sxkA ;fn ge VkLd ckj ij fLFkr ?kM+h ds fp= ;k Vwy dks gVkuk pkgs
rks LVkVZ ehuw es ls lsfVax o fQj iznf'kZr mi ehuw esa ls VkLd ckj o LVkVZ ehuw fodYi dk
p;u djsaA iznf'kZr fodYiksa es ls 'kks Dyksd (Show clock) fodYi ls iwoZ lgh (right) ds fpUg
dks gVk nsAa VkLd ckj ls ?kMh dk Vwy gV tk;sxkA
VkLd ckj ij fLFkr ?kM+h ds Vwy ij ekml dk nk;k cVu fDyd djds Hkh dEI;wVj
dh ?kM+h esa fnu o le; cnyk tk ldrk gSA bl fof/k ls le; o fnu cnyus ds fy, igys
VkLd ckj ij ekml dk nk;ka cVu fDyd djsa rFkk iznf'kZr ikWivi ehuw esa ls ,MtsLV MsV
,.M Vkbe (Adjust date & time) fodYi dk p;u djsaA bl izdkj ls fnukad o le; (date
& time) Mk;ykWx ckWDl iznf'kZr gks tk;sxkA ftlesa le; o fnukad dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA

3-17 ekml dh dk;Z iz.kkyh cnyuk (Mouse Setting):


fo.Mkst vksijsfVax flLVe esa ekml dk vf/kd mi;ksx gksrk gS vr% ;g vko';d
gS fd ekml dh dk;Zi.z kkyh dks mi;ksxdrkZ ds vuqlkj O;ofLFkr fd;k tk ldsA ftlls fd
mi;ksxdrkZ dks dk;Z djus esa vklkuh cuh jgsA
s@ck;as gkFk ds vuqlkj cnyuk
cnyuk%& lk/kkj.kr;k ekml dh dk;Zi.z kkyh nk;sa
3-17-1 nk;@ck
gkFk ds mi;ksxdrkZ ds vuqlkj gksrh gSA ;fn ck;sa gkFk ds mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk ekml iz;ksx esa
ysuk gks rks bls cnyuk gksxkA nk;as o ck;sa gkFk ds vuqlkj ekml dks O;ofLFkr djus ds fy;s%&
1-

dUVksy iSuy esa ls ekml vkbdu dk p;u djsaA

2-

iznf'kZr ekml izksiVhZ Mk;ykWx ckWDl eas ls nk;as vFkok ck;as fodYi dk p;u dj ,IykbZ

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 120

(Apply) cVu ij fDyd djsaA

fp= 3.61 ekml dks nk;as@ck;as gkFk ds vuqlkj cnyuk


3-17-2 ekml ikWbUVj dh vkd`fr cnyuk (Changing Mouse Pointer Shape)%&
ekml ikWbUVj dh vkd`fr dks ge viuh bPNkuqlkj vU; vkd`fr esa cny ldrs gaSA fo.Mkst
esa dqN vkd`fr;k Hk.Mkfjr gS buds vfrfjfDr ge vU; vkd`fr;k Hkh iz;ksx esa ys ldrs gaAS
ekml ikWbUVj dh vkd`fr cnyus dh fof/k fuEu gSA
1-

dUVksy iSuy esa ls ekml vkbdu dk p;u djsaA

2-

iznf'kZr ekml izkis VhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa ls ikWbUVj (Pointer) VSc dk p;u djsAa ekml
izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl ij fofHkUu dk;kasZ ds fy, fofHkUu ikWbUVjks dh vkd`fr;k iznf'kZr
gksxhaA tSls gSYi dk;Z ds fy;s] O;Lr (Busy) ds fy, bR;kfnA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 121

fp= 3.62 ekml ikWbUVj cnyuk


3-

ftl dk;Z ds fy, ikWbUVj dh vkd`fr cnyuh gS ml dk;Z dk p;u djys rFkk czkmt
cVu ij fDyd djsaA

fp= 3.63 ekml czkmt

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 122

4-

iznf'kZr czkmt Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa fofHkUu ikWbUVj iznf'kZr gksxAs buesa ls bfPNr ikWbUVj
dk p;u dj Open cVu ij fDyd djsaA

5-

ekml izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl ij OK cVu ij fDyd djsA

3-18 {ks= cnyuk (Regional Setting):


fo'o ds fofHkUu ns'kksa esa fnukad le;] la[;k vkfn fy[kus dk izk:i fHkUu fHkUu gaSA
vr% ge ftl ns'k vFkok 'kgj esa dEI;wVj dk mi;ksx dj jgs gaS mlh ds vuqlkj gesa ;s izk:i
cnyus gksxasA {ks= cnyus ds (Regional Setting) ds fy, dUVksy iSuy esa ls jhtuy lSfVax
(Regional Setting) vkbdu ij Mcy fDyd djasA vc iznf'kZr Mk;ykWx ckWDl esa lcls igys
HkkSxksfyd {ks= (Geographical area) dk p;u djsaA vc bl HkkSxksfyd {ks= ds vuq:i vU;
eku esa ifjorZu djysA tc ge bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl es OK cVu ij fDyd djsx
a As rks dEI;wVj
cUn djds iqu vkjEHk gksxkA

egoiw.kZ fcUnq
fo.Mkst (Windows) fo.Mkst ,d vkWijsfVax flLVe gS ;g lkWVos;j dEI;wVj ds leLr
?kVdksa dks fu;af=r ,oa O;ofLFkr djrk gSA
MsLdVkWi (Desktop) Lhu dk og {ks= ftlesa fo.Mkst] vkbdu] ehuw rFkk Mk;ykWx ckDl
iznf'kZr gksrk gSA
VkLdckj (Taskbar) ;g ckj Bar) vFkkZr ykbu tks dh Lhu ds fupys Hkkx ij ikbZ tkrh
gSA bl ckj esa gh LVkVZ cVu ik;k tkrk gSA
LVkVZ cVu %& bldh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj esa fLFkr izksxzkeksa dks pyk;k tkrk gSA ;g cVu
VkLdckj ij ik;k tkrk gSaA
fo.Mkst dh lajpuk (Structure of Windows) lHkh fo.Mkst lajpuk esa leku gksrh gSA
vkids ikl fofHkUu pqukoksa ds fy, vkbdu ;qDr fo.Mks gks ldrh gS vFkok ,d ,slh fo.Mks tks
fd fofHkUu izkx
s kz El ds fy, Lhu fn[kk;sA foUMks dks [kksyus ds fy, bl ij vk/kkfjr vkbdu
ij Mcy fDyd djsAa
fdlh foUMks dks fefuekbZt] fjLVksj o eSDlhekbZt djuk fdlh foUMks dks ge viuh
vko';drk ds vuq:i Hkh fefuekbZt] fjLVksj rFkk eSDlhekbZt dj ldrs gaSA
foUMks dks cUn djuk (Closing a Window) oMZiSM window ds Close cVu ij fDyd djs
Wordpad cUn tks tk;sxkA Start ehuw ls Select programs, accessories & wordpad ij
fDyd djus ls okfil [kqy tk;sxkA
ekbZZ dEI;wVj (My Computer) ;g ,d vkbdu gskrk gS bldh lgk;rk ls ge ;g Kkr
dj ldrs gaS fd gekjs dEI;wVj esa D;k D;k lalk/ku gS vFkkZr lEcfU/kr dEI;wVj esa gkMZos;j
/lkWVos;j dh tkudkjh izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 123

vuqiz;ksx dk f;kUo;u (Running An Application) LVkVZ ehuww ij fDyd djus ds


mijkUr pkgs x;s izksxzke ds fodYi ij fDyd djus ij lEcfU/kr izksxzke vuqiz;ksx 'kq: ;k
LVkVZ gks tkrk gSA
dV] dkWih ,oa isLV djuk (cut, copy & paste) bl fodYi ds }kjk vki viuh Qkby
dks mlh Mkbo ;k fdlh vU; Mkbo esa ys tk ldrs gSA blds fy, vki Vwy ckj esa cut cVu
dks nck;s] blds ckn vki ftl LFkku ij mls ys tkuk pkgrs gsSa og txg ,Msl ckj ls pquAs
ogak igaqpus ds ckn isLV cVu nck;sa] dh cksMZ ls bulVZ dh nckus ij Hkh isLV fd;k tk ldrk
gSA
dqath iVy ds 'kkWVZdV (Key Board Shortcut) ;fn vki ckj ckj ekml }kjk dk;Z
ugha djuk pkgrs vFkok ekml dh dksbZ vU; leL;k gS rks vki daqth iVy 'kkWVZdV iz;ksx
esa yk ldrs gSA
cVu%& MsLdVkWi ij fLFkr VkLdckj ij ck;ha vksj fLFkr cVu dks LVkVZ cVu dgrs
LVkVZ cVu
gaSA bl cVu dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj ij dk;Z vkjEHk djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
LVkVZ ehuw%& LVkVZ cVu ij fDyd djus ls tks ehuw iznf'kZr gksrk gS mls LVkVZ ehuw dgrs
gSA bl ehuw ij mifLFkr fodYiksa ds ek/;e ls dEI;wVj ij fofHkUu dk;Z fd;s tk ldrs gaSA
j%&MsLdVkWi ij iznf'kZr bl vkbdu dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj ij fLFkr fofHkUu
ekbZ dEI;wVj%
Qkbyksa] QksYMjkas] Mkboksa dks ns[kus o mu ij dk;Z djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
izksxzke ehuw%& LVkVZ ehuw ij fLFkr izksxzke fodYi ij ikWbUVj j[kus ij ;g ehuw iznf'kZr gksrk
gSA bl ehuw ls mu lHkh izksxzkeksa dh lwph gksrh gS tks dEI;wVj ij fLFkr gSaA
lsfVax ehuw%& LVkVZ ehuw ij fLFkr lsfVax fodYi dk mi;ksx VkLdckj] LVkVZ ehuw] MsLdVkWi]
fMLIys] gkMZos;j vkfn ds xq.k/keZ ifjorZu djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
Qkb.M%& LVkVZ ehuw ij fLFkr Qkb.M fodYi dk iz;ksx Qkbyksa@QksYMjksa dk LFkku <wa<us
ds fy;s djrs gSA
gSYi%& LVkVZ ehuw ij fLFkr gSYi fodYi dk iz;ksx fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe ls lEcfU/kr
enn izkIr djus ds fy;s djrs gaAS
ju%& LVkVZ ehuw ij fLFkr ju fodYi dk iz;ksx fdlh Hkh pyus ;ksX; (Executable) Qkby
dks dek.M ykbu }kjk pykus ds fy;s djrs gaAS
Mkmu%& bl fodYi dk iz;ksx dEI;wVj dks cUn djus ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA
'kV Mkmu
bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj%& bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj ,d ,slk izksxzke gS ftlds ek/;e ls bUVjusV
ij fLFkr fofHku osclkbVksa ij tk;k tk ldrk gS] osclkbVksa ij tk;k tk ldrk gS] E-mail
Hksth tk ldrh gS bR;kfnA ,sls izksxzkeksa dks ge osc czkmtj Hkh dgrs gaSA
dUVksy iSuy%& dUVksy iSuy dk mi;ksx ge fofHkUu gkMZos;jksa ds xq.k/keZ cnyus] izkx
s zke
tksMus] fizUVj vkfn dks tksMdj f;k'khy cukus vkfn dk;Z dj ldrs gaAS
Iyx ,.M Iys%& fo.Mkst vkWifjsfVax flLVe dEI;wVj dks pykus ls iwoZ ;g tkprk gS fd

AglaSem School

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dEI;wVj ij dksbZ ubZ ;qfDr (Device) rks ugha yxkbZ xbZ gSA ;fn dEI;wVj ij dksbZ u;k
gkMZos;j ;k ;qfDr yxkbZ xbZ gS rks ;g Lo;a gh ml ;qfDr dk Mkboj bUlVky dj ysrk gSA
vFkkZr gesa rks dsoy ;qfDr dks dEI;wVj ij Iyx djuk vFkkZr tksM+uk gSA bl ;qfDr dks
f;k'khy cukus gsrq 'ks"k dk;Z dEI;wVj Lo;a dj ysxkA bl izf;k dks Iyx ,.M Iys dgrs
gSaA

vH;kl iz ' u
cgqp;ukRed iz'u
1- ekml dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS&
v MkWl vkWijsfVax flLVe esa
c fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe esa
l MkWl ,oa fo.Mkst nksuksa esa
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
2- ,e ,l fo.Mkst dk fuEu esa ls uohure laLdj.k dkSulk gS\
v fo.Mkst 3-11
c fo.Mkst 95
l fo.Mkst ,Dlih
n fo.Mkst 98
3- fo.Mkst MsLdVkWi ij cus NksV&
s NksVs fp= D;k dgykrs gSa \
v vkbVe
c vkbdu
l vo;o
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
4- Ctrl+V dek.M dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS&
v dkWih ds fy,
c dV ds fy,
l ,fMV ds fy,
n isLV ds fy,
5- th ;w vkbZ ij vk/kkfjr vkWijsfVax flLVe ugha gSA
v MS Windows 2000
c MS Windows XP
l MS DOS
n MS Windows 98
6- LVkVZ cVu fuEu esa ls fdl ckj ij fLFkr gksrk gS\
v VkbZVy ckj ij
c VkLd ckj ij
l LVsVl ckj ij
n LkWy ckj ij
7- fo.Mkst dks 'kVMkmu djus ds fy;s 'kkWVZdV dqt
a h gS&
v Ctrl+Delete
c Alt+F-4
l Sift+F-9
n Ctrl+ x
8- LVkVZ ehuw esa dkSuls fodYi ds }kjk lh/ks gh izkx
s zke dks f;kfUor fd;k tkrk gS&
v izkx
s zke
c ,slsljht l ju
n QkbUM
9- ,Iyhds'ku fo.Mks dk 'kh"kZd dkSulh ckj esa fy[kk gksrk gS&
v VkLd ckj c LVsVl ckj l VkbZVy ckj n LkWy ckj
10- fo.Mks ds dUVksy cVu fuEu esa ls dkSulh ckj ij ik;s tkrs ga&
S
v VkbVy ckj
c VkLd ckj
l LVsVl ckj
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 125

11- VkLdckj lk/kkj.kr% fLFkr gksrk gS&


v MsLdVkWi ij ij dh vksj c MsLdVkWi ij uhps dh vksj
l MsLdVkWi ij nk;sa dh vksj n MsLdVkWi ij ck;sa dh vksj
12- dUVksy iSuy ds }kjk
v u;s gkMZo;
s j tksM+ dj f;k'khy dj ldrs gSaA
c u;s izksxzke bUlVky dj ldrs gaAS
l izn'kZu fMLIys ds xq.k/keZ cny ldrs gSaA
n mijksDr lHkh A
13- eYVhehfM;k dk Hkkx ugha gS&
v lkm.M dkMZ
c Lihdj
l fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj
n eYVhehfM;k izksxzke
14- MsLdVkWi ij iznf'kZr gksrk gS&
v oky isij
c dUVksy iSuy
l Lhu lsoj
n mijksDr es ls dksbZ Hkh ugha
15- osc ist ij gksrh gS%&
v osc fyad fcUnq
c lwpuk
l mijksDr nksukas
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
16 fp= cukus ds fy, mi;qDr lkWVos;j gSa \
v ekbkslkWV oMZ
c ekbkslkWV ,Dlsy
l ekbkslkWV isUV
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugh
17- fo.Mks esa dsydwysVj gS \
v LVS.MMZ dsydwyVs j
c lkbfUVfQd dsydwysVj
l mijksDr nksuksa
n mijksDr eas ls dksbZ ugh
18- fizUV fizO;w dgrs gaS %&
v fizUV djds ns[kus dks
c fizfUVax ns[kus dks
l fizUV ls iwoZ ns[kus dks
n mijksDr lHkh
19- fdlh dek.M dk p;u djus gsrq tks dq f t;k dqa t h iVy ij
gSa mls ml dek.M
v dk flEcy dgrs gSaA
c dh 'kkWVd
Z V dqt
a h dgrs gSa
l QkWUV dgrs gSAa
n ,ykbUesUV dgrs gSaA
20- ist lsfVax Mk;ykWx ckDl ds }kjk ge cny ldrs gSa %&
v ist dk vkdkj
c ist dk vkWfj;sUVs'ku
l ist dk ekftZu
n mijksDr lHkh
vfry?kq kjkRed iz ' u
1- fo.Mkst fdl izdkj dk vkWijsfVax flLVe gS\

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 126

234567-

fdlh Qkby dk iqu% ukedj.k dSls fd;k tkrk gS\


fDyi cksMZ ls vki D;k le>rs gaS\
fo.Mks ds dksbZ rhu laLdj.kksa ds uke fy[kksA
GUI dk iwjk uke fy[kksA
'kkWVZdV ehuw ls vki D;k le>rs gaS\
fo.Mkst vkWijsfVax flLVe esa fMyhV dh xbZ Qkby dks D;k okfil izkIr fd;k tk ldrk
gS\
8- MsLdVkWi ls vki D;k le>rs gS \
9- dsydwysVj ds izk:iksa ds uke fy[kksA
10- fdlh Qkby dh tkudkjh dSls izkIr dh tk ldrh gS\
11- LVkVZ cVu dk D;k mi;ksx gS\
12- bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj dk D;k mi;ksx gS\
13- Lhu lsoj fdls dgrs gaS \
14- fo.Mks vkWijsfVax flLVe ls dek.M ykbu ij dk;Z djus dh D;k fof/k gS\
15. ikWivi ehuw fdls dgrs gaS \
16- ekbkslkWV isUV dks yksM djus ds fy, D;k djuk iM+rk gS \
17- VSDLV dk p;u fdl izdkj djrs gaS \
18- QkWjesfVax dk D;k vFkZ gSa \
19- 'kkVZ dV dqath ls D;k rkRi;Z gS \
20- QkWUV ls vki D;k le>rs gaS \
y?kqkjkRed iz'u
12345678910-

fdlh Qkby dks fo.Mkst esa fdl izdkj <wW<k tk ldrk gS\
fdlh ,Iyhds'ku izksxzke dks dkSulh 'kkWVZdV dh f;k }kjk can fd;k tkrk gS \
eYVhVkLd ls vki D;k le>rs gaS \
ekbZZ dEI;wVj vkbdu ds mi;ksx] dk o.kZu djksA
fdlh Qkby dks fMyhV fdl izdkj fd;k tkrk gS\
dV o dkWih esa vUrj crk,aA
uksViSM lkWVos;j dh mi;ksfxrk crk,aA
fdlh fo.Mkst dk fdl izdkj vkdkj cnyk tk ldrk gS\
MsLdVkWi ij fdl izdkj u;s 'kkWVZdV vkbdu cuk;s tk ldrs gS\
dsydwysVj dh mi;ksfxrk fy[kksA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 127

fucU/kkRed iz ' u
1- oMZ iSM ds mi;ksx crkb;s\
2- fo.Mks ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dk lfp= o.kZu djksA
3- fuEu dks le>kb;s&
v u;k QksYMj o Qkby cukuk c fjlkbfdy fcu dks [kkyh djuk
l dkWfiax Qkby o QksYMj n fdlh Qkby o QksYMj dks [kksyuk
4- fo.Mkst dh lajpuk dk o.kZu djksA
5- fizUVj dks dEI;wVj ij tksM+dj f;k'khy djus dh fof/k fy[kksA
6- dUVksy iSuy ij mifLFkr fofHkUu vkbdu o muds mi;ksx fy[kksA
7- VkLdckj ij ,Msl Vwy ckj Mkyus ds D;k Qk;ns gSa rFkk bls VkLdckj ij Mkyus dh
fof/k fy[kksA
8- fMLIys izksiVhZt Mk;ykWx ckWDl dks iznf'kZr djus dh fof/k fyf[k;sA bl Mk;ykWx ckWDl
ds }kjk ge D;k D;k dj ldrs gaS \
9- fo.Mks ,DlIyksjj ds mi;ksx fyf[k;sA
10- bUVjusV ,DlIyksjj ds mi;ksx fyf[k;sA
mkjekyk

1- c 2- l 3- c 4- n 5- l 6- c 78- l 9- l 10- v
11- c 12- n 13- l 14- v 15- l 16- l 17- l 18- l 19- c 20- n

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 128

,p-Vh-,e-,y- dk ifjp;
Introduction to HTML

1-1 ifjp; (Introduction) %


vf/kdkakr% O;fDr vkSj laxBu ,p-Vh-,e-,y- (HTML) esa osc lkbZV cukrs gSaA ;gka
ij osclkbV cukus ds cgqr rjhds gS]a ysfdu osc lkbZV cukus ds fy;s ,p-Vh-,e-,y- (HTML)
cgqr T;knk mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA ge fookl djrs gSa fd ,p-Vh-,e-,y- (HTML) osc ist
cukus dk lcls vPNk rjhdk gS] tc vki fofHkUu dEI;wVj tks lkjs fo'o esa QSys gSa ds }kjk
,d cM+s VsDLV dks vkil esa tksM+rs gSa rc vki edM+h ds tkys tSlk fyad izkIr djrs gSa] ftls
oMZ okbM osc (World Wide Web) dgrs gSa] blesa bUVjusV ls tqM+s fofHkUu dEI;wVj vkil
esa tqM+s jgrs gSaA ;s lHkh osc ist ,d foks"k QkWjesV esa fy[ks tkrs gSaA ;g QkWjesV ;k Hkk"kk ,pVh-,e-,y- H.T.M.L. Hyper Text Markup Language dgykrh gSA nLrkost Document ds rkfdZd laxBu dh O;k[;k djus ds fy, HTML dks foks"k gkbZij VsDLV foLrkj
ds lkFk fMtkbu fd;k tkrk gSA ;g oMZ izkslslj Word Processor tSlh Hkk"kk ugha cuh
gS] tSls oMZ ;k oMZ ijQsDVA lHkh ge ,p-Vh-,e-,y- (HTML) dk mi;ksx T;knk djrs gSa]
D;ksafd fofHkUu {kerk ds fofHkUu czkmtlZ Browsers esa leku ,p-Vh-,e-,y- (HTML)
nLrkost dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, ,p-Vh-,e-,y- (HTML) vkidks VsDLV tSls
VkbZVy vkSj vuqPNsn dks vyx ls fpfUgr djrk gS vkSj rc ;g fpfUgr rF;ksa dks czkmtj ds
}kjk O;k[;k djus ds fy, NksM+ nsrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, ,d czkmtj u, ifjPNsn dks cukrk
gS tcfd nwljk dsoy ,d [kkyh ykbu NksM+rk gSA
HTML funsZk nLrkost ds VsDLV dks [k.Mksa esa foHkDr djrk gS bUgsa rRo dgrs gSAa
;g cM+s :i ls nks Hkkxksa esa ckaVs tk ldrs gSa] tks ;g crkrs gSa fd czkmtj ds }kjk iz/kku vak
ckWMh ds nLrkostksa dks fdl rjg fn[kk;k tk ldrk gSA tSls VkbZVy ;k vU; nLrkostkssa esa
lac/a kA vxys vuqPNsnksa esa HTML nLrkostksa dk lEiw.kZ fooj.k fn;k tk;sxkA
HTML Vsx@rRo ds uke] mudk dSls mi;ksx gksxk nwljh Hkk"kk LVS.MMZ tujykbTM
ekdZvi Hkk"kk SGML-Standard Generelized Markup Language dk mi;ksx djrs gq,

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 129

cuk;s x, gSaA SGML cgqr dfBu gS rFkk ;g cgqr T;knk nLrkostksa dks ,df=r djus ds fy,
use v{kjksa dh Js.kh gS ftldks fcUnq ds }kjk i`Fkd fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, %
www.yahoo.com vkSj "www.railways.org.gov IP address uEcj dh txg bu ukeksa
dk mi;ksx djuk ljy] O;ofLFkr rFkk vuqdwy gSA

1-2

;wfuolZy fjlkslZ vkbMsUVhQk;j Universal Resources


Identifiers dk ifjp; %

1-2-1 oYMZ okbM osc World Wide Web - WWW %


oYMZ okbM osc lwpukvksa ds L=ksr dk usVodZ gSA osc rhu rjhds ls laHkkfor foLr`r
mi;ksxdrkZ ds fy, L=ksr miyC/k djkrs gSaA
1osc ij L=ksr <+wa<+us ds fy, ,d leku ;sktuk eg. URIs
2osc ij L=ksr ds uke }kjk ,Dlsl djus ds fy, izksVksdkWy eg. HTTP
3L=ksrksa ds chp esa ljy vkilh laca/k ds fy, gkbZijVsDLV
;s rhuksa rjhds vkil esa ,d lkFk mi;ksx esa vkrs gSaA
1-2-2 URIs:
HTML nLrkost] best] fofM;ks fDyi] izksxzke vkfn izR;sd L=ksr osc ij miyC/k
gksrs gSa] ;g ;qfuolZy fjlkslZ vkbVsUVhQk;j Universal Resource Identifier ;k URI ds
}kjk buds ,Msl dks [kkstk tk ldrk gSA ;wfuQkWeZ fjlkslZ yksdVs j Uniform Resource
Locator - URL URI dk ,d :i gSA
URI ds rhu Hkkx gS %
1L=ksr ,Dlsl djus ds fy, ,d uke ;kstuk dk mi;ksx djrs gSAa
2L=ksr dk Lo;a dk uke] iFk ds uke ds lkFkA
3L=ksr ds ekhu gksLV dk uke
mnkgj.k %
http://www.microsoft.com/download/ieupdate.html

;g URI fuEu izdkj ls i<+k tk ldrk gS %


;gka ij ,d nLrkost http izkVs ksdkWy ds }kjk www.microsoft.com ekhu ij /
download iFk ds }kjk miyC/k gksrk gSA HTML nLrkostksa dks fyad djus ds fy, vU; Ldhe
s ds fy, vkSj FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Qkby VkalQj djus
tks gS og mailto bZey
ds fy, lfEefyr dj ldrs gSAa
;gka ij URI dk vU; mnkgj.k gSA ;g mi;ksxdrkZ esy&ckWDl ds fy, gSA
For all comments, please send email to
<A href = mailto:anilgupta09@yahoo.co.in> anil gupta </A>
uksV % T;knkrj ikBd URL VeZ dks tkurs gSa ysfdu URI VeZ dks ughaA URL :i lkekU;r;k
URI uke ;kstuk dk milewg gSA URI bUVjusV ij lkekU; ,d ,Msl gSA tc vki URL

dks ,UVj djrs gSa rc vki czkmtj dks ;g crkrs gSa fd tks ist vki <wa<+uk pkgrs gSa mldks
izkIr djus ds fy, okLro esa dgka tkuk gSA tSlk fd i= ij fy[kk gqvk irk Mkfd;s dks ;g

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 130

crkrk gS fd bl i= dks dgka tkuk pkfg;sA vU; fofHkUurk,a Hkh laHko gks ldrh gSa vkSj ,Ml
s
dbZ Lrj uhps rd tk ldrk gS] ysfdu bl mnkgj.k esa URL dk ewy Lo:i nkkZ;k x;k gSA
1-2-3 sxesUV vkbZMsUVhQk;j Fragment Identifier %
dqN URI L=ksr ds vUnj yksds ku dks bafxr djrs gSaA sxesuVsM vkbZ Mh (ID) URI
ds lEiw.kZ vkWCtsDV dk vuqlj.k djrs gSa] tks fd gSk lkbZu ( # ) ls i`Fkd gksrs gSa rFkk ,d
,adj vkbZMsUVhQk;j dk vuqlj.k djrs gSa ftldks sxesaV vkbZMsUVhQk;j dgrs gSaA ;fn
sxesUV vkbZMh 'kwU; fjDr gS rks gSk lkbZu ds ckn fy[ks 'kCn dks NksM+ nsrs gSaA ,d fjDr
sxesUV vkbZMh gSk lkbZu ds lkFk rFkk fcuk lkFk gksus dk eryc gS fd URI LkEiw.kZ vkCtsDV
dks bafxr djrk gSA
ogka ij fdlh rjg dh fnDdr ugha gksrh gS tgka fd sxesUV ID dqN Hkh bafxr djs
tks vkWCtsDV esa ls fudkyk x;k gSA ;g bldk viuk vf/kdkj gSA ;g gks ldrk gS mnkgj.k
ds fy, vkWCtsDV ds vUnj vius vki dks fdlh Hkh fcUnq ij bafxr djsA
mnkgj.k % ;gka ij URI Section_2 ,adj uke dks bafxr djrk gSA
http//www.somesite.com/html/top.html#section_2
s
top.html ds vUnj Section_2 fn[kkbZ nsxkk tc czkmtj ds vUnj mijksDr ,Ml

fu"ikfnr gksxkA
1-2-4 lacaf/kr URIs (Relative URIs) %
lacfa /kr URI dksbZ Hkh uke ;kstuk dh lwpuk ugha j[krk gS] bldk iFk lkekU;r;k
mlh ekhu ij orZeku nLrkost ds L=ksrksa dks bafxr djrk gSA lacaf/kr URI lEcaf/kr iFk dks
j[krk gSA mnkgj.k % -- dk eryc iFk esa fy[ks gq, gk;vkjph esa ,d Lrj ij tks fd iFk
}kjk ifjHkkf"kr jgrk gSA
lacfa /kr URI ewy URI dk mi;ksx djrs gq, lEiw.kZ URI curs gSaA lacfa /kr URI
dk i`FkDdj.k djus ds fy, mnkgj.k gS] vki ekurs gSa ewy URI http://www.methi.com/
support/intro.html gS fuEu lacfa /kr URI gkbijfyad ds fy;s ekdZvi gSA
<A href = suppliers.html>suppliers</A>
bldk foLr`r URI http://www.methi.com/support/suppliers.html gksxkA tc
fd best ds fy, ekdZvi fjysfVo URI fuEu gSA
<IMG src ../icon/logo.gifalt=logo>
bldk foLr`r URI http://www.methi.com/icons/logo.gip gksxkA
HTML esa URI fuEu mi;ksx vkrs gSaA

1-3

L=ksrksa vkSj nLrkostksa dks vU; ls tksMu+ kA


fLIV rFkk ck LVkbZy 'khV dks tksMu+ kA
best fp= cukukA
QkWeZ dks lcfeV Submit djukA

HTML dk bfrgkl History of HTML %


vf/kdkakr% yksx bl ckr ls lger Fks fd HTML nLrkostksa dks fofHkUu czkmtlZ
vkSj IysVQkWeZ ds fy, de ykxr ij vPNk dk;Z djuk pkfg;sA HTML ds izR;sd otZu ds

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 131

fy, m|e f[kykfM+;ksa ds e/; cgqr lgefr gqvk djrh Fkh rkfd fo"k; lkexzh cukus ds fy,
ykxr cckZn ugha gks rFkk muds nLrkost de le; esa viBuh; ugha gks tk;saA
HTML bl fopkj ds lkFk fodflr gks pqdk Fkk fd osc ij lHkh izdkj dh
fMokbZlt
s lwpuk dks mi;skx djus esa l{ke gSA PC ds lkFk dbZ izdkj dk xzkfQDl
fjtksY;wku rFkk jax dh xgjkbZ] lsY;wyj Qksu] gkFk esa idM+us okys fMokbZl] vkokt ds fy,]
buiqV vkSj vkmViqV ds fy, ;a=] de vkSj T;knk csUM foM~Fk Bandwidth vkSj blh izdkj
ds dbZ ;a=A
s Ds V bUVhxzsVsM ykW vkWfQl buQksjesku
1969 esa pkjys xksYMQcZ IBM fjlpZ izkt
flLVe (Integrated law office information system) ij dk;Z dj jgs Fks vkSj buds lkFk
,MoMZ ekslj ,.M jse.M ykjh Fks ftUgksua s tujykbTM ekdZvi ySXa ost Generalized Markup
Language -GML dh [kkst dh FkhA GML VsDLV ,fMfVax] QksjesfVax rFkk lwpuk izkIr djus
ds fy, lcflLVe ds nLrkostksa dks ckVrk gSA LVS.MMZ dk igyk ofdZx
a MkV working draft
1980 esa izdkfkr gqvk FkkA
;g lR; gS fd 1990 dh 'kq:vkr esa osc dh [kkst gqbZ FkhA mu fnuksa ds nkSjku
dE;qfudsku rduhd esa fodkl gks jgk FkkA bldk eryc ;g Fkk fd tYnh vkSj nsj ls osc
ij dqN ?kfVr gksuk FkkA 'kq:vkr esa gkbZijVsDLV izpkj esa vk;k Fkk vkSj dEI;qVj ij mi;ksx
esa vkus yxk FkkA bUVjusV ij Hkh mi;ksxdrkZ dh la[;k esa rsth ls foLr`r gks jgk FkkA
fMLVhC;qVsM lwpuk ds fy, Hkh mi;ksxdrkZ c<+ jgs FksA bUVjusV ij ekhu dk ,Msl Mkseus uke
Ldhe ds }kjk cgqr gh vklkuh ls fn;k tk ldrk gSA
SGML ds mi;ksx %
SGML dh mi;ksfxrk NksVs laxBu ;k NksVs la?k ds mi;ksxdrkZ ds fy, cgqr rsth
ls fodflr gqbZA 'kq:vkrh nsk ,Iyhdsku, cgqr cM+h fgLlsnkjh ds lkFk fodflr gqbZ Fkh og
gS ,lksfl,ku vkWQ vesfjdk ifCykj AAP ds fy, bysDVkfs uDl esU;wfLIV rFkk MkWdew Us Vsku

dEiksTM djus ds fy, ;w-,l- fMikVZeUs V vkWQ fMQsUl ds }kjk 'kq: dEI;qVj ,MsM ,Xohftku
,.M ykWftfLVd liksVZ CALSA
HTML ftldks fVe us fodflr dh Fkh og etcwrh ls SGML ij vk/kkfjr FkhA os
foo Lrj ij bl ckr ij lger gq;s Fks fd VsDLV dks ,d lajpuk bdkbZ cuk;k tk;sA tSls
& vuqPNsn] 'kh"kZd] lwph vo;o vkSj dbZ bdkbZ;kaA HTML fdlh Hkh ekhu ij bEIyhesV dj
ldrs gSaA ;g fopkj Fkk fd ;g Hkk"kk QksjesVlZ czkmtj ;k vU; dksbZ ns[kus okyk lkWVos;j
ls eqDr gksa tks fd okLro esa VsDLV Lhu ij fn[krk gSA blesa Vsx ds ;qXe dk mi;ksx djrs
gSaA tSls <TITLE> vkSj </TITLE> ;g lh/ks gh SGML ls fy;k x;k gS tks fd fcYdqy
leku gSA SGML ds rRo tks fVe dh HTML esa mi;ksx gksrs gSa og gSa <P> (Paragraph)
<H1> ls <H6> kh"kZ Lrj 1 ls 'kh"kZ Lrj 6 rd <OL> vkWjMMZ fyLV <UL> vuvkWMjMZ
fyLV <LI> fyLV vo;o vkSj vU; cgqrA
HTML 1.0 vkSj 2-0 %
1992 esa cjulZ yh vkSj lsuZ ny us HTML 1.0 dks fjfyt fd;k ftldks 1993 esa
vafre :i fn;k x;kA bldk foks"k fooj.k cgqr ljy Fkk rFkk ;g dkxt ds iUus ij ,d
rjQ fizUV gks ldrk ysfdu ;g ewy fopkj j[krk Fkk rFkk HTML dh rqjUr [kkst esa lgk;d

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 132

FkkA tks fd rkfdZd lajpukvksa rFkk iznfkZr rRoksa ds e/; i`'FkDdhdj.k FkkA ;g ,d eq[;
vdsyk fopkj Fkk tks HTML dks lh[kus esa lgk;d FkkA
HTML 2.0 uoEcj 1995 1994 ds vUr esa lkekU; vH;kl ds fy, bUVjusV
bathfu;fjax VkLd QkslZ IETF dh lgk;rk ls fodflr gqvk FkkA
czkmtj vkSj HTML %
usVLdsi ,d miyC/k czkmtjksa esa ls FkkA ekslbs d MOSAIC NCSA }kjk izLokfor
FkkA LYNIX ykbusDl ;wfuDl ekhu ij miyC/k Fkk vkSj dqN vU; dEifu;ka czkmtj dks
cuk jgh FkhaA muesa ls ,d LikbXykl SPYGLASS Fkk ftldks ekbkslkWV us [kjhn fy;k
Fkk vkSj ;g bUVjusV ,DLIyksjj ds fy, vk/kkj cukA izR;sd czkmtj esa jsUMfjax batu
(rendering engine) gksrk gS tks fd dksM gksrk gS tks vkids HTML dks crkrk gS fd mldks
dSls ysuk gS vkSj bldks cnydj vkidks Lhu ij fn[kkrk gSA
HTML 3.0 vkSj HTML 3.2 %
1993 esa HTML+ rFkk 1995 esa HTML 3.0 cgqr /kuh HTML otZu izLrkfor gq,
FksA W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) tks fd HTML ds fodkl ds ij gqbZ Fkh mlesa
HTML 3.0 ij dqN ekudksa dks cukus dk iz;kl gqvk FkkA ysfdu blesa D;k lfEefyr djsa
blds fy, cgqr okrkZyki gqvk FkkA W3C dh dksfkk ij HTML dk;Zny us 1996 esa lkekU;
vH;kl ds fy, HTML 3.2 dks ifj.kkeLo:i cuk;kA bls tuojh 1997 esa vafre :i fn;k

x;kA blesa eq[; y{k.kksa dks tksMk+ x;k og gS Vscy vkSj best ds pkjkas rjQ VsDLV dk pyukA
HTML 4.0X :
W3C us 1997 ds vUr esa HTML 4.0 dh O;k[;k izLokfor dh rFkk mlds vkxs 1999
esa HTML 4.01 izLrkfor dh ftlesa 4-0 otZu O;k[;k esa gqbZ dqN xyfr;ksa dks lgh fd;k

x;k FkkA bl otZu esa dqN fofp= xyfr;ksa dks lgh fd;k x;k FkkA tks 3-2 otZu esa gks gks
xbZ FkhA foks"kdj dsldsfMax LVkby 'khV Cascading Style Sheets blesa lfEefyr dhA
XML 1.0 :

;g HTML dk vxzlj gSA ;gk X dk eryc ,DlVsuflcy eXtensible gSA


XML(eXtensible Markup Language) HTML 4.01 dk lq/kjk gqvk :i gSA ;g osc ist
cukus ds fy, orZeku esa cgqr ekud gSA blesa dqN :fpdj cnyko dksfMax es lfEefyr fd;s
x, gSAa mnkgj.k ds fy, : okLro es lHkh Vsx dks vHkh rd cUn djuk iM+rk gS] ftlesa iSjkxzkQ
Vsx Hkh 'kkfey gSA vU; Vsx tSls FONT Vsx lHkh iztUs Vsku rRoksa dks fu;af=r djus ds fy,
dsldsfMax LVkbZy 'khV ds i{k esa gVk fn;k x;k gSA

1-4 DHTML :
xfrt 'kCn dk vFkZ xfr ;k pky vkSj cnyko ls gSA HTML dh ,d cM+h deh
mldk fLFkj izfr gSA DHTML (Dynamic HTML) rRoksa dh lgh fLFkfr rFkk Lrjhdj.k

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 133

dk mi;ksx dsldsfMax CSS LVkbZy ds lkFk u, izHkko cukus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

1-5

osc czkmtj (Web Browser) :

HTML esa cus osc ist dks fn[kus ds fy, osc czkmtj dh vko;drk gksrh gSA cgqr
T+;knk izpfyr czkmtj bUVjusV ,Dliksyj rFkk usVLdsi usfoxsVj gSA czkmtlZ HTML ds lHkh

VsDLV dks ,d leku ugha fn[kkrk gSA tc oscist cukrs gaS rks eq[; :Ik ls bls /;ku esa j[kuk
gksrk gSA
;gk osc okbM oYMZ ij cgr lkjs oscist miyC/k gksrs gSA ;g lEHko gksrk gS fd
osc ij vU; yksxksa ds lkslZ dksM ns[kdj ekywe dj ldrs gaS fd mUgksaus ,d foks"k y{k.k dks
vius osc ist ij dSls ykxw fd;k gSA vki lzksr dks fuEu izdkj ns[k ldrs gaS %

eSU;w esa ls O;w dks pquks rFkk bls lzksr ij HkstksaA

osc ist ij jkbV fDyd djds O;wlkslZ dks pquukA


tc mijksDr fodYi dk mi;ksx HTML ist ds lkFk djrs gS rks uksVisM ;k vU;
lkeku iSdt
s esa fn[kkrk gSA vki HTML dksM dks vklkuh ls ns[k ldrs gSa rFkk ;g
izdkkukf/kdkj (Copyright) dk mYya?ku ugha gSA ;g lEHko gS fd vki vU; ist cukus okys
dk fopkj ys ldrs gSa ij mlesa viuk Lo;a dk VsDLV gksuk pkfg,A vkidks oscist cukus okys
dks ,d bZey
s Hkstuk pkfg, ;fn vki mldk fopkj ;k fiDpj dks mlds oscist ls m/kkj ysrs
gSaA
Properties) dks rRo ds ,fVC;qV Attribute fu;af=r djrs gSAa mnkgj.k ds fy,] ist ds
viz/kku LFkku (Background) jax ds fy, jax dk fu/kkZj.k djukA

1-6 czkmtj rFkk [kqyh foUMkst ds e/; fLofpax (Switching between opened windows and browser) :

HTML dksM fy[kus ds fy, uksVisM dk mi;ksx djrs gSa vkSj ;g dksM czkmtj dk
mi;ksx dj [kksyk tk ldrk gSA ;gka ij nks rjhdksa ls [kqyh foUMkst rFkk czktj ds e/;
vkil esa cny ldrs (Switch) gSaA ;g rjhds gS %
1- Tab + Alt dqath dk mi;ksx dj foUMkst dks vkil eas cnyrk gSaA
2- VkLd ckj ds ij cus foUMkst ds vkbZdkWu (Icon) ds ij ekl }kjk fDyd
dj foUMkst dks [kksyk tk ldrk gSA

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1-

HTML dk iw.kZ :i gkbZij VsDLV ekdZvi ysXa ost (Hyper text Markup Language)

gksrk gSA
2- HTML ds funsZk }kjk VsDLV dks [k.M esa foHkkftr djrs gSaA mUgsa rRo dgrs gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 134

34567-

;wfuolZy fjlkslZ vkbZMsfUVQk;j (URI) bUVjusV ij ,Msl gksrk gSA


URI nks izdkj ds gksrs gSa & v
sxesUVsM URI c
fjysfVo URI
HTML CERN luZ esa fodflr gqbZ FkhA
HTML dk izFke otZu 1992 esa fjfyt gqvk FkkA
XML, HTML dk vxzlj gSA

vH;klkFkZ izu %
cgqp;ukRed izu %
1- HTML ds izksxzke fu"ikfnr gksrs gSa &
v czkmtj es
c
DOS izkseV ij
l UNIX izkseV ij
n
foUMkst esa
2- bUVjusV ,Msl feJ.k gksrk gS %
v URI
c
HTTP
l HTML ist
n
mijksDr lHkh
3- SGML dk izFke dk;Z:i izdkfkr gqvk Fkk &
v 1981
c
1980
l 1979
n
1978
4- HTML fodflr gqbZ Fkh &
v ANSI
c
CERN
l IRS
n
;w-,l- fMikVZeUs V vkWQ fMQsUl
5- HTML 1.0 fdlds }kjk fodflr gbZ Fkh &
v cjulyh
c
,UMlZ
l pkyhZ
n
'kkiZ
6- HTML dk igyk otZu fodflr gqvk Fkk &
v 1990
c
1991
l 1992
n
1993
7- HTML dk D;k eryc gksrk gS &
v gkbZij VsDLV ekdZ ysaXost
c
gkbZij VsLV ekdZ ysaXost
l gkbZij VsDLV ekdZvi ysaXost
n
mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha

vfry?kqkjkRed izu %
1. SGML dk iw.kZ :i D;k gS \
2. XML dk iw.kZ :i D;k gS \
3. HTML dh dkSu lh Hkk"kk vxz.kh gS \

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 135

4- fjysfVo URI D;k gS \

y?kqkjkRed izu %
1- Mksesu uke D;k gS \
2. WWW D;k gS \
3- sxesUVsM vkbZMsUVhQk;j D;k gS \
4. HTML dSls fodflr gqbZ Fkh \
5. SGML ds izkjfEHkd izkt
s Ds V D;k Fks \
6. DHTML D;k gS \

fucU/kkRed izu %
1. URI D;k gS \ mnkgj.k ds lkFk le>kb;sA
2. HTML ds 4-0 rFkk 4-01 otZu esa D;k foks"krkvksa dks lfEefyr fd;k x;k gS \

1 v

mkjekyk
2 n 3 c 4 c 5 v 6 l 7 l

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 136

ewy osclkbV dk cukuk

Designing the Basic Website

2.1

ifjp; (Introduction):

bl v/;k; esa vusd izkFkfed fopkj.kh; fo"k; ij i<sa+xs tks osclkbV cukus esa
lgk;d gksrs gSaA bl v/;k; ds vanj vki fofHkUu izdkj ds Vsxksa ds ckjs esa i<+ksxs tks HTML
esa mi;ksx gksrs gaSA vki osclkbV dSls cukvksxs \ vki osc ist cukus ds fy, D;k e (step)
gksrk gS ds ckjs esa Hkh lh[kksxsA
2.2 HTML

Vsx ds izdkj (Types of HTML Tag):

HTML esa Vsx gksrs gaSA vkSj izR;sd Vsx dk viuk ,fVC;wV vkSj eku gksrk gSA Vsx
czkmtj dks lwpuk nsrs gSa fd mudks osc ist ij vko;drkuqlkj fn[kk;k tk;sA mnkgj.k %
,d best ;k fyad fn[kkukA izR;sd Vsx esa dks.k ds vanj dhoMZ ;k v{kj gksrk gSA mnkgj.k:
<P> vuqPNsn ds fy, tcfd <B> : VsDLV dks cksYM djus ds fy,A T;knkrj Vsx laHkkfor
,d ls T;knk ,fVC;wV j[krs gaSA vki ,fVC;wV esa dksbZ eku LVksj dj ldrs gaSA
mnkgj.k %
<BODY Text = red>

;g <BODY> Vsx gS] bldk ,fVC;wV Text gS] vkSj ,fVC;wV dk eku red gSA tc
vki Vsx ds lkFk ,fVC;wV dk mi;ksx djrs gaS rks lHkh LVkVZ Vsx ds ,fVC;wV nks dksBd <
vkSj > ds
e/; fy[ks tkrs gSaA
Vsx nks izdkj ds gksrs gSa %

d.Vsuj Vsxl~ (Container Tags)

,EIVh Vsxl~ (Empty Tags)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 137

2-2-1 d.Vsuj Vsxl~ (Container Tags)


d.Vsuj Vsx VsDLV ds [k.M ij yxrs gSAa d.Vsuj Vsx dks ,d vkWifuax Vsx rFkk ,d
Dyksftax Vsx dh vko;drk gkssrh gS tks [k.M ds nksuksa rjQ yxrs gSaA Dyksftax Vsx esa Hkh
ogh dhoMZ ;k v{kj gksrk gS tks fd vkWifuax Vsx esa gksrk gS ysfdu Dyksftax Vsx esa lcls igys
Lysk @ yxkrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<P> vkSj
</P>
</B>
<B> vkSj
mijksDr mnkgj.k esa] vuqPNsn Vsx (Paragraph tag) <P> rFkk cksYM Qsl Vsx (Bold
Face tag) <B> dk mi;ksx fd;k gSA Vsx ds e/; can lEiw.kZ VsDLV ij ;g yxsxkA vxj ge
bldks czkmtj esa ns[kxsa rks fp= 2-1 dh rjg fn[kkbZ nsxkA

fp= 2-1

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 138

2-2-2 ,EIVh Vsx (Empty Tag)


,EIVh Vsx vdsys Vsx gksrs gaS tks VsDLV ij izHkko ugha Mkyrs gSAa ,EIVh Vsx esa vkWifuax
Vsx gksrk gS ysfdu Dyksftax Vsx dh vko;drk ugha gksrh gSA f{kfrt :y osc ist ij f{kfrt
ykbu cukrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<HR>

2-2-3 ,fVC;wVl~ (Attributes)


Vsx dk O;ogkj ,fVC;wV dk mi;ksx dj cnyk tk ldrk gSA ,d Vsx ds dbZ ,fVC;wV
gks ldrs gSaA ,fVC;wV ds fn;s x;s eku fMQkWYV (Default) eku dks ;k ,fVC;wV ds eku dh
lhek }kjk cnyk tkrk gSA eku dks Mcy dksVsku es can djuk pkfg,A
,fVC;wV dk eku Vsx dh ifjHkkkk dk Hkkx gS rFkk czkmtj }kjk bldk eku fy;k
tk;sxk vU;Fkk vU; eku Hk.Mkfjr gks tkrk gSA T;knkrj ,fVC;wV dks Lohdkj ;ksX; lhek ls
fufpr eku ;k dbZ ekuksa esa ls ,d eku fn;k tkrk gS A
mnkgj.k %
<tag_Name attribute = Value attribute = Value>
<HR Size = 1 height = 10 Width = 70%>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa] f{kfrt Vsx dks blds ,fVC;wV ds lkFk fy[kk gqvk gSA

2-3

oscist cukuk (Creating a Web page)

fuEufyf[kr e dks osc ist cukus esa mi;ksx djrs gSa bl mnkgj.k esa fMtkbu djus
okyk izkjfEHkd ist cukrk gS ftlesa og viuk uke rFkk ,Ml fy[krk gSA
1uksVisM esa ,d u;k nLrkost [kksyksA
2VkbVy ds lkFk 'kh"kZ [k.M cukvksA

3.

45.

6-

7-

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Place the title here </TITLE>
</HEAD>
<Body> Vsx vkSj VsDLV dks dqN ,fVC;wV ds lkFk ,UVj djksA mnkgj.k % ist ds fy,

csdxzkm.M dyj nsukA


uke vkSj irk ,UVj djksA
<Body> Vsx vkSj <HTML> Vsx dks can djksA
nLrkost dks .htm ;k .html ,DlVsUku ds lkFk (save) lso djksA

Qkby use ckWDl esa Qkby dk uke ,UVj djksA

Qkby dk uke nsrs le; ;g /;ku j[kuk gS fd bldk ,DlVsUku


.htm ;k .html gksxkA bl mnkgj.k esa firstwebpage.html Qkby use
ckWDl esa ,UVj djsaxsA
save cVu ij fDyd djksA

czkmtj [kksyks rFkk nLrkost dks ns[kksA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 139

8-

2-4

foUMks ,DlIyksjj dks [kksyks A


QksYMj dks <aw<ks tgk osc ist j[kk gSA
QksYMj ds vanj mfpr vkbdkWu ij Mcy fDyd djks A
osc czkmtj esa ist [kqy tk,xkA
;k

MsLdVksi ds ij cus vkbdkWu ij fDyd djds osc czkmtj [kksyks ;k


LVkVZesU;w esa vkWiku (option) pquksA

vkWiu vkWiku ij ekml ykvksA

vkWiu ckWDl ds vanj czkml cVu dks pquksA

Look In ckWDl esa QksYMj dks <aw<ksA

vkWiu ckWDl ij Mcy fDyd djksA


czkmtj esa ist vkWiu djus ds fy, OK cVu ij fDyd djksA

eSu esU;q ls Qkby dks pquksA


Save As ij ekml ykvksA

Mki Mkmu ckWDl ds }kjk txg dks pquksA


HTML

ds ewy Vsx (Basic Tag of HTML)

oscist ij nks eq[; [k.M gksrs gSa %

'kh"kZ [k.M (Head Section)

iz/kku [k.M (body Section)


2-4-1 'kh"kZ [k.M (Head Section):
tc ,d mi;ksxdrkZ osc ist ij tkrk gS rc czkmtj dks fyad nLrkost ds ckjs esa
lwpuk dh vko;drk gksrh gS fd og dSls fn[kk;h nsus pkfg, ;g lwpuk og HTML Vsx ls
izkIr djrk gSA
HTML Vsx %

;g ,d dUVsuj Vsx gS vkSj nLrkost ds var esa Dyksftax (Closing) Vsx dh vko;drk
gksrh gSA ;g Vsx czkmtj dks crkrk gS fd ;g Qkby HTML dh gSA
mnkgj.k %
<HTML>
</HTML>

'kh"kZ Vsx (Head Tag ) %


'kh"kZ [k.M nLrkost ds ckjs esa lwpuk j[krk gS mnkgj.k ds fy, & ,d ,Ml
s ] vU;
istksa ds lkFk laca/k] czkmtj dh izkf;drkA 'kh"kZ Vsx Hkh dUVsuj Vsx gS VkbVy Vsx blds ckn
vkrk gSA
mnkgj.k %

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 140

<HEAD>
</HEAD>

VkbVy Vsx (TITLE TAG) :


;g Vsx czkmtj ds VkbVy ckj esa VkbVy dks izdV djus dh vuqefr nsrk gSA ;g
flQkfjk djrk gS fd VkbVy esa lk/kkj.k VsDLV gksuk pkfg, dksbZ best ;k fyad ughaA
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education </TITLE>

;g lwpuk czkmtj ds VkbVy ckj esa izdV gks tk,xh oscist ds 'kh"kZ [k.M esa de
ls de fuEu rRo gksus pkfg, &
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Place the title here </TITLE>
</HEAD>
</HTML>

2-4-2 iz/kku [k.M

(Body Section)%%

ckWMh Vsx (Body Tag) %


<BODY> Vsx HTML nLrkost dk n; gksrk gSA ckWMh og gS tgk okLrfod
esVhfj;y oscist ij iznfkZr gksus ds fy, curk gSA <BODY> Vsx <HEAD> Vsx ds fcYdqy
ckn esa vkrk gS czkmtj lHkh fok;ksa dks fn[kkrk gS tks fd <BODY> Vsx ds vksifuax vkSj
Dyksftax ds e/; vkrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<Body>
..................................
..................................

</Body>
<Body> Vsx dbZ ,fVC;wV~l j[krk gSA ,fVC;wV Vsx ds izHkko dks cny nsrk gSA ckWMh
Vsx ds ,fVC;wV gS % VsDLV] csdxzkm.M] csdxzkm.M best] csdxzkm.M lkm.M rFkk fyad VsDLVA

VsDLV (Text) %
VsDLV ,fVC;wV eq[; VsDLV ds jax dks cny nsrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<Body text = red>

;k
<Body text = FF0000>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa VsDLV dk Qksjxzkm.M jax cnydj yky gks tk,xkA
HTML ds vanj yky] gjk vkSj uhyk jax dk feJ.k gksrk gS ;g feJ.k ,d
gsDlkMsfley uEcj cukrk gSA dqN izpfyr jax dks muds uke }kjk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 141

gS mnkgj.k ds fy,] lQ+sn] ihyk] esg:u] lysVh] uhyk] yky] cSaxuh] dkyk] gjk vkSj flYoj
ds fy, muds uke rFkk gSDlkMsfley dksM nksuksa dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSAa
gSDl dksM esa N% uEcj gksrs gSa & 2 vad yky jax ds fy,] 2 vad gjs jax ds fy, vkSj
vafre 2 vad uhys jax ds fy, gksrs gSaA lHkh dyj dksM dks lkj.kh 2-1 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA
chthdyj (bgcolor) :
chthdyj ,fVC;wV osc ist cukus okys dks csdxzkm.M dk jax cnyus dh vuqefr nsrk
gSA csdxzkm.M jax cnyus ds fy, fuEu LVsVesUV fy[krs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<Body bgcolor = blue>

;k
<Body bgcolor = 0000FF>
bgcolor ,fVC;wV csdxzkm.M dk jax funsZfkr dksM ds vuqlkj cny nsrk gSA VsDLV
,fVC;wV Hkh lEiw.kZ ist ds VsDLV jax dks cny nsrk gS uk fd dsoy ist ds ,d fofk"V [k.M
dksA
lkj.kh 2-1 jax dksM
RGB Color

Hexadecimal Value

White

#FFFFFF

Black

#000000

Red

#FF0000

Green

#00FF00

Blue

#0000FF

Magenta

#FF00FF

Cyan

#00FFFF

Yellow

#FFFF00

Aquamarine

#70DB93

Violet

#9F5F9F

Brass

#B5A642

Copper

#B87333

Pink

#FF6EC7

Orange

#FF7F00

csdxzkm.M (Background ) %

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 142

csdxzkm.M ,fVC;wV osc ist fMtkbu djus okys dks csdxzkm.M best cnyus dh
lqfo/kk nsrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<Body background = images/sunback.gif>
<Body background = images/tiger.jpg>
mijksDr GIF vkSj JPG Qkby osc ist ij csdxzkm.M best gks tk,xhA ;g Qkby
tks fd ,fVC;wV ds eku esa fy[kk gS djaV (Current) Mk;jsDVh esa miyC/k gksuh pkfg,A

fyad (Link) %
fyad ,fVC;wV fyad] foftVsM fyad] vkSj ,fDVo fyad fyad ij tc ekml dks ys tkrs
gSa ds jax cnyus ds fy, gksrk gSA fuEu mnkgj.k esa fyad dyj yky] foftVsM fyad dyj
ihyk vkSj ,fDVo fyad dyj gjk gks tk,xkA
mnkgj.k %
<Body link = red vlink = yellow alink = green>

;k
<Body link = FF0000 vlink = FFFF00 alink = 008000>
<Body> Vsx ds lHkh ,fVC;wV ,fPNd gksrs gSa ;fn izksxzkej fMQkYV ekuksa dk mi;ksx djrk

gS rks og oscist dk csdxzkm.M jax lQ+sn] VsDLV jax dkyk] fyad jax uhyk] foftVsM fyad
jax cSaxuh rFkk ,fDVo fyad jax uhyk izkIr djrs gSaA
mnkgj.k % HTML nLrkost dk fuEufyf[kr mnkgj.k gSa %
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY text=yellow bgcolor=blue
background= images/ BOSE.gif >
This Web site is generated for the Board of Secondary Education.
</BODY>
</HTML>

fp= 2-2 esa VkbVy fo.Mks ds 'kh"kZ esa] csdxzkm.M jax uhyk rFkk Qksjxzkm.M jax ihyk
fn[kkrk gSSA
2.5

HTML esa desUV (Comment in HTML):

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 143

fp= 2-2
HTML nLrkost esa O;k[;k (Commenting) djus ds fy, desUV] Vsx dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA ;g HTML ds dk;Z esa dksbZ izHkko ugha Mkyrk gS] vkSj Vsx vkSj fo"k; lwph
(content) Hkh czkmtj esa ugha fn[kkrk gSA
<!Yashika & Sangeeta-created the Website>

2 .66

VsDLV dh QkWjesfVax (Text Formating ) %

2-6-1 cslQksUV Vsx (BASEFONT Tag) :


;fn vki fMQkYV QksUV lkbt 3 ds vykok osc ist esa T;knkrj VsDLV ds fy, vU;
QksUV lkbt dk mi;ksx djuk pkgrs gSa rks vki ml ist ij fofk"V QksUV ds fy, QksUV
lkbt dk fu/kkZj.k cslQksUV ls dj ldrs gSaA vki blds fy, <BASEFONT> Vsx dk
mi;ksx djrs gSaA <BASEFONT> Vsx ds fy, ,.M Vsx ugha gksrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<Base Font Size = 4>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa <Base Font> lkbZt c<+dj 4 gks tk;sxhA


mnkgj.k % <BASE FONT> Vsx ds fy, HTML nLrkost fyf[k,A
<HTML>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 144

<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<P align=center> The application programs are written by the
programmer to solve any real world problem. <BR><BR>
<BASEFONT SIZE=15">These programs are written in either Higher Level Languages or Using 4GLs. The application program may be altered, modified as per the change in the requirement by the programmer. </P>
</BODY>
</HTML>
in either Higher Level Languages or Using 4GLs. The application
program may be altered, modified as per the change in the requirement by the programmer. </P>
</BODY>
</HTML>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa <BASEFONT> Vsx ds ckn VsDLV dh lkbt 15 gks tk,xhA
;fn ge lkbt dks ugha cnysaxs rks lEiw.kZ oscist ij ;gh lkbt jgsxhA HTML nLrkost dk
vkmViqV fp= 2-3 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

fp= 2-3
2-6-2 QksUV Vsx (Font Tag):
<FONT> Vsx dk mi;ksx VsDLV dh 'kSyh ykxw djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA QksUV Vsx
ds cgqr lkjs ,fVC;wV gkssrs gSaA tSls & lkbt] Qsl vkSj jaxA
lkbt (Size):
lkbt ,fVC;wV dk mi;ksx VsDLV dh lkbt cnyus esa fd;k tkrk gSA HTML esa
VsDLV 7 lkbt ds gksrs gSa lkbt dks fjysfVo vkSj vkWClksY;wV ekuks dk mi;ksx dj cny ldrs

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 145

gSaA vkWClksY;wV eku ds fy, lkbt dk eku 1 ls 7 rd ,UVj fd;k tkrk gSA VsDLV lkbt
fcuk vklikl ds VsDLV dks /;ku esa j[krs gq, mlds u, eku ds vuqlkj cny tk,xhA
mnkgj.k %
<Font size = 6> MBM Engineering College </FONT>
VsDLV dh lkbt djaV (Current) lkbt ls de ;k T;knk fjysfVo rjhds ls cny

ldrs gSaA VsDLV dh fMQkWYV lkbt rhu gSaA VsDLV dh lkbt+ 1 ls 7 ds e/; gh jgrh gSA
;fn lkbt dk eku lhek ls c<+ tkrk gS rks ;g rc Hkh VsDLV lkbt dks 1 ls 7 ds e/; j[krk
gSA
mnkgj.k %
<Font Size = +3> MBM Engineering College </FONT>
<Font Size = -2> MBM Engineering College </FONT>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa] dzekuqlkj VsDLV lkbt rhu ls c<+ tk,xh lkbt 6 gks tk,xh
D;ksafd fMQkYV lkbt rhu gSA vkSj 2 ls ?kV tk,xh lkbt 1 gks tk,xhA
dyj (Color) %
<BODY> Vsx esa fn;s gq, jax dks gVkrs gq, color ,fVC;wV VsDLV jax ds fy, LFkkfir

djus dh Lohdfr nsrk gSA jax dk eku ;k rks gsDlk Msfley dksM esa ;k fQj iwoZ fu/kkZfjr
uke ls fn;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<Font color = red> MBM Engineering College </Font>

;k
<Font Color = #FF0000> MBM Engineering College </Font>

Qsl (Face) %
Qsl ,fVC;wV QksUV dh 'kSyh (Style) cnyus esa mi;ksx vkrk gSA Qsl ,fVC;wV dk
eku ml VkbiQsl dk uke gksrk gSA ;g laHko gS fd QkWUV dh lkj.kh dks dkWek ls
vyx&vyx dj ,UVj fd;k tk,] D;ksafd lkjs mi;ksxdrkZ lkjs QksUV dks bULVkWy ugha djrs
gaSA ;fn igyh PokWbl miyC/k ugha gS rks ;g lwph esa ls vxys QksUV dk mi;ksx djrk gSA
;fn lwph esa fy[ks gq, QksUV esa ls dksbZ Hkh miyC/k ugha gS rks ;g fMQkWYV Qsl Vkbi dk
mi;ksx djrk gSA ;gka ij dqN lkekU; QksUV ds uke gSa lsfjQ] lkUl lsfjQ dflZo] QsuVslh]
vkSj eksuksLisLMA czkmtj Hkh vius Lo;a ds fMQkWYV VkbiQsl j[krk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<Font Face = times New Roman> MBM Engineering College </Font>
<Font Face = Arial> MBM Engineering College </Font>

uksV % <Font> Vsx esa ;g lansg ckjEckj jgrk gS fd og xyr rjhds ls usLVsM gks tk,A tSls
gh czkmtj QksUV ds vafre Vsx </Font> ij vkrk gS ;g vafre Vsx dks fcuk fdlh ,fVC;wV
dks cnys cUn djsxkA ;fn vafre Vsx esa ,d ls T+;knk ,fVC;wV gSa rks ;g iqjkus ekuks dks can

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 146

dj nsxkA usLVsM Vsx ds fu;e ;g gS fd tks igys Vsx [kqyk gS og var esa can gksxkA
mnkgj.k % fofHkUUk QksUV lkbt rFkk QksUV Qsl ds fy, HTML dksM uhps fn;k gSA
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<BR><BR>
<FONT size=2"> This Font size is TWO </FONT>
<BR>
<FONT size=+3"> This Font size is SIX </FONT>
<BR>
<FONT size=-2"> This Font size is ONE </FONT>
<BR>
<FONT color=red> The Fore color of text is RED </FONT>
<BR>
<FONT face=Times New Roman>The Font face is TIMES NEW ROMAN
</FONT>
<BR>
<FONT face=Arial>The Font face is ARIAL</FONT><BR>
This Web side is generated to show the different Font Style using FONT tag.
</BODY>
</HTML>

fp=
p= 2-4

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 147

mijksDr HTML dksM fofHkUUk QksUV lkbt dSjDs Vj czkmtj ds vanj cukrk gS vkSj
;g QksUV dh fjysfVo x.kuk djrk gS ;g fMQkWYV QksUV lkbt rhu ysxk mijksDr dksM dk
vkmViqV fp= 2-4 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

2-6-3 vuqPNsn Vsx

(Paragraph tag)%
vuqPNsn Vsx <P> u;k vuqPNsn cukus dh Lohd`fr nsrk gS czkmtj dh fo.Mks lkbt

ds vuqlkj ykbu ds var esa] vius vki ykbu dk lek;kstu dj ysrk gS ftlesa ;g iznfkZr
gksrk gSA <P> Vsx ,d ,ykbuesUV ,fVC;wV j[krk gS ,ykbu ,fVC;wV ds rhu eku nk;k] ck;k
vkSj e/; gksrs gSa ykbu ,fVC;wV dk fMQkWYV eku ck;k gSA
mnkgj.k %
<P>
The application programs are written by the programmer to solve any
real world problem. These programs are written in either Higher Level
Languages or Using 4GLs. The application program may be altered,
modified as per the change in the requirement by the programmer.
</P>
<P align=right>
The System programs are generally used to create the environment for
the development and execution of application programs.
</P>
<P align=center>
The compiler is used to convert the application program written in a
high level language to the machine language program.
</P>

fp= 2-5

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 148

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa lHkh rhuksa vuqPNsn ubZ ykbu ls 'kq: gksaxsA os fo.Mks lkbt esa
vius vki lek;ksftr gksxAs ;fn fo.Mks dh lkbt cnyrh gS rks f}rh; vuqPNsn nk;k ,ykbu
gS] r`rh; vuqPNsn e/; ,ykbu gS] rFkk izFke vuqPNsn fMQkYV igys ls fu/kkZfjr fMQkYV eku
j[ksxk tks fd ck;k ,ykbu gSA mijksDr mnkgj.k dk osc czkmtj esa vkmViqV fp= 2-5 esa
fn[kk;k x;k gSA
2-6-4 ykbu czsd Vsx (Line Break Tag - BR)%
ykbu czsd Vsx }kjk VsDLV dks fdlh ykbu ij czsd dj nsrk gS blds ckn vkus okyk
VsDLV ubZ ykbu ls 'kq: gksxkA mnkgj.k ds fy, fdlh dk irk fy[krs le; ,d gh vuqPNsn
esa vyx&vyx ykbuksa esa fy[kus dh vko;drk gksrh gS vki vfuok;Z ykbu czsd lfEefyr
dj ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<P align=center> The compiler is used to convert the application program
<BR><BR>written in a high level language to the <BR>machine language program.</P>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa] vuqPNsn rhu ykbZu esa fizVa gksxkA tc Hkh <BR> Vsx vk;sxk
rc VsDLV ubZ ykbZu ls 'kq: gksxkA ;fn nks <BR> Vsx ,d lkFk vkrs gSa rks ,d [kkyh ykbZu
cu tk;sxhA ;g fp= 2-6 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

fp= 2-6

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 149

<BR> ,d [kkyh rRo (Tag) gS bldk can gksus okyk Vsx ugha gksrk gS vFkkZr~
</BR> dh vko;drk ugha gksrh gS <BR> rRo ,d vo;o CLEAR j[krk gS ftldk eku
Left, Right ;k All gks ldrk gSA ;fn ykbu czsd ds lkFk CLEAR ds lkFk LEFT mi;ksx
esa fy;k gS rks ubZ ykbu esa djlj cak;s gkfk;s ls 'kq: gksxkA blh izdkj Right nk;s vkSj ALL

ck;s rFkk nk;s nksuksa vkSj gkfk;k NksM+rs gq, ubZ ykbu 'kq: djsxkA

2-7

[k.M 'kh"kZd Vsx (Section Heading Tag):

<Body> Vsx ds vanj] nLrkost dk foHkktu djus ds fy, lkekU;r;k 'kh"kZd Vsx
H1 ls H6 'kh"kZd Vsx dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA 'kh"kZd Vsx ,fPNd gksrs gSaA 'kh"kZd Vsx dks
fdlh Hkh e esa izdV gksus dh vuqefr gSA 'kh"kZd Vsx esa lcls ij ds Lrj ds fy, H1 'kh"kZd
Vsx dk mi;ksx gksuk pkfg,A H2 vxyk vf/kdre]'kh"kZd Vsx gS rFkk H6 lcls fuEu Lrj

dk 'kh"kZd Vsx gSA 'kh"kZd Vsx dk ,d ,ykbuesUV ,fVC;wV gksrk gSA ftlds laHkkfor eku ck;ka]
nk;ka vkSj e/; gksrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<H1 align=center> H e a d i n g 1 </H1>
<H2 align=center> H e a d i n g 2 </H2>
<H3 align=center> H e a d i n g 3 </H3>
<H4 align=center> H e a d i n g 4 </H4>
<H5 align=center> H e a d i n g 5 </H5>
<H6 align=center> H e a d i n g6 </H6>
</BODY>
</HTML>

2 .88

VsDLV LVkby Vsx(Text Style Tag ) %

2-8-1 fcx Vsx (Big Tag) :


VsDLV lkbt dks fufpr lhek esa cnyus ds fy, vU; rduhd miyC/k gSA foks"k :Ik
ls QksUV lkbt ;k fjysfVo QksUV lkbt mi;ksx djus ds vykok vki <BIG> Vsx ls VsDLV
dh lkbt 1 c<+k ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<BIG>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 150

</BIG>

Vsx ds e/; fy[ks gq, VsDLV dh lkbt 1 c<+ tk,xhA ;fn vkidh lkbV ij fMQkWYV
VsDLV dh lkbt 3 gS vkSj vki <BIG> Vsx ,d 'kCn ij yxkrs gSa rks ml 'kCn dh lkbt
4 gks tk,xhA
2-8-2 Leky Vsx (Small Tag) :
;fn vki dqN VsDLV dh lkbt ?kVkuk pkgrs gSa rks ;g dk;Z VsDLV dh lkbt c<+kus tSlk gh
ljy gS D;kasfd vki Leky Vsx dk bLrseky dj ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<SMALL>
</SMALL>

mnkgj.k % Leky vkSj fcx Vsx dks fuEu HTML nLrkost esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

fp= 2-7 % 'kh"kZd Vsx

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 151

</HEAD>
<BODY>
<P align=center>
The application programs are written by the programmer to solve
any real world problem. <BR><BIG>These programs are written in
either Higher Level Languages or Using 4GLs.</BIG>
<BR><SMALL> The
application program may be altered,
modified as per the change in the requirement by the programmer.
</SMALL>
</P>
</BODY>
</HTML>
bl mnkgj.k esa] nksuksa <BIG> vkSj <SMALL> Vsx viuk izHkko VsDLV ij

fn[kk;sxsaA ;g fp= 2-8 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA


2-8-3 bVkfyd VsDLV (Italic Text <I>) Vsx :
;fn vki ,d 'kCn ;k ykbu dks vius osc ist ij bVkfyd djuk pkgrs gSa rks vki
<I> Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gSAa
mnkgj.k %
<I>
</I>
<EM> Vsx ds e/; fy[kk gqvk VsDLV bVkfyd (Italic) gks tk,xkA vki leku izHkko
<I> vkSj </I> Vsx ls Hkh izkIr dj ldrs gSaA

2-8-4 bEQslkbtM VsDLV (Emphasized Text <EM> ) Vsx :


;fn vki ,d 'kCn ;k ykbu dks lkekU; VsDLV dh rqyuk esa vf/kd bEQsfll nsuk
pkgrs gSa rks vki <EM> Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gSAa
mnkgj.k %
<EM>
</EM>

2-8-5 cksYM VsDLV (<B>) Vsx :


;fn vki ,d 'kCn ;k ykbu dks vius oscist ij cksYM djuk pkgrs gSa rks vki <B>
Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<B>
</B>
<B> Vsx ds e/; fy[kk gqvk VsDLV cksYV (BOLD) gks tk,xkA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 152

fp= 2-8
2-8-6 LVZkx VsDLV (<STORNG>) Vsx :
;fn vki ,d 'kCn ;k ykbu dks bEQslkbtM VsDLV dh rqyuk esa vf/kd bEQslhl
nsuk pkgrs gSa rks vki <STORNG> Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
2-8-7

<STORNG>
</STORNG>
v.Mjykbu VsDlV (Underline Text - <U>) Vsx :

;fn vki vius osc lkbV ij VsDLV dks v.Mjykbu djuk pkgrs gSa rks vki <U>
Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<U>
</U>
<U> vkSj </U> ds e/; fy[kk gqvk VsDLV v.Mjykbu gks tk,xkA

2-8-8 LVkbd Fkzw VsDLV (<STRIKE>) Vsx :


;fn vki oscist ij LVkbd Fkzw VsDLV cukuk pkgrs gSa rks <STRIKE> Vsx dk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 153

mi;ksx djrs gSaA ;g ,d {kSfrt ykbu j[krk gS vkSj fuEu VsDLV dh rjg fn[krk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<STRIKE>
</STRIKE>
<STRIKE> vkSj </STRIKE> ds e/; fy[kk gqvk VsDLV LVkbd Fkzw VsDLV dh rjg

gks tk,xkA
2-8-9 lqijfLdzIV vkSj lcfLdzIV (<SUP> vkSj <SUB>) Vsx :
vki osc ist esa lqijfLdzIV VsDLV (<SUP> Vsx ls) vkSj lcfdzIV VsDLV (<SUB>
Vsx ls Hkh fy[k ldrs gaSA lqijfdzIV Vsx t;knkrj xf.krh; lehdj.kksa esa mi;ksx vkrk gSA
vU; VsDLV QksjesfVax Vsxksa dh rjg <SUP> vkSj <SUB> Vsxksa dks Hkh ,UM (END) Vsx dh
vko;drk gksrh gSA
mnkgj.k %
X<SUP>4</SUP> +X<SUP>3</SUP> + X<SUP>2</SUP>+X+5=0
C<SUB>2</SUB>H<SUB>4</SUB>O<SUB>3</SUB></P>

bldk vkmViqV fuEu gksxkA


X4+X3+X2+X+5 = 0
C 2H4O 3

mnkgj.k % ;g mnkgj.k lHkh QkWjesfVax Vsx dks fn[kk;sxkA


<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<P align=center>
<BR>Italic Text -> <EM>Board of Secondary Education.</EM>
<BR>Bold Text -> <STRONG>Board of Secondary Education.
</STRONG>
<BR>Underline -> <U>Board of Secondary Education.</U>
<BR>Strikethrough-> <STRIKE>Board of Secondary Education.
</STRIKE>
<BR>Superscript -> x<SUP>4</SUP> + x<SUP>3</SUP> +
x<SUP>2</SUP>+x+5=0
<BR>Subscript -> C<SUB>2</SUB>H<SUB>4</
SUB>O<SUB>3
</SUB></P>
</BODY>
</HTML>

fp= 2-9 esa lHkh QksjesafVx VsDLV vius izdkj ds lkFk fn[kk;s x;s gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 154

fp= 2-9
2.8.10 CykWd DokWV (Blockquote) Vsx %
<Blockquote> Vsx dk mi;ksx yEch dksVsku dss fy, gksrk gSA ;g [k.M Lrj dk
rRo gSA ;g VsDLV ds [k.M djus ds mi;ksx esa Hkh vkrk gSA dqN czkmtjksa esa CykWdDokWV VsDLV
b.MsUV (Indent) gksrk gS tcfd dbZ czkmtjksa esa ;g bVsfyd gksrk gSA ;g laHko gS fd
<Blockquote> Vsx ds vanj vU; Vsx j[k ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k (
In the cluster method, the complete image space is divided
into blocks. The numbers of ON pixels are counted for a
particular block. This forms the feature for that block.
<BLOCKQUOTE> This method was found to be very
fast in computing the features needed to represent the sig
nature. <BLOCKQUOTE> If the numbers of pixel are
higher to the threshold value then the block represent ONE
otherwise ZERO.
<Blockquote> Vsx dk izHkko fp= 2-10 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

2-8-11 igys ls QksjesaVsM VsDLV (Previously Formatted Text):


lk/kkj.kr;k czkmtj VsDLV esa ls vfrfjDr Lisl gVk nsrk gSA ;fn cukus okyk dbZ
Lisl rFkk dSfjt fjVuZ (Enter Key) nsrk gS rks czkmtj mu lc dks ,d Lisl dh rjg ekurk
gSA <PRE> tag eksuksLisl QksUVQsl dk mi;ksx djrk gS rFkk ;g lHkh VsDLV dk [kkdk
(Layout) cuk;s j[krk gSA
mnkgj.k %

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 155

fp= 2-10
<PRE> An array must declare before it use in the program as same as the
other variables, three thing are declared in an array declaration:
(i)
Type of an Array
(ii)
Name of an array
(iii)
Capacity of an array (Number of Elements) </PRE>

mnkgj.k % <PRE> Vsx dks fuEu HTML nLrkost esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<P align=center>
<BR>With PRE TAG<BR>
<PRE> An array must declare before it use in the program as same
<BR>as the other variables, three thing are declared in <BR>an array declaration:
(i)
Type of an Array
(ii)
Name of an array
(iii)
Capacity of an array (Number of Elements) </PRE>
<BR>Without PRE TAG<BR>
An array must declare before it use in the program as same as the other

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 156

variables, three thing are declared in an array declaration:


(i)
Types of an Array
(ii)
Name of an array
(iii)
Capacity of an array (Number of Elements)
</P>
</BODY>
</HTML>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa tSlk VsDLV fy[kk gqvk gS oSlk gh czkmtj esa fn[kkbZ nsxkA bldks fp=
2-11 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

fp= 2-11
2.99 gksfjtksuVy :y Vsx (Horizontal Rule Tag)

Vsx {kSrht ds lekukarj ykbu (Rule) f[kaprk gS ;g Vsx vxj crk;k tk,
rks iwjs ist ds vkj ikj Hkh {kSrht ds lekukarj ykbu [khap ldrk gS bl Vsx ds ,VhC;wV fuEu
<HR>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 157

izdkj gSa%
,VhC;wV
ALIGN

Li"Vhdj.k
czkmt+j dh Lhu ij ykbu dks vykbu djrk gS tks
fMQkWYV :i ls Lhu ds lsUVj esa gksrh gSA
ALIGN = LEFT
ALIGN = RIGHT
ALIGN = CENTER

SIZE

Rule dh lkbZt ifjofrZr djrk gSA

WIDTH

Rule dh pkSM+kbZ lsV djrk gSA bls ge fiDly dh

la[;k ;k Lhu dh okLrfod pkSM+kbZ dk izfrkr esa Hkh


iznfkZr dj ldrs gaSA
mnkgj.k%
Welcome to our Web site.
<HR ALIGN=LEFT WIDTH=10 SIZE=4>

vkmViq V %

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1- Vsx nks izdkj ds gksrs gSa %
v d.Vsuj Vsx]
c ,EIVh Vsx
2- VsDLV ds pkjksa rjQ dUVsuj Vsx esa vkWifuax vkSj Dyksftax Vsx dh vko;drk gksrh gSA
3- ,EIVh Vsx vdsys gksrs gaSA
4- ,fVC;wV ds }kjk Vsx ds O;ogkj dks cnyk tk ldrk gSA
5- HTML osc ist ds nks Hkkx gksrs gSAa
v 'kh"kZ [k.M]
c iz/kku [k.M
6- 'kh"kZ Vsx esa HTML] HEAD vkSj TITLE Vsx gksrs gSaA
7- Body [k.M Body Tag rFkk vU; lHkh Vsxksa dks j[krk gSA
8- 'kh"kZd Vsx H1 ls H6 gksrs gaSA H1 'kh"kZd Vsx lcls ij ds Lrj ij rFkk H6 Vsx
lcls uhps ds Lrj ij mi;ksx gksrk gSA
9- <FONT> Vsx VsDLV dh 'kSyh cnyus ds mi;ksx vkrk gSA <Font> Vsx ds Size, Face
vkSj color ,fVC;wV gksrs gSaA
10- iSjkxzkQ Vsx (<P>) u;s iSjkxzkQ cukus esa mi;ksx vkrk gSA
11- ykbu czsd (<BR>) Vsx vkus ij VsDLV ubZ ykbu ls 'kq: gksrk gSA
12- <Basefont>, <BIG>, <SMALL>, <I>, <B> <U> <STRIKE> <SUB> vkSj <SUP>
VsDLV QksjesafVx esa mi;skx vkrs gSAa

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 158

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu
12345-

6-

7-

8-

blesa ls dkSu lk dUVsuj Vsx ugha gS &


c
<H1>
v <P>
l <FONT>
n
<BR>
HTML nLrkost dk ,DlVsUku D;k gksrk gSa \
c
HML
v HTML
l HTM
n
v vkSj l nksuksa
HTML esa fdrus 'kh"kZd Vsx miyC/k gS &
v 3
c
6
l 5
n
blesa ls dksbZ ugha
<FONT> Vsx dk ,fMC;wV dkSu lk ugha gS \
v face
c
colour
l size
n
Background color
Size = +3 dk <Font> Vsx esa D;k eryc gS &
v QksUV lkbt 3 gks tk,xh
c QksUV lkbt 3 ?kV tk,xh
l QksUV lkbt 3 c<+ tk,xh
n fMQkYV lkbt 3 gks tk,xhA
<BR> Vsx fy, dkSu lk xyr gS \
v ;g ,d [kkyh Vsx gSA
c ;g nks ykbuksa ds e/; Lisl nsus esa mi;skx vkrk gSA
l ;g VsDLV dks ubZ ykbZu ls 'kq: djrk gSA
n ;g QksUV dh lkbt dks c<++rk gSA
<STRONG> Vsx dk mi;ksx gksrk gS &
v ;g <B> Vsx ds leku gSA
c ;g ,d kCn dks cksYM cuus esa mi;ksx vkrk gSA
l ;g QksUV dh lkbt ,d cukus esa mi;ksx vkrk gSA
n v vkSj c nksuksa A
<EM> Vsx dk mi;ksx gksrk gS
v ,d kCn dks bVsfyd cukus esa mi;ksx
c ;g QksUV dh lkbt ?kVkus esa mi;ksx
l ;g QksUV dh lkbt c<+kus esa mi;ksx
n blesa ls dksbZ ugha

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 159

9-

fuEu esa ls dkSulk <Body> Vsx dk ,fMC;wV ugha gS &


c
Colour
v Text
l Background n
Alink

vfry?kq kjkRed iz u
1234567-

HTML esa vki Vsx dks dSls dzec) (Classify) dj ldrs gSa \

,fVC;wV D;k gaSa \


nks oscczkmtjksa ds uke fyf[k;sA
<TITLE> Vsx dk D;k mn~ns; gS \
cszd xzkm.M jax cnyus ds fy, <Body> Vsx dk syntax fyf[k;sA
<font> Vsx ds ,fVC;wVksa ds uke fyf[k;sA
fuEu Vsxksa ds eryc fyf[k;sA
v <BR>
c <P>
l <Basefont>
n <BIG>
; <Small>

y?kq kjkRed iz u
12345-

dUVsuj Vsx D;k gaSa \ mnkgj.k dh lgk;rk ls le>kb;sA


[kkyh Vsx D;k gaSa \ le>kb;sA
<Body> Vsx ds ,fVC;wV dks le>kb;sA
'kh"kZd Vsx ds D;k mn~ns; gksrk gSA le>kb;saA
mijksDr Vsxksa dks mlds lgh jpuk (syntax) ds lkFk le>kb;sA
v Paragraph tag
c Blockquote tag
l Pre tag
n Font tag

sSafucU/kkRed izu &


12345-

1 n

HTML osc ist cuus ds in fyf[k;sA

QkseZfs Vax Vsx fn[kkus ds fy, ,d osc ist cukb;sA


csdxzkm.M fiDpj fn[kkus ds fy, ,d osc ist cukb;sA
ist esa fofHkUu 'kh"kZd Vsx fn[kkus ds fy, HTML dksM fyf[k;sA
<Body> Vsx vkSj blds lHkh ,fVC;wV dks le>kb;sA

mkjekyk
2 n 3 c 4 n 5 l 6 n 7 n 8 v 9 n
**********

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 160

lwph izdkj ds Vsxl~


List Type Tags

3-1 ifjp; (Introduction)%%


fyLV rhu izdkj dh gksrh gS ftudks HTML esa cuk ldrs gSaA lHkh rhuksa fyLV
dsUVsuj Vsx gSA budk Dyksftax Vsx gksuk pkfg, vU;Fkk ckdh cpk gqvk ist Hkh fyLV dk
fgLlk cu tk,xkA oLrq ;k VsDLV dk Hkkx tks fd vkWifuax vkSj Dyksftax Vsx ds e/; gksrk
gS fyLV cu tkrh gSA ;g nka;s gkfk;s ls nwj gksrh gSA fyLV dh izFke ykbu fiNys VsDLV
ls vyx djus ds fy, [kkyh ykbu dks lfEefyr djrs gSA

3-2 vkWjMMZ lwph (Ordered list) :


<OL> Vsx oMZ izksll
s j dh uEcfjax ds lerqY; gSA <LI> fyLV vkbVe Vsx ds }kjk

fyLV dh ykbuksa dks vyx&vyx djrs gaSA rFkk fyLV vkbVe ds igys ,d uEcj fn[kkbZ
nsxkA
mnkgj.k %
<OL>
List of Input devices:
<LI> Keyboard </LI>
<LI> Mouse </LI>
<LI> Optical character Reader </LI>
<LI> Scanner </LI>
</OL>
<LI> Vsx ds Vkbi (type) ,fVC;wV dks uEcjksa dh 'kSyh cnyus ds fy, mi;ksx dj

ldrs gSAa bldh fMQkYV 'kSyh vjsfcd vkWjfMuyl~ gSA vkjMMZ fyLV ds Vkbi lj.kh 3-1 esa
fn[kk;s x;s gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 161

lkj.kh 3-1
Type
Capital Roman Numerals
Lower case Roman Numerals
Arabic Ordinals
Capital Letters
Lower case Letters

Char
I,II,III
i,ii,iii
1,2,3
A,B,C
a,b,c

Example
Type=I
Type=i
Type=1" (default)
Type=A
Type=a

vkWjMMZ fyLV viuk izdkj e/; esa gh <LI> Vsx ds Vkbi (type) ,fVC;wV esa mfpr
eku ds }kjk cny ldrs gSaA iwoZ fufpr eku ls Hkh vkjWMMZ fyLV dks 'kq: dj ldrs gSA
'kq:vkr dk fMQkYM eku ,d gksrk gSA fyLV vkW;Ve (item) dk eku cnyus ds fy, <LI>
Vsx esa oY;w ,fVC;wV dk mi;ksx djrs gaSA
mnkgj.k %
<OL TYPE=a>
List of Input devices:
<LI> Keyboard </LI>
<LI TYPE=i> Mouse </LI>
<LI VALUE=10> Optical character Reader </LI>
<LI> Scanner </LI>
</OL>

vki viuh bPNkuqlkj fyLV dks lkekU; v{kj ds vykok uEcj ;k v{kj ls 'kq: dj
ldrs gSaA tSls D, ii, ;k VI bl izHkko dks izkIr djus ds fy, vkidks <OL> Vsx ds vanj
START ,fVC;wV dks tksMr
+ s gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<OL START = D>

mnkgj.k %
vkWjMMZ fyLV ds fy, HTML dksM uhps fn;k x;k gSA
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<OL>
List of Input devices:
<LI> Keyboard </LI>
<LI> Mouse </LI>
<LI> Optical character Reader </LI>
<LI> Scanner </LI>
</OL>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 162

<OL TYPE=i>
List of Input devices:
<LI> Keyboard </LI>
<LI TYPE=a> Mouse </LI>
<LI VALUE=10"> Optical character Reader </LI>
<LI> Scanner </LI>
</OL>
</BODY>
</HTML>
mijksDr HTML dksM es]a ;gk nks vkWjMMZ fyLV gS] izFke fyLV vjsfcd uEcj ls rFkk

f}rh; fyLV fofHkUUk izdkj ds v{kjksa ls 'kq: gksrh gSA ;g fyLV fp= 3-1 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

3-3

vuvkWjMMZ

fp= 3-1
(Unordered List) %

<UL> Vsx oZM izkslslj (Word Processor) ds cqYbV (bullet) ds lkFk rqyuk djrs
gSAa fyLV dh ykbuksa dks fyLV vkWbVe Vsx <LI> vyx&vyx djrs gSAa fyLV vkWbVe ds igys
blesa cqysV fn[kkbZ nsxkA Type ,fVC;wV ds }kjk vuvkjMMZ fyLV vius cqyVs (type bullet)
dks cny ldrs gSaA bldh Lohdkj ;ksX; eku disc, circle vkSj square gSA bldh fMQkYV eku

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 163

disc gSA cqyV


s dh 'kSyh fyLV ds e/; esa <LI> Vsx ds TYPE ,fVC;wV dks lfEefyr dj cny

ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<UL>
Computer Languages:
<LI> JAVA</LI>
<LI> C Programming </LI>
<LI TYPE=square > C++ Programming </LI>
<LI> Pascal</LI>
<LI TYPE=circle> COBOL </LI>
<LI> FORTRAN </LI>
</UL>

mnkgj.k % vuvkWjMMZ fyLV HTML dksM uhps fy[kk x;k gSA vuvkWjMZM fyLV dk vkWmViqV
fp= 3-2 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
UNORDERED LIST WITH DIFFERENT SYMBOLS:
<BR>Computer Languages:
<LI> FORTRAN</LI>
<LI> COBOL </LI>
<LI> BASIC</LI>
<LI TYPE=circle> JAVA</LI>
<LI TYPE=circle> C Programming </LI>
<LI TYPE=circle> C++ Programming </LI>
<LI TYPE=circle> PASCAL</LI>
<LI TYPE=square> VISUAL BASIC</LI>
<LI> VISUAL C++</LI>
<LI> VISUAL JAVA </LI>
</UL>
</BODY>
</HTML>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 164

fp= 3-2

3-4

ifjHkk"kk lwph (Definition List) %

ifjHkk"kk lwph rhljh izdkj dh lwph gSA blds nks Hkkx gksrs gSA,d 'kCn o nwljk VeZ
vkSj O;k[;k esa foHkDr gksrk gSA <DT> Vsx VeZ dks gkbZykbV djus esa rFkk <DD> Vsx O;k[;k
dks gkbZykbV djus esa mi;ksx vkrs gaSA
lEiw.kZ lwph <DL> Vsx ds vanj gksrh gSA ifjHkk"kk lwph esa Hkh ,.M Vsx dh vkodrk
gksrh gS tks fd lwph dks lekIr djrk gSA <DD> rFkk <DT> Vsx vdsyh ,UVh ds fy, gksrs
gaS] buds ,.M Vsx ugha gksrs gSA
mnkgj.k %
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<DL>
<DT><B> HTML</B>
<DD>Hyper Text Markup Language </DD>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 165

<DT><B><FONT size=5">SGML</B>
<DD>Sandard Generalized Markup Language</DD>
<DT><B>XML</B>
<DD>eXensible Markup Language</DD>
<DT><B>WWW</B>
<DD>World Wide Web</DD>
<DT><B><FONT size=4">URI</B>
<DD>Universal Resource Identifier</DD>
</DL>
</BODY>
</HTML>

mijksDr dksM dk vkWmViqV fp= 3-3 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

fp= % 3-3

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 166

3-5

,Msl Vsx (Address Tag) :

;g osc ist ij ys[kd vkSj lEidZ djus dk fooj.k fn[kkus ds fy, mi;ksx djrs
gSAa ,Msl Vsx ds vanj VsDLV bVsfyd gksrk gSA lkekU;r;k] <ADDRESS> Vsx bZ&esy ,Ml
s
gh ugha j[krk ysfdu vkids i= O;ogkj dk irk vkSj VsfyQksu uEcj Hkh gksrs gaAS
mnkgj.k %
<ADDRESS>
<P>
<FONT COLOR=red FACE=arial> You want to pass on any
suggestion, words of praise, please send e-mail to <A
HREF=mailto:anilgupta09@yahoo.co.in> anilgupta09@yahoo.co.in
</A>.</FONT>
</P>
</ADDRESS>

mnkgj.k % lEiw.kZ HTML nLrkost ,Msl Vsx dk dk;Z fn[kkrk gS rFkk czkmtj esa bldk
vkmViqV fp= 3-4 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<ADDRESS>
<P>
<FONT COLOR=red FACE=arial size=6> You want to pass
on any suggestion, words of praise, please send e-mail to <A
HREF=mailto:anilgupta09@yahoo.co.in> anilgupta09@yahoo.co.in
</A>.</FONT>
</P>
</ADDRESS>
</BODY>
</HTML>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 167

fp= % 3-4

3-6

,Udj Vsx (Anchor Tag) %

osc ij i<+us okys dks ,d Qkby ls nwljh Qkby HkkSxksfyd :i ls dgha ij j[kh
gks dks fyad djrk gSA fyad esa Vsx ds lkFk vanj vkbVe (Item) gksrk] lkekU;r;k ;g VsDLV
gksrk gSA vkWifuax Vsx Qkby ,Ml
s j[krk gS tgka ij Qkby LFkkiu gksrh gSA can VsDLV og
VsDLV gksrk gS tks osc ist ij fn[kkbZ nsrk gaAS fyad Vsx <A> ds nks ,fVC;wV gksrs gS & NAME
vkSj HREFA NAME osc ist ij fpUg cukrk gS tgka ij fyad djuk gS tcfd HREF fyad
ist dk URL crkrk gSA
;gka ij rhu rjhds ls fyad dj ldrs gS %
q
bUVjusV ij ck ist dks fyad djukA
q
lkbV ds vanj ist dks fyad djukA
q
osc ist esa fdlh fcUnq ij fyad djukA
mnkgj.k %
<A HREF=location/filename.extension> Text to appear on the web
page </A>< A HREF =body.html> Link to a previous Chapter </
A>
< A HREF =www.microsoft.com> Microsoft Home Page </A>
;g lEHko gS fd <A> Vsx ds vanj vU; rRoksa dks j[k ldrs gSaA

mnkgj.k % kh"kZd ds fy, fyad cukus ds fy, fuEu dk mi;ksx djsaxsA


<A HREF = filename> <HI> TEXT </H1> </A>

AglaSem School

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3-7

fyad cukuk (Create links) %

,d ist ls nwljs ist ij fyad djuk bl Hkkx esa ns[ksx


a As ,d txg ls nwljh txg
ij tkus dh ;ksX;rk] oscs dk mi;ksxh gksuk ,d eq[; dkj.k gSA gkbijfyad dk xUrO; LFkku
lalkj esa vU; osc lkbV ij ;k dsoy ;g viuh osc lkbV ds vanj dksbZ foks"k txg gks ldrk
gSA vki ,d 'kCn dk xzkfQDl ij fDyd tks HTML ds vanj fy[kk gS vkSj czkmtj vkids
URL ds vuqlkj osc ij ys tk,xkA
3.7.1

HTML nLrkost ds vU; LFkkuksa ij fyad djuk %

vki lksprs gSa fd vki viuh osc lkbV ij fdlh foks"k [k.M dks <aw<us es foftVlZ
<w<us okyk dh lgk;rk djuk pkgrs gSaA ;fn vkius ml ist ds fy, dksbZ fyad ugha cuk;k
gS rks mudks ml ist dks uhps djrs jguk iM+sxk tc rd fd vki vius :fp dk [k.M ugha
<aw< yssrs gSA blds vykok] os tks pkgrs gS ml ist ij vki mudks 'kh?kz gh Hkst ldrs gSaA ;g
,Udj Vsx fd lgk;rk ls izkIr dj ldrs gSAa
mnkgj.k %
;g LVsVesUV fyad cukus ds fy, fy[kk tkrk gSA
<A HREF = Filename#Text> Text </A>

;g LVsVesUV ogka fy[kk tkrk gS tgk vki igaqpuk pkgrs gSaA


<A NAME = TEXT> TEXT

;fn vki mijksDr nksuksa LVsVesUV dks oscist ij j[krs gSa rks oscist ij izFke LVsVesUV
ij fDyd djus ij 'kh?kz gh nwljs LVsVesUV ij igaqp tk,axsA VsDLV 'kCn ds LFkku ij dksbZ
VsDLV fy[kuk iM+rk gSA tgka ij vki HTML dksM fy[krs gSa ogha Qkby dk uke gksxkA
mnkgj.k %
<A HREF = Index.html# List of Input devices> List of input Devies </A>

vkSj
mnkgj.k %

<A NAME = List of Input devices> List of input devise </A>


;g HTML nLrkost nks fyad cukrk gSA

1- vfUre ist ij igaqpus ds fy,A


2- izFke ist ij igaqpus ds fy,A
HTML nLrkost dh Qkby dk uke index.html gSA
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<A HREF=index.html#last>LAST PAGE</A>
<A Name=first></A>
<OL>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 169

<LI>Input Devices</LI>
<LI>Output Devices</LI>
<LI>Computer Languages</LI>
<LI>Computer Subject</LI>
<BR>
</OL>
<OL>
<BR>
Input Devices:
<LI> Keyboard </LI>
<LI> Mouse </LI>
<LI> Optical character Reader </LI>
<LI> Scanner </LI>
</OL>
<OL>
<BR>Output Devices:
<LI> Printer </LI>
<LI> Plotter </LI>
<LI> Monitor </LI>
<LI> Floppy </LI>
</OL>
<OL>
<BR>
Computer Languages:
<LI> JAVA</LI>
<LI> C Programming </LI>
<LI> C++ Programming </LI>
<LI> Pascal</LI>
<LI> COBOL </LI>
<LI> FORTRAN </LI>
</OL>
<OL>
<BR>
Computer Subject
<LI> Data Analysis and Design</LI>
<LI> Data Structure </LI>
<LI> Data Mining </LI>
<LI> HTML </LI>
<LI> Visual Basic </LI>

AglaSem School

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<LI> Data and Computer Communication </LI>


</OL>
<A NAME=last></A>
<A HREF=index.html#first>FIRST PAGE</A>
</BODY>
</HTML>
mijksDr HTML Qkby esa] geus blesa nks fyad izFke ist ls vfUre ist ij tkus

ds fy, rFkk vfUre ist ls izFke ist ij vkus ds fy, cuk;s gSA budh vkmViqV fLdzu fp=
3-5 vkSj 3-6 esa fn[kkbZ xbZ gSA

fp= 3-5% izFke ist ij fyad


fp= 3-5 esa] osc ij ykLV ist (LAST PAGE) gkbij fyad fn[kk;k gSA tc vki
ykLV ist fyad ij fDyd djsxas rc ;g osc ist dk vfUre ist fn[kk;sxkA leku:Ik ls] fp=
3-6 esa] osc ij QLVist (First Page) gkbijfyad fn[kk;k x;k gSA tc vki QLV ist fyad
fDyd djsxsa rc ;g oscist dk izFke ist fn[kk;sxkA

AglaSem School

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fp= 3-6% vfUre ist ij fyad


3-7-2 vU; HTML nLrkost ds fy, fyad %
vki lksprs gSa fd vki viuh osclkbV ij vU; HTML nLrkostksa ds fdlh foks"k
[k.M dks <a<w us ds fy, foftV~lZ dh lgk;rk djuk pkgrs gSaA vkidks mu istksa dks fyad djus
dh vko;drk gksxhA ;g ,Udj Vsx dh lgk;rk ls izkIr dj ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k % ;g LVsVesUV fyad cukus ds fy, eq[; Qkby esa fy[ksaxsA
<A HREF = Filename#Text> Text</A>

;g LVsVesUV ogk fy[ksaxs tgk ge igaqpuk pkgsaxsA


<A NAME = Text> Text</A>

;fn vki mijksDr nksuksa LVsVesUV dks osc ist ij j[krs gSa rks oscist ij izFke LVsVesaV
ij fDyd djus ij 'kh?kz gh nwljs LVsVesUV ij igqp
tk,axAs VsDLV 'kCn ds LFkku ij dksbZ VsDLV
fy[kuk iM+rk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 172

mnkgj.k %
<A HREF = link.html # List of Input Devices> List of Input Devices </A>

vkSj
< A NAME = List of Input Devices </A>
;gka ge nks HTML Qkby dk mi;ksx djsx
a As ,d index.html vkSj nwljh link.html

gSA nksuksa Qkbyas uhps fn[kkbZ xbZ gSA


1. Index.html HTML file:
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<OL>
<LI><A HREF=link.html#Input Devices>Input Devices</A></
LI>
<LI><A HREF=link.html#Output Devices>Output Devices</
A></LI>
<LI><A HREF=link.html#Computer Languages>Computer
Languages</A></LI>
<LI><A HREF=link.html#Computer Subject>Computer Subject</A>
</LI>
<BR>
</OL>
</BODY>
</HTML>
2. Link.html HTML file:
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<OL>
<BR><A NAME= Input Devices>Input Devices:</A>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 173

<LI> Keyboard </LI>


<LI> Mouse </LI>
<LI> Optical character Reader </LI>
<LI> Scanner </LI>
</OL>
<OL>
<BR><A NAME= Output Devices>Output Devices:</A>
<LI> Printer </LI>
<LI> Plotter </LI>
<LI> Monitor </LI>
<LI> Floppy </LI>
</OL>
<OL>
<BR>
<A NAME= Computer Languages>Computer Languages:</A>
<LI> JAVA</LI>
<LI> C Programming </LI>
<LI> C++ Programming </LI>
<LI> Pascal</LI>
<LI> COBOL </LI>
<LI> FORTRAN </LI>
</OL>
<OL>
<BR><A NAME= Computer Subject>Computer Subject</A>
<LI> Data Analysis and Design</LI>
<LI> Data Structure </LI>
<LI> Data Mining </LI>
<LI> HTML </LI>
<LI> Visual Basic </LI>
<LI> Data and Computer Communication </LI>
</OL>
</BODY>
</HTML>

mijksDr mnkgj.k es]a ;gk nks HTML Qkby gSA ,d index.html vkSj nwljh link.html geus
index.html gkbij fyad cuk;s tks 'kh?kz gh link.html Qkby ds foks"k ist dks [kksy nsrs gSAa
mudks fp= 3-7 vkSj 3-8 esa fn[kk;k x;k gSA

AglaSem School

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fp= 3-7

fp= 3-8

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 175

3-7-3 vU; lkbV vkSj MkVk vkWCtsDV fyad djuk %


(Link to other Website or Date Objects) :

osclkbV esa gkbij fyad ,d cgqr lkekU; rjhdk gS tks foftVlZ dks vU; osclkbVl~
ls fyad djuk gSA vki viuh osclkbV dks Hkh fyad dj ldrs gksA
mnkgj.k %
< A HREF = vU; lkbV dk uke> </A>
< A HREF = http://www.yahoo.com> </A>
mnkgj.k %;g HTML Qkby ;g nkkZrh gS fd vki vU; osclkbV ls dSls fyad cukrs gksA
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<P><A HREF=http://www.yahoo.com></A> YAHOO MAIL
<BR>
<A HREF=http://www.hotmail.com></A> HOTMAIL</P>
<BR>
</BODY>
</HTML>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa] geus nks gkbij fyad lfEefyr fd;s gaSA ;g vyx&vyx
osclkbV ds ck fyad gSA bl fLFkfr es]a ck fyad ds fy, URL http://www.yahoo.com
vkSj http://www.hotmail.com gSA ;g oscist fp= 3-9 o 3-10 esa nkkZ;s x;s gaSA

fp= 3-9

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 176

fp= 3-10

3-8

Nk;k (Image) %

osc ist dk izHkko c<+kus ds fy;s best+ Nk;k dk mi;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA bldk
,d cM+h gkfu gS fd os MkmuyksM gksus esa le; ysrh gSA ;g loZekU; gS fd oscist 30k lkbt
ls de gksuk pkfg, vU;Fkk ;g nwljs e ,d ist tks fyad gksrk gS dk ist gS vkSj i<+us
okyk MkmuyksM le; ds izfr tkx:d gksrk gSA ;g Hkh flQkfjk djrk gS fd 256 jaxksa okyk
lewg j[kasA best HTML ds okLrfod ist ds vanj ugha j[kh tkrh gaS] bldks MkmuyksM djrs
gaSA bldh vko;drk fn[kkus ds fy, gksrh gS rc gh ;g ykbu yksM gksrh gSA
mnkgj.k % osc ist ij best dks nkkZus ds fy, best Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
< IMG Src = location / filename.extension>

best Vsx ds dbZ ,fVC;wV gksrs gSaA ;g fuEu izdkj gSa %


lkj.kh 3-2
align
best dks veqd LFkku j[kus ds fy, mi;ksx gksrk gSA ,ykbuesUV ds
eku ij (top), chp esa (middle) uhps (Bottom)] nk;k (right)] ck;k
(Left) gksrs gSaA
alt
best dk fooj.k L++hu ij i<+us okyksa ds fy, j[kus ds ;k tc best
MkmuyksM+ gksrh gS rks ml txg ij nkkZus ds fy, ;k ;fn czkmtj best

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 177

height
hspace
src
vspace
width

dks izkIr ugha djrk gS rks nkkZus ds fy, mi;ksx vkrk gSA
best dh pkbZ crkus ds fy, mi;ksx gksrk gSA
best ds pkjksa rjQ f{kfrt vfrfjDr LFkku crkus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA
best ftl txg LVksj mldk LFkku crkus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA
best ds pkjksa rjQ /o vfrfjDr LFkku crkus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA
best dh pkSM+kbZ crkus esa mi;ksx djrs gSA

mnkgj.k %
< IMG Src = glope.gif>
< IMG src=tiger.jpg height=200" width=200">
< IMG src=glope.gif align=right>

tc best osc ist ij ck;s ;k nk;s j[kh tkrh gSA rc blds ckn okyk VsDLV blds
nk;s ;k ck;s vk tk,xkA VsDLV dks nks bestksa ds e/; j[kus ds fy, best rRokas dks VsDLV ls
rR{k.k iwoZ j[kuk gksrk gS rkfd ;g muds e/; fn[kkbZ nsA izFke best dks nk;s j[kuh pkfg;s
vkSj align=right best Vsx esa lfEefyr djuk vko;d gSA f}rh; best rRo ds best Vsx
esa align=left best Vsx esa lfEefyr djuk vko;d gSA rc nks best ds e/; gkfk;k
fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
best ds pkjksa rjQ best dks jksdus ds fy, ykbuczd
s ds lkFk ,fVC;wV mi;ksx djuk
pkfg;sA blds fuEu eku gks ldrs gSa ftudks lkj.kh 3-3 esa nkkZ;k x;k gSA
lkj.kh 3-3
< BR Clear = left> ;g izdV gksrs gSa tc ck;sa gkfk;s (Margin) esa dksbZ best
ugha gksrh gSA
< BR Clear = right> ;g izdV gksrs gSa tc nk;sa gkfk;s (Margin) esa dksbZ best
ugha gksrs gSaA
< BR Clear = all> ;g izdV gksrs gSa tc nksuksa rjQ dksbZ best ugha gksrh gSA
VsDLV dks hspace vkSj vspace ,fVC;wV dk mi;ksx djds pkjksa rjQ ls nwj j[k ldrs
gSA ;g best ds ij uhps ds rR{k.k nk;s vkSj ck;s txg Lisl j[ksxkA
mnkgj.k %
<IMG Src = globe.gif hspace = 10 vspace = 15>
fyad best (Link Image) %
vU; oscist ds fy, best fyad cu ldrh gSA <A> Vsx <IMG> ds lkFk <A> Vsx

ds vkWifuax vkSj Dyksftax ds e/; fyad cukus esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
<A href=location/filename.extension>
mnkgj.k %
<IMG src=location/filename.extension>
</A>

,d gh best ij nks fyadksa dks vyx&vyx djus ds fy, ckMZj dk mi;ksx djrs gSAa
ckMZj dks gVkus ds fy, <IMG> Vsx esa cksMZj ,fVC;wV dks lfEefyr djuk gksrk gSA
<A href=link.htm>
mnkgj.k %
<IMG src=next1.gif height= 50 width=50" align=right border=0>
</A>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 178

mnkgj.k % best ds lkFk gkbijfyad cukus ds fy, HTML dk dksM fyf[k;sA


<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Board of Secondary Education</TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<A HREF=link.html>
<IMG src=tiger.jpg height=250" width=250" align=left border=2>
</A>
</BODY>
</HTML>
mijksDr HTML dksM esa] Vsx ds vanj Vsx dk mi;ksx fd;k gSA ;fn vki best ij
fDyd djsaxs rks czkmtj esa link.html Qkby [kqy tk,xhA ;fn vki HTML dksM esa ls Vsx

gVk nsxsa rks vki fiDpj ds lkFk gkbijfyad ugha cuk ldrsA bldks fp= 3-11esa fn[kk;k x;k
gSA

fp= 3-11

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 179

3-9

{kSfrt (Horizontal) Vsx %

;g Vsx ist ij ,d vkjikj ykbu cukus ds fy, mi;skx esa vkrk gSA {kSfrt Vsx
lkekU;rk;k fo"k; esa cnyko dks bafxr djus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA <HR> ds dbZ ,fVC;wV
gksrs gSA budks yxkus ij bldh fn[kkoV cny tkrh gSA
,ykbuesUV ds lkekU; eku nk;k] ck;k vksj e/; gSA bldk fMQkYV eku
e/; gSA
size
lkbu ykbu dh eksVkbZ crkrk gSA lkbt dks fiDly esa fy[krs gaSA
width pkSM+kbZ ykbu dh yEckbZ dks crkrk gSA ;g eku fiDly vkSj izfrkr nksuksa
esa ns ldrs gSaA bldk fMQkYV eku 100 izfrkr gSA
noshade ;g ,fVC;wV ykbu dks nks jax ds xq.k ls lery cukrh gSA
mnkgj.k %
align

<HR>
<HR size=3" width=70% noshade >

uksV % & ekbkslksQV bUVjusV ,DlIyksjs j Vsx esa ,d vfrfjDr ,fVC;wV dyj dks vuqefr nsrk
gSA jax dks gsDlkMsfley dksM ;k iwoZ?kksf"kr uke ls crk;k tk ldrk gSA
mnkgj.k %
<HR size=3" width=70% color=blue >

3-- 10 HTML

dksM fy[kus ds fu;e %

HTML ,d QksjesafVax Hkk"kk dh rjg ekuh tkrh gSA ;g vU; izksxzkfeax Hkk"kkvksa ls
vyx gksrh gSA blds fy, dqN fu;eksa dk vuqdj.k djus dh vko;drk gksrh gSA fu;e vU;
Hkk"kk ls vyx gks ldrs gSaA
1ySl&nsu vkSj xzsVj nsu ds fpUg ds ckgjh Hkkx esa mi;ksx djksA
mnkgj.k % tSlk <BODY> Vsx esa gSA
2- ;fn Vsx esa ,.M Vsx dh vko;drk gks rks bldks mi;ksx djuk pkfg,A ,.M Vsx LVkVZ
Vsx ds leku gksrk gSA
mnkgj.k % tSlk </BODY> Vsx esa gSA
3vkidks viuh HTML Qkby dks <HTML> Vsx ds lkFk 'kq: djuk pkfg, vkSj
lekIr </HTML> Vsx ds lkFk blds bykok lc dqN bu nks Vsx ds e/; gksuk pkfg,A
4tc vki ,fVC;wV esa eku fy[krs gks rks cjkcj fpUg dk mi;ksx djksA
mnkgj.k % tSlk TEXT= esa gSA
5tc vki ,fVC;wV fy[krs gSa rks cjkcj fpUg ds nksuks a rjQ Lisl ugha j[kuh pkfg,A
6,fVC;wV ds eku ds nksuksa rjQ dksVsku fpUg yxkuk gksrk gSA
mnkgj.k % size=20"
7gSk fpUg ( # ) dk mi;ksx djuk pkfg,tc jax dks muds gSDlkMslhey dksM esa fy[ksA

AglaSem School

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8-

mnkgj.k % tSlk TEXT = #871E11


vkidks T+;knkrj ;g lqfufpr djus dh vko;drk gksrh gS fd vkius ,.M Vsx dks
e ls yxk;k gS ;k ugha A tc vki Vsx ds vanj Vsx j[krs gS] rks LVkVZ Vsx rFkk
,.M Vsx dks ns[krs jguk gksrk gS rkfd vki mudks ,d ds ij ,d ugha yxk nasA
vU; 'kCnksa esa] ;fn ,d okD; dks vUMj ykbu djuk pkgrs gSa vkSj rc izFke Vsx ds
nksukasa rjQ vU; Vsx ds ;qXe dks yxkrs gSaA tSlk fuEu mnkgj.k esa gSA
mnkgj.k %
<U><I>This sentence appears underline and in italic type.</I></U>

bl mnkgj.k esa xyr rjhds ls Vsxksa dks ,d ds ij ,d yxkuk fn[kk;k x;k gSA
9-

10-

<U> <I> This sentence appears underline and in italic type. The tags are placed
incorrectly </U> </I>
Vsx vkSj ,fVC;wV ds fy, cM+s kCnksa dk mi;ksx djuk pkfg;s tSls <BODY> vkSj
<TEXT>A vki NksVs'kCnksa dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gS] ysfdu tc vki HTML

Qkby esa dqN cnyko djuk pkgsaxs rks Vsxksa vkSj ,fVC;wVks dks igpkuuk dfBu cu
tkrk gSA
vki vius HTML dksM dks Vsc vkSj fjVuZ dk mi;ksx dj i<+us ;ksX; cuk ldrs gSAa
HTMLdksM dks izR;sd ykbu ds ckn ,UVj daqth (Enter key) nckvksA dksM dh
ykbuksa dks i`"B izkUr ls gVk ds fy[kus ls dksM dh ykbuksa ds e/; laca/k fn[krk gSA
fuEu mnkgj.k ls ;g ekywe gksrk gS fd HTML esa dkSu ls Vsx fdl Vsx dk lgk;d
gSA bUMsUV vkidks crkrk gS fd lEiw.kZ lwph vU; lwph dh lgk;d gSA
<UL>
<LI>
<LI>
<UL>
<LI>
<LI>
</UL>
<LI>
<LI>
</UL>

11-

vki vius dk;Z dks tkprs tk;s] rkfd vkidks ?kaVksa bl dk;Z esa ugha yxs fd osc ist
oSlk ugha dj jgk gS tSlk vkidks vkkk FkhA

AglaSem School

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egRoiw.kZ
.kZ fcUnq
1- HTML esa rhu izdkj dh lwph lfEefyr gksrh gS % &
v vkWjMMZ lwph
c
vuvkWjMMZ lwph
l
ifjHkk"kk lwph
2- ,Ml
s ys[k ;k feyus okys O;fDr ds ckjs esa lwpuk fn[kkus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA
3- ,Udj Vsx vU; nLrkost ;k lkbV dks fyad djus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSA
4- ,Udj Vsx dh okD; jpuk (syntax) gS %& <A HREF=filename> text </A>
5- best Vsx oscist ij best fn[kkus ds fy, mi;ksx vkrh gSA
6- best fyax cukus ds fy, <A> Vsx ds vanj <IMG> Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
7- ist ds vkjikj {kSfrt ykbu f[kapus ds fy, {kSfrt ze Vsx ze dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu
1- vkWjMMZ lwph ds fy, mi;ksx gksus okyk Vsx gS %
v <LI>
c <OL>
l <UL>
n <DL>
2- buesa ls dkSu lk vkWjMMZ lwph Vsx dk ,fVC;wV ugha gS \
v type
c start
l Value
n end
3- <DT> Vsx dk mi;ksx gksrk gS &
v VeZ dk gkbZykbV djus ds
c fooj.k dks gkbZykbV djus ds
l QksUV dh lkbt cnyus ds
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
4- buesa ls dkSulk eku vuvkWjMMZ lwph ds Vkbi ,fVC;wV dk ugha gSA
v Square
c Circle
l disc
n rectangle
5- ,Udj Vsx dk mi;ksx gksrk gS &
v bUVjusV ij ck ist dks fyad djus ds c lkbV ds vanj istksa dks fyad djus ds
l oscist ds fdlh fcUnq dks fyad djus ds n mijksDr lHkh
6- dkSu lk ,Udj Vsx dk ,fVC;wV gS \
v HREF
c NAME
l v vkSj c nksuksa
n Size
7- <IMG> Vsx dk dkSulk ,fVC;wV ugha gSa \
v height
c width
l align
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
8- <IMG> Vsx ds SRC ,fVC;wV dh lgh eku dkSu lk gSa \
v Glope.gif
c tiger.jpg
l v o c nksuksa
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 182

9- <HR> Vsx dk dkSu lk ,fVC;wV gSa \


v Align
l Width

c Size
n Font

vfr y?kqkjkRed izu %


123456-

dkSu lk Vsx vkWjMZM lwph cukus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gSa \


dkSu lk Vsx vuvkWjMZM lwph cukus ds mi;ksx esa vkrk gS \
<OL> Vsx ds Vkbi ,fVC;wV ds D;k eku gksrs gSa \
<UL> Vsx dk D;k mi;skx gSa \
,Udj Vsx dh D;k okD; jpuk gSa \
oscist ds vanj fyad cukus ds fy, dkSu ls Vsx mi;ksx esa vkrs gSaA mudh lwph fyf[k;sA

y?kqkjkRed izu %

1- <DL> Vsx esa LVkVZ ,fVC;wV dk D;k eryc gksrk gSa \


2- ,Ml
s Vsx dks mnkgj.k dh lgk;rk ls le>kb;sA
3- osc ist ds czd
s xzkm.M esa fiDpj fn[kkus ds fy, <BODY> Vsx dh okD; jpuk (Syntax)
fyf[k;sA
4- {kSfrt

e Vsx D;k gSa \ le>kb;sA


5- best ds vanj fyad cukus ds fy, <A> vkSj <IMG> Vsx dh okD; jpuk fyf[k;sA
6- mlh HTML ist ij gkbijfyad cukus ds fy, okD; jpuk fyf[k;sA
7- fyad ds izdkj fyf[k;sA
8- fuEu Vsxksa dks le>kb;sA
v
<A>
c
<HR>
l
<LI>

fuca/kkRed izu %
1234-

mlh HTML ist ij gkbijfyad cukus ds fy, HTML dk dksM fyf[k;sA


vU; HTML ist ds fy, gkbijfyad cukus gsrq HTML dk dksM fyf[k;sA
mfpr Vsx dk mi;ksx djrs gq, osc ist cukb;sA fDyd djus ij fo"k; lwph fn[kk;sA
vkWjMMZ lwph dk mi;ksx djrs gq, lHkh buiqV vkSj vkmViqV fMokblst dks fn[kkus ds
fy, HTML dksM fyf[k;sA

1 c

mkjekyk
2 v 3 n 4 c 5 n 6 l 7 n 8 l 9 n

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 183

vfxze ,pVh,e,y
Advance HTML

4.11 Vscy (Table)


vkf/kdkfjd rkSj ij Vscyl~ dks HTML 3.2 esa lu~ 1995 esa tksMk+ x;k FkkA blds i'pkr~
Vscyl us osc ist fMtkbu ds {ks= esa kafr yk nhA Vscyl~ dk mi;ksx osc ist ij lwpukvksa
dks lkj.kh (Table) ds :i esa iznf'kZr djus ds vfrfjDr osc ist ds ys vkmV (layout) dks
daVksy djus ds fy, Hkh mi;ksx fy;k tkus yxkA
fdlh osc ist esa Vscy cukus ds fy, eq[;r% fuEu Vsxl~ dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
Table
lkj.kh dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
TR
lkj.kh dh iaf (ROW) dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
TD
lkj.kh ds MkVk dks'k (Data Cell)
TH
lkj.kh ds 'kh"kZd dks'k (Header Cell)
CAPTION
lkj.kh dk dsI'ku (Caption) nsus ds fy,
THEAD
lkj.kh ds 'kh"kZ (Head) ds fy,
TBODY
lkj.kh dh ckMh (Body) ds fy,
TFOOT
lkj.kh ds QqVj (Footer) ds fy,
COL
LrEHk (Column) ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
COLGROUP LrEHk leqg (Column Group) ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
4.2 <Table> Vsx (<Table> Tag)

fdlh osc ist esa lkj.kh cukus ds fy, bl Vsx dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
Syntax
<Table> ................ </Table>

mijks Vsx ,d lkj.kh ds izkjEHk rFkk var dks iznf'kZr djrk gSA
fdlh osc ist esa iaf@lsy (Row/Cell) esfVDl (Matrix) cukus esa fy, <Table> Vsx

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 183

vfxze ,pVh,e,y
Advance HTML

4.11 Vscy (Table)


vkf/kdkfjd rkSj ij Vscyl~ dks HTML 3.2 esa lu~ 1995 esa tksMk+ x;k FkkA blds i'pkr~
Vscyl us osc ist fMtkbu ds {ks= esa kafr yk nhA Vscyl~ dk mi;ksx osc ist ij lwpukvksa
dks lkj.kh (Table) ds :i esa iznf'kZr djus ds vfrfjDr osc ist ds ys vkmV (layout) dks
daVksy djus ds fy, Hkh mi;ksx fy;k tkus yxkA
fdlh osc ist esa Vscy cukus ds fy, eq[;r% fuEu Vsxl~ dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
Table
lkj.kh dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
TR
lkj.kh dh iaf (ROW) dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
TD
lkj.kh ds MkVk dks'k (Data Cell)
TH
lkj.kh ds 'kh"kZd dks'k (Header Cell)
CAPTION
lkj.kh dk dsI'ku (Caption) nsus ds fy,
THEAD
lkj.kh ds 'kh"kZ (Head) ds fy,
TBODY
lkj.kh dh ckMh (Body) ds fy,
TFOOT
lkj.kh ds QqVj (Footer) ds fy,
COL
LrEHk (Column) ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
COLGROUP LrEHk leqg (Column Group) ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
4.2 <Table> Vsx (<Table> Tag)

fdlh osc ist esa lkj.kh cukus ds fy, bl Vsx dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
Syntax
<Table> ................ </Table>

mijks Vsx ,d lkj.kh ds izkjEHk rFkk var dks iznf'kZr djrk gSA
fdlh osc ist esa iaf@lsy (Row/Cell) esfVDl (Matrix) cukus esa fy, <Table> Vsx

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 184

dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA lkj.kh ds dks'k esa fofHkUu izdkj ds vkCtsDV (object) tSl&
s la[;k
(Numbers), VsDLV (Text), fp= (Image), vFkok ,adj (Anchor) vkfn dks j[kk tk ldrk
gSA lkjf.k;ksa ls lEcfU/kr lHkh Vsxl~ dks <Table> rFkk </Table> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; esa mi;ksx
esa fy;k tkrk gSA
,d lkekU; lkj.kh dh HTML lajpuk fuEu izdkj gksrh gS&
<HTML>
<TITLE> ................. </TITLE>
<TABLE>
<! Table start hare>
<TR>
<! First table row start here>
<TD> Content </TD>
<! First table data in first row of table>
</TR>
<! end of first row>
<TR>
<! Second table row start here>
<TD> ....................</TD> <! First table data in second row of table>
<TD> ..................... </TD><! Second table data in second row of table>
</TR>
<! End of second row>
</Table>
<! End of table>
</HTML>

4.2.1 <Table> Vsx ds ,VhC;wV (Attibutes of <Table> Tag)


Border= "number of pixels"

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx lkj.kh rFkk dks'k ds pkjksa vksj ds ckg~; fdukjksa (Border) dh
pkSM+kbZ (width) dks fiDly la[;k ds :i esa ifjHkkf"kr djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn
border = 0 gS rks lkj.kh rFkk dks'k ds pkjks vksj dk ckMZj gV tkrk gSAckMZj (border)
,VhC;wV dk fMQkyV (default) eku 1 gksrk gSA
Cellpadding = "number of pixels or %"

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx dks'k ds ckMZj rFkk lsy esa mifLFkr dUVsV (content) ds e/;
fiDly vFkok Vscy dh dqy pkSM+kbZ ds izfr'kr ds :i esa [kkyh LFkku@nwjh r; djus
ds dke esa fy;k tkrk gSAbl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkYV (default) eku 1 fiDly gksrk gSA
Cellspacing = "number of pixels or %"

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx ,d lkj.kh ds fofHkUu dks'kksa (cells) ds e/; fiDly vFkok


lkj.kh dh dqy pkSM+kbZ ds izfr'kr ds :i esa [kkyh LFkku vFkok nwjh r; djus ds dke
esa fy;k tkrk gSA bl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkYV (default) eku 2 fiDly gksrk gSA
frame = "void|above|below|hsides|vsides|lhs|rhs|box|border"
;g ,VhC;wV osc ist czkmtj dks ;g crkrk gS fd lkj.kh ds pkjksa vksj dgk ij ckMZj
iznf'kZr djuk gSA
void
= lkj.kh ds pkjksa vksj se (frame) ugha vkrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 185

above
below
hside
vside
lhs
rhs
box
border

= dsoy lcls ij (top) dk ckMZj (border)


= dsoy lcls uhps (bottom) dk ckMZj (border)
= lcls ij (top) rFkk lcls uhps (bottom) dk ckMZj (border)
= nk;s rFkk ck;s lkbM dk ckMZj (border)
= ck;s gkFk (Left Hand Side) dh rjQ dk ckMZj (border)
= nk;s gkFk (Right Hand Side) dh rjQ dk ckMZj (border)
= Vscy ds pkjksa vksj dk ckMZj (border)
= lHkh rjQ dk ckMZj (border)

Rules = "all|cols|grups|none|rows|"

;g ,VhC;wV ;g r; djrk gS fd fdlh lkj.kh esa dks'k dks vyx djus okyh ykbZu dgk
ij cukuh gSA
all
= lHkh dks'kksa (cells) ds e/;
cols
= izR;sd iaf ds e/;
group = ykWftdy (logical groups) tSls TBody rFkk HEAD ds e/;
none = dksbZ ykbZu ugha
rows = izR;sd iaf ds e/;
width = "number or percentaged %"

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx lkj.kh dh pkSMk+ bZ fiDly vFkok i`"B dh dqy pkSMk+ bZ ds izfr'kr
ds :i esa r; djus ds dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA
4.3 <TR> Vsx (<TR> Tag)
bl Vsx dk mi;ksx ,d lkj.kh esa ,d iaf (row) dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA bl Vsx dk mi;ksx lnSo <table> rFkk </table> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; fd;k tkrk gSA
Syntax
<TR> ................<! iaf dk izkjEHk >
</TR>................... <! iaf dk var>
4.3.1 ,VhC;wV (Attribute)

align = "left|center|right|justify|char"
bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx ,d dks'k esa mifLFkr lwpukvksa ds {kSfrt ,ykbuesaV (horizontal
alignment) ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
left
= lwpuk,a ck;s (left) gkFk dh rjQ ,yk;u (align) gksrh gaSA
center = lwpuk,a lsy ds e/; (center) esa ,yk;u (align) gksrh gaSA
right = lwpuk,a nk;s (right) gkFk dh rjQ ,yk;u (align) gksrh gSaA
justify = lwpuk,a tfLVQkbM (justified) gksrh gaAS

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 186

Charoff = Length

;g ,VhC;wV izR;sd ykbu ds izFke vyk;uesaV djsDV (aligement Character) ls nwjh r;


djrk gSA
Char = Char

;g ,VhC;wV ,d djsDVj (Character) dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA ftlds lkis{k dks'k ds
dUVsaV ,yk;u fd;s tkrs gSA bl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkYV (default) eku n'keyo fcUnq (.)
gksrk gSA
Valign = top/middle/bottom/baseline
;g ,VhC;wV lsy ds dUVsaV dk m?okZ/kj (Vertical) ,ykbuesaV (alignment) ifjHkkf"kr

djus ds dke vkrk gSA


4.4 <TD> Vsx (<TD> Tag)
bl Vsx dk mi;ksx ,d lkj.kh dh fdlh iafDr esa LrEHk@lkj.kh MkVk cukus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA bl Vsx dk mi;ksx <TR> rFkk </TR> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; esa fd;k tkrk gS
,d <TR> rFkk </TR> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; ftruh la[;k esa <TD> rFkk </TD> Vsx ;qXe
mifLFkr gksrs gaSA og iafDr (Row) mrus LrEHkksa (Column) esa fofHkDr gks tkrh gSA
4.44 .11 ,VhC;wV (Attribute)
Align = Left/Right/Center

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx ,d dks'k esa mifLFkr lwpukvksa dks {kSfrt ,ykbuesVa (Horizontal alignemnt) nsus esa fd;k tkrk gSA bl Vsx dk fMQkYV (Default) eku left gksrk gSA
Charoff = Number

;g ,VhC;wV izR;sd ykbu esa izFke ,yk;u esa djsDVj ls nwjh r; djrk gSA
Character = Character
;g ,VhC;wV ,d djZDVj (Character) dks fuf'pr djrk gSA ftlds lkis{k lsy ds dUVsV
,yk;u (align) fd;s tkrs gaSA bl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkyV eku n'keyo fcUnq (.) gksrk gSA
Header = id references
bl ,VhC;wV gsMj lsyl~ (Headercell) dh list dks iznf'kZr djrk gS tks orZeku MkVk lsy

dh gsMj ls lEcfU/kr lwpuk miyC/k djkrk gSA bl ,VhC;wV dk eku ,d [kkyh LFkku
(space) ls i`Fkd lsyl~ ds ukeks dh fyLV gksrh gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 187

Colspan = Number

;g ,VhC;wV ;g iznf'kZr djrk gS fd orZeku lsy dk QSyko (span) fdrus LrEHk rd


gksxkA bl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkyV (defaut) eku 1 gksrk gSA
Rowspan = Number

;g ,VhC;wV ;g r; djrk gS fd orZeku lsy dk QSyko (span) fdruh ifDr;ksa rd


gksxkA bl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkyV (default) eku 1 gksrk gSA Rowspan = 0 dk vFkZ
gS fd lsy dk QSyko (Cell span) orZeku ifDr ls vafre iafDr rd gksxkA
Scope = row/col/rowgroup/colgroup

;g ,VhC;wV ;g r; djrk gS fd orZeku gsMj lsy (Leader Cell) fdu MkVk lsyl~
(Data Cells) dh gsMj dh lwpuk miyC/k djk;sxkA
Row = orZeku lsy dh iafDr dks NksM+dj vU; lHkh iafDr;ksa (Rows) ls lEcaf/kr gsMj
dh lwpuk (Header Information) dks orZeku lsy miyC/k djkrk gSA
Col = orZeku lsy ds LrEHk (column) dks NksM+dj vU; LrEHkkas (Rows) ls
lEcaf/kr gsMj dh lwpuk (Header Information) dks orZeku lsy miyC/k djkrk gSA
Rowgroup = orZeku dks'k (cell) dh iafDr dks NksMd
+ j vU; lHkh iafa Dr leqg (Rowgroup)
ls lEcfU/kr gsMj dh lwpuk (Header Information) dks orZeku lsy miyC/k djkrk gSA
Colgroup = orZeku dks'k (Cell) ds LrEHk (Column) dks NksMd
+ j vU; lHkh LrEHk
leqg (Column group) ls lEcfU/kr 'kh"kZd lwpuk (Header Information) dks orZeku
dks'k (Cell) miyC/k djkrk gSA

4.5 <TH> Vsx (<TH> Tag)


<TH> Vsx ,d lkj.kh ds 'kh"kZd dks'k (Header Cell) dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA <TH>
Vsx ds ,VhC;wV <TD> Vsx ds ,VhC;wV ds leku gksrs gaSA
Syntax
<TH>........</TH>

4.6 <Caption> Vsx (Caption Tag)


<Caption> Vsx ,d lkj.kh ds dUVsV (Content) rFkk mn~ns'; dk laf{kIr lkj (Brief
Summary) miyC/k djkrk gSA
Syntax
<Caption> Brief Summary of Table</Caption>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 188

4.7 <Col> Vsx (Col tag)


,d iaafDr leqg (Column group) ds vUnj iafDr;ks ds LoHkko@y{k.k (properties) dks
r; djrk gSA
4 .77 .11 ,VhC;wV (Attribute)
Align = left/right/center
;g LrEHk (Colum) ds dks'kksa esa mifLFkr VsoLV (Text) dk ,yk;uesVa (alignment) djrk

gSA
Char = Character

;g ,VhC;wV ,d djsDV dks fuf'pr djrk gS ftlds lkis{k lsy ds dUVsV lyk;k (align)
fd;s tkrs gSA bl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkYV eku n'keyo fcUnq (.) gksrk gSA
Charoff = Number

;g ,VhC;wV izR;sd ykbu esa izFke ,yk;uesVa djsDVj (alignment character) ls nwjh dks
r; djrk gSA
Span = Number

;g ,VhC;wV ;g r; djrk gS fd <Col> ,yhesaV (element) dk QSyko fdrus LrEHkkas


(Colums) rd gSA
Valign = top/middle/bottom/baseline
;g LrEHk ds dks'k esa mifLFkr VsDLV (Text) ds m/okZ/kj ,yk;esaV (Vertical alignment)

dks r; djrk gSA


4.8 <Colgroup> Vsx (<Colgroup> Tag)
Colgroup tag LrEHkks ds leqg dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA
bl Vsx ds ,VhC;wV <Col> Vsx ds ,VhC;wV ds leku gksrs gSAa

4.9 <THEAD> Vsx (<THEAD> Tag)


<THEAD> ................ </THEAD>
<THEAD> Vsx ,d lkj.kh ds 'kh"kZ dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA
<THEAD> rFkk </THEAD> Vs x ;q X e ds e/; de ls de ,d <TR>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 189

rFkk </TR> Vsx ;qXe gksuk pkfg,A


4.9.1 ,VhC;wV (Attribute)
Align = left/right/center
,d LrEHk (Colum) ds dks'kksa esa mifLFkr VsoLV (Text) dk ,yk;uesVa (alignment) rd

djrk gSA
Char = Character

,d ,VhC;wV ,d djsDVj dks fuf'pr djrk gS ftlds lkis{k lsy ds dUVsV lyk;k (align)
fd;s tkrs gaSA bl ,VhC;wV dk fMQkYV eku n'keyo fcUnq (.) gksrk gSA
Charoff = Number

;g ,VhC;wV izR;sd ykbu esa izFke vyk;U;esaV djsDV (alignment character) ls nwjh dks
r; djrk gSA
Valign = top/middle/bottom/baseline
,d LrEHk ds dks'k esa mifLFkr VsDLV (Text) ds m/okZ/kj ,yk;esVa (Vertical alignment)

dks r; djrk gSA


4.10 <TBODY> Vsx (<TBODY> Tag)
<TBODY> Vsx ,d iaf ;k iaf;ksa ds leqg dks ,d lkj.kh dh Body ds :i esa
ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA <TBODY> rFkk </TBODY> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; de ls de ,d <TR>
rFkk </TR> ;qXe gksuk pkfg,A
<TBODY> Vsx ds ,VhC;wV <THEAD> Vsx ds leku gksrs gaSA

4.11 <TFOOT> Vsx (<TFOOT> Tag)


<TFOOT> Vsx lkj.kh ds QqV (Foot) dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA ;g Vsx lkj.kh dh
iaf;ksa ls lEcfU/kr lwpuk j[krk gSA
<TFOOT> Vsx ds ,VhC;wV </THEAD> o <TBODY> Vsx ds leku gksrs gaSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 190

12 mnkgj.k (Examples)
4 .12
<HTML>
<TABLE border=1 align=center width= 30%>
<THEAD>
<CAPTION align= Centre><B>Table No. 1</B>
<TH align=Center><B>Column No.1</B></TH>
<TH align=Center><B>Column No.2</B></TH>
</THEAD>
<TR bgcolor=RED height=20>
<TD> CELL 1 </TD>
<TD> CELL 2 </TD>
</TR>
<TR bgcolor =Blue height=40>
<TD> CELL 3 </TD>
<TD> CELL 4 </TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
<TABLE border=2 align=Left width= 50% >
<THEAD>
<CAPTION align= Centre><B>Table No. 2</B>
<TH align=Center><B>Column No.1</B></TH>
<TH align=Center><B>Column No.2</B></TH>
</THEAD>
<TR bgcolor=RED height=20>
<TD Colspan = 2 > Cell 1 </TD>
</TR>
<TR bgcolor =Blue height=40>
<TD> Cell 3 </TD>
<TD> Cell 4 </TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
<BR><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR>
<TABLE border=3 align=Right width= 50% >
<THEAD>
<CAPTION align= Centre><B>Table No. 3</B>
<TH align=Center><B>Column No.1</B></TH>
<TH align=Center><B>Column No.2</B></TH>
</THEAD>
<TR bgcolor=RED height=20>
<TD ROWSPAN = 2>Cell1 </TD>
<TD> Cell 2</TD>
</TR>
<TR bgcolor =Blue height=40>
<TD> Cell 4 </TD>
</TR>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 191


</TABLE>
<BR><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR><BR>
<TABLE border=1 align=Right width= 100% cellspacing=5 Cellpadding=10>
<THEAD>
<TR><CAPTION align= Centre><B>Table No. 4</B></CAPTION></TR>
</THEAD>
<TR bgcolor=RED height=20>
<TD>Cell 1 </TD>
<TD> Cell 2</TD>
</TR>
<TR bgcolor =Blue height=40>
<TD> Cell 3 </TD>
<TD> Cell 4 </TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
</HTML>

mijksDr mnkgj.k dk baVjusV ,Dliyksjj czkmtj esa vkmViqV fp= 4-1 esa fn[kk;k x;k
gS -

fp= 4-1 Vscy

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 192

13 se (Frames)
4 .13
se czkmtj foaMks (Browser Window) dks NksVh lc fcaMkst (Sub window) esa
fofHkDr djus dk ,d rjhdk gSA izR;sd lc foaMks (Sub window) ,d vyx HTML
MkD;wesaV dks iznf'kZr dj ldrh gSA
fdlh osc ist esa se (Frame) cukus ds fy;s eq[;r% fuEu Vsxl dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk
gSA
Frame ,d se cukus ds fy,A
Framesct ,d se dh lajpuk ;k vU; se leq/;;ksa dh lajpuk r; djrk gSA
Noframe osc ist ds Content iznf'kZr fd;s tkrs gaS ;fn osc czkmtj se property
dks support ugha djrs gSA
4.14 <Frameset> Vsx (<Frameset> Tag)

tc ,d oscist sel (Frames) esa foHkkftr fd;k tkrk gS rks mu lHkh sel dks ,d
VkWi ysoy selsV (Top level Frameset) esa j[kk tkrk gSA
Syntax
<FRAMESET>
<FRAME>
</FRAME>
<FRAME>
</FRAME>
</FRAMESET>
4.14.1 ,VhC;qV (Attribute)
Cols =se dh yEckbZ dh fyLV, % or * "

;g ,VhC;qV ,d selsV esa LrEHkks dh la[;k rFkk mudh lkbt dks r; djrk gSA
se lsV esa LrEHkks dh la[;k fyLV esa mifLFkr ekuksa dh la[;k ij fuHkZj djrk gS rFkk
izR;sd LrEHk dk lkbt fyLV esa mifLFkr eku (Value) ds cjkcj gksrk gSaA
Rows = fyLV no, % or * "

;g ,VhC;qV ,d se lsV esa ifDr;ksa dh la[;k rFkk muds lkbt dks r; djrk gS se
lsV esa ifDr;ksa dh la[;k fyLV esa mifLFkr ekukas dh la[;k ij fuHkZj djrk gS rFkk izR;sd
dk lkbt ml eku ij fuHkZj djrk gSA
4.15 <Frame> Vsx (</Frame> Tag)

;g Frameset esa ,d se dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA

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4.15.1 ,VhC;qV (Attribute)


frameborder=1|0"

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx fdlh se ds pkjksa vksj ds ckg~; fdukjksa (Border) dks fn[kkus
ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA ;fn frameborder = 0 gS rks se ds pkjks vksj dk ckMZj gV
tkrk gSA;fn frameborder = 1 gS rks se ds pkjkas vksj dk ckMZj fn[kk;h nsxk A
marginwidth=number

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx fdlh se ds left o right margin dks ifjHkkf"kr djus esa fd;k
tkrk gSA
marginheight=number

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx fdlh se ds top o bottom margin dks ifjHkkf"kr djus esa
fd;k tkrk gSA
name=text

bl ,VhC;wV ds }kjk se dk uke ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA


noresize=noresize

;fn noresize=noresize gS rks se ds lkbt dks ifajofrZr ugha fd;k tk ldrk


gSA
scrolling=yes|no|auto

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx fdlh se esa Lksyckj (Scrollbar) iznf'kZr djus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA;fn scrolling = yes gS rks se esa Lksyckj (Scrollbar) iznf'kZr gksaxh A;fn
scrolling = no gS rks se esa Lksyckj (Scrollbar) iznf'kZr ugha gksaxha A;fn scrolling = auto gS rks se esa vko';drk iM+us ij Lksyckj (Scrollbar) iznf'kZr gksaxha A
src=URL

bl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx fdlh se ds vanj [kqyus okys vkys[k (document) ds irs


(address) dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
4.16 <Noframe> Vsx (<Noframe> Tag)

<noframes>
Sorry, your browser does not handle frames!
</noframes>
fdlh osc ist esa < Noframe> Vsx dk mi;ksx mu osc czkmtj dks enn djus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gS tks se Vsx dk leZFku (Support) ugha djrs gSA< Noframe> </
Noframe> Vsx ds e/; osc ist dk se Vsx vuvk/kkfjr dksM j[kk tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

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17 mnkgj.k (Examples)
4.17
main.html dk HTML dksM fuEu gS&
<html>
<frameset rows="20%,80%">
<frame src="Top.html" ></frame>
<frame src="Bottom.html"></frame>
</frameset>
</html>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa geus osc ist dks top rFkk bottm uke ds nks iaf seksa esa foDr
fd;k gSA top uke ds iaf se esa top.html osc ist [kqyx
s k rFkk bottom uke ds iaf
s kA top.html rFkk bottom.html dk HTML dksM
se esa bottom.html osc ist [kqyx
fuEu gS&
top.html dk HTML dksM fuEu gS&
<HTML>
<center><H1>Board of Secondary Education,Ajmer</H1></Center>
</HTML>
bottom.html dk HTML dksM fuEu gS&
<html>
<frameset cols="20%,80%">
<frame name=left src="left.html" ></frame>
<frame name=right src="http://rajeduboard.nic.in/" ></frame>
</frameset>
</html>
bottom.html esa geus osc ist dks left rFkk right uke ds nks LrE seksa esa foDr fd;k
gSA left uke ds LrE se esa left.html osc ist [kqysxk rFkk right uke ds LrE se
esa jktLFkku cksMZ dk osc ist [kqysxkA left.html dk HTML dksM fuEu gS&
left.html dk HTML dksM fuEu gS&
<HTML>
<LI><A href="http://rajeduboard.nic.in" target=right />HOME</A></LI>
<LI><A href="http://cbse.nic.in" target=right />CBSE</A></LI>
</HTML>

AglaSem School

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left.html esa geus nks gkbij fyad lfEefyr fd;s gS bl fLFkfr es]a czkg fyad ds fy,
URL http://rajeduboard.nic.in vkSj http://cbse.nic.in gSA nksuksa gkbij fyad dk
target right se gSA

mijksDr mnkgj.k dk baVjusV ,Dliyksjj czkmtj esa vkmViqV fp= 4-2 esa fn[kk;k x;k
gS -

fp= 4-1 se

egRoiw.kZ
.kZ fcUnq
1- fdlh osc ist esa iaf@lsy (Row/Cell) esfVDl (Matrix) cukus esa fy, <Table> Vsx dk
mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA lkj.kh ds dks'k esa fofHkUu izdkj ds vkCtsDV (object) tSl&
s la[;k
(Numbers), VsDLV (Text), fp= (Image), vFkok ,adj (Anchor) vkfn dks j[kk tk
ldrk gSA lkjf.k;ksa ls lEcfU/kr lHkh Vsxl~ dks <Table> rFkk </Table> Vsx ;qXe ds
e/; esa mi;ksx esa fy;k tkrk gSA
2- <TR> Vsx bl Vsx dk mi;ksx ,d lkj.kh esa ,d iaf (row) dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
3- <TD> Vsx dk mi;ksx ,d lkj.kh dh fdlh iafDr esa LrEHk@lkj.kh MkVk cukus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gSA bl Vsx dk mi;ksx <TR> rFkk </TR> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; esa fd;k tkrk
gS ,d <TR> rFkk </TR> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; ftruh la[;k esa <TD> rFkk </TD>

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Vsx ;qXe mifLFkr gksrs gaSA og iafDr (Row) mrus LrEHkksa (Column) esa fofHkDr gks tkrh
gSA
4- <TH> Vsx ,d lkj.kh dk 'kh"kZd dks'k (Header Cell) dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA
5- <Caption> Vsx ,d lkj.kh ds dUVsV (Content) rFkk mn~ns'; dk laf{kIr lkj (Brief
Summary) miyC/k djkrk gSA
6- <Col> Vsx ,d iafDr leqg (Column group) ds vUnj ifDr;ks ds LoHkko@y{k.k
(properties) dks r; djrk gSA
7- <THEAD> Vsx ,d lkj.kh ds 'kh"kZ dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA <THEAD> rFkk
</THEAD> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; de ls de ,d <TR> rFkk </TR> Vsx ;qXe gksuk
pkfg,A
8. <TBODY> Vsx ,d iaf ;k iaf;ksa ds leqg dks ,d lkj.kh dh Body ds :i esa
ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA <TBODY> rFkk </TBODY> Vsx ;qXe ds e/; de ls de ,d
<TR> rFkk </TR> ;qXe gksuk pkfg,A
9. <TFOOT> Vsx lkj.kh ds QqV (Foot) dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA ;g Vsx lkj.kh dh iaf;ksa
ls lEcfU/kr lwpuk j[krk gSA
10. se czkmtj foaMks (Browser Window) dks NksVh lc fcaMkst (Sub window) esa fofHkDr
djus dk ,d rjhdk gSA izR;sd lc foaMks (Sub window) ,d vyx HTML MkD;wesaV
dks iznf'kZr dj ldrh gSA
11. tc ,d oscist gks sel (Frames) esa foHkkftr fd;k tkrk gS rks mu lHkh sel dks
,d VkWi ysoy selsV (Top level Frameset) esa j[kk tkrk gSA
12. se czkmtj foaMks (Browser Window) dks NksVh lc fcaMkst (Sub window) esa fofHkDr
djus dk ,d rjhdk gSA
13. tc ,d oscist gks sel (Frames) esa foHkkftr fd;k tkrk gS rks mu lHkh sel dks
,d VkWi ysoy selsV (Top level Frameset) esa j[kk tkrk gSA
14. fdlh osc ist esa < Noframe> Vsx dk mi;ksx mu osc czkmtj dks enn djus ds fy,
fd;k tkrk gS tks se Vsx dk leZFku (Support) ugha djrs gaSA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu
1. ,d Vscy esa 'kh"kZd dks'k dks (Head Cell) ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, fdl Vsx ;qXe dk
mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS &
v <TR>..</TR>
c <TD>..</TD>
l <TH>..</TH>
n <THEAD>..</THEAD>

AglaSem School

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2. ,d Vscy esa dUVsV (Content) rFkk mn~n's ; dk laf{kIr lkj ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy,
fdl Vsx ;qXe dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS &
v <CAPTION>..</CAPTION> c <THEAD>..</THEAD>
l <TBODY>..</TBODY>
n <TFOOT>..</TFOOT>
3. ,d Vscy esa fofHkUu dks'kksa (cells) ds e/; fiDly vFkok lkj.kh dh dqy pkSM+kbZ ds
izfr'kr ds :i esa [kkyh LFkku vFkok nwjh r; djus ds fy, fdl ,VhC;wV dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gS &
v cellpadding
c cellspacing
l frame
n valign
4. ,d Vscy esa TD Vsx esa colspan ,VhC;wV dk eku 3 gS rks dks'k dk QSyko gksxk &
v 3 LrEHkksa rd
c 3 ifDr;ksa rd
l 3 Vscy rd
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
5. fdlh osc ist dks rhu ifDr;ksa esa foHkDr djus ds fy, fuEukfdr esa ls fdl ,VhC;wV
dk mi;ksx djsxsa &
v col="20%,60%,20%"
c row="20%,60%,20%"
l rows="20%,60%,20%"
n cols="20%,60%,20%"

y?kq kjkRed iz u
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

<Noframe> Vsx dh D;k vko;drk gS\


se (<FRAME>) Vsx ds scrolling ,VhC;wV ds dkSu ls eku laHko gksrs gaSA
<Col> Vsx ds mi;ksx dks le>kb, A
<TH> Vsx ds mi;ksx dks le>kb, A
<FRAMESET> Vsx ds mi;ksx dks le>kb, A
<THEAD> rFkk <TFOOT> Vsx ds mi;ksx dks le>kb, A

fucU/kkRed izu &


1. se (frame) Vsx dh foospuk dhft, A
2. Vscy (<Table>) Vsx ds fofHkUu ,VhC;wVksa ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k, A
3. <TR> Vsx ds fofHkUu ,VhC;wVksa ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k, A
4. <TD> Vsx ds fofHkUu ,VhC;wVksa ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k, A

mkjekyk
1 l

2 v 3 c

4 (v 5 n

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 198

MksD;wesaV vkCtsDV ekWMy


(Document Obect Model)

5 .11 MksD;wesaV vkCtsDV ekWMy Document Obect Model


DOM ,d W3C ds }kjk fn;k x;k ekud gSA XML rFkk ,p-Vh-,e-,y- tSls
MksD;weaVs ds fy, DOM ,d ekud dks ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA DOM ,d IysVQkeZ ,oa ySXosat

U;wVy b.VjQSl gS tks ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs dks ljy :i ls ,Dlsl access djus dh
vuqefr nsrk gSA
DOM dks rhu fofHkUu Lrjksa ij foHkkftr fd;k tkrk gS &
a) Core DOM dksj Mkse & fdlh Hkh lajpukRed MksD;weaVs ds fy, ,d
Lrjh; ekWMy gSA
b) XML DOM ,Dl-,e-,y- Mkse & ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs ds fy, Lrjh;
ekWMy gSA
c) HTML DOM ,p-Vh-,e-,y- Mkse & ,p-Vh-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs ds fy,
Lrjh; ekWMy gSA DOM MksD;weaVs l rRoksa ds fo"k; oLrq vkSj lkexzh dks ifjHkkf"kr
djrk gS rFkk mu rd igqpus dh fof/k;k b.VjQSl dks Hkh ifjHkkf"kr djrk gSA
5.1.2 ,p-Vh-,e-,y- Mkse (HTML DOM )
,p-Vh-,e-,y- DOM lHkh ,p-Vh-,e-,y- ,syhesaV dh foks"krkvksa vkSj vkCtsDV dks
ifjHkkf"kr djrk gS rFkk mu rd igqpus dh fof/k;k b.VjQsl dks Hkh dks Hkh ifjHkkf"kr djrk
gSA
5.1.3 ,Dl-,e-,y- Mkse (XML DOM )
,Dl-,e-,y- ds fy, ;g ,d LVS.MMZ vkCtsDV ekWMy gSA ;g ,Dl-,e-,y- ds fy,
,d LVS.MMZ izksxkz feax b.VjQsl iznku djrk gSA ;g ,d W3C ds }kjk fn;k x;k ekud gSA

AglaSem School

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5.2 dsldsfMM LVkby 'khV cascaded style sheet


,p-Vh-,e-,y- dsoy ljy ekdZvi Hkk"kk gS] ;fn vki dqN vyx osckhV esa djuk
pkgrs gaS rks LVkby 'khV dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA LVkby 'khV vkd"kZd ist cukus ds fy,
,d csgrj mikxe gSA LVkby 'khV QkWjesfVax LVkby dk og lewg gS ftls ge osc ist ij
iz;ksx dj ldrs gaSA ,p-Vh-,e-,y- LVkby 'khV dk mi;ksx djus dk lcls cM+k Qk;nk osc
istksa dks vkd"kZd cukuk gSA
2-1 LVkby 'khV dk flaVsDl (Syntax of Style Sheet)
5 .2-1
LVkby 'khV ds syntax ds nks eq[; Hkkx gksrs gSa & igyk lysDVj vkSj nwljk
fMDyjskuA
Selector
Declaration
Declaration
h1
{color : blue ; font size : 12 px ;}
property

value property

value

(a)lys
lysDVj (Selector) lysDVj ,d ,p-Vh-,e-,y- dk ,syhesaV gS ftls ge LVkby
djuk pkgrs gaSA
(b)fMDys
fMDysjsku (Declaration) colon fMDysjsku dks nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr djrk gSA
colon ls igys okys Hkkx esa property rFkk nwljs okys Hkkx esa mldh value nh tkrh gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, %&
LVkby 'khV ds fMDyjsku dk var geskk semi colon( ds }kjk gksrk gSA fMDyjsku lewg
curly bracket ls f?kjk gqvk gksrk gS &
p {color : red ; text align : center ;}
;fn LVkby 'khV dks T;knk i<+us ;ksX; cukuk gS rks ge izR;sd fMDyjsku dks vyx&vyx
iafDr esa fy[k ldrs gS & tSls &
p
{
color : red ;
text align : center ;
}

Vkby :y mnkgj.k & fdlh Hkh nks izdkj dh LVkby izksiVhZt dks lewg ds :i esa ykxw
djus dks lewg LVkby :y dgrs gSaA nksuksa dks vyx iznfkZr djus ds fy, lysDVj ds chp
esa dksek yxk;k tkrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 200

<HTML>
<HEAD>
<STYLE>
H1, H2 {color : red : font-family : Arial}
</STYLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<H1> This is the H1 element </H1>
<H2> This is the H2 element </H2>
<H3> This is the H3 element with its default
style as displayed in the browser </H3>
</BODY>
</HTML>
5.2.2 ,p-Vh-,e-,y- MksD;wesaV dks ,d LVkby 'khV ls tksM+uk
(Linking stylesheet with HTML Document)

,p-Vh-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs Qkby ls LVkby 'khV tksM+us ds pkj rjhds gSa %&
1- fyad (Link) %& ,p-Vh-,e-,y- Qkby dks vU; Qkby ds LVkby 'khV ls fyad dj ldrs
gaSA
2. ,EcsfMax (Embedding) %& ,p-Vh-,e-,y- Qkby ds vUnj LVkby 'khV dks ,EcsMsM dj
ldrs gSaA
3- bu ykbu (Inline) %& bldk mi;ksx lkekU;r% Vssx ysoy ij fd;k tkrk gSA
4- bEiksVZ (Import) %& ,p-Vh-,e-,y- Qkby esa ,d LVkby 'khV dk vk;kr djus ds fy,
@ bEiksVZ dh oMZ dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA
5.2.2.1

LVkby 'khV dks fyad djuk (Linking Stylesheet)


,d Qkby esa LVkby 'khV dks cuk dj rFkk blh LVkby 'khV dks vius osclkbV ds
lHkh istksa ij ykxw dj ldrs gaSA CSS tks fd nwljh Qkby esa LVksj gS mldks ,pVh,e,y
Qkby esa fyad djrs gSa rFkk bls fuEufyf[kr mnkgj.k ls le> Lkdrs gaS

5.2.2.2 LVkby 'khV dks ,ecsMsM embedded djuk (Embedding Style Sheet)
bl fof/k esa LVkby 'khV dks vyx Qkby esa LVksj djus dh t:jr ugha gS] vki
LVkby 'khV dks izR;sd ,p-Vh-,e-,y- Qkby ds vUnj gh ,EcsMsM dj ldrs gSaA ,p-Vh-,e,y- Qkby esa ,d LVkby 'khV dks ,EcsMM
s djus ds fy, <STYLE> daVus j dk mi;ksx djrs
gSaA bls fuEufyf[kr mnkgj.k ls le> Lkdrs gaS
<HTML
<HEAD>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 201

<STYLE>
P {font family : Arial}
</STYLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
........
........
</BODY>
<STYLE> is included within the <HEAD> tag.
5.2.2.3 LVkby bu ykbu dks ifjHkkf"kr djuk (Defining style inline)
fdlh foks"k Vsx ds fy, LVkby dks vksojjkbM djus ds fy, Hkh vki bu ykbu
LVkby dk mi;ksx gksrk gSA bu ykbu LVkby dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, vki ftl Vsx dk
LVkby cnyuk pkgrs gaS] ml Vsx esa LVkby xq.k dks tksM+s vkSj blds ewY; dks fLVx
a ij lsV
djsa tks LVkby ifjHkk"kk dk izfrfuf/kRo djrk gSA
mnkgj.k %& H1 Vsx ij LVkby dks iz;ksx fd;k x;k gS &
<HTML>
<BODY>
<H1 Style = Color : linegreen> This is a style applied to an H1
element </H1>
<H1> This is the default display of an H1 element </H1>
</BODY>
</HTML>
mijksDr mnkgj.k esa lcls igys H1 ,syhesVa dh dyj izkis VhZ ykbe xzhu dyj esa lsV dh x;h
gS vkSj nwljs esa dksbZ Hkh LVkby ,VhC;wV ugha gSaA
;fn lEiw.kZ Cykd ds fy, LVkby lsV djuk gks rks bu ykbu LVkby ds lkFk <DIV> Vsx
dks Hkh ifjHkkf"kr dj ldrs gaSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, vxj vki ,d lEiw.kZ Vsxksa ds Cykdksa ds jax dks uhyk djuk pkgrs gSa rks vki
bu Vsxksa dks <DIV> Vsx ds lkFk iz;ksx esa yk ldrs gSaA
mnkgj.k %&
<DIV STYLE=Color : blue>
<H1> This is a heading </H1>
<P> This is a paragraph. It will look blue in the users browser </P>

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 202

5.2.2.4

LVkby 'khV dk vk;kr (Importing Stylesheet)


,pVh,e,y MksD;weaVs esa LVkby 'khV dks vk;kr djus ds fy, @ bEiksVZdh&oMZ dk
Hkh mi;ksx dj ldrs gaSA bldk syntax fuEufyf[kr gS&
a
Syntax
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<STYLE TYPE = TEXT/CSS>
@ IMPORT URL (The path) ;
</STYLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
......................
</BODY>
</HTML>
5.2.3 LVkbZy 'khV dh izksiVhZt (Properties of Stylesheet)
LVkby 'khV esa 50 ls vf/kd izksiVhZt rFkk osY;w dks lekfgr fd;k x;k gSA bl
lsDku esa dsoy mUgha fofk"V izksiVhZt dks fy;k x;k gS tks yxkrkj iz;ksx esa vkrh jgrh gaSA
5.2.3.1 csdxzkmaM (Background)& ,d ,syhesaV ds cSdxzkmaM esa ifjorZu djus ds fy,
bldk iz;ksx djrs gSA
(a) cSdxzkmaM dyj
(b) cSdxzkmaM best
(c) cSdxzkmaM fjihV
(d) cSdxzkmaM iksthku
a)

cSdxzkmaM dyj (Background Color)

&

cSdxzkmaM dyj izksiVhZ ds }kjk fdlh

Hkh ,syhesaV ds dyj esa ifjorZu fd;k tk ldrk gSA


b)

mnkgj.k & body {backgroundcolor: #boc4de;}


cSdxzkmaM best (Background Image) & fdlh Hkh csdxzkmaM
iz;ksx djuk pkgrs gS rks cSdxzkmaM best dk iz;ksx djrs gaSA
mnkgj.k &
body {backgroundimage; url(paper.gif);}

esa ;fn best dk

AglaSem School

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c)

cSdxzkmaM best dks gksjhtsUVyh rFkk oVhZdyh vkM+k ;k lh/kk fjihV djuk
(Repeating image horizontally and Vertically)

d)

cSdxzkmaM best dks vkM+k ;k lh/kk nksuksa gh rjg ls ckj&ckj fjihV dj ldrs gaSA
gksjhtksUVyh ds fy, repeat x dk iz;ksx rFkk oVhZdy ds fy, repeat y dk iz;ksx
djrs gSaA
cSdxzkmaM iksthku (Background Position)& cSdxzkmaM dh fuEu iksthku dks
ifjofrZr dj ldrs gS &
ysV lsUVj
ysV ckWVe
jkbV ckWVe
jkbV VWki
jkbV lsUVj
jkbV ckWVe
lsUVj VWki
lsUVj lsUVj
lsUVj ckWVe

5.2.3.2 QksUV izksiVhZt (Font Properties)


a QksUV QSfeyh & QksUV dks bafxr djrk gSA
b QksUV lkbt & VsDLV ds lkbt dks bafxr djrk gSA
c QksUV LVkby & QksUV ds LVkby dks bafxr djrk gS tSls & uksjey] cksYM] bVSfyd
vkfnA
d QksUV osV weight & QksUV ds Hkkj rFkk MkdZul
s dks bafxr djrk gSA bldh osY;w
dh jsUt 100 ls 900 rd gks ldrh gSA
5.2.3.3 VsDLV dh izksiVhZt (Text Properties)
a) ysVj Lisflax (Letter Spacing) - izR;sd 'kCnksa ds chp dh txg dks lsV djus ds fy,
ysVj Lisflax dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Lisl ds fy, fofHkUu izdkj ds measurement
gks ldrs gaSA
tSls & inches(in), centimeters(cm), millimeter (mm), points (pt) etc.
b) oMZ Lisflax (Word Spacing) - izR;sd v{kj ds chp dh txg dks lsV djus ds fy,

oMZ Lisflax dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA oMZ Lisflax ds measurements ysVj Lisflax tSls
gh gksrs gSaA

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c) oVhZdy ,ykbu (Vwrtical Align) - cslykbu ds fjQjsUl esa VsDLV rFkk best dh

iksthku dks oVhZdy djus ds fy, oVhZdy ,ykbesaV dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA tSls & cslykbu]
lc] lqij VWki] VsDLV&VWki vkfnA
d) VsDLV ,ykbu (Text Align) - fdlh VsDLV ds ,ykbu dks lsV djrk gSA tSls
tlVhQkbZ] lsUVj vkfnA
e) VsDLV bUVsM (Text Intend) - ;g ekftZu dks bafxr djrk gSA fdlh Hkh ,syhesVa dh
igyh ykbu ds VsDLV dks bUVsaM fd;k tk ldrk gSA
f) VsDLV Vkl
a QkseZ (Text Transform) -& VsDLV ds :i dks ifjofrZr djus ds fy, VsDLV
Vkl
a QkseZ dk iz;ksx fd;k tk ldrk gSA tSls & vijdsl capital letter yksvj dsl
small letters vkfn.
g) VsDLV MsdksjsV (Text Decorate) - VsDLV ds :i dks vkdf"kZr cukus ds fy, VsDLV
Msdksjsku dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tSls & fCyad] v.Mjykbu vkfnA QksUV rFkk VsDLV
izksiVhZt dk mnkgj.k fuEufrf[kr gSA
VsDLV ,ykbu dk mnkgj.k
h1{text-align:center;}
p.date{text-align:right;}
p.main {text-align:justify;}
VsDLV MsdksjsV dk mnkgj.k
h1{text-decoration:overline;}
h2{text-decoration:line-through;}
h3{text-decoration:underline;}
h4 {text-decoration:blink;}
QksUV LVkby dk mnkgj.k
p.normal{font-style:normal;}
p.italic{font-style:italic;}
p.oblique{font-style:oblique;}
QksUV lkbt dk mnkgj.k
h1{font-size:40px;}
h2{font-size:30px;}
p {font-size:14px;}

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5.2.3.4 ekftZu] cksMZj rFkk isfMax izksiVhZt


(Margin, Border and Padding Properties)

lHkh izksiVhZt dks cksDl ekWMy ds vUrxZr mi;ksx esa yk;k tkrk gSA lcls igys bu
izksiVhZt dks le>us ds fy, fuEu fp= dks ns[k ldrs gSa &
Margin
Border
Padding
Content

(a)
(b)

ekftZu izksiVhZt (Margin Properties) - ekftZu osY;w dh ysUFk esa ifjHkkf"kr gksrs
gSAa CykWd ,syhesVa dk ekftZu fofHkUu izdkj ls lsV dj ldrs gSAa tSls & ekftZu &VWki]
ekftZu& ckWVe] ;k ekftZu& ysVA
cksMZj izksiVhZt (Border Properties) (i) ckWMZj LVkby (Border Style) - ckWMjZ dh fn[kkoV dks lsV djus ds fy,
ckWMjZ LVkby dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA blesa fofHkUu LVkby gks ldrh gS tSls
lksfyM] Mcy] xzwo vkfnA
(ii) ckWMZj foFk (Border width) -ckWMjZ dh eksVkbZ dks lsV djus ds fy, ckWMjZ
foM~Fk dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA blesa fofHkUu eksVkbZ gks ldrh gS tSls & ckWMjZ
jkbV foFk] ckWMjZ cksVe foM~Fk] vkfnA
(iii) ckWMZj dyj (Border Color) -& ckWMjZ dks fdlh Hkh jax esa ifjofrZr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA
isfMax izksiVhZt (Padding Properties) - ,syhesaV ds ckWMjZ rFkk content ds
chp dh txg dks isfMax dgk tkrk gSA pkj izdkj ls isfMax iz;ksx esa yk;h tk ldrh
gSA isfMax& VkWi] iSafMx &jkbV] iSfMax& ckWVe] vkSj iSfMax &ysVA

5.3. ys;j rFkk vkbZ ys;j (Layer and ILayer)


5.3.1 ys;j (LAYER)
ys;j ,p-Vh-,e-,y- esa ,d Vsx gksrk gS ftlds mi;ksx ls ge fo"k;oLrq ds CykWd
dks osc ist ds fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij yxk ldrs gSAa fo"k; oLrq ds CykWdksa dks ,d nwljs ds mij
ikjnkhZ rFkk vikjnkhZ nksuksa gh :iksa esa vko;drkuqlkj yxk ldrs gSA

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ys;j flaVsDl (Layer Syntax)


<LAYER>
ID = layername
LEFT = pixel position
TOP = pixelposition
PAGEX = pagex
PAGE = pagey
</LAYER>
mnkgj.k &
<LAYER ID = layer1 TOP = 250 LEFT = 50 WIDTH = 200 HEIGHT = 200
BGCOLOR = RED>
<P> Layer 1 </P>
<LAYER ID = layr2 TOP = 350 LEFT = 150 WIDTH = 200 HEIGHT = 200
BGCOLOR = BLUE>
<P> Layer 2 </P>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa nks ys;j gSa igyh okyh ys;j tks uhps dh rjQ mldk jax yky gS rFkk
nwljh ys;j tks ml ls vksojysi dj jgh gS mldk jax uhyk gSA
vkbZ ys;j (ILAYER)
vkbZ ys;j MksD;weaVs ds yks ds lkFk rSjrh gqbZ utj vkrh gSA
flaVsDl (Syntax )
<ILAYER>
attributes*
</ILAYER>
* ;gk ILAYER ds ,VhC;wV rFkk ys;j ds ,VhC;wV~l ,d gh izdkj ds gksrs gSaA

egRoiw.kZ
.kZ fcUnq
1234-

MksD;weaVs vkCtsDV ekWMy ,p-Vh-,e-,y- rFkk ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs tSls QkWjesV ds


fy, IysVQkeZ ,oa ySaXosat bf.MiSUMsaV LVS.MMZ vkCtsDV dh rjg dk;Z djrk gSA
dkldsMsM LVkby 'khV MkVk dks vkd"kZd cukus ds fy, iz;ksx esa yk;h tkrh gSA
dkldsMsM LVkby 'khV dks pkj rjhds ls MksD;weaVs ds lkFk tksM+k tkrk gSA
dkldsMsM LVkby 'khV ds }kjk ge ckDl izksiVhZ jax bR;kfn dks ifjHkkf"kr dj ldrs
gSA

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56.
7.

dkldsMM
s LVkby 'khV dks ,p-Vh-,e-,y- ,oa ,Dl-,e-,y- ds lkFk iz;ksx esa yk ldrs
gSA
ys;j ,p-Vh-,e-,y- esa ,d Vsx gksrk gS ftlds mi;ksx ls ge fo"k;oLrq ds CykWd dks
osc ist ds fofHkUu LFkkuksa ij yxk ldrs gaAS fo"k; oLrq ds CykWdksa dks ,d nwljs ds ij
ikjnkhZ rFkk vikjnkhZ nksuksa gh :iksa esa vko;drkuqlkj yxk ldrs gSaA
vkbZ ys;j MksD;weaVs ds yks ds lkFk rSjrh gqbZ utj vkrh gaSA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu
1. lh-,l-,l- dk iwjk uke D;k gS &
v cascaded style sheet
c computer style sheet
l C language style sheet
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
2. DOM gSA
v IysVQkeZ bf.MisMsaV
c ySaXosat bf.MisMsaV
l b.VjQsl bf.MisMsaV
n mijksDr lHkh
3. CSS ds vuqlkj fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu lk syntax lgh gS &
v body {color : black}
c body : color = block
l {body : color + black <body} n <body : color : black>
4. lh-,l-,l- dh dkSu lh izksiVhZt VsDLV lkbt dks fu;af=r djrh gS &
v text-size
c font-style
l text-style
n font-size
5. fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu lh ckWDl izkis VhZ ugha gS &
v ekftZu izkis VhZt
c ckMZj izksiVhZt
l iSfMax izksiVhZt
n ys;j izksiVhZt
6. DOM dk iwjk uke gS &
v MksD;weaVs vkCtsfDVo ekWMy
c MksD;weVas vkCtsDV ekWMy
l MksD;weaVs vkWijsku ekWMy
n dksbZ ugha
7. fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu lh izksiVhZ cSdxzkm.M dyj dks ifjofrZr djrh gS
v color :
c background-color :
l bgcolor :
n mijksDr lHkh

y?kq kjkRed iz u
1. lh-,l-,l- dh D;k vko;drk gS\
2. lh-,l-,l- cukus dh rjhdksa dk la{ksi esa o.kZu dhft,A
3. DOM dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A

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4. ckDl dh izksiVhZt D;k gksrh gS\ crkb;sA


5. C.S.S. dk Syntax fyf[k,\
6. C.S.S. dks ,d osc ist ls fyad djus dh fof/k dks crkb;s\

fucU/kkRed izu &


1. MksD;weaVs vkCtsDV ekWMy dh foospuk dhft, A
2. ,p-Vh-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs dks ,d LVkby 'khV ls tksM+us ds rjhdksa dh foospuk dhft, A
3. LVkbZy 'khV dh izksiVhZt ij fuca/k fyf[k,A
4. ys;j rFkk vkbZ ys;j Vsx dh foospuk dhft, A

mkjekyk
1 v

2 n 3 v 4 n

5 n

6 c

7 c

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,DlVasflcy ekdZvi ySaXosat


(eXtensible Markup Language)

6.1 ifjp; (Introduction )


,Dl-,e-,y-] ,p-Vh-,e-,y- dh rjg gh ekdZ vi Hkk"kk gSA X.M.L. dk iwjk uke
,DlVsfDlcy ekdZ vi ySXa ost
a Extensible Markup language gSA X.M.L. dks oYMZ
okbM osc dulksjfV;e World Wide Web Consortium W3C ds }kjk cuk;k x;kA
;s laLFkk lalkj Hkj dh osclkbV ds fu;e fu/kkZfjr djrh gSA ,Dl-,e-,y- okLro esa ,l-th,e-,y- gh gSA ,Dl-,e-,y- ls feyus okyh lHkh lqfo/kk;sa ,l-th-,e-,y- esa Hkh gksrh gaSA ,lth-,e-,y- rFk ,Dl-,e-,y- dsoy ,d gh vUrj gS fd ,Dl-,e-,y- iz;ksx djus esa ljy gksrh
gSA
6.2 XML ds ms; (Aim of XML)
1. XML baVjusV esa iz;ksx ds fy, ljy gksuh pkfg,A
2. XML ,SGML ds vuqdy
w gksuh pkfg,A
3. XML MksD;weaVs i<+us esa ljy gksus pkfg,A
4. XML ds }kjk fofHkUu izdkj ds izksxkz eksa dks fy[kk tk ldsA
bl izdkj la{ksi esa dg ldrs gSa fd XML cukus dk ms; ,d ,slh Hkk"kk cukuk
Fkk ftlesa izksxzke dks fy[kuk] i<+uk ljy gks rFkk ;g Hkk"kk SGML ds vuqdwy gksA
6.3

XML dh foks"krk;sa@ykHk (Advantage of XML)


XML dk iz;ksx foLr`r :i esa gqvk gSA dqN foks"krk;sa fuEu gaS %&
a) ljy MkVk fofue; & XML ds }kjk fofHkUu ,Iyhdsku ds e/; MkVk dks LFkkUrfjr fd;k
tk ldrk gS] pkgs ,Iyhdsku fdlh Hkh Hkk"kk ds gkasA

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b) XML MksD;weVas dks ns[kus ij irk yx tkrk gS fd D;k dk;Z fd;k tk jgk gSA
c) Lo;a dh Hkk"kk fuekZ.k & XML vius fofk"V dk;Z ds fy, Lo;a dh ekdZ vi ySaXosat dk
fuekZ.k djrk gSA XML Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx & cSad baVjusV iseUs V flLVe] QkbusfUk;y ,Dlpsat
vkSj vU; dk;Z ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA
d) XML, HTML ds rjg dh ekdZvi ySXa osat gSA
e) XML dk iz;ksx MkVk ds o.kZu ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS tcfd HTML dk mi;ksx MkVk
dks iznfkZr djus ds fy; gksrk gSA
f) XML Vsx dks ;wtj Lo;a ds vuqlkj ifjHkkf"kr dj ldrk gS tcfd HTML esa ,slk ugha
dj ldrs gSaA
g) XML dks W3C ds }kjk fufeZr fd;k x;k gSA
6.4 XML MksD;wesaV ds mnkgj.k (Example of XML Document)
XML MksD;weVas dh ljy ljapuk dks fuEu mnkgj.k ds }kjk le>k tk ldrk gS &
<?xml version = 1.0 encoding = ISO-8859-1?>
<note>
<to>ramesh/to>
<from>monica</from>
<heading>Reminder</heading>
<body>Dont forget me this weekend!</body>
</note>
igyh iafDr XML Declaration dh gSA blds vUnj Xml version (1.0) rFkk
ftlesa ,udksfMax (ISO-8859-1 = Lation-1/West Europian Character set) iz;ksx esa yk;h

x;h gSA
nwljh iafDr MksD;weVas ds (Root element) :V ,syhesVa dks of.kZr dj jgh gSA ;gk
ij note ,d :V ,syhesaV gSaA
vxyh pkj iafDr;k :V ds pkj pkbYM ,syhesaV dks of.kZr dj jgh gSA
(to, from, heading and body) :
<to> ramesh</to>
<from>monica</from>
<heading> Reminder</heading>
<body> dont forget me this weekend!</body>

vkSj vfUre iafDr :V ,syhesaV ds vUr dks of.kZr dj jgh gS %


</note>
vki vanktk yxk ldrs gSa fd bl mnkgj.k esa XML MksD;weaVs esa ,d uksV gS tks
eksfudk us jesk ds fy, fy[kk gSAA
bl izdkj ge ns[k ldrs gS fd XML ls MkVk dk iwjk o.kZu fd;k tk ldrk gSA

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6.5

XML MksD;wesaV dh Vh lajpuk (Tree Structure of XML Document)


XML MksD;esV
a esas Tree dh rjg gh Root element :V ,syhesaV gksrk gSA ;s :V

,syhesaV lHkh ,syhesVa dk tud gksrk gSA lHkh ,yhesVa esa isM dh 'kk[kkvksa dh rjg lc ,yhesaV
(Sub element) gks ldrs gSaA ftls ge child element pkbYM ,yhesaV dgrs gaSA
mnkgj.k &

mijksDr fp= esa nkkZ;h x;h fdrkc dks XML esa ns[krs gSa &
<?xml version = "1.0" encoding = "ISO-8859-1"?>
<bookstore>
<book category = "COOKING">
<title lang="en">Everyday Italian</title>
<author>Giada De Laurentiis</author>
<year>2005</year>
<price>30.00</price>
</book>
<book category="CHILDREN">
<title lang="en">Harry Potter</title>
<author>J. K. Rowling</author>
<year>2005</year>
<price>29.99</price>
</book>

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<book category="WEB">
<title lang="en">Learning XML</title>
<author>Erik T. Ray</author>
<year>2003</year>
<price>39.95</price>
</book>
</bookstore>

mijksDr mnkgj.k esa :V ,syhesaV <bookstore> gSA <book> ,yhesaV ds pkj Children gSA
<title>, <author>, <year>, <price>

6.6 XML dk <kapk (Structure of XML)


XML dh lajpuk esa fofHkUu rRo 'kkfey gksrs gSA bu lHkh rRoksa dh foLr`r lajpuk
fuEufyf[kr gS %&
a) desUV~l Comments & desUV~l dh lgk;rk ls fdlh Hkh programme dks ge vPNh
rjg ls le> ldrs gSA XML esa comment fy[kus dk fuEu syntax gS &
<! This is a comment >
Example
<! god is great >
dHkh dHkh XML dk version fn[kkus ds fy, fuEufyf[kr izkslfs lax bUlVDku dk

iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSaA


<?xml version = 1.0 encoding = ISO-8859-1?>

b) XML ds ,syhesUV (Elements of XML) & XML ds izkjfEHkd Vsx (tag) ls ysdj
XML ds vfUre Vsx (tag) ds e/; tks Hkh lwpuk;sa gksrh gS og XML dk ,syhesaV dgykrh
gSA XML ds ,syhesaV esa nwljs ,syhesaV dks lekfgr dj ldrs gS] pkgs og ljy VsDlV esa gks
;k nksuksa dk feJ.k gksA ,syhesaVl esa ,VhC;wV~l (Attributes) Hkh gks ldrs gaSA
,syhesaV dk uke nsus ds fu;e (Rules for Declaring Name of Element)
XML ,syhesUVl ds uke nsus ds fuEufyf[kr fu;e gS &

1. ,syhesUV uke dk fuekZ.k v{kjksa (letters), la[;k (numbers), (underscore (_),


colons ( : ), hyphens (-) or periods (.) ls gksrk gSA
2. ,syhesUV~l ds uke dk izkjEHk la[;k ls ugha gks ldrk gSA
3. ,syhesUVl ds uke xmls dhoMZ ugha gks ldrk gSA
4. ,yhesUV~l uke esa space dks ugha j[k ldrs gSA
mnkgj.k & from , order A

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c) XML ds ,sVhC;wVl (Attributes of XML)


,VhC;wV~l ds }kjk ge ,syhesUV~l dh lwpukvksa dks izkIr dj ldrs gaSA ,VhC;wV~l
,syhesUV~l ds izkjfEHkd Vsx ls ifjHkkf"kr gksrs gSaA ,sVhC;wV~l geskk uke vkSj bldh Value ds
lewg ds :i esa gksrs gaSA
mnkgj.k ds fy,
Name Value
pair

Name Value pair


<order>
<charge_card card type=credit>
<card_number> 12345678901234 </card_number>
<expired_date> 01/03/2009 </expired_date)
</charge_card>
</order>

d) XML ,fUVVh fjQjsUlst (XML Entity References)


dqN characters dk XML esa fofk"V vFkZ gksrk gSA XML esa ikp] ,fUVVh
fjQjsUlst gS ftUgsa fuEu rkfydk esa iznfkZr fd;k x;k gSA
XML entities references
Entity
&amp;
&1t;
&gt;
&quot;
&apos;

Encodes
& (ampersand)
<(less than)
> (greater than)
(quotation mark)
(apostrophe)

mnkgj.k ds fy, ;fn fdlh XML ,syhesUV ds vUnj < character dks ysaxs rks XML
ikjlj (parser) =qfV mRiUu djrk gSA
tSls fd &
<message> if salary < [erros (=qfV)] 1000 then</message>
mijksDr iafDr esa < character ,d =qfV gS bls fuEu rjhds ls Bhd fd;k tk ldrk gS &
<message> if salary & lt ; 1000 then </message>
mijksDr okD; esa fofk"V character & lt ,d entity reference gSA
6.7 ,fUVVh fMDyjsku (Entity Decleration)& ,fUVVh fMDyjsku dk syntax fuEufyf[kr
gS &
Syntax
<!ENTITY name replacement text>

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mijksDr syntax esa name dh txg replacement text dks fy[kk tk,xkA
6.8 ,yhesUV fMDyjsku (Element Decleration)& XML esa ,yhesUV fMDyjsku ds
cgqr ls rjhds gSaA
,d ljy rjhds dk syntax fuEu gS &
<!ELEMENT name content model>

izLrqr syntax esa uke dks XML ds LVS.MMZ usfeax :y ds vuqlkj fy[kk tk,xkA
a) ,eIVh ,yhesaV (Empty Element)
,EIVh ,yhesaV esa fdlh Hkh izdkj dh fo"k; oLrq ugha gksrh gSA ,EIVh ,yhesaV fMDys;j
djus dk syntax fuEu izdkj gS %&
<!ELEMENT element_name EMPTY>
;gka ij element_name ;wtj fMQkbu osfyM ,syhesaV use gSA mnkgj.k &
<!ELEMENT book EMPTY>

b) vufjlfVDVsM ,yhesaV (Unrestricted element)


lkekU;r% vufjfLVDVsM ,yhesVa ,EiVh ,yhesaV dk mYVk gksrk gSA vufjLfVDVsM
,yhesaV dks fuEu izdkj ls fMDys;j fd;k tkrk gSA
<!ELEMENT element_name ANY>
mnkgj.k & <!ELEMENT book ANY>
6.9

,yhesaV dUVsaV ekWMy (element content model)


,yhesaV dUVsUV ekWMy ,yhesaV ds vUnj mifLFkr MkVk ds ckjs esa tkudkjh iznku

djrkgSA
(a) ,yhesaV flDosUl (element sequence) &
;g ,yhesUV dUVsaV ekWMy dk lcls ljy izk:i gSA lkekU;r% ;g lEHkkfor ,yhesaV
dh lwph dks nkkZrk gS] tgk dksek izR;sd ,yhesaV dks vyx vyx djrk gSA flDosal }kjk
vyx&vyx gksrh gSA
mnkgj.k &
<!ELEMENT counting <first, second, third, fourth)>
mijksDr mnkgj.k esa dkmfUVax ,yhesaV pkj fHkUu izdkj ds ,yhesaV dks nkkZrk gS ftlesa igys
,yhesaV dk nwljk] nwljs dk rhljk rFkk rhljs dk pkSFkk ,yhesVa vuqlj.k dj jgs gSaA
b)

,yhesaV pkWbl (Element choice) &


,yhesaV pkWbl ,yhesVa dUVsaV ekWMy dk gh ,d izdkj gSA blesa cgqr ls fodYiksa dks
vyx ls bafxr djus ds fy, oVhZdy ykbu A dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
mnkgj.k 1

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<!ELEMENT choose (this one / that.one>


mnkgj.k 2
<!ELEMENT choose (this one | that one | the other. one | another. one)>

c)

dEckbaM lhDosUl ,.M pkWbl (combined sequence and choices) &


vki ,yhesaV ds lewg cukdj dEckbaM lhDosaUl rFkk Pokbl dks bdV~Bk dj ldrs

gSaA
mnkgj.k %
<!ELEMENT lots.of.choice (may be / could be), (this.one, that.one)>

6.10 ,yhesUVl vdjsUl baMhdsVjl (Element Occurrence Indicators)


,yhesUVl dks fofHkUu izdkj ls bafxr djus ds fy, ,yhesUVl vdjsUl bUMhdsVj dk
iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] ;s rhu izdkj ds gaS &
a) Question Mark ( ?) - ? v{kj ;g bafxr djrk gS fd ? v{j ds lkFk fy, x, ,d

,syhesVa ;k ,syhesaV ds xzqi dks ,d ckj ys ldrs gSa ;k NksM+ Hkh ldrs gaSA
<!ELEMENT Testing (one, two, three?)>

b) Asterisk sign (*) & * lkbu ;g bafxr djrk gS fd ,d ,syhesaV ;k ,syhesVa ds


lewg dks NksM+ Hkh ldrs gS] 'kwU; Hkh iznfkZr gks ldrk gS rFkk ,d ls vf/kd ckj Hkh ys
ldrs gSA
<!ELEMENT nice (mmm, mmm *)>
c) Plus Sign (+) : $ lkbu ;g bafxr djrk gS fd ,d ,yhesaV ;k ,syhesaV ds lewg dks
de ls de ,d ckj vkSj lqfo/kkuqlkj ,d ls vf/kd ckj Hkh iz;ksx esa yk ldrs gSA
<!ELEMENT funny (ha, haha+)>
6.11 djsDVj dUVsUV (Character Content)
tc fdlh ,syhesaV ds vUnj dsoy vkSj dsoy VsDLV dh gh vuqefr nh tkrh gS rc
djsDVj dUVsUV dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bl dk;Z ds fy,
XML esa ,d LVS.MMZ dh oMZ PCDATAC (Parseable Character data) dk
iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, fMDyjsku fuEu gS &
<!ELEMENT para (title,text)
<!ELEMENT title (#PCDATA)
<!ELEMENT text (#PCDATA)

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6.12

MksD;wesaV Vkbi fMDyjsku ,.M osyhMsku


( Document Type Decleration and Validation)

MksD;weaVs Vkbi fMDyjsku (DTD) XML MksD;weaVs dh fo"k;oLrq dh lajpuk dk


o.kZu djrk gSA ekWMy ds }kjk D;k mifLFkr gksrk gS] dkSu ,sfPNd gS D;k muds ,VhC;wV~l gS
vkSj og ,d nwljs ls lacaf/kr gksrs gq, dSls lajfpr gS] crkrk gSA XML vkidks Lo;aa dk MhVh-Mh- cukus dh vuqefr iznku djrk gSA Mh-Vh-Mh- XML MksD;weaVs dh lajpuk ij vkSj fo"k;
oLrq dh tkap dh izf;k ij vkidks iwjh rjg ls fu;a=.k iznku djrk gSA tkap dh izf;k
dks osfyMsku (validation) dgk tkrk gSA
MksD;weaVs Vkbi fMDyjsku dk syntax fuEu gS &
<!DOCTYPE DTD. name [internal.subset]>

Mh-Vh-Mh- dk foLrkj (Development of DTD) Mh-Vh-Mh- dks cukus dk


6.12.1
dk;Z bl ckr ij fuHkZj gS fd vki lwpukvksa ds lkFk D;k djuk pkgrs gaSA
Mh-Vh-Mh- dks cukus ds fy, nks rjhdksa dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA &
(i)
Modify an exiting SGML DTD.
(ii)
XML MksD;weaV
s ls eSU;wyh ;k vkWVksefs Vdyh Mh-Vh-Mh- dk fuekZ.k djukA
ge nwljs izdkj dks ysrs gSa &
Mh-Vh-Mh- dks XML Code ls cukuk & lcls igys XML Mh-Vh-Mh- dks cukus dk csgrjhu
rjhdk gS ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs dks cukuk &
<?xml version = 1.0?>
<page>
<head>
<title> My Home Page </title>
</head>
<body>
<title> welcome to my home page </title>
<para>
sorry page is under construction
</para>
</body>
</page>

vc bls Mh-Vh-Mh- syntax esa ns[krs gSaA


<!DOCTYPE page [
<!ELEMENT page (head, body)>
<!ELEMENT head (title)
<!ELEMENT body (title, para)]

Mh-Vh-Mh- dk foys"k.k djus ij ge ns[krs gaS fd

ist :V ,syhesaV gSA

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ist ,syhesaV ,d head j[krk gSA


Head ,syhesaV ,d title ,syhesaV dks j[krk gSA
Body ,syhesV
a title ,syhesVa dks j[krk gS tks fd para ,syhesVa dk vuqlj.k djrk gSA

6.13 ,Dl-,e-,y- Qkby dks b.VjusV ,DlIyksjj esa ns[kuk


(Viewing XML in Internet Explorer)

,Dl-,e-,y- Qkby dks b.VjusV ,DlIyksjj ij ns[kus dk ,d ljy rjhdk ;g gS


fd vki ,Dl-,y-,y- Qkby dks lcls igys .xml ,DlVsaku ls LVksj djsx
a sA mnkgj.k ds
fy;s fuEufyf[kr singer.xml file dks ns[krs gaSA
<?xml version = "1.0"?>
<singers>
<singer>
<name> Ashwin </name>
<instrument> drums </instrument>
<Nr_of_Recordings>/</Nr_of_Recordings>
</singer>
<singer>
<name> Ram </name>
<instrument> guitar </instrument>
<Nr_of_Recordings>3</Nr_of_Recordings>
</singer>
<singer>
<name> Ashish </name>
<instrument> clarinet </instrument>
<Nr_of_Recordings>2</Nr_of_Recordings>
</singer>
<singer>
<name> Himanshu </name>
<instrument> trumpet </instrument>
<Nr_of_Recordings>2</Nr_of_Recordings>
</singer>
</singers>
mijksDr QkbZy dks singer.xml Qkby uke ls LVksj djsaxAs vc mijksDr Qkby singer.xml
dks baVjusV ,DlIyksjj ij ju djok nsaxAs

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eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 218

6.14 XSL (Extensible Style Sheet Language)


CSS (Cascadle Style Sheet) dks ge ,p-Vh-,e-,y- dh rjg ,Dl-,e-,y- ds lkFk

Hkh iz;ksx dj ldrs gaSA ysfdu CSS dh dqN lhek;sa gaS mnkgj.k ds fy;s ge CSS ls ,syhesaV
dks e esa ugha yxk ldrs gaSA blfy;s bl rjg dh deh dks iwjk djus ds fy, nwljh LVkby
'khV ySXosat dk iz;ksx djrs gaS ftls ,Dl-,e-,y- ySXosat dgk tkrk gSA
,Dl-,l-,y- fuEufyf[kr Hkkxksa ls feydj cuh gS &
(i)
,Dl-,l-,y- VkUlQkWjesku XSLT & ;g ,d ,Dl-,e-,y- vk/kkfjr Hkk"kk gksrh
gS tks fd ,Dl-,e-,y MksD;weaVs dks nwljs ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs esa cnyus ds dke
vkrh gSA
(ii)
,Dl-,e-,y- ikFk XPATH & bl Hkk"kk dk iz;ksx djds ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs ds
fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks ,lsl access dj ldrs gSA
blds vykok ,Dl-,e-,y- esa dqN QksjesafVax vkWCtsDV gksrs gaS ftlls ge MkVk dks
fofHkUu :iksa esa iznfkZr dj ldrs gSAa ,Dl-,e-,y- esa MkVk dks pquus rFkk fofHkUu :iksa esa
iznfkzr djus ds fy, cgqr lkjs ,yhesaV gksrs gSaA ;s ,syhesaV fuEufyf[kr gSa &
1. stylesheet
2. value of
3. for-each
4. sort
5. text

egRoiw.kZ
.kZ fcUnq
1234-

,Dl-,e-,y- ekdZ vi ySXosat MkVk ds ckjs esa crkrk gS tcfd ,p-Vh-,e-,y- ls ge


MkVk dks fofHkUu izk:iksa esa iznfkZr dj ldrs gaSA
,Dl-,e-,y- esa ;wtj vus Vsx dks ifjHkkf"kr dj ldrk gSA
,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weVas esa ,d :V ,syhesaV gksrk gS vkSj ml :V ,yhesaV ds vUnj cgqr
lkjs pkbYM ,syhesVa gks ldrs gSA
MksD;weaVs Vkbi MsfQusku Mh-Vh-Mh- dk iz;ksx XML MksD;weaVs esa mifLFkr MkVk dh
lajpuk ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu
1. ,Dl-,e-,y- okLro esa gS &
v ,p-Vh-,e-,yl Mh-,p-Vh-,e-,y-

c ,l-th-,e-,yn mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha

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2. ,Dl-,e-,y- dk iwjk uke gS &


v ,DlVsfUlo ekdZvi ySXosat c ftjksDl ekdZvi ySaXost
l ,DlVsfUlcy esVk ySaXost
n mijksDr lHkh
3. ,Dl-,e-,y- esa desUV nsus dk lgh rjhdk gS &
v <? - - >
c <! - - !> l <! - - > 4
n </ - - >
4. dkSu lk okD; lR; gS &
v lHkh ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weaVs ds ikl Mh-Vh-Mh- gksrk gSA
c lHkh ,syhesaV ds ikl Dyksftax Vsx gksrs gsSA
l lHkh ,Dl-,e-,y- ds ,syhesaV NksVs v{kjksa ls fy[ks tkrs gSA
n lHkh LVsVesUV lR; gaSA
5. fuEufyf[kr esa ls ,Dl-,e-,y- ds ,syhesaV ds uke nsus ds fu;eksa ds vuqlkj gS &
v - my element
c my element
l # my element
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha
6. DTD dk iwjk uke gS &
v MksD;weVas Vkbi MsfQusku
c MksD;weaVs Vw MksD;weaVs
l Mkseus Vw MksD;weaVs
n MkVk Vkbi MksD;weaVs
7. ,syhesVa vdjsUl bfMds.Vj fuEu esa ls dkSu lk ugha gS &
v $
c *
l ?
n &

y?kqkjkRed izu &


1. ,Dl-,e-,y- D;k gS\
2. ekdZvi ySXosat dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,\
3. ,Dl-,e-,y- rFkk ,p-Vh-,e-,y- esa D;k vUrj gksrk gS\
4. DTD dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,\
5. ,Dl-,e-,y- MksD;weVas dh Vh lajpuk dks ,d mnkgj.k ls le>kb;s\
6. ,Dl-,e-,y- ds dUVsUV ekWMy dk o.kZu dhft,\
7. ,Dl-,e-,y- esa ,yhesVa [element] ds uke nsus ds fu;eksa dks fyf[k,\

fucU/kkRed izu &


1. XML ds ms; ,ao fo'ks"krkvksa dh foospuk dhft, A
2. XML rRoksa dh foLr`r lajpuk dks le>k,A
3. ,yhesaV dUVsaV ekWMy ls vki D;k le>rs gSaA
4. MksD;weaVs Vkbi fMDyjsku ,.M osyhMsku ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k, A

mkjekyk
1 c

2 v 3 v 4 c

5 n

6 l 7 n

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 220

fl SU
(Visual Basic Script)

1.1 fl SU U (Introduction to Visual Basic


Script)

UxU UU (Microsoft Corporation) VB Script U U


UUUU HTML flU U U VB Script U UU U U
VB Script Java Script U JScript U Q U U U U
Active X U U fl SU (VB Script) U Web Client
Microsoft Internet Explorer S U U fl fl U S U (Scripting)
UxU UUUU UU flU U U U (Objects)
U U U U U U fl UflU UU
U U U flUU flU U U U U U U - fl
U (Web Author) flUU mUU U UU fl fl U U U U
UUU M U U U fl U U

1.2 fl SU U (VB Script Code)

HTML

(Adding VB Script code in HTML Page)


VB Script <SCRIPT> Tag U U U
M U </SCRIPT> U U U U U SU
fl U U U SU U U U U VB
Script U v fl UU SU Java Script, J Script
U U U HTML S U U U U U

U HTML U U < ! - - U - -> U U U

AglaSem School

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<SCRIPT LANGUAGE = VBScript>


<!
VB Script Code U U
-->
< / Script>

U HTML Ua U SU y U Ua U og WU
(Body) v U fl (Head) UU v M U SU
Body v U

1.3fl UU UU (VB

Script Data Type)

VB Script fl UU UU U U Variant flUU U aU U

fl U UU UU U U U fl U - M
U aU Variant U fl UU UU VB Script U U U
VB Script U U Variant U U a (U SU
) U U flU (Variant) fl U {U U U aU
U UU U SU U U U SU UU U U U {U UU U
U U VB Script U {U M U U U U U fl SU
UU U U aU VB Script U SU UU M U U U {U
fl SU M Ua U U ( ) U U
UUU {U UU UU 0 9 w U U U SU UU (A to Z)
U U Ua

1.4 flUU UU (Variant Subtype)U U M flU U fl U U U SU


Sflfl U U U fl U U U - U
U U UU U UU (Date, Time) U UU fl UU UU
U U U U U UU fl UU M v U U - U
U M U UU fl xU flUU {U U U U
fl U Variant Subtype (flUU UU) U aU U {
U U

UU (SubType) flflU (Description)


{U (Empty)

flUU UUU Ua U U flU fl


0 0 {U

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SU ( ) flU flUU U M U
U
U (Ture) fl (False) fl U U
(Boolean)
UU (Byte)
U UUU 0 255 U U U
UUU (Integer)
U UUU U -32,768 32,767 U U
U (Currency)
U -922,337,203,685,477.5808

922,337,203,685,477.5807
(Long)
U UUU U U -2,147,483,648 2,147,483,647
U U
(Single)
U (Precision) U U flUU U
Ufl fl -3.402823E38 -1.401298E-45
U 1.401298E-45 3.402823E38Ufl fl
U U
U (Double)
U U U flUU {U U Ufl fl
-1.79769313486232E308

4.94065645841247E-324 U Ufl fl U
4.94065645841247E-324 1.79769313486232E308
UU UU (Date, Time) Ua U {U flU U (Date) flU 1, 100
{U 31, 9999 U U U
SU flU 2 fl UvUU U U
SU (String)
Ua U U
yvU (Object)
yvU U U (Contains an Object)
UU (Error)
Contains UU {U
(Null)

1.5 fl flU (VB Script Variable)


U fl U U U U flU
U U flU fl U aU1.
vU (Explicit) U flU UvU U U Dim flU
U U U
2.
U{U (Implicit) U flU U UUvU U U U
vU U
1.6 UvU flU (Declaring Variable) fl SU U yU (Explicity) flU UvU

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() U U Dim SUUU Public SUUU U Private SUUU


M U Ua
UUU - Dim DegreeFaharenheit
U U UUUUU (DegreeFahrenheit) vU UvU
U U (Multiple Variable) - flU U
vU () U U UUU Dim Top, Bottom, Left, Right, Center

U UUU UU U EmpName Explicity


variable UvU U employee Input Box( ) UU v
U SflU U U U Hello
U U U U () Single Quote vU (Acts) M
fl SUU U U U Ua WUUU (&) U EmpName
(Concatenates) U U
UUU Declaring Variables
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Explicit Variable Declaration in VB Script </TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<SCRIPT LANGUAGE = VBSCRIPT>
<!Declare the variable
Dim EmpName
Request input from the visitor
EmpName = InputBox (Employee Name : )
Display the input text using the message box.
MsgBox Hello & EmpName
->
</SCRIPT>
</BODY>
</HTML>

U UUU U rjg U U

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l U U M SU (Script) vU flU
U M U U U U U U
v flU S U U U U U U
UUU <HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE> Implicit Variable Declaration </TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<SCRIPT LANGUAGE = VBSCRIPT>
<! Request input from the visitor
UserName = InputBox (What is your name ? )
Display the input text using the message box.
MsgBox Hello & UserName
- >
</SCRIPT>
</BODY>
</HEAD>

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U UUU U (UserName) flU (Implicity)


vU U Ua (InputBox) mUU {UU fl UZ UU
UU v UU S U U U
1.7 U (Name Restriction) VB Script U U (Standard) U Ua U U
flU U aU Ua flU U U U U
1.
U fl M M flU (Character) U U
2.
U U S fl U U U
3.
U UvU U Ua w M U flU
U
4.
U w M 8 UvUU (Character) U U U
flU U UvU U Ua U U U U U U
U flU U UvU U U U mUU U
v U Ua fl flU Ufl U aaU U
S flU U U
U U flU fl UvU U Ua U
U aU U SU fl flU U SU fl

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U U U UU flU (SU fl) U U fl SU U


flU fl fll UU U U U flU
# U U fl U S flU S
U S U U U S flU ( ) M U U U U U
1.8 flU fl flU U (Assigning Value to Variable)flU p flU U flU U flU
U v'k (key) U Eu U
U UUU U U flU v'k U
U U flU U U
UUU B=200
1.9 SssU flU U U (Scalar Variables and Arrays) U U U U U aU flU U flU U U
flU a U U U SsU flU U aU flU
flU U fl Q U U U flU U
U U U flU U U U
flU U SsU flU U UU UvU U aU U UvU U
UU CU (Parentheses) U flU U aU
UUU fl (Single Dimensional) U UvU U
Dim A (10)
VB Script

U M 0 U U U 10 fl U U U
U v U U U U U M 0 U 9 UU flU U aU
A (0) =220
A (1) = 325
A (2) = 200
--------------A (9) = 77

M Data Retrive () U fl (Particular) U fl


UUv U aU
UUU Some Variable = A (9)

U U U U U U U vU U
U (,) U U - U U U U aU
2D- Arrays - U U U Row (U) U

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mU U U UUU - UUU U U U
U U 5 U U 10 W U
Dim MyTable (5, 10)

U UvU U { U U UU Ufl U aU U U U
U U U U
U M U U UvU U Dim SUUU U
a U
UUU - Dim MyArray ( )
1.10 SU (VB Script Constants)

SU U U U U S U SU (Character) Ufl U U VB Script U fl


U SU U U Const SUUU U U SU U
SU U flU U aU
UUU Const MyString = This is my String
Const MyAge = 35

SU U U ( ) U aU U
(#) U U U aU
UUU Const CutoffDate=#7-7-97#)
(VB Script Operators)
fl SU # U U (Arithmetic
Operators), WUUU (Comparison Operators), U (Concatenation Operators) U WUUU (Logical Operators)U U U
1.11

1.11.1 flU (Operator Precedence)

U U WUUU U v U U U
U WUUU flU U aU WUUU flU A U fl
U U
U U WUUU U U U WUUU
fl {U WUUU U WUUU
U U flU U U

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SU U (String Concatenation) (&) WUUU U WUUU U U


U U flU U WUUU U WUUU
U U
1.12 v (MsgBox )
v U U S U U
U U v (Message Box) U U
1.12.1 v U fl UU
U U U v U fl U U U v
U U v fl fl U U fl U SU
A U v v A fl UU U U
SU

fl

Constant

Value

Button

vbOK

OK

vbCancel

Cancel

vbAbort

Abort

vbRetry

Retry

vbIgnore

Ignore

vbYes

Yes

vbNo

No

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U U U U v U U A U v
# U U-

1.{U (Prompt) U {U UU SU M v
U v UU M U U
UUU
< INPUT TYPE=BUTTON NAME=button0" VALUE=Click Here! >
< SCRIPT LANGUAGE=VBScript >
Sub button0_onclick
MsgBox Please Click OK
End Sub
< /SCRIPT >

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U UUU U U # U

2. U (Button) U U U fl UU fl v
SU U aU
UUU
< INPUT TYPE=BUTTON NAME=button_2" VALUE=Click Here!> >
< SCRIPT LANGUAGE=VBScript >
Sub button_2_onclick
MsgBox Please Click!, VBRetryCancel, MsgBox Demo
End Sub
< /SCRIPT >

U UUU U U # U

3.UUU
UUU

(Title)

U UUU U v flU U U U U

< INPUT TYPE=BUTTON NAME=button_2" VALUE=Click Here!> >


< SCRIPT LANGUAGE=VBScript >
Sub button_2_onclick
MsgBox Please Click!, VBRetryCancel, MsgBox Demo
End Sub
< /SCRIPT >

U UUU U U # U

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4. U U (Help File) U fl U U U U M
U U U U .chm .hlpfile U U
5.USU (Context) U SU U fl M U U SU
{U fl U U UUU U U UU
U (Mandatory) U U
1.13 US (Conditional Statements) ~
VB Script Script x (flow) Ufl U U US
U U U VB Script U U US U U
1.
If Statement U U U U U U U
U U
2.
If Then........ Else statement U U U U U
U U
3.
If Then........ Else If statement U U U U
U U U
4.
Select Case statement U U U U U
U U U
1. If Then........ Else

U U U U U U U U U U
U Ua U fl SUUU U U U U U
U U UUU U
UUU If i=10 Then alert(Hello)

flflU U U U U U flS U U
SUUU U U U SUUU End If
UUUIf i=10 Then

AglaSem School

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alert(Hello)
i = i+1
End If

SUUU U U U U U flS U U
U U U U MU U Else flU U U U
UUU <html>
<body>
<script type=text/vbscript>
Function greeting()
i=hour(time)
If i < 10 Then
document.write(Good morning!)
Else
document.write(Have a nice day!)
End If
End Function
</script>
</head>
<body onload=greeting()>
</body>
</html>

U UUU U U U # U U
Good morning!
2. If...Then...ElseIf

U U U U U U U U
If...Then...ElseIf U U
UUU<html>
<body>
<script type=text/vbscript>
Function greeting()
i=hour(time)
If i = 10 Then
document.write(Just started...!)
ElseIf i = 11 then
document.write(Hungry!)
ElseIf i = 12 then
document.write(Ah, lunch-time!)

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ElseIf i = 16 then
document.write(Time to go home!)
Else
document.write(Hello Unknown)
End If
End Function
</script>
</head>
<body onload=greeting()>
</body>
</html>

U UUU U U U # U U
Hello Unknown

3. vU (Select Case)vU U U U U Ua U U U
U U U
UUU <html>
<body>
<script type=text/vbscript>
d=weekday(date)
Select Case d
Case 1
document.write(Sleepy Sunday)
Case 2
document.write(Monday again!)
Case 3
document.write(Just Tuesday!)
Case 4
document.write(Wednesday!)
Case 5
document.write(Thursday...)
Case 6
document.write(Finally Friday!)
Case else
document.write(Super Saturday!!!!)
End Select
</script>

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</body>
</html>

U UUU U U U U # U U
Just Tuesday!

1.14

(Loops)

VB Script

U U U U U U U y
U fl w U
1.
for ........ Next Statement- U U CU (Specified) w U
U U U
for Each ......... Next Statement- U U UU U U
2.
U Collection (sD) fl U fl M U U
3.
Do....... Loop Statement- U pyrk gS tc rd While fl
until esa fn;k x;k U U
While....... Wind Statment- U U { UU flS
4.
U U While............ wind SUUU Do loop statement UU
U U U U U U U U S U Do.............
loop U U
1.

for .............. Next Loop-

U U CU y U
U for SUUU UUU flU (i) SU U U M U
- U U
UUU <html>
<body>
<script type=text/vbscript>
For i = 0 To 5
document.write(The number is & i & <br />)
Next
</script>
</body>
</html>

U UUU U Ua U U # U U

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The number is 0
The number is 1
The number is 2
The number is 3
The number is 4
The number is 5
Ua step keyword U U UUU flU fl SU

U U U U UU U
For i = 2 To 10 Step 2
Some code
Next

U UUU UUU flU (i) 2 U U


U Ua UUU flU U U Ufl step fl
U U aU
UUU for i = 10 To 2 Step -2
Some code
Next

for ......... Next loop

UU

Exit keyword

U U
UUUfor i = 1 To 10
if i = 5 Then Exit for
some code
Next

2.

For Each.......... Next Loop-

U UU fl y UU U
UUU <html>
<body>
<script type=text/vbscript>
Dim cars(2)
cars(0)=Alto
cars(1)=Logon
cars(2)=Scarpio
For Each x In cars
document.write(x & <br />)

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Next
</script>
</body>
</html>

U UUU U Ua U U # U U
Alto
Logan
Scorpio

3.

Do....... Loop-

Ua UU (repetitions) U U Do........
loop SUUU U U U Do................ loop SUUU U UU U
U U U fl U U U U UU U U
U U U U U U while keyword mUU Do........ loop
U U Ua
UUU Do while i > 10
some code
Loop

i q UU U
UUU-

Loop

U U fl Ua U

Do
Some code
Loop While i > 10

U loop U U U c U (i)
10 U Ua U (True) Ua U
UU U UU U U U (Until) U flU U U U
UUU Do Until i = 10
Some Code
Loop

(i) 10 UU U Loop U U fl Ua U
UUU Do
Some Code
Loop until i =10

Ua U U c U

i = 10

UU

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U Do.......... Loop UU
UUU -

Exit

flU U aU

Do until i = 10
i=i-1
if i < 10 Then Exit Do
Loop

U Loop UU
4.

While ........Wend

U U E UU flS U U While............
wend SUUU Do loop statement UU U U U U
U U U U S U Do............. loop U U
While condition
Statement
Statement
Wend

1.15 fl (VB Script Precedures) Procedures U U


Sub Procedures ( U)
1.
2.
Function Procedures (v U )

VB Script

U (Sub Procedures) VB Script SUUU a U U U Sub U End Sub SUUU mUU


U U U U fl UU U U U U U
(Calling Procedures) mUU UU (Arguments) SU (Constant)
flU, v U (Sub Procedure) U UU U U
SUUU U U U () U U
U U VB Script v U U
Ua MsgBox U InputBox U (Prompt) {U U
U aU
UUU 1.

Sub CalculateArea()

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Dim radius, area


radius = InputBox(Please enter the radius of the circle, 1)
area = 3.142 * radius * radius
MsgBox The area of the circle is & area
End Sub

(Function Procedures) (Function Procedures) SUUU U U U VB


Script (v) U End Function (U v) mUU U U U v
U U U U U U fl UU (fl) U U
U U (Calling Procedures) mUU UU (Constants)
flU v (Expresions) U v U U U UU
Ua U v U U a U () U
SUUU U flU fl UU U U v UU U
U flUU (Variant) U U
UUU 2.

Function celsius (fDegrees)


Celsius = (fDegrees - 32) * 5/9
End Function
Sub ConverTemp()
temp = InputBox(Please enter the temperature in degrees F., 1)
MsgBox The temperature is & Celsius(temp) & degrees C.
End Sub

1.16 fl SU U U
fl SU VB Script yvU UUU U
U fl UvU VB Script Object (yvU) HTML Object (yvU)
U U fl Ua U U U, (Button, Text)
UvSU U UU U (Radio Button) U fl U U VB Script
UflU UUU Ua U HTML U yvU Ua
UUU <HTML>
<HEAD><TITLE>Simple Validation</TITLE>
<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="VBScript">
<!-Sub Submit_OnClick
Dim TheForm
Set TheForm = Document.ValidForm
If IsNumeric(TheForm.Text1.Value) Then

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If TheForm.Text1.Value < 1 Or TheForm.Text1.Value > 10 Then


MsgBox "Please enter a number between 1 and 10."
Else
MsgBox "Thank you."
End If
Else
MsgBox "Please enter a numeric value."
End If
End Sub
-->
</SCRIPT>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<H3>Simple Validation</H3><HR>
<FORM NAME="ValidForm">
Enter a value between 1 and 10:
<INPUT NAME="Text1" TYPE="TEXT" SIZE="2">
<INPUT NAME="Submit" TYPE="BUTTON" VALUE="Submit">
</FORM>
</BODY>
</HTML>

U U UUU U U U U

1.13 UU UU v Data Handling Function UU UU (Function) A U


1.
SU v(String Function)
2.
UU U UU v(Date and Time Functions)

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(Len) v
U Len () v SU {U (Length) UU U U
UUU len(Ajay)

U 4 fl UU U U
Left()

xU U Right ( ) UUU Functions (v) (extract)


UvUU U SU UvU U U U U
UUU U Left(Ajay, 3) fl UU U flU fl Aja U U
Right(Ajay, 3) fl UU U flU jay U
U (Trim ( ), Ltrim ( ) (xU ), Rtrim ( )(UUU ) functions ( )
U U (Trim ( )) v mUU U U U S
UU U U LTrim() U RTrim () w S UvU UU
U U
Instr ( ) function

U U SU U UU

U U
UUU
Instr (Hello, ell)

UU U fl 2 U # U
Date

Time

v
U Now ( ) function (v) U U U v U SU UU
U UU UU U U U U Day ( ), () Month ( ) (U),
Year ( ), (fl), Hour ( ) (U), U Minute ( ) function Ua
UUU - Hour (Now ( )) U Ua fl U fl U
Day ( ), Month ( ), Year ( ), v

Day(1/1/2001) U UU Ua U U U U Ua1 fl UU
U U U U Month (1/1/2001) U Year (1/1/2001) 1 U 2001
UU U U l U U Day (Now ( )), Month (Now( )), Year(Now( )), Ua
fl UU U fl U U fl fl U
DateSerial ( ) function

(v) U U fl U UU U fl

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UU U U U UU v UU U
(fl)U v- flU v Ua#U {U UU
U U WeekDay( Now ( )) Ua {U UU U U UU U U U
#U U Ua 1 Sunday 2 Monday U U U
U Ua Ua WeekDayName ( ) v U U U
WeekDay ( )

UCase( ) v - U (Upper Case Function) U U U v U

U UU U (lower case) ya (UPPER CASE) U U


Ufl U Ua
UUU Ucase (ajay) U UU Ua (AJAY) M # U
Uv (Hex ( ) v-U v U U w UvU
w Ufl U Ua
UUU - Hex (47) UU U 2F # U U

egRoiw.kZ
.kZ fcUnq
1.

VB Script <SCRIPT>Tag U U U M
U </SCRIPT> U U U U U

2. VB Script fl UU UU U U Variant flUU U Ua U fl


U UU UU U U U fl U - M
U Ua
3. fl flU fl U Ua-

(i) vU (Explicit) U flU UvU U U Dim


flU U U U
(ii) U{U (Implicit) U flU U UUvU U U U
vU U
4.

v U U S U U U U
(Message Box) U U
5. VB Script Script x (flow) U U
U VB Script Ufl U U US fuEu US U U
If Statement

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If Then........ Else statement


If Then........ Else If statement
Select Case statement
6. VB Script

U U US U U
for ........ Next Statement
for Each ......... Next Statement
Do....... Loop Statement
While....... Wind Statment

7. VB Script

Procedures

U U
Sub Procedures ( U)
Function Procedures (v U )
U UUU U Ua U UUU fl {U
UUU U Ua UUU U Ua
flU U U

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed izu &
1. VB Script esa ,js dk yksvj ckamM (Lower Bound) gksrk gS &

v 0
l 2

c 1
n ;wtj fMQkabM (User Defined)

2. ,DlfiyhflV (Explicit) osfj;sfcy dks fMDys;j djrs le; fdl dh oMZ dk mi;ksx gksrk

gS &
v Double
l Else

c Const
n Dim

3. lcls vafre izpkyd ojh;rk gS &

v vFkZefs Vd vkijsVj
l rqyukRed vkijsVj

c ykWftdy vkijsVj
n buesa ls dksbZ ugh

4. Len(Secondary) dk vkmViqV gksxk &

v 0
l 9

c 1
n buesa ls dksbZ ugh

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y?kqkjkRed izu &


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

fl SU v U?
kU UU v U?
v v U?
U v Ua ?
U v U?
U SUUU v Ua?
v v U?
U U?
WUUU v Ua
flU v U?

fucU/kkRed izu &


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

VB Script

U HTML U U?
flU v U U U flU U Ua?
VB Script Constant U U
VB Script UUU flU U
VB Script U
VB Script U U v fl U
UU UU v fl U

mkjekyk
1 v

2 n 3 c

4 l

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1
dEI;wVj xzkfQDl ds vk/kkjHkwr
(Basics of Computer Graphics)

1.11 ifjp; (Introduction)


dEI;wVj xzkfQDl] dEI;wVj rduhd dh ubZ kk[kk gSA xzkfQDl dk eryc fpf=r
n`; gS] tks fd dE;qfudsku dk ,d izcy lk/ku gSA euq"; fpf=r :i esa iznfkZr lwpuk dks
fyf[kr lwpuk dh rqyuk esa T;knk tYnh le>rk gSA dgkor gS fd ,d fp= gtkjksa kCnksa ds
cjkcj gSA dykdkj Lo;a vius gkFkksa ls fp= cukrs gaS] ysfdu euq"; }kjk cuk, x, fp=ksa dh
dqN lhek,a gksrh gaS&
v t:jr iM+us ij muesa cnyko djuk dfBu gSA
c cus gq, fp= dh xq.kokk esa lq/kkj djuk cgqr eqfdy gS] vkSj
l ;g fp= cukus okys ds dkSky ij fuHkZj djrk gSA

1.22 dEI;wVj xzkfQDl (Computer Graphics)


dEI;wVj xzkfQDl dk mi;ksx dEI;wVj }kjk fpf=r n`; dks cukus] lso djus] cnyus
vkSj fn[kkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA dEI;wVj }kjk rhoz xfr ls cgqr lkjk MkVk fudkyus o
LVksj djus dh {kerk us iwoZ esa crk;s x,] euq";ksa }kjk cuk, x, fp=ksa dh lhekvksa dks [kRe
dj fn;k gSA dEI;wVj ij miyC/k mPp xq.kokk ds fo"ke n`;ksa dk dEI;wVj xzkfQDl ds
fodkl esa egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnku jgk gSA dEI;wVj xzkfQDl ds rhoz fodkl esa ckdh ;ksxnku rhoz
xfr ds izksll
s j] rhoz xfr ds buiqV o vkmViqV fMokblst ,oa lkWVos;j rduhd ds fodkl
dk jgk gSA xzkfQDl fMokblst dks eq[; :i ls 3 {ks=ksa esa ckVk x;k gS&
v dEI;wVj ds ohfM;ks iznfkZr djus okys fMokblst
c buiqV gkMZos;j fMokblst
l vkmViqV gkMZos;j fMokblst

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1.33 ohfM;ks iznfkZr djus okys fMokblst


1.3.1 ekWuhVj (Monitor)

dEI;wVj ds ohfM;ks iznfkZr djus okys fMokblst lkekU;r% ekWuhVj gksrs gSaA ;g
ekWuhVj ;k ohfM;ks Lhu lk/kkj.kr% dSFkksM js V~;wc ds cus gksrs gSaA dSFkksM js V~;wc lh-vkjVh- ds eq[; Hkkx gSa&

1- bysDVkWu xu vlsEcyh

(Electron Gun Assembly)

& blesa ghVj] dSFkksM] daVky


s

fxzM] Qksdflax ,uksM] izh&,fDlyjsfVax] ,oa ,fDlyjsfVax ,uksM gksrs gSaA ghVj dks fo|qr
vkiwfrZ lh vkj Vh ds vk/kkj ij yxh fiuksa }kjk nh tkrh gSA tc ghVj }kjk ,uksM xeZ gksrk
gS rks og bysDVkWUl dk mRltZu djuk kq: dj nsrk gSA ;s bysDVkWu dsUnz esa yxh daVky
s fxzM
ds NksVs ls Nsn ls xqtjrs gSaA daVky
s fxzM ls ckgj fudyus okys bysDVkWu ,d bysDVkWu che
cukrs gSAa bl bysDVkWu che dks izh&,fDlyjsfVax o ,fDlyjsfVax ,uksM] ftuds ij mPp /
kukRed foHko gksrk gS] ds chp ls xqtkjk tkrk gSA bl mPp /kukRed foHko ds dkj.k bysDVkWu
Rofjr gks tkrs gaSA Qksdflax ,uksM bysDVkWu che dks vkSj Hkh dsfUnzr djrk gS] tks fd fQj
fMysDku IysV~l ls xqtjrh gSA

fp= & 1

2 fMysDku IysV vlsEcyh

(Deflecting Plate Assembly)& Qksdflax ,uksM ls

fudyus ds ckn bysDVkWu che fMysDku IysVksa ds nks tksM+ksa ds chp ls xqtjrh gSA IysVksa ds
,d tksM+s dks gkWfjtksVa yh yxk;k tkrk gS tks fd che dks ofVZdyh eksM+rk gSA IysVksa ds bl

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tksMs+ dks ofVZdy fMQysDku IysV dgrs gSaA IysVksa ds nwljs tksM+s dks ofVZdyh yxk;k tkrk
gS tks fd che dks gkWfjtksaVyh eksM+rk gSA IysVksa ds bl tksMs+ dks gkWfjtksaVy fMysDku IysV
dgrs gSaA bu IysVksa dks ,d nwljs ls dqN nwjh ij j[kk tkrk gS rkfd bysDVkWu che bu ds chp
ls xqtj ldsA

3 Lhu

(Screen)

& lh vkj Vh ds vxzHkkx dks Lhu dgk tkrk gSA ;g dkap dk cuk

gksrk gSA Lhu dh Hkhrjh lrg QkWLQj dh cuh gksrh gSA QkWLQj fo|qr tkZ dks izdkk esa
ifjofrZr djrk gSA tc bysDVkuW Lhu ls Vdjkrs gSa rks izdkk dk mRltZu gksrk gSA dqN le;
ipkr~ QkWLQj ds d.k IkzkjfEHkd voLFkk esa igqp tkrs gSaA QkWLQj ds d.k viuh izkjfEHkd
voLFkk esa igqps mlls igys mUgsa fjsk fd;k tkrk gSA

4 vDokMSx dh dksfVax

(Aquadeg Coating)& Lhu ls Vdjkus okyh bysDVkWu che]

ijks{k bysDVkWu mRlftZr djrh gSaA;s ijks{k bysDVkWu] bysDVkWu che ds ekxZ esa O;o/kku iSnk dj
ldrs gSa blfy, bu ijks{k bysDVkWUl dks xzsQkbV ds rjy inkFkZ ftls ^vDokMSx^ dgrs gSa] ds
}kjk bdB~Bk fd;k tkrk gSA
dEI;wVj dh fMLIys fMokblst ewyr% jkLVj LdSu iznkZu gSaA jkLVj ewyr% ohfM;ks
Lhu dk vk;rkdkj eSfVDl gksrk gSA bl eSfVDl dk gj rRo fiDly dgykrk gSA xu ls
fudyus okyh bysDVkWu che] Lhu ds gj fiDly ls fed :i ls Vdjkrh gS rks fiDly ds
QkWLQj d.k mksftr gks tkrs gSAa mksftr d.k tkZ dk mRltZu kq: dj nsrs gSaA QkLQj
d.k dh mRltZu rhozrk] mlls Vdjk jgs bysDVkWUl ds lerqY; gksrh gSA che ds nwljs fiDly
ij pys tkus ds ckn Hkh] QkWLQj d.k ftruh vof/k rd pedrk jgrk gS] mls ^ijflLVSUl^
dgrs gaSA bysDVkWu xu] Lhu dks ijh ck;sa dksus ls kq: gks jgh iafDr ls] fed :i ls Vl
s
djuk kq: djrh gSA tSls gh og iafDr ds var esa igqprh gS] xu nksckjk vxyh iafDr ds izkjEHk
esa igqp tkrh gSA varr% ;g fupys nk;sa dksus ij vkdj :drh gS tgk ls ;g fQj ls kh"kZ ij
vk tkrh gSA Lhu dks iw.kZ :i ls LdSu djus ds ckn gh iwjk fp= curk gSA ijflLVSUl bl
ckr dks izHkkfor djrk gS fd ,d fp=] Lhu ij] ,d lSd.M esa fdruh ckj cuk;k tk ldrk
gSA
1.3.2 jaxhu ekWuhVj (Colored Monitor)

jaxhu ekWuhVj gksus dh nkk esa fLFkfr tfVy gksrh gSA lh vkj Vh ds Hkhrj ,d bysDVkuW
xu ds ctk; 3 bysDVkWu xu gksrh gSA gj bysDVkWu xu izkFkfed jaxksa ds fy, gksrh gaS& yky]
gjk vkSj uhykA fdlh Hkh fiDly ij ekStnw jax] izkFkfed jaxksa dk feJ.k gksrs gSAa gj d.k foks"k
:i ls yky] gjh rFkk uhyh bysDVkWu xu ds izfr laosnukhy gksrk gSA

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fp= 2

1 .33 .33 dEI;w V j xzk fQDl%


bls nks {ks=ksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gS&
v js[kk fp= Line Drawings %& oLrqvksa] js[kkvksa] o`kks]a pki vkfn ds fp= xf.krh;
o.kZu }kjk cuk, tkrs gSaA tfVy oLrqvksa ds fp= cukus ds fy, ljy oLrq, dke esa yh tkrh
gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,& ,d dqlhZ dk fp= js[kkvksa rFkk pkiksa }kjk cuk;k tk ldrk gSA ysfdu
;FkkFkZ iznkZu ds fy, ;g vuqi;qDr gSA

c fp= Image %& ;s vkdZfr;kW ;k QksVks] fiDlyksa ds :i esa LVksj jgrh gS ftUgsa fcVeSi
best dgrs gSaA fdlh fp= ds fiDly ,d eSfVDl ds :i esa O;ofLFkr gksrs gSAa ;g eSfVDl
iznfkZr fp= dk jslksY;wku (Resolution) dgykrk gSA pwafd fp= fiDlyksa ds :i esa LVksj
jgrk gS blfy, js[kk o`k ;k pki dh vo/kkj.kk dke esa ugha vkrhA ;s fp= LdSuj ;k fMftVy
dSejk dh lgk;rk ls Hkh LVksj fd, tk ldrs gSa

1.33.44 ySV iSuy fMLIys & ySV iSuy fMLIys ,sls ohfM;ks midj.k gS tks lh vkj Vh
dh rqyuk esa de otuh rFkk de tkZ dh vko;drk j[krs gSaA ySV iSuy] lh vkj Vh ls
irys Hkh gksrs gSaA orZeku esa ySV iSuy fMLIys dk iz;ksx NksVs Vsyhfotu ekWuhVj] dsYdqysVj]
ohfM;ks xsEl] ySiVkWi dEI;wVj rFkk foKkiu ds fy, dke esa vkus okys cksMZ ds :i esa fd;k
tkrk gSA ySV iSuy midj.kksa dks nks izdkjksa esa ckVk x;k gS & ,feflo fMLIys (Emmisive

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Display) rFkk ukWu&,feflo fMLIys (Non-Emmissive Display)A

,feflo fMLIys midj.k fo|qr tkZ dks izdkk esa ifjofrZr djrs gSaA bldk lcls
vke mngkj.k gS IykLek iSuyA IykTek iSuy dk fuekZ.k nks dkp dh IysVksa ds chp uhvksu xSlksa
dk feJ.k Hkjdj fd;k tkrk gSA blfy, IykTek iSuy dks xSl fMLpktZ fMLIys Hkh dgk tkrk
gSA
ukWu ,feflo fMLIys lw;Z ds izdkk ;k fdlh vU; L=ksr ls fudys izdkk dks xzkfQd
Lo:i esa cnyus ds fy, vkWfIVdy izHkko dke esa ysrs gSAa ukWu&,feflo fMLIys dk lcls vPNk
mnkgj.k gS fyfDoM fLVy fMLIys midj.kA ;g lk/kkj.kr% NksVs midj.kksa tSl&
s dsYdqyVs j]
iksVsZcy dEI;wVj] ySiVkWi dEI;wVj vkfn esa dke esa fy, tkrs gSaA

1.44 xzkfQDl ,DlsyVs j dkMZ

(Graphics Accelerator Card)

;g ,d izdkj dk ohfM;ks ,MiVj dkMZ gS tks vius izn'kZu ds Lrj dks c<kok
nsus ds fy, Lo;a ds izksll
s j dk mi;ksx djrk gS A ;s izksll
s j xzkfQdy :ikarj.kksa dh
fo'ks"kKrk j[krs gS blhfy, lkekU; mi;ksx izkslslj dh rqyuk esa vPNs ifj.kke nsrs gSA
blds vfrfjDr xzkfQdh; x.kuk ds le; ;g lkekU; mi;ksx izksll
s j rFkk eSeksjh dks
vU; dk;ksZa ds fy, eqDr dj nsrk gSA

1.55 fMftVy fp=

(Digital Image)

fMftVy fp= dks LVksj ,oa Vkl


a feku djus ds fy, izk;% ckbujh Qkby ds :i esa
dksM fd;k tkrk gS] A ;g ckbujh dksM ,d eSfVDl gksrh gS ftlesa fp= ds vkdkj ds lanHkZ
esa jks o dkWye dh la[;k iwoZ fu/kkZfjr gksrh gSA eSfVDl dk gj ?kVd fiDly ;k fp= ?kVd
dgykrk gSA dEI;wVj dh eSeksjh esa fp= ds fiDly ,d iafDr esa fed :i ls LVksj gksrs gaSA
fp= ds eSfVDl dks nkkZus ,oa mlesa cnyko djus okys lekUrj MkVk ds <kps dks ,Sjs (Array)
dgrs gSA fp= dk MkVk QkWeZVs og e crkrk gS ftlesa fiDly LVksj gSAa eYVhehfM;k flLVe
ds fy, fp=ksa ds eksVs rkSj ij rhu lewg gksrs gSa] tks fd fuEufyf[kr gSa&
1 eksukskse fp= & blesa ,d fiDly] fp= dh i`"B Hkwfe ls fHkUu] dsoy ,d gh jax ys ldrk
gSA lkekU;r% eksukskse fp= ds fiDly dkys gksrs gS ;k fQj lQsn tgk dkys fiDly lwpuk
igqpkrs gSa tcfd lQsn fiDly fp= dh i`"B Hkwfe ls lEc) gksrs gSaA HkkSxksfyd ekufp=]
bathfu;fjax ds js[kkfp= vkfn eksukskse fp=ksa ds mnkgj.k gaSA
2 xzs ysoy fp= & bl izdkj ds fp= jax ds fofHkUu mrkj&p<+koksa dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gaSA
,d 8 fcV dh la[;k gj fiDly dk izfrfuf/kRo djrh gSA 0 ls 255 rd ds ifjek.k esa dksbZ
Hkh la[;k ,d jax ds fofk"V mrkj&p<+ko dks iznfkZr djrh gSA
3 Vw dyj fp= & Vw kCn ls ;g vfHkizk; gS fd ;s fp= izkd`frd jaxksa ds djhc gksrs gSaA
dksbZ Hkh fiDly] bl rjg ds fp= esa] rhu la[;kvksa ls fey dj curk gS tks 0 ls 255 ds chp
esa gksrs gSA buesa ls gj la[;k yky] gjs ;k uhys jax dks iznfkZr djrh gSA vr% fp= 24 fcV
ds jaxhu fp= gksrs gSa] ftuesa yky] gjs rFkk uhys pSuy gksrs gaSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 249

1.66 fp=ksa ds QkWeZsV ( Image Format)


fMftVy fp= fofHkUu izdkj ds Qkbyksa ds QkWeZVs esa LVksj fd;s tk ldrs gSa rkfd mUgsa
,d ls nwljs dEI;wVj ij LFkkukarfjr fd;k tk ldsA dHkh&dHkh eSeksjh rFkk fMLd dh txg
dks cpkus ds fy, dqN fp= Qkbyksa dks dEizsl nckuk dj fn;k tkrk gSA dbZ best QkWeZVs ksa
esa gh Qkby dks dEizsl dj fn;k tkrk gSA dbZ lkWVos;j gesa ^^lso ,l^^ SAVE AS dk
fodYi nsrs gSa ftlds }kjk ge Qkby dks fofHkUu QkWesZV esa LVksj dj ldrs gSA
1.6.1 fVQ (TIFF) %& fVQ] VSXM best Qkby QkWeZsV (Tagged Image File Format) dk

NksVk :i gSA ;g lcls yksdfiz; Qkby QkWesZV gSA bldk lcls etcwr i{k ;g gS fd ;g
,d cgqr gh yphyk rFkk Lora= QkWeZVs iznku djrk gS tks fd dbZ fp=ksa dks laikfnr djus okys
lkWVos;jksa }kjk dke esa fy;k tk ldrk gSA pwafd bldk fuekZ.k fizaVj] LdSuj vkSj ekWuhVj
cukus okyksa us fd;k gS] blfy, ;g lqnwj ladsrks ds fy;s cgqr mi;ksxh gksrk gSA fp=ksa dks
fo.Mkst besftax lkWVos;j }kjk fVQ QkWesZV esa lso fd;k tk ldrk gaSA
1.6.2 ch,eih BMP %& ;g ekbkslkWV fo.Mkst ;k vkbZch,e vkWijsfVax flLVe dh

fpf=r fcVeSi Qkbyksa dks LVksj djrk gSA ftUgsa fcVeSi ;k ch,eih Qkbysa dgrs gSA bu fp=ksa
dks ,e ,l isUV (M.S. Paint) }kjk lso dj ldrs gaSA bl QkWeZVs esa lso fp=ksa dk vkdkj fVQ]
ts ih bZ th] ftQ vkfn dh rqyuk esa cM+k gksrk gSA fcVeSi Qkby dk fcV~l ij fiDly bpp
{ks=] ,d fiDly dks cukus okyh fcV~l dh la[;k rFkk fcVeSi esa dke esa vkus okys jaxksa dh
vf/kdre la[;k crkrk gSA dyj dk {ks= ,d fcVeSi fp= dks nkkZus ds fy, vko;d jaxksa
ds izdkj dh la[;k crkrk gSA ;fn la[;k 0 gS rks bldk eryc gS fd lHkh jax egRoiw.kZ gaSA
1.6.3 tsihbZth JPEG %& ts ih bZ th ,d ekud dEizsku Compression i)fr gSA

ts- ih- bZ- th- dk eryc gS tkWbUV QksVksxzkfQd ,DliVZ~l xzqi] ;g ml desVh dk uke gS
ftUgksaus ekud cuk;k gSA tsihbZth jaxhu ;k xz&
s Ldsy ds okLrfod izkd`frd fp=ksa dks dEizsl
djus ds fy, cuk;k x;k gSA ;g QksVks rFkk bl rjg dh lkexzh ij vPNk dke djrh gS ijUrq
kCnksa@v{kjksa vkSj js[kk fp=ksa ij mrus vPNs ls dk;Z ugha dj ldrhA ts-ih-bZ-th ^^ykWlh^^
Lossy gS vFkkZr~ Mh&dEizsl fd;k gqvk fp= ewy fp= tSlk ugha gksrk gSA vU; fp= QkWeZVs
dh ctk; tsihbZth dke esa ysus ds nks Qk;ns gSaA igyk] Qkby dk vkdkj de gks tkrk gSA
nwljk tsihbZth jaxksa dh iw.kZ tkudkjh LVksj j[krk gSSA Qkbyksa dk vkdkj NksVk djus ls] ,d
ls nwljs usVodZ ij mUgsa vklkuh ls Hkstk tk ldrk gSA okLro es]a LokHkkfod n`;ksa tSls LdSu
fd, gq, QksVks ;k fp= ds jaxhu ;k xzs&Ldsy fp= LVksj gksus ds fy, ftQ GIF dh rqyuk
esa tsihbZth vf/kd mi;qDr gSA ekbkslkWV isUV] QksVkskWki vkfn lkWVos;jksa ds ek/;e ls
(JPEG) ;k th-vkbZ-,Q- (GIF) esa lso dj ldrs gSA ferO;;rk (Economy) ds fy, vki
fp= dk fo?kVu Hkh de dj ldrs gSAjaxksa esa mrkj&p<+ko rFkk mHkjs gq, Hkkxksa dks ftQ ds
eqdkcys tsihbZth esa de LFkku esa T;knk vPNh rjg iznfkZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 250

1.6.4 ftQ (GIF) %& oYMZ okbM oSc ij fp=ksa dks nkkZus ds fy, lkekU;r;k xzkfQDl

baVjpsat Qkby QkWesZV ftQ dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA ,d dEizsl fd;k gqvk QkWeZVs gS
ftlls Vkl
a feku iFk ij Qkby Vkalfeku esa de le; yxrk gSA ;g dEizsku dh ykWlysl
(Lossless) i)fr gSA blls vfHkizk; gS fd tc ftQ }kjk ewy fp= dks dEizsl fd;k tk,
rks bl ckr dk /;ku j[kk tk, fd dksbZ MkVk NwV uk tk,A ;g dEizsku dh ,d lk/kkj.k
oSdfYid i)fr dk bLrseky djrk gSA ftQ fp= vf/kdre miyC/k dEizs ku fp=ksa dh vko`fr
ij fuHkZj djrk gSA ,d fp= esa ,d gh jax ds vf/kdre iz;ksx ij ml fp= dks 10 xquk rd
dEizsl fd;k tk ldrk gS] tcfd ,d tfVy fp= ftlesa dbZ jaxksa dk iz;ksx fd;k x;k gks]
flQZ 20 izfrkr rd dEizsl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ftQ de jaxksa okys fp=ksa ij vPNs ls dk;Z
djrk gS] tSl&
s js[kkfp= ;k lk/kkj.k dkVwZuA ftQ ykWlySl gksus ds lkFk gh] fp=ksa dks tsihbZth
dh rqyuk esa vf/kd dEizsl dj ldrk gSA ekbkslkWV isUV] QksVkskWki vkfn lkWVos;jksa ds
ek/;e ls fp=ksa dks ftQ QkWeZVs esa lso fd;k tk ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, & fiDlyksa dk
,d cM+k {ks=] tks ,d gh jax dk gS] og ftQ }kjk dqkyrk ls dEizsl fd;k tkrk gSA
1.6.5 ih-vkbZ-lh- (PIC) %& ih-vkbZ-lh- ;k fid QkWesZV esfdUVksk xzkfQDl rFkk ist dks

nkkZus okys lkWVos;j ds chp Qkbyksa ds LFkkukarj.k ds dke vkrk gSA fid QkWeZsV foks"k :i
ls ,d gh jax ds fp=ksa dks n{krk ls dEizsl djus ds dke vkrk gSA
1.6.6 ih-,l-Mh- (PSD) %& vMksc (Adobe) }kjk fufeZr ih-,l-Mh- Qkby QkWesZV esa xzkfQd

;k fp= gksrs gSa tks fp=ksa esa ifjorZu djus okys lkWVos;j tSls vMksc QksVkskkWi esa curs gSaA
bl Qkby QkWesZV ds yksdfiz; gksus ds dkj.k gS fd ;g eSfdUVksk vkSj fo.Mkst nksuksa dEI;wVjksa
ij dk;Z dj ldrk gSA lkekU;r;k ih-,l-Mh- Qkbysa fp= laiknu lkWVos;j }kjk dke esa yh
tkrh gS rFkk xzkfQDl ds fy, mruh dke esa ugha yh tkrh gSA
1.7 xzkfQDl QkWesZV (Graphics Format)

baVjusV ls xzkfQDl dks rsth ls MkmuyksM djus ds fy, ,sls xzkfQDl QkWeZVs dk
mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks jaxksa dks de djds Qkby ds vkdkj dks NksVk dj nsrk gSA blds
fy, ge lkekU;r% th-vkbZ-,Q- (GIF) vkSj tsihbZth (JPEG) Qkby QkWesZV dk mi;ksx
djrs gS ij bu fnuksa ih-,u-th- (PNG) Qkby QkWeZVs dk Hkh mi;ksx gksus yxk gSA GIF vkSj
JPEG Qkby QkWeZVs ds ckjs esa foLr`r ppkZ dj pqds gS blfy, ;gk dsoy PNG Qkby QkWeVZs
dks le>k;k tk jgk gSA
1.7.1 iksVsZcy usVodZ xzkfQDl (Portable Network Graphics (PNG))
bldks GIF ds LFkku ij iz;ksx djus ds fy, cuk;k x;k gSA PNG cxSj uqdlku

ds fp= dks NksVk djrk gS] eryc fp= ds vkdkj dks de djus ds fy, mldh xq.kkokk dks
de ugha fd;k tkrk gSA PNG vYQk ikjnfkZrk Hkh djus nsrh gS] tks fp= ds rh[ksa dksuksa dks
gVkus esa enn djrh gSA PNG esa 256 rjg ds jax gks ldrs gSaA PNG, Qkby ds vkdkj dks

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 251

tfVy izf;k ls GIF ls Hkh T;knk de djrh gSA ;g QksVkskkWi dh ys;j ikjnfkZrk dks Hkh
leFkZu nsrh gSA

1-8 ,d LdSuj }kjk ,d


1234-

5-

6-

image

LdSu ds dne

vki vius scanner dks control pannel ls ;k Start Menu ls mi;ksx


dj ldrs gSaA pqusa vkSj vius LdSuj dks vkbdu ij fDyd djsA
iqf"V djs fd vki us lgh fMokbl dh igpku dh gSA
LdSuj dkp lkQ djas] rLohj dks uhps dh vksj eqg dj j[kuh gSA LdSuj ds
doj dks can djaAs esU;w ls jax fp= pqusaA preview is fDyd djsaA
;gk images ds resolution lsV djuk gSA
Resolution 75-100dpi bZ&esy ;k osc iksfLVax ds fy,
Resolution 300dpi eqnz.k ;k laxg
z .k
Resolution : Over 300dpiLykbMl] negatives ;k fizUV 5"7" ;k
cM+k
Scan vkjEHk djus ls igys vki ls iwNk tk;sxk fd vki image dks dgk save
djuk pkgrs gks]a tgk vki save djuk pkgrs gks] oks txg select dj ds] ftl
format esa lso djuk pkgrs gS oks select dj ysA
;fn vki ml image dks view djuk pkgrs gks rks mls ogk ls ns[ks tgk ij
vkius mldks lso (save) fd;k FkkA

1.99 xzkfQDl ds fl)kUr (Graphics Theory)


fdlh Hkh fp= dks cukus ls igys mldh :i&js[kk (Design) r; djuh gksrh gSA blh
nkSjku vkidks fp= dh vkd`fr (Form) Hkh fu/kkZfjr djuh gksrh gSA blds ckn vkidks fp=
dk [kkdk (Layout) rS;kj djuk gksrk gSA fp= dbZ js[kkvksa (Lines), oxks]Za o`kksa vkfn ls
feydj curk gSA fp= ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks vyx&vyx nkkZus ds fy;s muds e/; [kkyh
txg (Space) j[kh tkrh gSA fp= vFkok xzkfQDl cuus ds ckn mlesa jax Hkjuk gksrk gSA dyj
ekWMy ;g crkrs gSa fd jaxksa dks fdl izdkj izzLrqr djuk gSA dyj ekWMy rhu izdkj ds gksrs
ga&
S
v RGB ekWMy (Red, Green, Blue)
c
HSB ekWMy (Hue, Saturation, Brightness)
l CMYK ekWMy (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black)
fp= ij izdkk (light) dgk ls vk jgk gS] bldk jaxksa ij cgqr vlj iM+rk gSA izdkk
ds vyx vyx dks.kksa ls fofHkUu izdkj ds 'ksM (Shade) curs gSAa VsDLpj fdlh fp= dh lrg
dh cukoV dks fn[kkrk gSA VsDLpj fQYVj dk mi;ksx dj] fp= esa jaxksa dh xgjkbZ dks cnyk
tk ldrk gS] ftlls fp= ltho izrhr gksrs gSaA jaxksa dk mi;ksx djrs le; gesa fjfiVsku
(Repeation), fofo/krk (Variety), vuqikr (Proportion), lary
q u (Balance), y; (Rhythm)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 252

,oa leUo;(Harmony) dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg,A vUr esa fp= jaxksa esa ,drk (Unity) vkSj
le:irk fy, gksuk pkfg,A
lHkh rjg ds cnykoksa ds ckn fp= dks var esa eSeksjh esa lso fd;k tkrk gSA fp= dks
lso djus ds fy, fp= lEiknu djus okys lkWVos;j dbZ rjg ds Qkby QkWeZVs crkrs gSA buesa
ls viuh t:jr ds eqrkfcd dksbZ Hkh ,DLVsa ku (Extension) mi;ksx esa fy;k tk ldrk gSA
vxj vkl ikl txg dh leL;k ugha gS rks vki Qkby@fp= dks BMP esa lso dj ldrs
gSAa ij vxj Qkby NksVh pkfg, rks fp= dks ts-ih-bZ-th- (JPEG) ;k th-vkbZ-,Q- (GIF) esa
lso dj ldrs gSA ferO;;rk (Economy) ds fy, vki fp= dk fo?kVu Hkh de dj ldrs
gaSA
1.9.1 QkeZ (Form):QkeZ ,d frz&T;kferh; vkCtSDV (object) gSA QkeZ dks mij ls uhps

dh vksj (mWp
a kbZ)] ,d Nksj ls nwljs Nksj rd (pkSMkbZ), vkSj ihNs ls vkxs dh vksj (xgjkbZ) esa
ekik tk ldrk gSA QkeZ dks gYds o xgjs ls Hkh ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA QkeZ nks izdkj
ds gksrs gS &T;kferh; (euq+"; }kjk l`ftr) vkSj izkd`frd (jklk;fud QkeZ)A QkeZ dks ,d
;k ,d ls vf?kd vkd`fr;ksa dks feyk dj Hkh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA QkeZ dks jax ,cukoV vkSj
Vksu ls mHkkjk tk ldrk gSA
1.9.2 jsjok (Line): ,d jsjok fcUnqvksa dh ,d lrr Js.kh gSA T;kfefr; vk?kkj ij ,d

jsjok dh yEckbZ gksrh gSA ,d jsjok nks fcUnqvksa ds e?; dusDku gS A ,d jsjok py;eku fcUnq
ds iFk dks fu:fir djrk gSA ,d jsjok ,d /kukRed fpUg gks ldrh gS ;k ,d _z.kkRed
[kkyh LFkku (gap) gks ldrh gSA jsjok;sa fdlh oLrq ds fdukjksa rFkk tgk nks ry ds izfrPNsn
ij iznfZ kr gksrh gSA xzkfQdh; :i esa js[kk;sa fofHkUu otuksa (weight), eksVkbZ (thickness) rFkk
cukoV (texture) esa feyrh gSSA,d js[kk lh/kh ;k oh; gks ldrh gSA ,d fufpr eksVkbZ
dh js[kk ry cu tkrh gSA js[kkvksa ds xq.ku ls ,d vk;ru ] ry rFkk VsDlpj dh O;k[;k dh
tk ldrh gSA
1.9.3 lef"V (Space): lef"V og {ks= gS tks fdlh [kkl ms; ds fy;s iz;qDr fd;k tkrk

gSA lef"V f}fofe; (yEckbZ vkSj pkSMkbZ) ;k f=fofe; (yEckbZ pkSMkbZ o xgjkbZ) gks ldrh
gSa A lef"V vius vki esa ,d cSdxzkm.M (background),QkWjxzkm.M (foreground) vkSj
fefMy xzkm.M (middleground) gks ldrh gSA lef"V nwjh, {ks= vkSj mlds ?kVdks ds e/; dks
nZkkrh gSA lef"V nks izdkj dh gksrh gSa /kukRed vkSj _.kkRed lef"VA /kukRed lef"V fo"k;
oLrq tks vkfr nkkZrk gS mls fn[kkrh gSA _.kkRed lef"V fo"k; oLrq ds e/; ;k vkl ikl
ds lef"V dks nkkZrh gSA
1.9.4 cukoV (Texture): cukoV fdlh i`"B dh fn[kkoV dh foks"krk gksrh gSA dyk esa
nks rjg dh cukoV gksrh gS VsDVkby (tactile) vkSj bEiykbYM (implied)A VsDVkby cukoV
ls oLrq dh okLrfod cukoV (real texture) dk irk pyrk gSSA jsxeky, :bZ, isM dk ruk,

AglaSem School

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Qj vkfn blds mnkgj.k gS A bEikbYM cukoV fdlh i`"B dh cukoV dk vkHkkl djkrh gSA
bl izdkj dh cukoV esa i`"B jQ, jsrhyk ;k Qth izrhr gksrk gS ijUrq okLro esa og oSlk gksrk
ugha gSA bl rjg dh cukoV dykdkj viuh Mkbxa vkSj isafVx esa iz;ksx djrsa gSaA
1.9.5 jax (Color): fdlh i`"B vFkok oLrq dk jax ml i`"B ls ijkofrZr izdkk ds jax ;k

ml ek/;e ds jax ij fuHkZj djrk gS ftlls xqtj dj izdkk i`"B ij fxjrk gSA ykyk jax
phtksa dks ikl fn[krk gS tcfd uhyk jax phtksa dks nwj fn[kkrk gSA HkM+dhys jax fdlh best
(image) ds fdlh Hkkx ij /;ku vkdf"kZr djus ds fy;s iz;ksx fd;s tkrs gSaA jax rhu izdkj
& izkFkfed jax (primary colours)] f}rh;d jax(secondry colour) vkSj r`rh;d jax (tertiary
colour) ds gksrs gSAa iwjd jax os jax gksrs gSa tks fd jax p esa ,d nwljs ds foijhr gksrs gSaA
iwjd jax HkM+dhys jax gksrs gSaA ,ukykWxl (analogous) jax, jax p ds fdukjks ij gksrs gSaA
;s jax vuq:irk fn[kkus ds dke vkrs gSAa eksuksksefs Vd (monocromatic) jax, ,d jax ds fVuV
vkSj ksMl gksrs gSaA yky] ihyk o ukajxh jax xje jaxks dk lewg gSa rFkk cSx
a uh, uhyk vkSj gjk
jax, BMas jaxksa dk lewg gSaA
1.9.6 Vk;iksxzkQh ( Typography): VkbiksxzkQh (Typography) Nis gq, Qkbyksa dh

vafre fn[kkoV vkSj kSyh dks nkkZrk gSA lkekU;r% ge fizVa fizO;w Vkbiksxkz Qh ds fy, gh ns[krs
gaSA blds }kjk ge ;g ns[k ldrs gS fd Nius ds ckn gekjk fp= ;k Qkby dSlh fn[ksxhA
1.9.7 :ijs[kk (Layout): blesa gekjk VsDlV (text) nkfguh (right) rjQ vkSj xzkfQDl

(graphics) Ckk;ha (left) rjQ gksrh gS ;k ;g Hkh laHko gS fd VsDlV ck;ha rjQ vkSj xzkfQDl
nkfguh rjQ gksA :ijs[kk esa ;g egRoiw.kZ gS fd vkidh fMtkbu o mldh vihy dSlh gS A
1.9.8 vuq#irk (Harmony): vuq:irk] fofo/krk vkSj lekurk ds dksey lUrqyu ls

izkIr dh tkrh gSA jaxks esa vuq:irk iwjd ;k rqyukRed jaxksa ds iz;ksx ls izkIr dh tk ldrh
gSAfMtkbu esa vuq:irk ?kVdksa dh lekurk ;k oLrq mldh fn[kkoV ij fuHkZj djrh gSA
vuq:irk ns[kus es vPNh yxrh gSAoLrqvksa ds chp lkekU;r% jax] vkdkj] cukoV] iSVZu]
eSfVfj;y vkSj LVkby ds ek/;e ls vuq:irk dks ns[kk tk ldrk gaSA
1.9.9 ,drk (Unity) :ge VsDlV vkSj xzkfQDl dks vius dk;Z esa fdlh Hkh rjg iz;ksx djus

ds fy;s p;u djsa ysfdu og ,d nwljs ds lkFk bl rjg iwjd ds :i esa dke djs fd og dk;Z
dh ,drk dks iznfkZr djsA ,slk u gks fd mldk gj Hkkx vyx ;k vdsyk izrhr gksrk gksA
1.9.10 lUrq y u (Balance) : lUrq y u lefer (symictrical) ;k vlefer

(asymictrical) gks ldrk gSAlUrqyu fdlh vkVZodZ ds foks"k izHkkokkyh Hkkx ds Qksdy
ikbV a(focal point) dks le>us esa enn djrk gSA vkCtsDV dh fLFkfr] vk;ru (volume)

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;k vkdkj vkSj jax ls lUrqyu dks izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA blh izdkj gYds jaxks ds lkFk
xgjs jxksa dks feyk dj Hkh laUrqyu dks izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSaA
1.9.11 vuqikr (Proportion): vuqikr vkCtsDVl ds e/; vkdkj dh lac/krk dks

crkrk gSAvuqikr fofHkUu jaxks ds lrg (surface), {ks=Qy (area) ds vkdkj esa Hkh lac/
krk dks crkrk gSA vuqikr vkCtsDV dh functionality ij Hkh fuHkZj djrk gSA
1.9.12 y; (Rhythm): y; dk vFkZ gksrk gS fd VsDlV vkSj xkzfQDl dk ,d nwljs ds

iwjd gksus pkfg,A


1.9.13 iqujko`fRr (Repetition) : fdlh vkVZodZ esa tc rd ogqr vko;d u gks rc

rd fdlh Hkh pht dh iqujko`fRr ugha gksuh pkfg;sA ;fn vko;drk gks rks eq[; fcUnqvksa dks
gkbykbV (hightlight) dj nsuk pkfg,A
1.9.14 fofHkUurk (Varity) : fofHkUurk esa fo"ke rRoksa dk bl izdkj leUo; fd;k tkrk

gS fd oLrq lqna j ,ao foksk izrhr gkssA mnkgj.k ds fy, &fdlh foKkiu dks cukrs le; bl
ckr dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd mls ns[k dj uohurk dk vkHkkl gksA
1.9.15 ferO;;rk
ferO;;rk(Economy) : vktdy gj O;fDr iSls ds ckjs esa fpfarr gS fiNys dqN

lkyksa esa foKkiukssa dh dhersa c< xbZ gSa blfy;s foKkiu ,slk gksuk pkfg;s tks fd de LFkku
(space) ys vkSj vf/kd izHkko NksMs+A
1.9.16 fLVy ykbQ (Still life) : ;g cgqr egRoiw.kZ gS fd foKkiu dks fdrus yacs le;

rd pykuk g] fS oKkiu T;knk ns[kus ls ;fn cksjh;r gkssus yxs rks mls gVk ysuk pkfg;sA fdlh
foKkiu dk thou p (life cycle) cgqr egRoiw.kZ gSA
1.8.17 ykbV ,.M ksM (Light and Shades): fizaV ehfM;k (print media) esa ykbV

vkSj ksMl dks T;knk egRo ughsa fn;k tkrkA bldk T;knk egRo eYVh ehfM;k (Multimedia) esa gksrk gSaA
1.9.18 iksLVj fMtkbu (Poster Design) : bldks vkVZ odZ ds leFkZu esa iz;ksx fd;k

tkrk gSA ,slk ugha gS fd fdlh Hkh foKkiu dks iksLVj ds vkdkj esa cuk ysuk mfpr gSs cfYd
bl ckr dk /;ku j[ksa fd iksLVj cukus ij ml foKkiu dk egRo fdruk jgrk gSA

AglaSem School

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1.10 ,siyhdsku vkWQ fizVa ehfM;k (Application of print media):


ij fn;s x;s fcUnqvksa dks tc vkerkSj ij fofHkUu ,Iyhdskul ds lkFk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk
gS rks budk viuk egRo gksrk gSA vHkh rd geus lh[kk fd bu vkbVel dk vFkZ D;k gksrk
gSA vc ge le>saxas fd bUgsa cuk;k (creat) dSls fd;k tkrk gSS
1.9.1 jaxhu :ijs[kk (coloured layout)_ tSlk fd ge tkurs gSa fd fdlh Hkh dk;Z

dks djus ls igys mldh :ijs[kk cuk;h tkrh gSA Bhd mlh rjg iqLrdksa vkSj eSxthu vkfn
ds fy;s Hkh :ijs[kk cukbZ tkrh gSA jaxhu iB ds fy;s t:jh gS fd fofHHku jaxks ds
la;ksx(combination) dk iz;ksx fd;k tk;sA mnkgj.k ds fy;s ;fn yky] ihys vkSj gjs jax
ls fizVa djuk gS rks bu rhuksa jaxks dks ju (run) ugha djsx
a s bldh txg tgk ij gjk jax iz;ksx
djus ds LFkku ij igys yky dks fizVa djsx
a s mlds ckn mlds ij ihyk jax fizVa djus ls gesa
gjk jax fey tk;sxkA
1.9.2 fMtkbfuax vkQW cqDl (designing of books)&
& vktdy vf/kdrj iqLrdsa

dEI;wVj ds }kjk fMtkbu dh tkrh gSa blds fy, igys isij ij mldk [kkdk rS;kj fd;k tkrk
gS fQj mldks dEI;wVj ij gwcgw cuk;k tkrk gS ftls VkalfLfcxa (transcribing) dgk
tkrk gSA nwljk rjhdk gS fd dEI;wVj ij dke kq: djus ls igys vius fnekx esa mldh
:ijs[kk rS;kj dj ysaA vxj ge xzkfQDl vkSj VsDlV nksuks ij dke dj jgs gSa rks Corel
Draw lcls vPNk ek/;e gSA Corel Draw esa VsDlV vkSj xzkfQDl dk vklkuh ls izz;ksx
fd;k tk ldrk gS lkFk gh blesa ;g Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gS fd jax dSls yx jgS gSa vkSj dkSu
lk jax lcls vPNk yx jgk gSA
1.9.3 eSxthu czkWkjl (magazine brochures)- fdlh eSxthu dks izeksV djus ds

fy;s mldks czkWkj cukuk t:jh gSA vktdy T;knkrj eSxthukas ds lcfLiku ds lkFk
migkj nsrs gSaA ;g migkj ?kMh] VsyfQksu vkfn ds :i esa gksrs gSaA bles dksbZ kd ugha gS fd
buds czkWkjl dkQh jaxhu gksrs gSa ftldh otg ls vki eSxthu [kjhnus ds fy;s VsEiMZ gks tkrs
gSAa bles czkWkj dk eq[; Hkkx jaxhu gksrk gS blfy;s vPNs jaxks vkSj VsDlV dk fefJr lkWVos;j
dk iz;ksx djuk pkfg;s tSls Corel Draw ;k Adobe Photoshop A czkWkj dSlk yx jgk
gS ;g fizVa ij Hkstus ls igys dEI;wVj ij ns[k ldrs gSaA
1.9.4 cPpksa dk lkfgR; (childrens literature)-cPpksa dh iqLrdksa dks vkdf"kZr

cukus ds fy;s ;g vko;d gS fd mudk lkfgR; vkd"kZd gksA vktdy cPpksa dh iqLrdksa dk
izfr}nha dkVZwu usVodZ gS blfy;s cPpksa dh iqLrdksa dk lkfgR; bruk vkd"kZd gksuk pkfg;s
tks cPpksa dk Vsyhfotu NqMk dj iqLrd i<+us ds fy;s izsfjr djasA fMtkbu vkSj ;kstuk [kjkc
izdkku ls eMZ (marred) gks tkrh gSA blfy;s bl ckr dk /;ku j[kuk pkfg;s fd cPpksa
dk lkfgR; mRre izdkj ds dkxt ij fizVa gks ftlls og jaxks ds mfpr izHkko dks fn[kk lds
rFkk isij FkksM+k eksVk gksuk pkfg;s tks cPpksa ds gkFkksa esa tk dj vklkuh ls QVs ughaA

AglaSem School

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1.9.5 ujsfVo VsDlV gSaMfyax (narrative text handling)- ;g cksyus okys kCnksa dks

dEI;wVj ij fjdkWMZ djuk lEHko cukrk gS blds fy;s lkWVos;j dh vko;drk gksrh gS tks
cksys x;s kCnksa dks Qkby esa cny lds vkSj mUgsa dEI;wVj ij fjdkMZ dj ldsA blds fy;s vf/
kdkakr% dEI;wVj ds lkFk ekbksQksu tksMk+ tkrk gSA

egRoiw.kZ
.kZ fcUnq
1. xzkfQDl fMokblst dks eq[; :i ls 3 {ks=ksa esa ckVk x;k gS&v dEI;wVj ds ohfM;ks

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

8.

iznfkZr djus okys fMokblst c buiqV gkMZos;j fMokblst


l vkmViqV
gkMZo;s j fMokblst
xf.krh; o.kZu }kjk cuk, tkus okys fp=kas dks js[kkfp= dgrs gSaA
Lhu ls Vdjkus okyh bysDVkWu che] ijks{k bysDVkWu mRlftZr djrh gSAa ;s ijks{k bysDVkWu]
bysDVkWu che ds ekxZ esa O;o/kku iSnk dj ldrs gSa blfy, bu ijks{k bysDVkWUl dks xzQ
s kbV
ds rjy inkFkZ ftls ^vDokMSx^ dgrs gSa] ds }kjk bdB~Bk fd;k tkrk gSA
xzkfQDl ,DlsyVs j dkMZ (Graphics Accelerator Card) ,d izdkj dk ohfM;ks ,MiVj
dkMZ gS tks izn'kZu ds Lrj dks c<kok nsus ds fy, Lo;a ds izksll
s j dk mi;ksx djrk gS A
eksukskse fp= esa ,d fiDly] fp= dh i`"B Hkwfe ls fHkUu] dsoy ,d gh jax ys ldrk gSA
Vw dyj fp= izkd`frd jaxksa ds djhc gksrs gSAa dksbZ Hkh fiDly] bl rjg ds fp= esa] rhu
la[;kvksa ls fey dj curk gS tks 0 ls 255 ds chp esa gksrs gaSA
baVjusV ls xzkfQDl dks rsth ls MkmuyksM djus ds fy, ,sls xzkfQDl QkWeZsV dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gS tks jaxksa dks de djds Qkby ds vkdkj dks NksVk dj nsrk gSA blds fy,
ge lkekU;r% th-vkbZ-,Q- (GIF) vkSj tsihbZth (JPEG) Qkby QkWeZVs dk mi;ksx djrs
gS ij bu fnuksa ih-,u-th- (PNG) Qkby QkWesZV dk Hkh mi;ksx gksus yxk gSA
dyj ekWMy rhu izdkj ds gksrs ga&
S
v

RGB ekWMy (Red, Green, Blue)

c
l

HSB ekWMy (Hue, Saturation, Brightness)


CMYK ekWMy (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black)

9- QkeZ nks izdkj ds gksrs gS &T;kferh; (euq+"; }kjk l`ftr) vkSj izkd`frd (jklk;fud QkeZ)A
10- lef"V og {ks= gS tks fdlh [kkl ms; ds fy;s iz;qDr fd;k tkrk gSA lef"V f}fofe;
(yEckbZ vkSj pkSMkbZ) ;k f=fofe; (yEckbZ pkSMkbZ o xgjkbZ) gks ldrh gSa A
11- cukoV fdlh i`"B dh fn[kkoV dh foks"krk gksrh gSA dyk esa nks rjg dh cukoV gksrh
gS VsDVkby (tactile) vkSj bEiykbYM (implied)A VsDVkby cukoV ls oLrq dh okLrfod
cukoV (real texture) dk irk pyrk gSS rFkk bEikbYM cukoV fdlh i`"B dh cukoV dk
vkHkkl djkrh gSA
12-y; (Rhythm)dk vFkZ gksrk gS fd VsDlV vkSj xkzfQDl dk ,d nwljs ds iwjd gksus
pkfg,A

AglaSem School

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13-vuq#irk (Harmony)] fofo/krk vkSj lekurk ds dksey lUrqyu ls izkIr dh tkrh gSA
jaxks esa vuq:irk iwjd ;k rqyukRed jaxksa ds iz;ksx ls izkIr dh tk ldrh gSA

vH;klkFkZ izu

cgqp;ukRed izu
1. Lhu ls Vdjkus okyh bysDVkWu che] ijks{k bysDVkWu mRlftZr djrh gSAa bu ijks{k bysDVkWUl

dks fdl inkFkZ ds }kjk bdB~Bk fd;k tkrk gS &


v xzsQkbV
c QkWLQj
l fiDly
n vDokMSx
2 jaxhu ekWuhVj gksus ds lh vkj Vh ds Hkhrj fdruh bysDVkWu gksrh gS &
c 2
v 1
l 3
n 8
3. IykTek iSuy mnkgj.k gS &

v ,feflo fMLIys (Emmisive Display)


c ukWu&,feflo fMLIys (Non-Emmissive Display)
l lh vkj Vh (CRT)
n buesa ls dksbZ ugha
4. ts- ih- bZ- th- (JPEG) dk eryc gS &

v tkWbUV QksVksxkz fQd ,.M xzkfQDl


c tkWbUV QksVksxzkfQd ,DliVZ~l xzqi
l tkiku QksVksxzkfQd ,DliVZ~l xzqi
n tkWbUV fiDpj ,.M xzkfQDl
5. baVjusV ls xzkfQDl dks rsth ls MkmuyksM djus ds fy, fdl xzkfQDl QkWesZV dk mi;ksx

fd;k tkrk gS &


v TIFF
l PNG

c BMP
n PSD

y?kqkjkRed izu &


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

lh vkj Vh ds vxzHkkx dh lajpuk dks le>kb,A


js[kk fp= o fp= esa varj dks le>kb,A
eYVhehfM;k flLVe ds fy, fp=ksa dsk fdrus leqg esa ckVk x;k gS? le>kb,
fp=ksa ds JPEG QkWeZVs ls vki D;k le>rs gS?a
,d LdSuj }kjk ,d best (image) dks LdSu djus ds dneksa dks le>kb, ?

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 258

6.
7.
8.

lef"V (Space) ls vki D;k le>rs gaS?


QkeZ fdrus izdkj ds gksrs gS?a le>kb,
vuq#irk (harmony) ls vki D;k le>rs gaS?

fucU/kkRed izu &


1.
2.
3.
4-

dEI;wVj ekWuhVj (Monitor) dk lfp= o.kZu dhft,A


fp=ksa ds QkWeZVs ( Image Format) ij laf{kIr fVIi.kh fyf[k,A
xzkfQDl ds fl)kUr (Graphics Theory) dks le>kb,A
fizVa ehfM;k ds vuqiz;ksxksa dk o.kZu dhft,A

mkjekyk
1 n

2 l

3 v 4 c

5 l

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 259

2
,fuesku ,oe~ eYVhehfM;k
Animation and Multimedia
2-1

ifjp; (Introduction)
dEI;wVj ,fuesku] fp=ksa ds ,d lewg dks bl izdkj mRiUu djrk gS] ec) djrk

gS rFkk fn[kkrk gS fd fp= pyrs gq, izrhr gksa] tSls flusek esa fQYeA ,fuesku eYVhehfM;k
dk ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gS D;ksafd tc fp= gh izHkkokkyh rjhds ls tkudkjh ns ldrs gSa rks
NksVh lh ,fuesku fQYe rks mlls Hkh izHkkokkyh gksrh gSaA
,fues'ku dks dbZ yksx xyrh ls ohfM;ks fQYe le> ysrs gSaA D;ksafd nksuksa gh fp=ksa
dks dzec) :i ls pyrk gqvk fn[kkus dk dk;Z djrs gSaA gkykafd ,fues'ku dks lk/kkj.kr% ogha
dke esa fy;k tkrk gS tgk ohfM;ks cukuk vlaHko gksA ,fues'ku lwpuk dks vf/kd izHkkokkyh
rjhds ls nkkZrk gSA mnkgj.k ds rkSj ij nks rkjksa dk Vdjkuk ;k fdlh xzg dks lw;Z dh ifjek
djrs gq, fn[kkuk] ohfM;ks fQYe }kjk laHko ugha gS vkSj ;s ,d NksVh ,fuesku fQYe }kjk vklkuh
ls le>k, tk ldrs gSAa
eYVhehfM;k izkstsDV esa ,fuesku ln`'; izHkko tksM+rk gSA ,fuesku dks] foks"k
lkWVos;j }kjk d`f=e :i ls ?kwers gq, fyf[kr lans'k ;k dkYifud okrkoj.k esa oLrq,a cukus
okyk Hkh le>k tk ldrk gSA ikjEifjd ,fues'ku] O;fDr }kjk cuk;s x;s fp= ;k cM+h ek=k
esa [khaps x, QksVksxkz Q fp=ksa dks fuf'pr varjky esa n'kkZrk gS] tks pyfp= gksus dk vkHkkl
djkrs gSaA fp=ksa esa ln`'k cnyko tSls] iksaNuk] Qhdk iM+uk] vR;f/kd cM+k gksuk vkSj ?kqydj
lekIr gksuk vkfn] eq[; fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j dj ldrs gSaA bUgha dk mi;ksx
dj ge 'kq:vkrh ,fues'ku cuk ldrs gSaA fdUrq ,fues'ku] iksaNus] Qhdk iM+us ;k vR;f/kd

AglaSem School

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cM+k gksus vkfn izHkkoksa ls cgqr T;knk izHkko'kkyh gSA


dEI;wVj tfur ,fues'ku] oLrq ds vkdkj] jax] ikjnf'kZrk ;k lrgh cukoV dks
fuf'pr varjky esa cnyrk gqvk fn[kkrk gSA ,fues'ku esa oLrq dk Lhu ij vkxs ;k ihNs gksuk]
i`Foh ds Xyksc dk ?kwers gq, fn[kkbZ nsuk] ;k jktekxZ ij dkj dk pyrs gq, fn[kuk vkfn lHkh
dqN gks ldrk gSA
,fues'ku ,d tSfod f;k ftls vk[kksa dh n`<+rk Persistance dgrs gaSa] ds dkj.k
fn[krk gSA bl vk[kksa dh n`<r+ k ds dkj.k tc fp=ksa dh Js.kh esa izR;sd fp= esa FkksMk+ lk cnyko
djsa vkSj mUgsa rhoz xfr ls ,d ds ckn ,d cnysa rks gesa oLrq ?kwerh gqbZ izrhr gksxhA bldk
dkj.k ;g gS fd euq"; }kjk ns[kh xbZ oLrq dqN le; ds fy, vk[kksa ds jsfVuk Retina ij
vafdr jg tkrh gSA vxj oLrq esa bl vof/k ds nkSjku dksbZ cnyko dj fn;k tk;s rks gekjh
vk[ks mls ugha ns[k ikrh gS] vkSj mlds dkj.k gesa oLrq ?kwerh gqbZ izrhr gksrh gSA dEI;wVjhd`r
,fues'ku blh fl)kUr ij dk;Z djrs gSa rFkk os lsy ,fues'ku] ys;j dk mi;ksx] eq[; se
vkSj V~ohfdax rduhd dk iz;ksx djrs gSAa ,fues'ku dh lgk;rk ls dEI;wVj us dbZ rjg dh
dykRed ,oe~ O;kikfjd fQYesa cukbZ gSa tSls tqjkfld ikdZ vkSj guqekuA
2-1-1 V~ohfdax Tweaking %& ;g ,fues'ku rduhd dkVwZu fQYesa cukus ds fy, izfl)
gSA ,fues'ku cukus okyksa ds ikl ?kVuk ds vyx&vyx fp= gksrs gSa vkSj iwjh ?kVuk fp=ksa dks
,d ds ckn ,d fn[kkus ls cu ldrh gSA igys vkSj vkf[kjh fp= dks eq[; se Key Frame
dgk tkrk gSA ckdh cus e/; ds fp=ksa dks dq'kyrk ls fu;fer varjky esa ,d ds ckn ,d
cnyk tkrk gSA bl iwjh fdz;k dks V~ohfdax Tweaking dgk tkrk gSA V~ohfdax esa eq[; seksa
ds e/; okys fp=ksa dh x.kuk djuk ,oe mUgsa okLro esa cukuk 'kkfey gSA
V~ohDM Tweaked ,fues'ku oLrq esa le;kuqlkj cnyko djus dk izHkkoh rjhdk gSA
blls Qkby dk vkdkj Hkh de gks tkrk gSA V~ohDM ,fues'ku esa eSeksjh dsoy fp=ksa ds e/
; cnykoksa dks lso djrh gSA
lsy ,fues'ku dk dykRed dk;Z eq[; seksa ls gh 'kq: gks tkrk gSA bu eq[; seksa
ds e/; fp=ksa dh Js.kh Mkyh tkrh gS] bl izf;k dks ge V~ohfdax dgrs gSaA V~ohfdax izf;k
}kjk eq[; seksa dh la[;k dks Kkr dj mUgsa bl rjg yxk;k tkrk gS fd os ,d gh ?kVuk
dks n'kkZrs gq, izrhr gksAa blds ckn seksa dks tksM+k tkrk gS vkSj muds le; dh fujarjrk dh
vkSj vPNk fn[kus dh tkap dh tkrh gSA V~ohfadx
a f;k nks rjg dh gks ldrh gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 261

v xfr okyh V~ohfdax Motion Tweaking %& blesa ge oLrq] lewg ;k fyf[kr lans'k
dh n'kk] vkdkj vkSj ?kweus dh izf;k n'kkZrs gSaA
c vkdkj okyh V~ohfdax Shape Tweaking %& blesa ge ,d fcanq ij ,d vkdkj
cukdj mls nwljs fcUnq ij nwljs vkdkj esa cnyrs gSaA
3-1-2 eksjfQax Morphing %& ;g ,fues'ku rduhd gesa nks fp=ksa dks xfr esa tksM+us
nsrh gSA ftlds 'kq: djus ij igyk fp= nwljs fp= esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gS vkSj e/; esa fp=ksa
dh J`[a kyk mUgsa ,slk djus esa enn djrh gSA mnkgj.k %& ,d psgjs dks nwljs psgjs esa cnyukA
eksjfQax dsoy lk/kkj.k fp=ksa ij gh ugha cfYd pfyr fp=ksa ij Hkh dk;Z djrh gSA

fp= 1
eksjM Morphed fp=ksa dks 8 se izfr lSd.M ds fglkc ls cuk;k tkrk gSA dqy
pfyr le; 4 lSd.M dk gksrk gS 32 se vkSj blesa eq[; fp=ksa Key Frame dks de j[kuk
pkfg,A nks fp=ksa dks cnyus esa eq[; fp=ksa dk fu/kkZj.k egRoiw.kZ gksrk gSA ftrus T;knk eq[;
fp= gksaxs mruh vPNh eksjfQax gksxhA eksjfQax dk mi;ksx ,MojVkbtesaV] dEI;wVj dh enn
ls cuh Mjkouh fQYesa] dkVwZu fQYe vkfn esa fd;k x;k gSA

2-2

eYVhehfM;k Multimedia
eYVhehfM;k dbZ rjg ds ek/;eksa dks feykdj curk gS tSl]s lqukbZ nsus okys] fn[kkbz

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 262

nsus okys] ,fues'ku vkSj fyf[kr ek/;eA eYVhehfM;k dh eq[; fo'ks"krk ;g gS fd ;s dbZ rjg
ds ek/;eksa ds vyx vyx MkVk Vkbi dks feykdj u;k ys[k cukrk gSA fMftVy fp=ksa ,oa
/ofu ladrs ksa us f'k{kk ,oa euksjatu {ks= esa dEI;wVj ds mi;ksx dks c<+k;k gSA
eYVhehfM;k ys[k lkekU; fyf[kr lwpuk okys ys[kksa ls dkQh vPNs gksrs gSaA mnkgj.k
& Vh-oh- ,d eYVhehfM;k midj.k gS D;ksafd blesa lwpuk fn[kkbZ vkSj lqukbZ nsrh gSA blh
rjg ls iqLrd Hkh eYVhehfM;k dk mnkgj.k gS D;ksfa d mlesa lwpuk fyf[kr vFkok fpf=r gksrh
gSA
eYVhehfM;k izkstsDV ,d gkbij VsDLV ekdZvi ysaXost HTML ;k MkbZusfed
gkbij VsDLV ekdZvi ysaXost (DHTML ys[k Hkh gks ldrk gSA eYVhehfM;k rRo esa laiknu
djus okys lkWVos;j Hkh gks ldrs gSAa ;s laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j vyx&vyx eYVhehfM;k
ek/;eksa lquus okys] fn[kkbZ nsus okys vkSj fyf[kr dks ,d ys[k esa O;ofLFkr djrs gSAa laiknu
djus okys lkWVos;j fp= ,oa fyf[kr lwpuk dks cukus vkSj ifjorZu djus] /ofu vkSj ohfM;ks
fQYe vkfn cukus dh lqfo/kk Hkh iznku djrs gSaA fdlh ek/;e dk fdruk mi;ksx djuk gS
;g mldh ;ksX;rk ,oa t:jr ij fuHkZj gSA mnkgj.k& ,d laxhrK }kjk cuk;s x;s
eYVhehfM;k esa LokHkkfod :i ls /ofu ladsrksa dk T;knk mi;ksx gksxkA tcfd ,d
eYVhehfM;k izkt
s Ds V ^jktLFkku ds n'kZuh; LFky* uke ls gks rks mlesa dbZ fp=] uD'ks vkSj NksVh
ohfM;ks fQYesa gks ldrh gSaA
vc eYVhehfM;k ds fofHkUu ek/;eksa dks le>rs gSAa
1- lqukbZ nsus okys Audio %& tc ,d /ofu rjax gekjs dku esa vkrh gS] dku ds insZ ij
daiu gksrk gS] tks vanj dh NksVh gfM~M;ksa esa Hkh daiu djrk gS vkSj ;g rjaxsa fQj fnekx dks
Hkst nh tkrh gSaA ;g rjaxs og /ofu gS tks Jksrk lqurk gSA tSlk fd fofnr gS fMftVy MkVk
vklkuh ls LVksj] f;kafor vkSj VkalfeV gks ldrk gSA blfy, ,ukykWx ladrs ksa dks fMftVy
ladrs ksa esa cnyk tkrk gSA bl dk;Z esa ,ukykWx ls fMftVy duoVZj converter dh enn yh
tkrh gSA Hkk"k.k] laxhr] vkSj nwljh izdkj dh /ofu] lqukbZ nsus okys ladrs gSAa fMftVy lan's kksa
dh xq.koRrk ,ukykWx ladsrksa ls T;knk gS D;ksafd fMftVy lans'kksa dks vklkuh ls cnyk tk
ldrk gS vkSj ;s vklkuh ls nks"k ;qDr ugha gksrs gSaA
E;qftdy baLVwesUV fMftVy baVjQsl MIDI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface)

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 263

bl izksVksdkWy ds }kjk dEI;wVj vkSj laxhr ok| ;a= dks vkil esa tksM+k tk ldrk
gSA MIDI laxhr ok|;a=ksa ds fy, lwpuk dk ,d lewg cukrk gSA vlyh vkokt dks LVksj
djus ds ctk; ,d feMh Qkby ctk;s x, laxhr dh /kquksa dks] muds e dks] mudh vof/
k dks vkSj ok| ;a=ksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj mUgsa xf.krh; MkVk ds :i esa LVksj djrk gSA
feMh 16 izdkj dh /kquksa dks] tks vyx&vyx ok| ;a= ls fudyrh gS] LVksj dj
ldrk gSA bUgsa tc feMh ds vuq:i gkMZos;j lkm.M dkMZ dks fn;k tkrk gS rks oks bUgsa fQj
ls laxhr esa ifjofrZr dj nsrk gSA lkmaM dkMZ dks ;g lwfpr fd;k tkrk gS fd dkSulk ok|;a=
dke esa fy;k x;k gS vkSj /kqu dSls cukuh gSA /kqu cukus ds ckn mls Lihdj dks ctkus ds fy,
Hkstk tkrk gSA feMh Qkby cukus ds fy, gS flslj lkWVos;j vkSj lkmaM lsaFklkbtj
pkfg,A

fp= 2
2- xzkfQDl Graphics %&
xzkfQDl fp=ksa dks cukus] fn[kkus vkSj cnyus dk dk;Z dEI;wVj dh enn ls djrs gSAa
xzkfQDl] eYVhehfM;k dk egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gSa D;ksafd fp= lwpuk iznku djus dk 'kfDr'kkyh ek/
;e gSA xzkfQDl esa lk/kkj.k fp=] rLohj vkSj dykdkjh Hkh vkrh gSA dEI;wVj xzkfQDl dks
nks {ks=ksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
v js[kk fp= Line drawings & oLrqvksa] js[kkvksa] o`kksa] pki] vkfn ds fp= xf.krh;

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 264

o.kZu }kjk cuk, tkrs gSaA tfVy oLrqvksa ds fp= cukus ds fy, ljy oLrq, dke esa yh
tkrh gSAa mnkgj.k ds fy, & ,d dqlhZ dk fp= js[kkvksa rFkk pkiksa }kjk cuk;k tk ldrk
gSA ysfdu ;FkkFkZ izn'kZu ds fy, ;g vuqi;qDr gSA
c

fp= Image & ;s vkd`fr;k ;k QksVks] fiDlyksa ds :i esa LVksj jgrh gSa ftUgsa fcVeSi
best dgrs gSaA fdlh fp= ds fiDly ,d eSfVDl ds :i esa O;ofLFkr gksrs gSaA ;g
eSfVDl izn'kZu fp= dk jslksY;w'ku dgykrk gSA pwfa d] fp= fiDlyksa ds :i esa LVksj jgrk
gS blfy, js[kk] o`k ;k pki dh vo/kkj.kk dke esa ugha vkrhA ;s fp= LdSuj ;k fMftVy
dSejk dh lgk;rk ls Hkh LVksj fd, tk ldrs gSaA

3- VSDLV Text & VSDLV esa eq[; :i ls dbZ rjg ds QkWUV fonts vkSj jax colour gksrs
gSAa ys[k dks fofHkUu izdkj ds QkWUVl ,oa jaxksa }kjk vPNs <ax ls le>k;k tk ldrk gSA VSDLV
cksYM] bVsfyd ;k vaMjykbu fd;s tk ldrs gSaA VSDLV laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j VSDLV
dks fy[krs gS]a cnyrs gSa rFkk vPNs rjhds ls fn[kkrs gSAa mnkgj.k & v[kckj vyx&vyx [kcjksa
dks fo'ks"k :i ls n'kkZus ds fy, fofHkUu izdkj ds QkWUVl vkSj jaxksa dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA
4- ohfM;ks Video & euq"; dh vk[kksa dh ;g fo'ks"krk gS fd vxj ,d lSd.M esa 50 fp=ksa
dks cnyk tk;s rks vka[ks vyx&vyx fp=ksa dks ugha igpku ikrh gSAa vk[kksa dks ,slk izrhr
gksrk gS fd oLrq py jgh gSa lHkh ohfM;ks flLVe blh fl)kUr ij dk;Z djrs gSaA
,fues'ku dh rjg dEI;wVj ohfM;ks Hkh fp=ksa dks fjdkMZ djus ,oa fu;fer varjky
ij mUgsa n'kkZus dk dk;Z djrk gSA ,slk djus ij ,slk yxrk gS fd oLrq py jgh gS izR;sd
fp= dks se dgk tkrk gSA gkykafd] ohfM;ks vkSj ,fues'ku nksuksa gh fp=ksa dks fu;fer varjky
esa n'kkZrs gSaA rkfd oLrq pyrh gqbZ izrhr gks] ij ohfM;ks fo'ks"k :i ls vlyh thoar ?kVuk
dks ohfM;ks fjdkMZj ls fjdkMZ djrk gSA fLFkj fp=ksa dks LdSuj vFkok fMftVy dSejs dh
lgk;rk ls fy;k tkrk gSA dEI;wVj mi;ksxdrkZ dks fMftVy ohfM;ks dh enn ls thoar
oSf'od ?kVukvksa ls voxr djok;k tkrk gSA ;g Vh-oh ds Jksrkvksa dks eYVhehfM;k vkmViqV
nsrk gSA ohfM;ks Qkby dks ge MPEG QkWesZV esa lso dj ldrs gSaA
ewfoax fiDpj ,DliVZ xqzi Moving Picture Expert Group ekud pyrs gq, fp=ksa
dks fMftVy :i esa n'kkZrk gSA baVjus'kuy VsyhdE;qfuds'ku ;wfu;u International Telecommunication Union us 1991 esa MPEG xzi
q dh LFkkiuk dhA MPEG, fp=ksa dks xq.koRrk
iznku djrk gSA MPEG ekud lqukbZ ,oa fn[kkbZ nsus okyh Qkbyksa dks tksM+us ds dke vkrk
gSA fp=ksa dks vkSj Hkh 'kfDr'kkyh rjhds ls dksM code djrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 265

fp= 3 ohfM;ks Iys;j


5- ,fues'ku & blesa oLrqvksa ,oa fyf[kr :i ls n'kkZ;s tkus okys MkVk dks d`f=e :i ls
pyrs gq, fn[kk;k tkrk gSA bls ,d fo'ks"k lkWVos;j ls cuk;k tkrk gSA tks blesa ;g fo'ks"k
izHkko cukrk gSA ,fues'ku vk[kksa dk /;ku viuh rjQ vkdf"kZr djrk gSA ,fues'ku cM+s
etsnkj gksrs gSa ij bUgsa cukus ds fy, dykRed izfrHkk pkfg,A blesa eksjfQax vkSj V~ohfdax
Hkh 'kkfey gksrs gSaA
6- gkbij VSDLV Hyper Text& ;g fcuk e esa pyus okys fyf[kr Hkkx dks n'kkZrk gSA
bls bl izdkj laxfBr fd;k tkrk gS fd dksbZ Hkh vklkuh ls ,d fo"k; ls nwljs fo"k; ij
vk tk ldrk gSA gkbij VSDLV nks fo"k;ksa dks bl izdkj tksMr+ k gS fd dksbZ Hkh vklkuh ls
,d fo"k; Anchor Node ls nwljs xaRo; fo"k; Destination Node ij igqp ldrk gSA
xaRo; nwljs fo"k; dk irk gkbijfyad ds lkFk tksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA
;g cM+s 'kCndks"kksa dks NksVs vkSj lqfo/kktud :i esa cny nsrk gSA ;g fo"k; rd
tYnh igqpus esa enn djrk gSA gkbij fyad dks lkekU;r% uhys jax ls crk;k tkrk gS vkSj
blds uhps ,d js[kk underline cuk nh tkrh gSA
ekml ls dEI;wVj Lhu ij dlZj cursor dks tc gkbijfyad ds ij yk;k tkrk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 266

gS rks og NksVs gkFk ds :i esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gSA gkbijfyad dks fDyd djus ij mlls
tqMk+ i`"B ist [kqy tkrk gSA gkbij VSDL~ V ys[kska dks gkbij VsDLV ekdZvi ysaXost HTML
;k LVs.MMZ tujykbTM ekdZvi ysaXost SGML es fy[kk tkrk gSA
HTML esa ,sadj VSx <A> dks gkbijfyad cukus ds fy, dke esa fy;k tkrk gSA
<A href = "Document HTML"> Go To Document </A>
mijksDr mnkgj.k esa "Go To Document" ,d gkbij fyad gSA bldk jax uhyk gksxk
vkSj tc dlZj cursor dks blds ij yk;k tk,xk rks og NksVs gkFk ds :i esa cny tk,xkA
tc ge bl ij fDyd djax
s s rks ge "Document HTML" ist ij igqp tk,xAs "Document
HTML" ml ist dk irk gS ftlls gkbijfyad tqM+k gqvk gSA

2-3

eYVhehfM;k ds mi;ksx

dEI;wVj dh vyx&vyx ek/;eksa dks ,d lkFk dke esa ysus dh {kerk ds dkj.k
bldk mi;ksx vkSj blds mi;ksxdrkZ c<+rs tk jgs gSaA eYVhehfM;k dk mi;ksx djds
mi;ksxdrkZ blds izHkko dks ns[k ldrs gSaA uhps dqN eYVhehfM;k ds mi;ksx foLr`r :i ls
crk, tk jgs gSaA
1- eYVhehfM;k izLrqfrdj.k %& tSlk fd ge tkurs gSa eYVhehfM;k dbZ rjg ls tkudkjh
ns ldrk gS] tSls& fyf[kr] fpf=r] lqukbZ vkSj fn[kkbZ nsus okyhA bl rjg ls eYVhehfM;k
fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks fo"k; oLrq le>kus esa enn djrk gSA blds ek/;e ls u;s fopkjksa dks Hkh vPNh
rjg izdV dj ldrs gSaA eYVhehfM;k O;fDr dk /;ku vkdf"kZr dj izLrqfrdj.k dks jkspd
cuk nsrk gSA eYVhehfM;k izLrqfrdj.k] ekbZkslkWV ikoj ikWbaV Microsoft Power Point
}kjk cukbZ tk ldrh gSA
2- ohfM;ks xse Video Games & cktkj esa dbZ rjg ds ohfM;ks xse miyC/k gSaA buds
eq[; vkd"kZ.k /ofu ,oa ,fues'ku izHkko gSaA bu ohfM;ks xse esa ?kVukvksa dh Js.kh f[kykM+h dh
f;k ij fuHkZj gksrh gSA blfy, bu ohfM;ks xse dks baVjsfDVo dgk tk ldrk gS D;ksafd
f[kykM+h dh f;k fn[kus okyh ?kVukvksa dks izHkkfor djrh gSA
3- fQYeksa esa fo'ks"k izHkko & dbZ fQYeksa esa dEI;wVj dh enn ls fo'ks"k izHkko mRiUu fd;s
tkrs gSaA mnkgj.k & ,d vaxszth fQYe] tqjkfld ikdZ esa Mkbuklksjksa dks fn[kk;k x;k gS
ftudk vfLrRo gh ugha gSA ,sls dke eYVhehfM;k dk mi;ksx djds fd;s tk ldrs gSaA blh
rjg dh dbZ fQYesa izfl) gqbZ gSa] tSls& VkbVsfud] lqijeSu] LikbMjeSu] guqeku vkfn] bu
esa Hkh eYVhehfM;k rduhd ls fo'ks"k izHkko iSnk fd;s x;s gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 267

4- ,sfuesVsM foKkiu Animated Advertisement & fch c<+kus ds fy, dEifu;k


vius mRikn vkSj lsokvksa dk foKkiu Vh-oh- vkfn ij djrh gSaA ;s dEifu;k fdlh dk;Ze
dks izk;ksftr djrh gSA cnys esa mUgsa foKkiu djus ds fy, dqN le; fn;k tkrk gSA dbZ
foKkiu vius mRiknuksa dh vPNkbZ;ksa dks le>kus ds fy, ,fues'ku dh lgk;rk ysrs gSaA
mnkgj.k & vxj vki lkcqu] eatu] ePNj vkSj dksdjksp ekjus dh nokbZ vkfn ds foKkiu
ns[ksasxsa rks ik,xsa dh buesa dbZ n`'; fQYek,a ugha tk ldrs gSaA bu n`';ksa dks ,fues'ku }kjk
cuk;k tkrk gSA
5- eYVhehfM;k dkWUsaflax & eYVhehfM;k dkWUsaflax dks ohfM;ks dkWUsfa lax Hkh dgrs gSa]
blds }kjk lqnwj {ks=ksa esa jg jgs yksx vkil esa bl rjg laidZ dj ldrs gSa] tSls os ,d gh
dejs esa vkeus&lkeus cSBs gksAa bl i)fr esa gj mi;ksxdrkZ ds ikl ,d dEI;wVj gksrk gS]
ftlesa ohfM;ks dSejk rFkk ekbd tqM+k gksrk gS bu lHkh mi;ksxdrkZvksa ds dEI;wVj ,d rst
xfr okys usVodZ ls vkil esa tqM+s gksrs gSaA usVodZ dk mi;ksx ,d mi;ksxdrkZ ds dEI;wVj
ls nwljs ds dEI;wVj ij ohfM;ks] lqu ldus okys rFkk vU; MkVk Vkl
a feV djus esa fd;k tkrk
gSA ,d O;fDr tks nwljs ls laidZ djuk pkgrk gS og vius dEI;wVj ds lkeus cksyrk gSA mlds
dEI;wVj ij yxk fn[kkbZ vkSj lqukbZ nsus okyk midj.k mi;ksxdrkZ }kjk iznku dh xbZ lwpuk
dks nwljs mi;ksxdrkZ ds dEI;wVj ij Hkstrk gSA dkaal
s ds Bhd lapkyu ds fy, ,d fo'ks"k
lkWVos;j iz;qDr gksrk gS tks vf/kd mi;ksxdrkZvksa ds ,d lkFk laidZ djus ij gksus okyh
ijs'kkfu;ksa dks nwj djrk gSA

2-4

/ofu (Sound)

/ofu ok;q esa daiu gSA ;g ok;q esa nckc ds ek/; eku ds lkis{k de T;knk nckc dh
Js.kh gSA fdlh Hkh oLrq esa daiu djk dj /ofu vklkuh ls mRiUu dh tk ldrh gSA/ofu dks
iqu% mRiUu djus ds fy, lkekU;r% Lihdj dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA Lihdj esa ,d
bysDVks&eSxusV ds lkeus ,d eSEcjsu j[kh gksrh gSA tc bysDVks&eSxusV ls fo|qr /kkjk rsth
ls izokfgr gksrh gS rks bysDVks&eSxusV o eSEcjsu ds e/; ok;q esa daiu mRiUu gksrs gS ftlls
/ofu mRiUu gksrh gSA
kk (Sound Quality)
2-4-1 /ofu dh xq.ko
kokk
fofHkUu bysDVksfud midj.kksa ls izkIr gksus okys vkfM;ks vkmViqV dh xq.kokk /ofu
dh xq.kokk dgykrh gSA okLrfod /ofu dks fjdkMZ djus rFkk mRiUu djus dh ifj'kq)rk dh
dksfV (degree) ls /ofu dh xq.kokk dks ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSAfMthVy fjdkfMZx
a (Digital

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 268

Recording) o fMthVy IyscSd (Digital Playback) esa /ofu dh xq.kokk] /ofu dh ijkl
(range)] lsEifyax nj (Sampling Rate) rFkk /ofu iquZmRiknu fudk; (reproduction
System) esa mi;ksx fd;s x;s fofHkUu ifjoZruksa (conversion) ij fuHkZj djrh gSA

dEI;wVj ij /ofu pykus ds fy, /ofu dks fMthVy :i esa ifjofrZr djuk vko';d
gS D;ksafd dEI;wVj fMthVy lwpukvksa dks gh igpkurk gSA bl dk;Z ds fy, dEI;wVj izksxzke
/ofu dh lsEifyax (sampling) djrk gSAbls lsEifyax ;k /ofu fMthVkbts'ku (Sound
Digitization) dgrs gaAS
lsEifyax nj (Sampling Rate) rFkk mlls lacf/kr /ofu dh xq.kokk fuEu gS&
44100 Hz

CD Quality

22000 Hz

Radio Quality

8000 Hz

Telephone Quality

pwfd ekuo dku 20000 Hz vko`fr rd dh /ofu lqu ldrk gS vr% larks"ktud
/ofu xq.kokk ds fy, vko';d gS fd /ofu dh lsEifyax dh nj de ls de 40000 Hz dh
gksuh pkfg,A /ofu dh lsEifyax ds fy, vusd ekud /ofu lsEifyax nj dk iz;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA tSl&
s

q 2-5
2 -5

32 KHz

fMthVy FM jsfM;ks ds fy,

44.1 KHz

izksQs'kuy vkfM;ks rFkk CD ds fy,

48 KHz

izksQs'kuy fMthVy eYVhVsd fjdkZsfMax ds fy,

vkfM;ks Qkby QkWjesV (Audio File Format)

fjdkZsM dh x;h /ofu dks dbZ QkWjesV esa LVksj fd;k tkrk gSA/ofu dks LVksj djus
ds fy, vko';d LFkku (Space) /ofu xq.kokk ds O;qRekuqikrh gksrh gS vFkkZr~ ;fn /ofu
Qkby dk vkdkj ftruk NksVk gksxk rks /ofu dh xq.kokk mruh [kjkc gksxhA
2-5-1 ,-vkb-,Q-,Q- (AIFF) : AIFF dk iwjk uke Audio Interchang File Format gSA
/ofu MkVk dks ilZuy dEI;wVj o vU; vkfM;ks ;qfDr ij LVksj djus ds fy, ekud vkfM;ks
Qkby QkjesV gSA bl QkjesV dks Apple Computer dEiuh us lu~ 1988 esa fodflr fd;k
FkkA AIFF vkfM;ks Qkby esa vkfM;ks MkVk vlaihfMr Iyl dksM ekMqy's ku dk iz;ksx gksrk
gSA
2-5-2 ,e-vkb-Mh-vkb- (MIDI) :MIDI dk iwjk uke Musical Instrument Digital Interface gSA MIDI m|ksx dk ,d ekud izkV
s ksdky gS tks bysDVksfud laxhr midj.kksa] dEI;wVj

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 269

o vU; vkfM;ks ;qfDr;ksa tSl&


s /ofu dkMZ] lsEiyj vkfn ds e/; laokn (Communication)
o flaksukbts'ku (Synchronization) dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSAMIDI izksVksdky dks lu~
1982 esa ifjHkkf"kr fd;k x;k FkkA
2-5-3 McY;q-,-oh- (WAV) :WAV dk iwjk uke Wave Audio Format gSA ilZuy dEI;wVj
ij vkfM;ks fcVLVhe (Bitstrean) dks LVkdj djus ds fy, ekbkslkWV rFkk IBM dk ekud
QkjesV gSA;g foaMks vkijsfVx flLVe ij jkW (Raw) rFkk laihfMr vkfM;ks dk eq[; vkfM;ks
Qkby QkjesV gSA WAV vkfM;ks Qkby QkjesV lkekU; fcVLVhe ,d jSf[kd Iyl dksM
ekMqy's ku (LPCM) dk izk:i gSA
2-5-4 ,e-ih-3 (MP3) : MPEG-1 ;k MPEG-2 Audio layer-II dks MP3 ds uke ls tkuk
tkrk gSA MP3 ywth MkVk (Lossy Data) ij vk/kkfjr isaVsVsM fMthVy vkfM;ks Qkby QkjesV
gSA ;g miHkksDrk ds vkfM;ks LVksjt
s (Audio Storage) ds fy, lkekU; vkfM;ks Qkby QkjesV
gSAbl QkjesV dks MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) }kjk fodflr fd;k x;k FkkA
2-5-5 ,-,l-,Q- (ASF) : bldk iwjk uke Advanced System Format gSA ;g ekbkslkWV
dk fMthVy vkfM;ks Qkby QkjesV gSA

egRoiw.kZ fcUnq
1.

eYVhehfM;k izkstDs V ls ,fuesku ln`'; izHkko tksM+rk gSA ,fuesku dks foks"k
lkWVos;j }kjk d`f=e :i ls ?kwers gq, fyf[kr lans'k ;k dkYifud okrkoj.k esa oLrq,
cukus okyk Hkh le>k tk ldrk gSA

2.

V~ohfdax ,fues'ku rduhd dkVwZu fQYesa cukus ds fy;s izfl) gSA

3.

eksjfQax ,fues'ku rduhd gesa nks fp=ksa dks xfr esa tksM+us nsrh gSA ftlds 'kq: djus
ij igyk fp= nwljs fp= esa ifjofrZr gks tkrk gS vkSj e/; esa fp=ksa dh J`a[kyk mUgsa ,slk
djus esa enn djrh gSA

4.

eYVhehfM;k dbZ rjg ds ek/;eksa dks feykdj curk gS tSl]s lqukbZ nsus okys] fn[kkbZ
nsus okys] ,fues'ku vkSj fyf[kr ek/;eA

5.

gkbij VSDLV nks fo"k;ksa dks bl izdkj tksM+rk gS fd dksbZ Hkh vklkuh ls ,d fo"k;
Anchor Node ls nwljs xaRo; fo"k; Destination Node ij igqp ldrk gSA

6.

fofHkUu bysDVksfud midj.kksa ls izkIr gksus okys vkfM;ks vkmViqV dh xq.kokk /ofu
dh xq.kokk dgykrh gSA okLrfod /ofu dks fjdkMZ djus rFkk mRiUu djus dh
ifj'kq)rk dh dksfV (degree) ls /ofu dh xq.kokk dks ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA

7.

dEI;wVj ij /ofu pykus ds fy, /ofu dks fMthVy :i esa ifjofrZr djuk vko';d
gS D;ksafd dEI;wVj fMthVy lwpukvksa dks gh igpkurk gSA bl dk;Z ds fy, dEI;wVj

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 270

izksxzke /ofu dh lsEifyax (sampling) djrk gSAbls lsEifyax ;k /ofu fMthVkbts'ku


(Sound Digitization) dgrs gSA
8.

9.

lsEifyax nj (Sampling Rate) rFkk mlls lacf/kr /ofu dh xq.kokk fuEu gS&
44100 Hz

CD Quality

22000 Hz

Radio Quality

8000 Hz

Telephone Quality

ekuo dku 20000 Hz vko`fr rd dh /ofu lqu ldrk gS vr% larks"ktud /ofu xq.kokk
ds fy, vko';d gS fd /ofu dh lsEifyax dh nj de ls de 40000 Hz dh gksuh
pkfg,A

10. fjdkZsM dh x;h /ofu dks dbZ QkWjesV esa LVksj fd;k tkrk gSA/ofu dks LVksj djus ds fy,

vko';d LFkku (Space) /ofu xq.kokk ds O;qRekuqikrh gksrh gS vFkkZr~ ;fn /ofu
Qkby dk vkdkj ftruk NksVk gksxk rks /ofu dh xq.kokk mruh [kjkc gksxhA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed iz' u &
1- ,fues'ku enn djrk gS fdlh oLrq dks
v lqukus esa

c fn[kkus esa

l fyf[kr :i esa n'kkZus esa

n eglwl djus esa

2- ,fues'ku fdl dkj.k laHko gS\


v jsflLVsUl

c dsisflVsUl

l ijflLVsUl

n bUMDVsUl

3- dkVwZu fQYesa lcls vPNk mnkgj.k gSa


v xzkfQd Vwy dk

c Vohfdax dk

l eksjfQax dk

n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA

4- eksjfQax fefJr djrh gS


v nks lquus okyh Qkbyksa dks

c nks fyf[kr Qkbyksa dks

l nks fLFkj Qkbyksa dks

n mijksDr lHkh

5- ,fues'ku ds fofHkUu izHkkoksa esa fuEu esa ls D;k ugha vkrk gS\
v iksaNuk

c Qhdk djuk

l lysDV djuk

n vR;f/kd cM+k djuk

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 271

6- eksQZ fd, gq, fp= fdl xfr ls curs gSa\


v 12 se izfr lSd.M

c 4 se izfr lSd.M

l 24 se izfr lSd.M

n 8 se izfr lSd.M

7- CD Quality /ofu dh xq.kokk dh lsEifyax nj gksrh gS\


v 44100 Hz

c 22000 Hz

l 8000 Hz

n 200 Hz

8- AIFF dk iwjk uke gSA


v Audio Interface File Format

c Audio Interchange File Format

l Audio Indian File Format

n Audio Interchange Format File

vfry?kq R rjkRed iz ' u


1- dkVwZu fQYesa cukus ds fy, dkSu&lh rduhd dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS\
2- ,p-Vh-,e-,y dk D;k eryc gS\
3- ohfM;ks Qkbysa fdl QkWeZVs esa lso dh tkrh gS\

y?kq R rjkRed iz ' u


1- eksjfQax dh dk;Zfof/k le>kb,A
2- eYVhehfM;k izkstsDV esa dke esa vkus okys ek/;e crkb;sA
3- nks izdkj dh V~ohfdax dkSulh gS\
3- /ofu dh xq.kokk dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft,A

fuca /kkRed iz' u


1- eYVhehfM;k ds D;k mi;ksx gSa\
2- V~ohfdax dh vo/kkj.kk le>kb,A
3-

vkWfM;ks Qkby QkWjesV ij fucU/k fyf[k,A

mkjekyk
1. c

2. l

3. c

4. l

5. l

6. n

7.v

8.c

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 272

3
fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j
(Image Editing Software)
3-1

fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j

cktkj esa dbZ fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j miyC/k gSaA vki buesa ls dkbZ Hkh
lkWVos;j viuh t:jrksa ds fglkc ls ys ldrs gSAa

fp= 1
cgqr lkjs fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;jksa esa ls ekbkslkWV isaV Microsoft
Paint] vMksc QksVks'kkWi Adobe Photoshop vkSj dksjy MkW Corel Draw] eq[; gSA xzkfQd
VwYl ds foLr`r fooj.k ds fy, QksVks'kkWi ,oa dksjy MkW ds VwYl crk,s x;s gSaA

3-2

isUV izksxzke Paint Program

isUV ,d fp=dyk dk izksxzke gS ftlesa .bmp miuke okys fcVeSi bitmap izdkj
ds fp= [kksys tk ldrs gSa] la'kksf/kr fd;s tk ldrs gS]a vkSj u;s fp= Hkh cuk;s tk ldrs gSaA
bl izksxzke dks Start=>Programs =>Accessories=> Paint }kjk [kksyk tk ldrk gSA
foUMkst ds vU; izksxzke dh rjg gh blesa Hkh lcls ij VkbVy ckj Title bar gS]

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 273

mlds uhps ehuw Menu bar ckj gS] vkSj mlds uhps fp=dyk djus ds fy;s [kqyk {ks= gSA bl
{ks= ds ckbZa vksj fp=dyk djus ds lk/kuksa dh ckj Tool box gS] vkSj uhps jaxksa dh ifV~Vdk
Colour bar gSA blds uhps LVsVlckj Status bar gSA ftlds ,d [kkus esa dlZj dh fLFkfr
dk izn'kZd gksrk gSA ;fn vkids Lhu ij buesa ls dksbZ ckj u fn[k jgh gks rks view ehuw
[kksy dj] u fn[k jgh ckj dk p;u djds mls fn[kk ldrs gSAa
bl izksxzke esa fdlh Hkh fp= dks cukus ls igys] ;fn vki pkgsa rks] mldk vkdkj fu/
kkZfjr dj ldrs gSaA blds fy;s Image ehuw [kksy dj mlesa ls Image Attributes dk p;u
dhft;sA vkidks Mk;ykWx ckDl fn[kkbZ nsxkA blesa vki fp= ds {ks= dk vkdkj bap Inches
esa] ;k lsUVhehVj Cm esa ;k Pixels vFkkZr~ Picture elements esa fu/kkZfjr dj ldrs gSAa
fp=dyk djus dk lkjk dk;Z ekml }kjk fd;k tkrk gS] ij blds lkFk bl izkx
s zke
esa fofHkUu izdkj ds QkWUV esa VSDLV Vkbi djus dh Hkh lqfo/kk gS ;g VSDLV dh&cksMZ ij Vkbi
djds fpf=r fd;k tkrk gSA VSDLV dks Vkbi djus ds ckn Hkh mlesa vusd izdkj dh Qsj&cny
dh tk ldrh gS] vkSj mldk LFkku Hkh cnyk tk ldrk gSA

fp= 2
bl izksxzke esa fp=dyk djus ds fy;s 16 VwYl Tools vFkkZr~ lk/ku miyC/k gSaA
fdlh Hkh Vwy dks dke esa ysus ds igys ekml }kjk ml ij fDyd djds mldk p;u djuk
gksrk gSA ,slk djus ij ml Vwy dk cVu uhps nc tkrk gS gkbykbV gks tkrk gS] vkSj ekml

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 274

ds dlZj dk fpUg rhj ds fpUg ls cny dj ml Vwy ds vuq:i gks tkrk gSA
VwYl ds uhps ,d fjDr cDlk gksrk gSA fdlh Hkh Vwy dk p;u djus ij blesa ml
Vwy ds mi;ksx ds fy;s vfrfjDr tkudkjh fn[kkbZ tkrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy;s] ;fn vkius
isfUly Vwy pquk gS rks js[kkvksa dh eksVkbZ bl cDls esa fn[kkbZ tk;sxh ftlesa ls vki okafNr
eksVkbZ ekml }kjk fDyd djds pqu ldrs gSAa
u;s fljs ls fp= cukuk izkjEHk djus ds fy;s mlds vkdkj ds fu/kkZj.k ds i'pkr~ ik'oZ
ds jax dk p;u djds File ehuw [kksy dj New ij fDyd dhft;sA izkjfEHkd vH;kl esa
cSdxzkm.M dk jax lQsn j[kuk gh Js"B gSA

3-3

QksVks'kkWi (PHOTOSHOP) %&

;g lkWVos;j vkids dEI;wVj dh [kkyh Lhu dks dykRed ,oe~ vlyh yxus okys
fp=ksa esa cny nsrs gSaA QksVks'kkWi] ,d jax laiknu djus okyk lkWVos;j gSA ;g eYVhehfM;k]
,fues'ku] fMftVy QksVksxzkQh vkSj fp=dkjh esa Hkh enn djrk gSA

fp= 3
tc ,d fp= LdSuj Scanner dh lgk;rk ls] fMftVy ;k ohfM;ks dsSejs }kjk ;k
lh-Mh- }kjk QksVks'kkWi dks fn;k tkrk gS rks QksVks'kkWi ml ij fp=dkjh] mldk jax Bhd djuk]
rst djuk] ygjs iSnk djuk ;k mls [kjkc djuk] vkfn dk;Z dj ldrk gSA mlds ckn fp=
dks baVjusV] LykbM] fjdkMZj] ';ke ,oa 'osr fizVa j] jaxhu fizaVj dks vkmViqV ds fy, Hkst fn;k

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 275

tkrk gSA fp= dks fQYe cukus] fizfVax izsl vkfn ds mi;ksx es fy;k tk ldrk gSA QksVks'kkWi
ds lHkh fp= NksVs vk;rksa ls feydj cus gksrs gSaA ftUgsa fiDly Pixel dgk tkrk gSA tc
vki fp=dkjh djrs gaS] dV] isLV ;k fp= esa cnyko djrs gSa rks vki mlds fiDly cny jgs
gksrs gSaA tc vki dEI;wVj dh Lhu ij fp=dkjh djrs gSa rks vki Lhu ds fiDlyksa esa jax
Hkjrs gSaA ftl rjg jax dsuol ij lw[kus ds ckn fn[krk gS oSls gh vkidks vius dEI;wVj dh
Lhu ij fn[krk gSA
tc vki fdlh vkd`fr dks ?kqekuk ;k NksVk cM+k djuk pkgs] Vwyckj esa ls Vwy ij
dsoy fDyd djsa vkSj ekml ls dk;Z 'kq: djsAa tc vki QksVks'kkWi esa cuk;s x;s fp=ksa dks fizaV
djrs gSa rks mldh xq.koRrk QksVks'kkWi Qkby ds ctk; fizVa j dh izn'kZu {kerk ij fuHkZj djrh
gSA
QksVks'kkWi ij fp= cukus ds fy, blds VwYl dh tkudkjh gksuk vko';d gSA QksVks'kkWi ds
eq[; Vwy fuEu izdkj ls gS%&
1- ekjDoh Vwy Marquee Tool bl Vwy ds }kjk vki fp= ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx dks
vk;rkdkj :i esa lySDV dj ldrs gSAa
2- ewo Vwy Move Tool ewo Vwy dh lgk;rk ls fp= ds lySDV fd;s Hkkx dks ewo fd;k
tk ldrk gSA
3- ySlks Vwy Lasso Tool bl Vwy ds }kjk fp= ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx dks fdlh Hkh vkdkj
esa lySDV fd;k tk ldrk gSA
4- eSftd oS.M Vwy Magic wand Tool ;g Vwy fp= esa ,d gh jax ds vklikl ds {ks=
dks lySDV djrk gSA
Move Tool

Rectangle Marquee Tool

Magic wand Tool

Lasso Tool

Slice Tool

Crop Tool
Air Brush Tool

Paint Brush Tool

Clone Stamp Tool

History Brush Tool

Eraser Tool

Gradient Tool
Dodge Tool

Blur Tool

Type Tool

Path Component Tool

Rectangle Tool

Pen Tool

Eye Dropper Tool

Notes Tool
Hand Tool

Zoom Tool

Fore Ground Color

Back Ground Color

fp= 4

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 276

5- ,;j cz'k Vwy Air Brush Tool bl Vwy ds }kjk Lizs dh rjg fp= esa jax Hkjk tkrk
gSA
6- isUV cz'k Vwy Paint BrushTool tSls vki cz'k ls MkWbx
a 'khV ij jax Hkjrs gS mlh izdkj
;g Vwy dEI;wVj ij fp=ksa esa jax Hkjus ds dke vkrk gSA
7- fgLVh cz'k Vwy History Brush Tool fp= vksiu djus ds ckn rFkk lso djus ds
igys] fp= esa tks cnyko fd;s x;s gS]a mUgsa ewy :i esa ykus ds fy, bl Vwy dk mi;ksx fd;k
tkrk gSA
8- bjstj Vwy Eraser Tool ftl izdkj dkxt ij iSafly ls cukbZ xbZ vkd`fr;ksa dks jcj
}kjk feVk;k tk ldrk gS] mlh izdkj dEI;wVj ij cuk;s x;s fp=ksa dks bjstj Vwy }kjk feVk;k
tk ldrk gSA
9-- MkWt Vwy Dodge Tool ;g Vwy fp= ds lySDV fd, x;s Hkkx dk jax gYdk djrk
gSA
10- Vkbi Vwy Type Tool ;g Vwy fp= esa VSDLV Text fy[kus ds fy, dke esa fy;k
tkrk gSA
11- jsDVSaxy Vwy Rectangle Tool bl Vwy }kjk vki fofHkUu vkdkj izdkj ds vk;r
cuk ldrs gSA
12- vkbMkWij Vwy Eye Dropper Tool fp= ds fdlh fo'ks"k Hkkx dk jax lySDV djus
ds fy, ;g Vwy mi;ksxh gSA ftl Hkkx dk jax lySDV djuk gS mlds ij ikWbaVj ys tkus
ls jax lySDV gks tkrk gSA
13- gS.M Vwy Hand Tool blds }kjk fp= dks Lhu ij ij&uhps ys tkdj ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA
14- twe Vwy Zoom Tool bl Vwy ds }kjk fp= dks Lhu ij cM+k&NksVk djds ns[kk tk ldrk
gSA
QksVks'kkWi ds fQYVjksa }kjk fp= esa fofHkUu izdkj ds fo'ks"k izHkko iSnk fd, tk ldrs
gSaA fQYVj ehuw ds egRoiw.kZ fQYVj bl izdkj gS%&
1- Cyj fQYVj (Blur Filter) & ;g fQYVj fp=ksa dks Cyj djrk gSA fp= dk dkWUVkLV
(Contrast) de djds] fp= ds rh[ks dksuksa dk rh[kkiu de fd;k tk ldrk gSA
2- ukWbt fQYVj (Noise Filter) & ;g fp= esa O;kIr nks"kksa dks vklikl ds fiDlyksa ds
lkFk feykdj] mudk izHkko de djrk gSA
3- js.Mj fQYVj (Render Filter) ;g fQYVj eq[;r% fp= esa izdk'k laca/kh izHkko nsus ds
dke esa fy, tkrs gSaA
4- fiDlysV fQYVj (Pixelate Filter) ;g fQYVj fp= dks VqdMksa esa ckV dj ,slk izHkko
iSnk djrk gS tSls fd fp= dbZ oxksZ ls fey dj cuk gksA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 277

fp= 5
5- ohfM;ks fQYVj (Video Filter) ;g fQYVj ohfM;ks ls izkIr fp=ksa ;k ohfM;ks dks Hksts
tk jgs fp=ksa ij dke esa fy, tkrs gSA
6- LVkbykbt fQYVj (Stylize Filter) ;g fp= esa fofHkUu izdkj ds izHkko Mkyus ds fy,
dke fy;k tkrk gS tSls& fp= dks fM;wt (Diffuse ) djuk] ,Eckst (Emboss) djuk]
Xyksbax ,tst (Glowing edges), QkbUM ,tst (Find edges), vkfnA
O;w ehuw (View Menu) O;w ehuw esa dbZ rjg ds vkWI'ku gksrs gSaA blesa lcls igys gS izwQ
lsVviA izwQ lsVvi esa vki vyx&vyx rjg ds dyj ekWMyksa dk pquko dj ldrs gSA O;w
ehuw ds vkWI'ku Zoom In }kjk vki fp= dks cM+k rFkk Zoom Out ls fp= dks NksVk dj ldrs
gSaA blesa ls Fit on Screen vkWI'ku pqudj vki fp= dks Lhu ds cjkcj dj ldrs gSA vxj
fp= dks fizUV djkuk gS rks vki Print Size vkWI'ku ls bldk vkdkj fu/kkZfjr dj ldrs gSA
blesa Show Rulers vkWI'ku Hkh gksrk gS ftlds }kjk vki fp= dks Ldsy ij uki ldrs gSA
fo.Mks ehuw (Window Menu) & blesa fp= dks fdl rjg n'kkZuk gS ;g crk;k tkrk gS]
blesa fp= dks dkLdsM (Cascade) ;k Vkby (Tile) ds :i esa n'kkZ;k tk ldrk gSA blesa VwYl
dks gVkus ds fy, Hide Tools vkWI'ku gksrk gSA dyj vkSj LVkby crkus ds fy, Show Color
rFkk Show Styles vkWI'ku fn, x, gSA blesa fp= ij igys dh xbZ f;k dks Show History
rFkk Show Actions }kjk crk;k tkrk gSA blesa fn, x, Hide Status bar vkWI'ku ls vki
LVsVl ckj dks Hkh Nqik ldrs gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 278

View Menu

Window Menu

fp= 6
best ehuw (Image Menu) QksVks'kkWi esa fn, x, best ehuw esa lcls igyk gS eksM(Mode)
vkWI'kuA bl vkWI'ku }kjk fu/kkZfjr fd;k tkrk gS fd fp= esa dyj fdl rjg n'kkZ, tk,saxsA
blesa vxyk vkWI'ku gksrk gS ,MtLV (Adjust), bl vkWI'ku ds }kjk vki dyj cSyl
as rFkk dbZ
rjg ls dyj de T;knk dj ldrs gSA blds fy, blesa Brightness/Contrast, Hue/
Saturation vkfn vkWI'ku fn, x, gSaA best ehuw esa Adjust ds ckn Duplicate vkWI'ku gksrk
gS] ftlds }kjk vki fp= dh izfrfyfi (Copy) rS;kj dj ldrs gSaA blds ckn Image Size
}kjk fp= dk vkdkj r; dj ldrs gSaA Rotate Canvas dh enn ls vki fp= dks 900] 1800
ij ?kqek ldrs gaAS
3.3.1 Qkbyksa dks [kksyuk (Opening files)
vksiu Mk;ykWx ckWDl (Opend Dilog Box) Qkbyksa dk irk yxkus rFkk iwokZyksdu
ds fy, fu;a=.k iznku djrk gSA
Qkby [kksyus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. File > Open dks pqusa
2- ftl Qkby dks vki [kksyuk pkgrs gS mlds uke dk p;u djsaA
3- Open ij fDyd djasA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 279

gky gh (recently) esa [kksyh x;h Qkby dks [kksyus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. File > Open Recent dks pqus rFkk lc esU;q (Sub Menu) ls Qkby dk p;u djsaA
3.3.2 Qkbyksa dks lajf{kr djuk (Saving files)
Qkbyks dks orZeku uke] LFkku rFkk QkWjesV vFkok vyx uke] LFkku rFkk QkWjesV ls
Qkby dks lajf{kr fd;k tk ldrk gSAMsLdVki ij orZeku Qkby dks [kqyk j[krs gq, Qkby
dks lajf{kr (Save) fd;k tk ldrk gSA
Qkby esa ifjorZuks dks lajf{kr djus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. File > Save dks pqus
Qkby dks vyx uke o LFkku ij lajf{kr djus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. File > Save As dks pqus
2. ftl Qkby dks vki lajf{kr djuk pkgrs gaS mlds uke rFkk LFkku dk p;u djsaA
3- Save ij fDyd djsaA
Qkby dks vyx QkWjesV ls lajf{kr djus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. File > Save As dks pquas
2. QkWjesV ikWi esU;q ls ,d QkWjesV dk p;u djasA
3- ftl Qkby dks vki lajf{kr djuk pkgrs gS mlds uke rFkk LFkku dk p;u djsaA
4- Save ij fDyd djsaA
3.3.2 u;h Nfo cukuk (Creating New Image)
New dek.M dh enn ls fjDr Nfo (Blank Image) cuk;h tk ldrh gSaA
u;h Nfo cukus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djas&
& ;fn vki fDyicksMZ (Clipboard) dh lkexzh ds vk/kkj ij fjtksY;q'ku (Resolution) o foek (Dimension) pquuk pkgrs gSS rks &
File > New dks pqus
uksV & ;fn fDyicksMZ (Clipboard) esa Nfo MkVk mifLFkr ugh gS rks Nfo dk
fjtksY;q'ku (Resolution) o foek (Dimension) fiNyh Nfo ij vk/kkfjr gksxkA
& ;fn vki igys ls pquh x;h ;k fMQkYV lSfVax ds vk/kkj ij fjtksY;q'ku
(Resolution) o foek (Dimension) pquuk pkgrs gSS rks ALT dqath dks nck dj
File > New dks pqus
2. ;fn vko';d gks rks Nfo dk uke Vkbi djs rFkk apkbZ o pkSMkbZ lsV djsaA
3- fjtksY;q'ku (Resolution) o eksM (Mode) lsV djsaA

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4- Nfo cSdxzkm.M ys;j (Backgrpound Layer) dh lkexzh ds fy, fuEukafdr


fodYiks esa ls ,d dk p;u djasA
White
& ;fn vki cSdxzkm.M ys;j dk jax lQsn pquuk pkgrs gSaA
Background Color & ;fn vki cSdxzkm.M ys;j dk jax orZeku cSdxzkm.M jax
pquuk pkgrs gSaA
Transparent
& ;fn vki ikjn'khZ cSdxzkm.M ys;j pquuk pkgrs gaSA
5- OK cVu fDyd djasA
3.3.3 Nfo dks ksi djuk (Cropping Image)
fdlh Nfo ds fdlh fgLls ij /;ku dsfUnzr djus ;k mldh lajpuk dks etcqr djus
ds fy, Nfo ds fo'ks"k fgLls dk p;u djus rFkk gVkus dh izf;k ksfiax dgykrh gSA ,d
Nfo ds fdlh fgLls dks Nqik dj (Hiding) ;k gVk dj (Deleting) ksi fd;k tk ldrk gSA
Nfo dks ksi djus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. Nfo ds fdlh fgLls dks ksi djus ds fy, Vqy ckWDl (Toolbox) ds ksi Vwy
( ) dk mi;ksx dj Nfo ds ml fgLls ds vk;rkdkj {ks= dks pquAs
2- ;fn vki Nfo ds ksi fd;s x;s vk;rkdkj {ks= ds ckgj ds fgLls dks Nqikuk
(Hide) pkgrs gS rks Hide fodYi dk p;u dj (
) cVu dks nck;sAa bl
fLFkfr esa Nfo dk ksi dj gVk;k x;k fgLlk Nfo esa ekStqn gksrk gS ftls Move
Tool dk mi;ksx dj iqu% fn[kk;k tk ldrk gSA
3- ;fn vki Nfo ds ksi fd;s x;s vk;rkdkj {ks= ds ckgj ds fgLls dks gVkuk
(delete) pkgrs gS rks Delete fodYi dk p;u dj (
) cVu dks nck;asA bl
fLFkfr esa Nfo dk ksi dj gVk;k x;k fgLlk Nfo ls gV tkrk gSA
3.3.4 Nfo ds eqnz.k fjtksY;q'ku ,oa foek esa cnyko djuk (Changing the print
Resolution and Dimesions of an Image)

tc ge fizaV ehfM;k ds fy, Nfo cukuk pkgrs gaS rks ge Nfo ds vkdkj dk p;u
eqfnzr fjtksY;q'ku ,oa foek ds vk/kkj ij r; djrs gSaA
Nfo ds eqnz.k fjtksY;q'ku ,oa foek esa cnyko djus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
s kA
1. Image > Image Size dks pquus ij Image size dialog Box [kqyx
2. Image size dialog Box esa Pixel Dimension esa Width o Height dk eku nsdj ;k
Document size esa Width o Height dk eku nsdj ifjofrZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
3- Resolution esa eku nsdj Print Resolution dks ifjofrZr fd;k tk ldrk gSA
4- OK ij fDyd djsaA

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3.3.5 dSuokl dk vkdkj cnyuk (Changing the size of Canvas)


Canvas Size dek.M dh enn ls vki ekStnq k Nfo ds vklikl dke djus dh txg
gVk ;k tksM+ ldrs gSA dSuokl lkbt dks de djds vki fdlh Nfo dks ksi dj ldrs gaSA
tksM+k x;k dSuokl cSdxzkm.M ds jax rFkk ikjnf'kZrk ds lkFk iznf'kZr gksrk gSA
canvas size dek.M dks mi;ksx esa ysus ds funsZ'k %&
1. Image > Canvas Size dks pquas A
2. eki dh foek dk p;u djsaA
3- Width rFkk Height ckDl esa Dimension dk eku nsAa
4- u;s dSuokl esa ekStqnk Nfo dh fLFkfr bafxr djus ds fy, Anchor ds bfPNr oxZ
(Square) ij fDyd djsaA
5- OK ij fDyd djsaA
3.3.6 Nfo dks lajf{kr djuk (Saving Images)
1.iforZuksa dks orZeku Qkby esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, File > Save dks pqusaA
2. Nfo dks fdlh u;h Qkby esa lajf{kr djus ds fy, File > Save As dks pquAsa
3- osc ds fy, vuqdfq yr (optimized) Nfo cukus ds fy, File > Save Web dks pquaAs
3.3.7 pSuy iSysV dk mi;ksx djuk (Using Channel Palette)
pSuy iSysV vkidks pSuy ds laiknu] izca /ku rFkk laiknu ds izHkko dks eksfuVj djus
dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA pSuy iSysV Nfo esa mifLFkr lHkh pSuyks dh lwph nsrk gSA
3.3.8 pSuy dks ns[kuk (Viewing Channel)
vki pSuy iSyVs dk mi;ksx dj O;fxr pSuykas ds fdlh Hkh la;kstu dks ns[k ldrs
gSA pSuykas dks ns[kus ds funsZ'k %&
1. Windows > Show Channel dks pqus ;k pSuy iSyVs Vsc ij fDyd djsaA
2. vfrfj pSuyksa dks ns[kus ds fy, Lky ckj dk mi;ksx djs ;k iSysV ds vkdkj dks
ifjofrZr djasA
tc fdlh Nfo esa pSuy fn[kkbZ nsrk gS rks iSyVs ds cka;h vksj vk[k dk vkbdu ( )
fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA pSuy dks ns[kus ;k Nqikus ds fy, vk[k ds LrEHk ij fDyd djsaA
3.3.9 pSuykas dk p;u o laiknu (Selecting and Editing Channels)
pSuy iSyVs esa vki ,d ;k ,d ls vf/kd pSuyks dk p;u dj ldrs gaAS lHkh p;fur
;k lf; pSuyksa ds uke gkbykbVsM (Highlighted) gksrs gSAlaiknu esa fd;k x;k ifjorZu

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lf; pSuyks esa ykxq gksrk gSA


pSuyks dk p;u
pSuy ds uke (Channel Name) ij fDyd djsA ,d ls vf/kd pSuyks dk p;u djus
a h dks nck dj fDyd djsA
ds fy, Shift dqt
pSuyks dk laiknu
Nfo esa jax Hkjus ds fy, Painting ;k editing Vwy dk mi;ksx djsA pSuy tksMus
ds fy, lQsn jax ls jax Hkjs rFkk pSuy dks gVkus ds fy, dkys jax ls jax Hkjs A de vLi"Vrk
(opacity) ds pSuy dks tksMus ds fy, de vLi"Vrk ;k ,d jax ls jax Hkjs A
3.3.10 pSuykas dk izca/ku (Managing Channels)
pSuyksa dks Nfo ds vanj ;k fofHkUu Nfo;ksa ds e/; iquZO;ofLFkr o MqIyhdsV fd;k tk
ldrk gSA pSuyks dks vyx&vyx Nfo;ksa esa foHkkftr fd;k tk ldrk gSA pSuyks dks fofHkUu
Nfo;ksa ls fudky dj ,d u;h Nfo esa foy; fd;k tk ldrk gSA
3.3.11 pSuykas ds e esa ifjorZu djuk (Changing the order of Channels)
fMQkYV pSuy] pSuy iSysV ds 'kh"kZ ij iznf'kZr gksrk gSA ftlds ckn e'k% Spot
Channel rFkk Alpha Channel gksrs gSA vki fMQkYV pSuy ds e dks ifjofrZr ugha dj
ldrs gaSA ijarq Spot Channel rFkk Alpha Channel dks vki vius dk;Z ds vuqlkj ifjofrZr
dj ldrs gaSA Spot Channel rFkk Alpha Channel ds e dks ifjofrZr djus ds fy, pSuy
dks Up ;k Down drag djasA
3.3.12pS
pSuy dks MqIyhdsV djuk (DuplicatingChannels)
pSuy dks MqIyhdsV djus ds fy, fuZns'k %&
1. ftl pSuy dks vki MqIyhdsV djuk pkgrs gS mldks pSuy iSyVs ls pquaAs
2. pSuy iSysV ls Duplicate Channel dk p;u djaAs
3- Duplicate Channel dk uke Vkbi djsaA
4- Document esa fuEu esa ls ,d dk p;u djsaA
& Destination dk p;u djasA
& pSuy dks u;g Nfo esa dkih djus ds fy, New dk p;u djsaA
5- MqIyhdsV pSuy esa p;fur rFkk ekLdM {ks= dks fjoZl (Reverse) djus ds fy,
Invert dk p;u djasA
6- OK ij fDyd djasA

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3.3.13 pSuykas vyx&vyx Nfo;ksa esa foHkkftr (Splitting Channels into seperate
Images)

vki ,d ySV best ds pSuyksa dks vyx vyx Nfo;ksa esa foHkkftr dj ldrs gSaA
blls ewy Qkby can gks tkrh gS rFkk o;fDrxr pSuy fofHkUu xzs Ldsy Nfo;ksa dh foaMks esa
iznfkZr gks tkrh gSA pSuyksa dks vyx vyx Nfo;ksa esa foHkkftr djus ds fy;s pSuy iSyVs ehuw
ls split channel dk p;u djsaA
3.3.14 pSuykas dks feykuk

(Merging Channels )

dbZ xzs Ldsy Nfo;ksa dks ,d Nfo esa feyk;k@tksMk tk ldrk gSA ftu Nfo;ksa dks
vki feykuk pkgrs gSa muds xzsLdsyeksM ]fiDly eksM leku gksus pkfg;s rFkk;s lHkh vksiu
gksus pkfg;sA
pSuyksa dks tksMus ds fy, funsZ'k %&
1- ftu pSuyks dks vki tksMuk@feykuk pkgrs gSa mu ls lacf/kr xzs Ldsy best dks
vksiu dhft;s rFkk bues ls ,d dks lfdz; dhft;sA
2- pSsuy iSysV ehuw ls merge channel dk p;u djsaA
3- Colour mode dk p;u djsaA
4- ;fn vko;d gks rks pSuy VsDlV ckDl esa ,d uEcj ntZ djsaA
5- Ok ij fDyd djsaA
6- izR;sd pSuy ds fy;s ;g lqfufpr dhft;s fd ftl Nfo dks vki pkgrs gSa og
Open gSA
7- ;fn vki ,d eYVh pSuy Nfo esa feykuk pkgrs gS rks Next ij fDyd djsa rFkk
ckdh pSuyksa ds fy;s fcUnq 6 dh iquZjko`fRr djsaA
8- tc pSuyksa ds p;u dk dk;Z iwjk gks tk;s rks Ok ij fDyd djsaA
3.3.15 pSuykas dks gVkuk (Deleting Channels )
,d Nfo dks lqjf{kr j[kus ls iwoZ vki Spot ;k Alpha channel dks gVk ldrs gSa
s Lisl dks c<+k nsrk
D;ksafd tfVy Alpha Channel ,d Nfo ds fy;s ,d fMLd ij LVksjt
gSA
pSuyksa dks gVkus ds fy, funsZ'k %&
1- pSuy iSVy esa ls pSuy dk p;u djsaA
2- Trash button( ) ij Alt fDyd djsa ;k pSuy ds uke dks Trash button ij
Msx djsa ;k pSuy iSyVs ehuw esa ls Delete channel dk mi;ksx djsaA

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3.3.16 ekLd (Mask )


tc vki fdlh Nfo esa jax ifjofrZr djrs gS] fQYVj ;k vU; izHkko Mkyrs gSa rks
ekLd Nfo ds bl fgLls dks vyx ,ao lajf{kr djrk gSA tc vki fdlh Nfo ds fdlh
fgLls dks pqurs gSa rks Nfo dk p;fur fgLlk laiknu ls ekLdM ;k lajf{kr gksrk gSA
tc vki pSuy iSysV esa ,d ekLd pSuy dk p;u djrs gSa rks Qksjxzkm.M jax
xzsLdsy eku ds :i esa iznfkZr gksrk gSA
3.3.17 Rofjr ekLd esa vLFkk;h ekLd cukuk (Creating Temporary Masks in
Quick Mask Mode )

Rofjr ekLd dksM (Quick Mask Mode) vkidks fcuk pSuy iSysV dk mi;ksx dj
fdlh p;u dks ,d ekLd ds :i esa laiknu djus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA
1- ftl Nfo dks vki ifjofrZr djuk pkgrs gSa mlds fdlh fgLls dks fdlh Hkh
Selection Tool dk mi;ksx dj p;u djrs gSaA
2- Vwy ckDl esa Quick Mask Button ( ) dks fDyd djsaA
3- ekLd ds laiknu ds fy;s Vwy ckDl ls Painting ;k Editing tool dk p;u djsa ;k
ehuw ckj ls fQYVj ;k Adjustment Command dk p;u djsAa fMQkyV ds :i esa
dkys jax ls jax djus ls p;u fldqM tkrk gS rFkk lQsn jax djus ls p;u dk
foLrkj gks tkrk gSA xzs jax ;k vU; jax ls jax djus ij v)ZikjnkhZ {ks= cu tkrk
gSA
4- Quick mask mode dks can djus ds fy;s Vwy ckDl Standard Mode Button
( ) fDyd djus ij ewy Nfo ij okil vk tkrk gSA vc vlajf{kr Quick Mask
{ks= ds pkjksa vksj p;u ckWMZj vk tkrk gSA
5- Nfo esa visf{kr ifjorZu dhft;sA
6- p;u (Selection) dks gVkus ds fy;s Select > Deselect ij fDyd djsaA
3.3.18 cz'kkas dk laiknu ,ao cukuk (Creating and Editing Brushes )
vki ,d u;k czk cuk ldrs gSa rFkk lkFk gh tks czqk mi;ksxh ugha gS mls fMyhV
(Delete) dj ldrs gSA vki fdlh Hkh Nfo ds fgLls dks dLVe czk ds :i esa mi;ksx esa
ys ldrs gSAa vki vLFkk;h czk Hkh cuk ldrs gSaA
cz'k dks cukuk %&
fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z dhft;s&
s rhj ( ) dks fDyd djsaA
& vkWIku ckj (Option bar) czqk lSEiy ds lkeus ls bUoZVM
ftlls ikWi vi iSyVs (Pop Up Palette) fn[kk;h nsxk tgk ls vki u;s czk dk
p;u dj ldrs gSaA

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& vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls czqk lSEiy (Brush Sample) dk p;u dhft;sA
ftlls ikWi vi iSyVs (Pop Up Palette) fn[kk;h nsxkA czk dks preset ds :i esa
lso djus ds fy;s New( ) ij fDyd dhft;sA
u;k czk vkWIku ckj esa p;fur gks tk;sxk rFkk ikWi vi iSysV (Pop Up Palette) ds
var esa tqM+ tk;sxkA
vLFkk;h cz'k dks cukuk %&
1- Option Bar esa Brush Sample ij fDyd djsaA
2- czqk vkWIku dks lSV djsaA
3- u;h Nfo esa Mk djsaA
cz'k dks gVkuk %&
fuEukfdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& vkIku ckj Option Bar ds ikWi vi iSysV (Pop Up Palette) esa ftl czqk dks
gVkuk pkgrs gSa ml ij Alta dWaqth nck dj fDyd djsaA
& Edit > Preset Manager dk p;u djsaA preset lwph ls czqk dk p;u djsa rFkk
Delete ij fDyd djsaA
,d dLVe cz'k dks cukuk %&
1- Ractangle Marquee ( ) dk mi;ksx dj Nfo ds ml fgLls dk p;u djsa ftls

23456-

vki czqk ds :i esa mi;ksx esa ysuk pkgrs gSaA


Edit ehuw ls Define Brush dk p;u djsaA
czqk dk uke ns dj Ok ij fDyd djsaA
u;s czqk ds Mk;ykWx Box esa Spacing dks ifjHkkf"kr djsaA
czqk dh fu;qfDr (Placement) dks vf/kd lVhd cukus ds fy;s Anti alias dk p;u
djsAa
Ok ij fDyd djsaA

3.3.19 cz'kks ds fodYiks dks lsV djuk (Setting Brush Option )


1- fuEukfdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& orZeku cz'k dks Edit djus ds fy, vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls cz'k lsEiy (Brush
Sample) ij fDyd djsaA
& vyx cz'k dks Edit djus ds fy, ikWi vi iSyV
s (Pop Up Palette) ls eupkgs cz'k
dk p;u djs rFkk vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls cz'k lsEiy (Brush Sample) ij
fDyd djsaA
2- Diameter, Hardness, Spacing, Angle rFkk Roundness ds fy, fodYi ifjHkkf"kr
djsaA
3- u;k Preset Brush cukus ds fy, New Preset ( ) ij fDyd djsaA

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3.3.20 vLi"Vrk] nckc ;k ,Dlikstj dks fu/kkZfjr djuk (Specifing Opacity,


Pressure or Exposure)

vLi"Vrk] nckc ;k ,Dlikstj dks fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy, cgqr ls Vwy miyC/k gksrs gS&
a
& Gradient fill, Pencil, Paintbrush, Clone Stamp, Pattern Stamp, History Brush,
and Art History Brush Vwy vLi"Vrk (Opacity) dk mi;ksx djrs gSA

& Airbrush, Smudge, Blur, Sharpen, rFkk Sponge Vwy ds }kjk nokc (Pressure)
f;k dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
& Dodge rFkk Burn Vwy ,Dlikstj (Exposure) dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA
vLi"Vrk] nckc ;k ,Dlikstj dks ifjHkkf"kr djuk
vLi"Vrk] nckc ;k ,Dlikstj dks fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy, vkIku ckj (Option Bar)
esa eku Hkjs ;k LykbMj ckj (Slider Bar) dks f[kldk dj eku dks fu/kkZfjr djasA
3.3.21 isaV QsM&vkmV jsV dks ifjHkkf"kr

djuk (Specifing Paint-Fade Out

Rate)

isaV QsM&vkmV jsV dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds funsZ'k %&


1- vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls Brush Dynamics Button( ) ij fDyd djsaA
fuEukfdr fodYiksa esa ls izR;sd ds fy, fade dk p;u &
a
& cz'k LVksd dh yEckbZ ij cz'k LVksd ds vkdkj de djukA
& cz'k LVksd dh yEckbZ ij nckc o ikjnf'kZrk dks de djukA
& cz'k LVksd dh yEckbZ ij jax dh rhozrk dks Qhdk djukA

2- fofHkUu pj.kksa (Steps) dk eku nasA


3.3.22 fiDly dk p;u djuk (Making Pixel Selection)
vki Marquee Tool ;k Lasso Tool ;k yf{kr jax {ks=ksa dks Magic Wand Tool dk
mi;ksx dj fdlh Nfo ds fiDlyksa dk p;u dj ldrs gaSA
3.3.23 lsyDV ehuw dk mi;ksx djuk (Using Select Menu)
,d dSuokl dh lhekvksa esa mifLFkr lHkh fiDlyksa dk p;u djuk&
1- Layer Palette ls ys;j dk p;u djsaA
2- Select > All dk p;u djsaA
p;u dks vp;fur djuk
fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& Select > Deselect dk p;u djsaA
& ;fn vki Rectangle Marquee ;Eliptical Marquee ;k Lasso Tool dk mi;ksx dj
jgsa rks Nfo ds p;fur ds fgLls ds ckgj dgha Hkh fDyd djsaA

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3.3.24 Marquee Vwy dk mi;ksx djuk (Using Marquee Tool)


Marquee tool dk mi;ksx djus ds funsZk&
1- ,d Marquee Vwy dk p;u djsa&
& vk;rkdkj {ks= dk p;u djus ds fy, Rectangle Marquee (

) dk p;u djsaA
& nh?kZo`Rrkdkj@o`Rrkdkj {ks= dk p;u djus ds fy;s Elliptical Marquee ( ) dk

p;u djsaA
& ,d fiDly dh iafDr ;k LrEHk dk p;u djus ds fy;s iafDr ( ) ;k LrEHk ( )
dk p;u djsaA
2- vkIku ckj (Option Bar) esa ls add new selection( ) ,add to selection ( )
;subtraction from a selection ( ) ;k selection area interselected other
selections ( ) dk p;u djsaA
3- vkIku ckj (Option Bar) esa Feathering lSfVax dks ifjHkkf"kr dhft;sA
4- Rectangle ;k Eliptical Marquee ds fy;s vkIku ckj (Option Bar) esa ls style
ds fodYiksa Constraied Aspect Ratio ;k Fixed Size esa ls ,d dk p;u djsaA
5- vius p;u dks xkbMl (Guides), fxzM (Grid), LykbM ;k MkD;weaVs ckm.M
(Document Bound) ds lkis{k ,ykbu djus ds fy;s View >Snap dk p;u djsa
rFkk lcehuw ls funsZk dk p;u djsaA
3.3.25 yklw ]ikWyhxku o eSxusfVd yklw Vwy dk mi;ksx djuk (Using Lasso,
Polygonal Lasso and Magnetic Lasso Tool)
Lasso tool dk mi;ksx djus ds fuZnsk %&
1- Lasso Tool ( ) dk p;u djsa rFkk fodYiksa dk p;u djsaA

2- fQz gSaM ckWMZj [khspus ds fy;s Mx


s djasA
3- Straight Edge ckWMj [khspus ds fy;ss Alta dqth nck dj [kaM ds izjEHk ls var rd
Msx djasA
4- gky gh esa rS;kj fd;s x;s [kaMks dks gVkus ds fy;s Delete Key dks nck;saA
5- Selection ckWMj dks can djus ds fy;s Alta dqth dks NksM nhft;sA
ikWyhxku yklq Vwy (Polygonal Lasso Tool) %&
1- Polygonal Lasso Tool ( ), dk p;u djsa rFkk fodYiksa dk p;u djsaA
2- izkjEHk fcUnq fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy;s Nfo ij fDyd djsaA
3- fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& lh/kk [k.M [khapus ds fy;s ikWbaVj dks ml fcUnq rd ys tk;sa tgk rd vki lh/k
[k.M Mk djuk pkgrs gSa A
& hgS.M (Free Hand) [k.M [khpus ds fy;s Alta dqth dks nck dj Msx djs rFkk
tc dk;Z iwjk gks tk;s rks Alta dWaqth dks NksM nsaA
& gky gh [khps x;s lh/ks [kaMks dks gVkus ds fy;s Delete dt
q h dks nck;saA
4- Selection Border dks can dj nasA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 288

eSftd yklq Vwy (Magic Lasso Tool) %&


1- Magnetic Lasso Tool ( )dk p;u djsa rFkk fodYiksa dk p;u djsaA
2- izFke ca/ku fcUnq fu/kkZfjr djus ds fy;s Nfo ij fDyd djsaA
3- hgS.M (Free Hand) [k.M [khspus ds fy; ftl Nfo dks vki Vsl djuk pkgrs
gSa A mlds fdukjs ij ikWbVa j dks Msx djsaA
4- Selection Border dks can djus fy;s fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& Free Hand Magnetic [k.M ds ckWMj dks can djus ds fy;s Mcy fDyd djs ;k
Enter dqth nck;saA
& lh/ks [k.M ds ckWMj dks can djus ds fy;s Alta dqth dks nck dj Mcy fDyd djs A
& ckWMj dks can djus ds fy;s izkjfHkd fcUnq ij igqp dj fDyd djsaA
3.3.26 eSxusfVd oS.M Vwy dk mi;ksx djuk (Using Magnetic Wand Tool)
eSxusfVd oS.M Vwy vkidks Nfo dh vkmVykbu (outline) dks fcuk Vsl fd;s ] Nfo
ds jaxhu fgLls ds p;u dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk gSA
eSxusfVd oS.M Vwy ds mi;ksx djus ds fuZns'k %&
1- eSxusfVd oS.M Vwy (Magnetic Wand Tool) ( ) dk p;u djsa A
2- vkIku ckj (Option Bar) esa Add a NewSelection ( ), Add to an Existing
Selection (

), Subtract from a Selection (

by Other Selections (

), or Select an Area Intersected

) ls ,d dk p;u djasA

3- Vksyjsl
a (Tolerance) dks ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, 0 ls 255 rd fiDly dk dksbZ
eku izfo"B djsaA
4- LewFk ,st (Smooth Edge) ifjHkkf"kr djus ds fy, Antialiased dk p;u djasA
5- leku jax dk mi;ksx dj ikl ds {ks= dk pquko djus ds fy, Contiguous dk
p;u djasA
6- lHkh iznf'kZr ys;jksa ls MkVk dk mi;ksx dj jax dk p;u djus ds fy, Layers
dk p;u djsaA
7- ftl Nfo esa ls vki jax dk p;u djuk pkgrs gS ml ij fDyd djasA
3.3.27 fiDly p;u dk lek;kstu (Adjusting Pixel Selection)
vki p;u Vwy (Selection Tool) dk mi;ksx dj fiDly p;u dk lek;kstu o
ifj"d`r dj ldrs gSAa blds vfrfjDr vki T;kferh; ifjorZuksa dks ykxw djus ds fy;s p;u
lhek ds vkdkj dks ifjofrZr dj ldrs gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 289

3.3.28 p;u dks ewo , gkbM ;k bUoZV djuk (Moving, Hiding or Inverting
Selection)

lysDku ckWMZj (Selection Border) dks ewo (Move) djuk %&


1- fdlh Hkh p;u Vwy dk mi;ksx dj vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls New Selection
( ) dk p;u djsa rFkk ikabVj dks p;u ckWMZj (Selection Border) ds vanj j[ksaA
ikbaVj ifjofrZr ( ) gks tk;sxk tks ;g bafxr djsxk fd vki p;u dks f[kldk
ldrs gSaA
2- ckWMj dks Nfo ds nwljs fgLls esa Msx (Drag) djasA
p;u ds fdukjkas dks ns[kuk o Nqikuk %&
fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dke djsa %&
& View >Show Extra dk p;u djsaA
& View >Show >Selection Edge dk p;u djsAa
vki ekStnw fiDly p;u esa tksMus ;k ?kVkus ds fy;s p;u Vwy (Selection Tool) dk
mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA
,d Nfo ds vp;fur fgLls dk p;u djuk %&
Select > Inverse dk p;u djsaA
3.3.29 p;u dk lek;kstu djuk (Adjusting Selection)
vki ekStnw fiDly p;u esa tksM+us ;k ?kVkus ds fy;s p;u Vwy (Selection Tool)
dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA
p;fur {ks= esa tksMu+ s ;k vfrfjDr {ks= dk p;u djus ds fy, %&
1- Nfo esa ls fdlh {ks= dk p;u djasA
2- p;u Vwy dk mi;ksx dj fuEukfdar es ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls Add to Selection ( ) fodYi dk p;u djsa rFkk
Msx djsaA
& Shifta dqth dks nck dj Msx (Drag) djsaA
p;fur {ks= esa ?kVkus ds fy, %&
1- Nfo esa ls fdlh {ks= dk p;u djsaA
2- p;u Vwy dk mi;ksx dj fuEukfdar es ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls Subtract from Selection ( ) fodYi dk p;u djsa
rFkk Msx djasA
& Alt dqth dks nck dj Msx (Drag) djsaA
vU; p;uksa ls baVjlsDVsM (Intersected) {ks= dk p;u djus ds fy, %&
1- Nfo esa ls fdlh {ks= dk p;u djsaA
2- p;u Vwy dk mi;ksx dj fuEukfdar es ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls Restrict Selection option ( ) fodYi dk p;u djsa
rFkk Msx djasA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 290

& Alt+Shift dWaqth dks nck dj Msx (Drag) djsA


3.3.30 p;u ds fdukjks dh e`nqdj.k djuk (Softening the Edge of Selection)
Anti-aliasing rFkk Feathering dk mi;ksx dj vki fdlh Hkh p;u ds fdukjksa dks e`nq (Soft)
dj ldrs gSaAvki Antialiasing o Feathering dk mi;ksx dj p;u dj dfBu (Hard)
fdukjksa dks e`nq (soft) dj ldrs gSaA
Anti-aliasing : ;g fdukjksa ds fiDly rFkk cSdxzkm.M fiDly (Background Pixel) ds
e/; ladez .k (Colour Ttrasition) ds }kjk p;u ds nkWarsnkj (Jagged) fdukjksa dk e`nqdj.k
(Softening) djrk gSA
Ykklw (Lasso), ikWyhxu yklw (Polygonal Lasso) ,eSxusfVd yklw ( Magnetic Lasso)
,jsDVsaxy ekjD;w (Ractangle Marquee) , bfyfIVdy ekjD;w ( Elliptical Marquee) rFkk
eSftd osaM Vwy (Magic Wand Tool) esa Anti-aliasing fodYi miyC/k gksrk gSA
Feathering :;g p;u dh lhek rFkk blds pkjksa vksj ds e/; lade
z .k cukdj fdukjksa dks
Cyj (Blur) djrs gSaA Cyj (Blur) ds dkj.k p;u ds fdukjksa ds foLrkj (detail) dk dqN
uqdlku gks ldrk gSA
vki Ykklw (Lasso), ikWyhxu yklw (Polygonal Lasso) ,eSxusfVd yklw ( Magnetic
Lasso) ,jsDVsaxy ekjD;w (Ractangle Marquee) , bfyfIVdy ekjD;w ( Elliptical Marquee)
rFkk eSftd osaM Vwy (Magic Wand Tool) esa Anti-aliasing esa Feathering fodYi dk
mi;ksx dj ldrs gSA
Anti-aliasing dk mi;ksx djuk %&
1- Ykklw (Lasso), ikWyhxu yklw (Polygonal Lasso) ,eSxusfVd yklw (Magnetic
Lasso) ,jsDVsaxy ekjD;w (Rectangle Marquee) , bfyfIVdy ekjD;w ( Elliptical
Marquee) rFkk eSftd osaM Vwy (Magic Wand Tool) esa ls ,d dk p;u djsaA
2- vkWIku ckj (Option Bar) ls Anti-aliasing fodYi dk p;u djsaA
Feathering Edge dk mi;ksx djuk %&
1- Ykklw (Lasso), ikWyhxu yklw (Polygonal Lasso) ,eSxusfVd yklw (Magnetic Lasso)
,jsDVsaxy ekjD;w (Rectangle Marquee) , bfyfIVdy ekjD;w (Elliptical Marquee)
rFkk eSftd osM
a Vwy (Magic Wand Tool) esa ls ,d dk p;u djsaA
2- vkWIku ckj (option bar) esa Feathering dk eku izfo"B djsaA bldk eku 1 ls
250 rd dqN Hkh gks ldrk gSA
ekStwnk p;u ds fy;s Feathering edge dks ifjHkkf"kr djuk&
1- Select > Feathering dk p;u djasA
2- vkWIku ckj (option bar) esa Feathering dk eku izfoB djsaA bldk eku 1 ls
250 rd dqN Hkh gks ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 291

3.3.31p;u
p;u rFkk ys;j dks ,d Nfo esa eqo djuk (Moving Selection and Layer
Within Image)

ewo Vwy (Move Tool) ds fy;s fodYi ifjHkkf"kr djuk&


1- ewo Vwy (Move Tool) ( ) dk p;u djsaA
2- vkIku ckj (Option Bar) esa ls fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk p;u djs&
& lcls ijh ys;j dk p;u djus ds fy;s Auto Select Layer dk p;u djsaA
& p;u ds pkjksa vksj ckmfMax ckDl (Bounding Box) iznfkZr djus ds fy;s
show Bounding Box dk p;u djsaA
& ;fn ,d ls vf/kd vkbVEl (Items) dk p;u fd;k x;k gS rks ,d ,ykbaeaVs
(Alignment) fodYi dk p;u djsaA
p;u dks ewo djuk
1 ewo Vwy (move tool) ( ) dk p;u djsaA
2 fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa&
& ikWba Vj dks p;fur ckWMj ds vUnj f[kldk,sa rFkk p;u dks u;h fLFkfr rd
f[kldk;sAa ;fn ,d vf/kd {ks= p;fur gS rks lHkh {ks= u;h fLFkfr rd f[kld
tk;saxsA
& ftl ys;j dks vki f[kldkuk pkgrs gS mldk p;u djsa rFkk ys;j dh u;h
fLFkfr rd Mx
s djsaA
3.3.32 p;u dks dkih djuk (Copying Selection )
,d Nfo ds vanj ;k fofHkUu Nfo;ksa ds e/; p;u dks Msx (Drag) djds dkWih (Copy)
djus ds fy;s ewo Vwy (Move Tool) dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSa ;k Copy, Copy Merged rFkk
Paste funsZk dk mi;ksx dj vki p;u dks ewo (Move) rFkk dkWih (Copy) dj ldrs gSa
Msx djds dkWih djus dh izfdz;k esa eSeksjh dh cpr gksrh gS tcfd dkWih&isLV fodYi
dh izfdz;k esa fDyi cksMZ dk mi;ksx gksrk gSA
1- Nfo ds ftl {ks= dks vki dkWih djuk pkgrs gS mldk p;u djsaA
2- Edit >Copy ;k Edit>Copy Merge dk p;u djsaA
Msx djds p;u dks dkih djuk
1- ewo Vwy (Move Tool)( ) dk p;u djsaA
2- ftl {ks= dks vki ewo rFkk dkWih (Copy) djuk pkgrs gS mlds fy;s Alta dqth dks
nck dj p;fur {ks= dks Mx
s (Drag) djsaA
,d Nfo ds vanj p;fur {ks= dh ,d ls vf/kd cukuk
1- ewo Vwy (Move Tool) ( ) dk p;u djsaA
2- p;u dh dkWih djus ds fy;s&
& Alta dqth dks nck;sa rFkk p;u dks Mx
s djsaA
& p;fur {ks= dks dkWih djus rFkk ,d fiDly ls f[kldkdj izfrfyfi cukus ds
fy;s Alta dWaqth dks nck dj Arrow dqath dks nck;saA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 292

& p;fur {ks= dks dkWih djus rFkk 10 fiDly ls f[kldkdj izfrfyih cukus ds fy;s
Alta $ Shift dWqt
a h dks nck dj Arrow dqath dks nck;saA
,d p;u dks nqljs ds vanj fpidkus (Paste) djus ds fy,
1 Nfo ds ftl fgLls dks vki fpidkuk pkgrs gSa mldks dV (Cut) ;k dkWih ( Copy)
djsA
2 nwljs Nfo ds ftl fgLls dks vki igyh Nfo ds ftl fgLls dks dkWih djuk pkgrs
gSa mldk p;u djsaA
3 Edit > Paste Into dk p;u djasA
3.3.33p;u
p;u dks lso o yksM djuk (Saving and Loading Selection)
p;u dks lso (Save) djus ds fy;s&
1- Select >Save Selection dk p;u djsaA
2- lso (Save) fd;s x;s p;u dks yksM (Load) djus ds fy;s&
&Select>Load Selection dk p;u djsaA Load selection Mk;ykx ckDl esa p;u
ds fodYi dks izfo"B djsaA
&p;u dks yksM djus ds fy;s Ok fDyd djsaA
3.3.34 p;u dks fMyhV djuk (Deleting Selection)
p;u dks fMyhV djus ds fy;s fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk mi;ksx djsa&
& Edit >Clear dk p;u djsaA
& Backspace dqath dks nck;saA
3.3.35 ys;j (Layer)
QksVkskki esa ,d ubZ Nfo esa ,d ys;j gksrh gSA bl ys;j dks cSdxzkm.M ys;j
(Background Layer) dgrs gSAa vki cSdxzkm.M ys;j dh fLFkfr dks LVsfdax vkMZj (Stacking
Oder) ifjofrZr ugha dj ldrsA
ys;j dh lgk;rk ls vki viuh Nfo ds MkVk dks fcuk ifjofrZr fd;s lakksf/kr dj ldrs
gSaA vki ,d ys;j ds ij ,d ls vf/kd ys;j dks j[k ldrs gSa rFkk fdlh Hkh le; muds
dze dks O;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSaA vki bl izdkj tksMh x;h ys;j esa ls fdlh ij Hkh rRoksa
(Elements) dks Mk (Draw), ,fMV (Edit), isLV (Paste) ;k iquZO;ofLFkr dj ldrs gSaA
fdlh ys;j dks cukus (Create), Nqikus (Hide), fn[kkus (Display) ,feykus (Merge),
fyad(Link),ykWd (Lock) feVkus (Delete) djus ds fy;s ys;j iSyVs dk mi;ksx fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ys;j iSyVs esa ys;j ds uke ds vkxs ys;j dh lkexzh dks iznfkZr djus okyk FkEcusy
(Thumbnail) iznfkZr gksrk gSAa tc vki lfdz; ys;j dks ewo ;k ifjofrZr djrs gS rks bl ys;j
ls fayd nwljh ys;j ij Hkh ifjorZu utj vkrk gSA vki ekLd rFkk ys;j fDyfiax ikl dks
ykxw djus ds fy;s Hkh ys;j iSysV dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 293

djuk(Using the Layer Palette)


+ 3.3.36 ys;j iSysV dk mi;ksx djuk
ys;j iSysV (Layer Palette) dks ns[kus ds funsZk %&
1- Window > Show Layer dk p;u djsa ;k Layer Palette Tab ij fDyd djsaA
2- vfrfjDr ys;jks dks ns[kus ds fy;s Ldzky ckj (Scroll Bar) dk mi;ksx djsa ;k
iSysV ds vkdkj dks iquZO;ofLFkr djsaA
3- Yks;j leqPp; ( Layer Set) ys;j izHkko (Layer effect) dks ,DlisaM (Expand)
;k dksyIl (Collapse) djus ds fy;s rhj ( ) ij fDyd djsaA
3.3.37 ys;j dk p;u o ns[kuk (Viewing and Selecting Layers)
,d ys;j , ys;j leqPp; ;k ys;j izHkko dks ns[kuk o fNikuk %&
fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa %&
& ys;j dks Nqikus ds fy;s ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) esa ys;j, ys;j lEeqPp; ;k ys;j
izHkko ds vkxs fLFkr vk[a k ds vkbdu ( ) ij fDyd djsAa ys;j dks ns[kus ds fy;s
iqu% vk[k ds vkbdu ij fDyd djsaA
& ,d ls vf/kd ys;j izHkkoksa dks ns[kus ds fy;s vk[k ds vkbdu okys LrEHk ij Msx dj
ys;jksa dk pquko djsaA
& fdlh ,d ys;j dks gh ns[kus ds fy;s ys;j ds lkeus fLFkr vka[k ds vkbdu ( ) ij
Alta dqth dks nck dj fDyd djsaA lHkh ys;jksa dks iqu%ns[kus ds fy;s iqu% Alta dWaqth
dks nck dj fDyd djsaA
Ysk;j dk p;u
fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa%&
& ys;j dks lfdz; cukus ds fy;s ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) esa ys;j (Layer) ;k ys;j
leqPp; ( Layer Set) ij fDyd djsaA
& ewo Vwy (Move Tool) dk p;u djds Nfo ds ij jkbV fDyd djsaA ,d dkUVsDlV
ehuw (Context Menu) [kqyx
s k ftlesa ikabaVj dh fLFkfr ij fLFkr fiDly ls lacf/kr
ys;jksa dh lwph gksxhA
Ysk;j FkEcusy (Thumbnail) dk fMLIys ifjofrZr djuk %&
1- ys;j iSyVs ehuw ls iSyVs (Palette) fodYi dk p;u djsaA
2- ,d fMLIys (Display) fodYi dk p;u djsa
& ,d FkEcusy lkbt (Thumbnail Size) ij fDyd djsaA
& FkEcusy ds fMLIys dks vkWQ djus ds fy;s None ij fDyd djsaA
ikjnfkZrk ds fMLIys dks ifjofrZr djuk
1- Edit >Prefrence >Transarency and Gamut
2- fxzM lkbt (Grid size) ds fy;s u;h lkbt dk p;u djsAa ;fn vki ys;j esa
ikjnkhZ {ks= dks lQsn pquuk pkgrs gSa rks None ij fDyd djsaA
3- fxzM jax dk p;u ds fodYi dk p;u djsa
4- Ok ij fDyd djsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 294

a dze ifjofrZr djuk (Changing the Stacking Order


3.3.38 ys;jks dk LVsfdax
of Layers)

ys;jksa dk LVsfdax dze ;g r; djrk gS fd ,d ys;j ;k ys;j leqPp; vU; ys;jksa


ds vkxs ;k ihNs fn[k;h nsxhA
Ysk;j dk LVsfdaax dze ifjofrZr djus ds funsZk %&
1- ys;j iSysV (Layer Palette) ls ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; ( Layer set) dk
p;u djsaA
2- Layer>Arrange dk p;u djsaA
3- lcehuw ls LVsfdaax dze tSls& Bring to Font ;k Bring Fordward ;k Send to
Backward ;k Send Back esa ls ,d dk p;u djsaA
Msx djds ys;jks dk LVsfdaax ze ifjofrZr djuk %&
1- ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) ls ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; ( Layer set) dk
p;u djsaA
2- ys;j iSysV (Layer Palette) esa ys;j dks Up ;k Down Msx djsaA
3.3.39 ys;j dks fyad djuk(Linking Layers)

nks ;k nks ls vf/kd ys;j dks fyad dj mudh lkexzh dks ,d lkFk ewo (Move) fd;k
tk ldrk gSAblds vfrfjDr] bu ij vki Apply Transformation, Align Layer Content,
Merge Layer, Create Layer set, Rasterize linked Layer vkfn dk;Z dj ldrs gSaA
ys;jksa dks fyad djus ds fuZns'k %&
1- ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) ls ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; ( Layer set) dk
p;u djsaA
2- fdlh Hkh ys;j ds ck;h vksj ds LrEHk esa fDyd djsA fDyd djus ij bl LrEHk esa
fyad vkbdu ( ) fn[kkbZ nsxkA
3.3.40 ys;j dks MqIyhdsV djuk (Duplicating Layers)

vki (i`"BHkwfe lfgr) fdlh Hkh ys;j ;k ,d Nfo esa mifLFkr ys;j leqPp; dks
MqIyhdsV dj ldrs gaSA
,d Nfo esa ,d ys;j dks MqIyhdsV djuk o uke nsuk %&
1- ys;j iSysV (Layer Palette) ls ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; ( Layer set) dk
p;u djsaA
2- Alta dqth dks nck dj ys;j iSysV (Layer Palette) es ys;j ds uke dks New
Layer Button ( ) ;k New Layer Set button ( ) rd Msx djasA
3- ys;j ;k ys;j leqPp; dks uke ns rFkk Ok ij fDyd djasA
,d Nfo esa ,d ys;j dks fcuk uke fn;s MqIyhdsV djuk %&
ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) es ys;j ds uke dks New Layer Button ( ) ;k New
Layer Set button ( ) rd Msx djsAu;h ys;j dk uke mlds e ds vuqlkj gksxkA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 295

,d Nfo;ksa ds e/; ys;j ;k ys;j lsV dks dkih djuk %&


1- lcls igys ;g lqfuf'pr djs fd nksuks Nfo;kW [kqyh gqbZ gSA
2- ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) ls L=ksr ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; ( Layer
set) dk p;u djsaA
3- fuEukafdr esa ls ,d dk;Z djsa%&
& ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) esa ys;j (Layer) ;k ys;j leqPp; ( Layer Set) dks Mx
s
djds xarO; Nfo rd ys tk;sA
& ewo Vwy (Move Tool) dh enn ls ys;j (Layer) ;k ys;j leqPp; ( Layer Set) dks
L=ksr ys;j ls Mx
s djds xarO; Nfo rd ys tk;sA
,d ys;j dh lkexzh dks dkWih djds nqljh Nfo esa isLV djuk %&
1- Select > All dk p;u djasA
2- Edit > Copy dk p;u djasA
3- xarO; Nfo esa ys;j dk p;u djasA
4- Edit > Paste dk p;u djsaA
3.3.41 lHkh ys;jksa ls lsEifyax djuk (Sampling From all Layers)
1- eSftd oSM Vwy( LetM Vwy( Cyj Vwy( 'kkiZu Vwy( isaV cdSV Vwy ;k Dyksu LVkEi Vwy
esa ls fdlh ,d dk p;u djasA
2- vkIku ckj (Option Bar) ls Use All Layers dk p;u djasA
3.3.42 vLi"Vrk ifjHkkf"kr djuk (Specify Opacity)
ys;j iSysV (Layer Palette) esa Opacity Text Box esa vLi"Vrk dk eku izfo"B djas
s djsaA
;k Opacity Popup Slider dks Mx
3.3.43 ys;j dk cySfUMax ekasM ifjHkkf"kr djuk (Specifying Layer Blending
Modes)

ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) esa Blend Mode ehuw esa ls ,d fodYi dk p;u djasA
3.3.44 ys;j dks ykWd djuk (Locking Layers)
ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; (Layer Set) dh dqN fuf'pr xq.kksa dks vifjorZuh;
cukus ds fy, ykWd dj ldrs gSAtc ys;j ykWd gksrh gS rks ys;j ds uke ds ck;h rjQ ,d
ykWd cuk vkrk gSA tc ys;j iwjh rjg ykWd gksrh gS rks ,d Bksl ykWd cuk vkrk gS rFkk ys;j
ij laiknu djuk laHko ugh gksrk gSAtc ys;j vkaf'kd :i esa ykWd gksrh gS rks ,d [kks[kyk
ykWd cuk vkrk gSA
ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; ds lHkh xq.kksa dks ykWd djuk %&
ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; (Layer Set) dk p;u djsA Lock

dk p;u djsaA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 296

ys;j (Layer) ;k Yks;j leqPp; ds xq.kksa dks vkaf'kd :i ls ykWd djuk %&
ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) esa ,d ys;j dj p;u djsA fuEukfdr esa ,d ;k ,d ls
vf/kd fodYi dk p;u djas&
& ikjn'khZ fiDly ds laiknu dks jksdus ds fy, Transparency ( ) dk p;u djasA
& isfVx Vwy ls Nfo ds la'kksf/kr djus ls jksdus ds fy, Image ( ) dk p;u djsaA
& ewo Vwy dks fuf"; djus ds fy, Position ( ) dk p;u djsaA
3.3.45 ,MtlesaV ys;j dk mi;ksx djuk (Using Adjustment Layers)
,MtlesaV ys;j (Adjustment Layers) rFkk fQy ys;j (Fill Layer) esa Nfo ys;jksa dh
rjg vLi"Vrk (Opacity) rFkk Cysfa Mx eksM (Blending Mode) fodYi gksrk gSANfo ys;jksa dh
rjg ,MtlesaV ys;j dks Hkh iquZO;ofLFkr] feVk;k (Delete)] Nqik;k (Hide) ;k MqIyhdsV
(Duplicate) fd;k tk ldrk gSA
3.3.46 ,MtlesaV ys;j dks cukuk (Creating Adjustment Layers)
1- ,MtlesaV ys;j (Adjustment Layer) ds izHkkoks dks lhfer {ks= rd lhfer djus ds
fy, Nfo ij p;u dhft,A ,d can iFk cuk;s rFkk bldk p;u djasA
2- ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) esa New Adjustment Layer Button ( ) ij fDyd djsAa
3- ys;j Vkbi (Layer Type) dk p;u djsaA
4- ys;j dh izksiVhZt (Properties) dk p;u djs rFkk Ok ij fDyd djsaA
5- ;fn vko';d gks rks Mk;ykx ckDl esa lkexzh (contents) dks ifjHkkf'kr dhft,
rFkk Ok ij fDyd djsaA
3.3.47 ,MtlesaV ys;j dk laiknu djuk (Editing Adjustment Layers)
1- ys;j iSyVs (Layer Palette) esa ,MtlesaV ys;j (Adjustment Layer) ij Mcy fDyd
djsAa
2- vko';d lek;kstu (Adjustment) djs rFkk Ok ij fDyd djasA
3.3.48 ,MtlesaV ys;j dks etZ djuk (Merging Adjustment Layers)
,MtlesaV ys;j (Adjustment Layer) dks blds uhps ekStqn ys;j ds lkFk ;k Loa; ds
fDyfiax xzqi ds lkFk ;k blds lkFk fyad ys;j ds lkFk ;k foftcy vU; lHkh ys;jksa
ds lkFk etZ fd;k tk ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 297

3-4

dksjy MkW Corel Draw

dksjy MkW ,d lnh'k (Vector) fp= cukus dk lkWVos;j gSA blds iz;ksx ls ge
O;kolkf;d rkSj ij fp=dkjh djds lkekU; yksxks Logo ls tfVy fp=] rduhdh tkudkjh
lfgr cuk ldrs gSaA dksjy MkW esa fyf[kr lkexzh dh c<+h gqbZ {kerk vkSj fy[kus okys VwYl]
vkidks vPNh rjg ls fy[ks gq, Qkby tSls i=d vkSj fjiksVZ vkfn vklkuh ls cukus esa enn
djrs gSA dksjy MkW esa dbZ rjg ls fp= cuk;s tk ldrs gSaA lcls igys u;s fp= dks cuk;k
tkrk gS] ;k igys cus fp= dks vksiu djs ;k fQj ,d ubZ Qkby vk;kr djsaA 'kq:vkr djus
ds ckn vki blesa dbZ rjg ds vkdkj dh oLrq, fp=dkjh ,oa laiknu djus ds VwYl dh enn
ls cuk ldrs gSaA
dksjy MkW ds ehuw ckj esa fn, x, eq[; ehuw bl izdkj gSa&
1- Qkby ehuw (File Menu) lHkh lkekU; lkWVos;jksa dh rjg blesa Hkh U;w Qkby (New
File), Qkby vksiu (File Open), lso (Save), bEiksVZ (Import), ,DliksVZ (Export) rFkk fizaV
Qkby (Print File) tSls ehuw gksrs gSAa uhps dh vksj iwoZ esa [kksyh xbZ dqN Qkbyksa ds uke n'kkZ,
tkrs gSaA var esa ,d ,fDlV (Exit) cVu gksrk gS ftl ij fDyd dj ds vki dksjy MkW ls
ckgj vk ldrs gSaA

fp= 7
2- ,fMV ehuw (Edit Menu) bl ehuw esa fp= dks ifjofrZr djus] MqIyhdsV (duplicate)
cukus] dkWih (Copy) djus] fMyhV (Delete) djus] vuMw] (Undo) jhMw (Redo) vkfn ds ehuw
gksrs gSaA
3- O;w ehuw (View Menu) &O;w ehuw ds }kjk vki ;g fuf'pr dj ldrs gSa fd fp= ds fdl
Hkkx dks n'kkZuk gS vkSj fdl Hkkx dks Nqikuk gSA ;g fp= ds fizaV ;ksX; {ks= dks Hkh n'kkZrk
gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 298

4- ysvkmV ehuw (Layout Menu) ;g fp= ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks Add, Delete vkSj Control
djus ds dke esa vkrk gSA
5- vjsat ehuw (Arrange Menu) ;g fp= ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks vyx&vyx izdkj ls
tksM+dj fn[kkrk gSA
6- bQSDV ehuw (Effects Menu) bl ehuw dh lgk;rk ls vki fp= esa fofHkUu izdkj ds
fo'ks"k izHkko Mky ldrs gSAa
7- fcVeSi ehuw (Bitmap Menu) ;g ehuw Microsoft Paint dh fofHkUu fo'ks"krkvksa rFkk
QksVks'kkWi ds fofHkUu fQYVjksa dk mi;ksx djrk gSA
8- VSDLV ehuw (Text Menu) bl ehuw dh lgk;rk ls vki VSDLV esa laiknu dj ldrs gSA
9- Vwy ehuw (Tool Menu) blesa fofHkUu izdkj ds Vwy gksrs gSa ftUgsa fp= cukus ds dke esa fy;k
tkrk gSA
dksjy MkW ds eq[; Vwy fuEu izdkj ls gS&
1- fid Vwy (Pick Tool) & bl Vwy ds }kjk ge la'kksf/kr djus ds fy, oLrq dks lySDV
djrs gSaA tc Hkh ge dksjy MkW [kksyrs gSa ;g Vwy igys ls gh pquk gqvk gksrk gSA vki fid
Vwy ls fDyd djds oLrq dks lySDV dj ldrs gaSA fid Vwy }kjk vki lySDV dh gqbZ oLrq
dk vkdkj rFkk fLFkfr Hkh cny ldrs gSaA
Pick Tool
Shape Tool
Zoom Tool
Freehand Tool
Rectangle Tool
Ellipse Tool
Polygon Tool
Arrow Shapes
Text Tool
Interactive Blend Tool
Eyedropper Tool
Outline Tool
Fill Tool

fp= 8
2- 'ksi Vwy (Shape Tool) & 'ksi Vwy }kjk ,d o js[kk ;k ,d 'kCnksa dh Ja`[kyk esa ls
fdlh ,d v{kj dks lySDV dj ldrs gSaA ,d o js[kk ds Hkkxksa dks uksM~l (Nodes) dgrs
gSa] uksM~l dh lgk;rk ls vki o js[kk ds vkdkj esa bPNkuqlkj ifjorZu dj ldrs gSaA 'ksi
Vwy ds }kjk v{kjksa dks la'kksf/kr fd;k tk ldrk gS] vk;rksa ds dksuksa dks xksy fd;k tk ldrk
gS vkSj o`kksa dks pkiksa esa cnyk tk ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 299

3- twe Vwy (Zoom Tool) twe Vwy fp= dks bPNkuqlkj cM+k ;k NksVk djus ds dke vkrk gS
fp= ds ftl Hkkx dks cM+k djuk gS mls lySDV djds twe Vwy ij fDyd djus ij og Hkkx cM+k
gks tkrk gSA
Pan djus ij fp= ds lySDV fd, x, Hkkx dks ?klhV dj dgha Hkh ys tk ldrs gSaA
Zoom Out djus ij lySDV fd;k x;k Hkkx NksVk fn[kus yxrk gSA
Zoom Actual Size djus ij fp= dks mlds okLrfod vkdkj esa fn[kk;k tkrk gSA
Zoom to all Objects djus ij ,d fp= ds lHkh Hkkxksa dks ,d nwljs ds fcYdqy djhc
n'kkZ;k tkrk gSA
4- h gS.M Vwy (Free Hand Tool) ftl rjg vki isafly ds }kjk dkxt ij fp= cukrs
gSa] mlh izdkj dEI;wVj ij fp= cukus ds fy, h gS.M Vwy dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA bls
dke esa ysus ds fy, ekml ds cVu dks nckdj ist ij pyk;k tkrk gSA
5- jsDVSaxy o bfyIl Vwy (Rectangle & Ellipse Tool) bu VwYl dh lgk;rk ls
fofHkUu izdkj ds vk;r rFkk v.Mkdkj vkdkj cuk, tk ldrs gSaA bUgha VwYl ls oxZ vkSj o`k
Hkh cuk, tk ldrs gSaA
6- VSDLV Vwy (Text Tool) bl Vwy dh lgk;rk ls vki fp= ij fy[k Hkh ldrs gaSA VSDLV
Vwy ij ekml }kjk fDyd djds iqu% fp= ij] tgk VSDLV fy[kuk gks] ogk fDyd djrs gSaA
7- fQy Vwy (Fill Tool) ;g Vwy vki dks fp= esa jax Hkjus esa enn djrk gSA
8- vkbMkWij Vwy (Eyedropper Tool) blds }kjk fp= esa Hkjs gq;s jaxksa dks lysDV fd;k
tk ldrk gS] lysDV fd;s x;s jaxksa dks ckn esa fp= ds fdlh Hkh LFkku ij Hkjk tk ldrk gSA
9- vkmVykbu Vwy (Outline Tool) vkmVykbu Vwy o`k] vk;r] v.Mkdkj rFkk 'kCnksa dh
ckgjh js[kk esa jax Hkjrk gS rFkk js[kk dh pkSMk+ bZ r; djrk gSA
blds ckn vkidks bl Qkby dks fu/kkZfjr LFkku ij lso djuk gksrk gSA var esa vki
dksjy MkW dks can dj ldrs gSAa

3-6

laiknu djus okys lkWVos;j

eYVhehfM;k ds lEiknd Vwy] xzkfQd] /ofu] ohfM;ks o ,fuesku ls ;qDr eYVhehfM;k


izkstDs V dks O;ofLFkr rFkk laikfnr djus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA lEiknd VwYl dk mi;ksx
eYVhehfM;k rRoksa dks cukus esa fd;k tkrk gSA lEiknd Vwy dqN foks"k izdkj ds MkVk dks
cukus lEikfnr djus rFkk vk;kr djus esa leFkZ gksrs gSAa

3-7

ih-Mh-,Q-

iksVsZcy MkWD;weUs V QkWeZVs ] foo Hkj esa lqjf{kr :i ls bysDVkWfud Qkbyksa dk forj.k
rFkk vknku iznku djrk gSA ;g vMksc }kjk cuk;k x;k gSA foo Hkj ds m|ksxksa] fk{k.k
laLFkkvksa rFkk ljdkjksa }kjk Qkbyksa ds vknku&iznku] mRikndrk c<+kus ds fy, rFkk dkxt

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 300

ij fuHkZjrk de djus ds fy,] vMksc ih-Mh-,Q- viuk;k x;k gSA


1
ewy Qkby dh lR;rk rFkk cukoV dks cpk, j[kuk&vMksc ih-Mh-,Q- Qkbysa
fcYdqy ewy Qkby dh rjg gksrh gSAa ;g QkWUV] fp=ksa] xzkfQd rFkk fdlh L=ksr
dh Qkby dks cpk, j[krk gS] fcuk ;g tkus fd mls cukus ds fy, dkSuls
lkWVos;j dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
2
Qkbyksa dks fdlh vU; ds lkFk ckVuk &vMksc ih-Mh-,Q-Qkby fdlh Hkh dEI;wVj ij
ls Qkby dks ns[k dj izfrfyfir dj ldrkA
3
iz;ksx esa ysuk vklku & vMksc PDF Qkby NksVh gksrh gS rFkk vklkuh ls cnyh tk
ldrh gSA bldks cukuk vkSj Hkh vklku gS tSls M.S.Word Qkby vkfn dks cukuk
vklku gSA
4
Qkbyksa dks cnyuk lqjf{kr gS & vki viuh PDF Qkby ij ikloMZ yxkdj bls
vukf/kd`r :i ls ns[ks tkus] cnyko fd, tkus ls cpk ldrs gSAa vf/kd`r mi;ksxdrkZvksa
dks ih-Mh-,Q- Qkby esa cnyko djus dh NwV nh tkrh gSA
5
[kkstus okyk & ih-Mh-,Q- Qkby esa vusd rjg ds kCnksa dks vkSj MkVk dks <wa<us dh
foks"krk gksrh gSA
6
mikxeu & vMksc lkWVos;j ih-Mh-,Q- Qkby ds mEnk vakksa dks cukus dh] O;ofLFkr
djus dh rFkk ;Fkk&LFkku igqpkus dh lqfo/kk nsrk gSA bu ih-Mh-,Q- Qkbyksa dks dgha
Hkh] fdlh Hkh le;] fdlh ds Hkh }kjk i<+k tk ldrk gSA
ih-Mh-,Q- cgqLrjh; Qkby gksrh gS]a vFkkZr~ ;s dbZ ijrksa ;k Lrjksa ls cuh gksrh gSA
vxj bu ijrksa dks fofHkUu lanHkksZ esa ns[kk tk, rks bu ds vius&vius ykHk rFkk gkfu;k gSA

fp= 9

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 301

3-7-1 ih-Mh-,Q- Qkbyksa dks [kks yuk


vMksc ,kscVs jhMj] ih-Mh-,Q- Qkbyksa dks [kksyus rFkk ns[kus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrk
gSA
ih-Mh-,Q- Qkby [kks y uk
Open cVu ij fDyd dhft,s ;k File=>Open pqfu,sA Open Mk;ykWx ckWDl
esa ls Qkby dk uke pqfu, vkSj Open cVu ij fDyd dfj,A ih-Mh-,Q- Qkbyksas dk ,DLVsaku
ih-Mh-,Q- gksrk gSA
File ehuw esa ls Qkby dk uke pqfu,A ehuw esa var esa [kksyh xbZ ih-Mh-,Q- Qkbyksa
dh lwph gksrh gSA
Qkby ds vkbdu ;k fukku ij nks ckj fDyd dfj,A
3-7-2 Ikh-Mh-,Q- Qkbyksa ds nkZuh; vkdkj dks cnyuk
vki ih-Mh-,Q- Qkbyksa ds vkdkj dks cny ldrs gSa rFkk ,d ist ns[kus ;k istksa
dks fujUrj ns[kus ds fy, istksa dk foU;kl cnyk tk ldrk gSA
Ikst dk vkdkj c<+kuk &
"Zoom-In" Vwy dks pqudj ist ij fDyd dfj, ;k fQj ist ds ftl {ks= dk
vkdkj c<+kuk gSa ogk vk;r cukb,A vki fn[kkbZ ns jgh Vwyckj ds Zoom In ij Hkh
fDyd dj ldrs gSaA
Ikst dk vkdkj ?kVkuk &
Zoom Out Vwy pqudj ist ij fDyd dfj, ;k fQj ist ds ftl {ks= dk vkdkj
?kVkuk gS ml ij vk;r cukb,A vki fn[kkbZ ns jgh Vwyckj ds Zoom Out cVu ij Hkh
fDyd dj ldrs gSA
ist dk vkdkj fo.Mks ds cjkcj djuk &
ist dk vkdkj fo.Mks ds fcYdqy cjkcj djus ds fy, Fit in Window cVu ij
fDyd dhft, ;k fQj View ehuw esa ls Fit in Window pqfu,A
ist dks mlds okLrfod ;k ewy vkdkj esa ykuk&
Actual Size cVu ij fDyd dfj, ;k View ehuw esa ls Actual Size pqfu,A ,d ih-Mh,Q- ist dk ewy vkdkj 100 izfrkr gksrk gS] ijUrq Qkby cukrs le; mlds vkdkj dks
c<+k;k tk ldrk gSA

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 302

3-8

LdS u j

best LdSuj ekStnw k fp=ksa dks LdSu djds dEI;wVj laxr fMftVy QkWeVZs esa lso djrs
gSaA LdSuj fofHkUu izdkj ds gksrs gS tks fofHkUu ms';ksa dh iwfrZ djrs gSaA QksVks dks LdSu djrs
le; /;ku j[kuk pkfg, fd fp= dk jax rFkk fo?kVu ftruk T;knk gksxk] mls lso djus ds
fy, mruh T;knk txg dh vko';drk gksxhA LdSu ds }kjk ekStnw k dykd`fr;ksa tSls QksVks]
foKkiu] dkVwZu vkfn ds LoPN bysDVkWfud fp= cuk, tk ldrs gaS] tks dbZ ?kaVksa dh esgur
cpkrk gSA ;s vke rkSj ij vkWfIVdy dSjsDVj fjdkWfXu'ku OCR i)fr ds lkFk dke djrs
gSaA
ySV csM LdSuj] QksVksdkWih e'khu dh rjg gksrk gSA izdk'k L=ksr ;qDr ?kwerk gqvk
gsM] Qkby dh ,d&,d iafDr dks LdSu djrk gSA Qkby dh LdSu dh tkus okyh gj iafDr]
izdk'k L=ksr }kjk izdkf'kr dh tkrh gS tks fd dkp }kjk ijkofrZr gksdj besftax midj.k
ij iM+rh gSA LdSu dh tkus okyh Qkby] LdSu djus okys gSM ds uhps yxs dkp ij mYVh j[kh
tkrh gSA Qkby dks ckgjh izdk'k ls cpk;k tkrk gS rkfd mldh xq.kokk esa deh uk vk,A
yxHkx lHkh vk/kqfud LdSuj lh-lh-Mh Charge Couple Device ;qDr gksrs gaSA
mPp fo?kVu fp= rFkk cM+s {ks=ksa ds ekufp=ksa ds fy, Me LdSuj iz;qDr fd;s tkrs
gSAa LdSu dh tkus okyh Qkby ,d ?kwers gq, csyukdkj Me ij j[kh tkrh gSA Qkby dh lrg
ls ijkofrZr yslj fdj.k ,d QksVks lsy }kjk fjdkWMZ gksrh gSAs
fdlh Hkh vU; besftax i)fr ;k ohfM;ks ekWuhVj dh gh rjg] LdSuj Hkh eksukskse]
Xkzsysoy ;k Vw dyj gks ldrs gSaA fo?kVu dks ,d bap esa fcUnqvksa dh la[;k dpi }kjk
ifjHkkf"kr fd;k tkrk gSA fcUnqvksa dk gj bap esa ftruk vf/kd fo?kVu gksxk fp= dh xq.kokk
mruh csgrj gksxhA 200(dpi) okys LdSuj cktkj esa miyC/k gSaA mi;ksxdrkZ fp=ksa ds fofHkUu
izdkj pqu ldrk gS] ';ke 'osr] xzsyos y ;k Vw dyjA fMftVkbt fd;s fp= ch-,e-ih-] ftQ
;k fVQ tSls yksdfiz; QkWesZVksa esa ls fdlh ,d esa lso fd, tkrs gSaA
egRoiw .kZ fcUnq

VkbiksxzkQh fizUV dh gqbZ Qkbyksa dh vafre fn[kkoV vkSj kSyh dks nkkZrk gSA

cgqr lkjs fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;jksa esa ls ekbkslkWV isVa Microsoft Paint]
vMksc QksVks'kkWi Adobe Photoshop vkSj dksjy MkW Corel Draw] eq[; gSaA

isUV ,d fp=dyk dk izkx


s kz e gS ftlesa ch,eih .bmp miuke okys fcVeSi bitmap
izdkj ds fp= [kksys tk ldrs gS]a la'kksf/kr fd;s tk ldrs gS]a vkSj u;s fp= Hkh cuk;s

AglaSem School

eYVhehfM;k ,oa osc izkS|ksfxdh / 303

tk ldrs gSaA

QksVks'kkWi ,d jax laiknu djus okyk lkWVos;j gSa] ;g eYVhehfM;k] ,fues'ku]


fMftVy QksVksxzkQh vkSj fp=dkjh esa Hkh enn djrk gSA

dksjy MkW ,d lnh'k fp= cukus dk lkWVos;j gSA blds iz;ksx ls ge O;kolkf;d rkSj
ij fp=dkjh djds lkekU; yksxks Logo ls tfVy fp= rduhdh tkudkjh lfgr cuk
ldrs gSaA

eYVhehfM;k ds lEiknd Vwy] xzkfQd] /ofu] ohfM;ks o ,fuesku ls ;qDr eYVhehfM;k


izkstsDV dks O;ofLFkr rFkk laiknu djus dh lqfo/kk iznku djrs gSA

iksVsZcy MkWD;weUs V QkWesZV fooHkj esa lqjf{kr :i ls bysDVkWfud Qkbyksa dk forj.k rFkk
vknku iznku djrk gSA

ih-Mh-,Q- cgqLrjh; Qkby gksrh gSa] vFkkZr~ ;s dbZ ijrksa ;k Lrjksa ls cuh gksrh gSA

best LdSuj ekStwnk fp=ksa dks LdSu djds dEI;wVj laxr fMftVy QkWesZV esa lso djrs
gSaA

ySV csM LdSuj] QksVksdkWih e'khu dh rjg gksrk gSA izdk'k L=ksr ;qDr ?kwerk gqvk gsM]
Qkby dh ,d&,d iafDr dks LdSu djrk gSA

mPp fo?kVu fp= rFkk cM+s {ks=ksa ds ekufp=ksa ds fy, Me LdSuj iz;qDr fd;s tkrs gaSA

vH;klkFkZ izu
cgqp;ukRed iz' u &
1-

PDF dk eryc gS
v iksVsZcy fMtkbu Qkby Portable Design File
c iksZVscy MkWD;weaVs QkWesZV Portable Document Format
l iksLV MkWD;wesaV QkWesZV Post Document Format
n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ugha

2-

3-

PDF dh [kkst fdlus dh \


v foaMksl Windows

c esfdUVks'k Macintosh

l vMksc Adobe

n ;wfuDl Unix

LdSuj
v ekStnw fp=ksa ls fp= LdSu djrk gSA c fp= dks fizUV djrk gSA
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n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA

AglaSem School

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4-

5-

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c vkmViqV midj.k gSA

l izn'kZu djus okyk midj.k gSA

n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA

PDF Qkby
v ,d Lrj@ijr dk gksrk gSA

c cxSj Lrj@ijr dk gksrk gSA

l cgq Lrj@ijr dk gksrk gSA

n mijksDr esa ls dksbZ ughaA

6- best ,fMfVax lkWVos;j ds mnkgj.k gS&


a
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c ekbkslkWV isaV

l dksjy MkW

n mijksDr lHkh

vfry?kq kjkRed iz ' u


1-

fofHkUu izdkj ds LdSujksa ds uke crkb;sA

2-

fp= laiknu djus okys lkWVos;jksa ds uke fyf[k;sA

3-

rhu dyj ekWMyksa ds uke crkb;sA

4-

QksVks'kkWi Photoshop ds rhu p;u VwYl ds uke crkb,A

y?kq kjkRed iz ' u


1-

QksVks'kkWi ds fofHkUu VwYl crkb;sA

2-

dksjy MkW ds fofHkUu VwYl ds uke fyf[k;sA

3-

fp= dks LdSu djus dk rjhds crkb;sA

4-

eSxusfVd oS.M Vwy ds mi;ksx dks le>kb;sA

fucU/kkRed iz ' u
1-

PDF Qkbyksa ds fofHkUu Lrjks dks le>kb;sA

2-

PDF Qkbyksa dh lkFkZdrk crkb;sA

3-

ysV csM LdSuj Flat Bed Scanner dh dk;Z fof/k le>kb;sA

4-

QksVks'kkWi Photoshop esa cz'kks ds mi;ksx dh dk;Z fof/k le>kb;sA

5-

QksVks'kkWi Photoshop esa ys;j dh foospuk dhft,A


mkjekyk
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