Sie sind auf Seite 1von 75

OBLIGATIONS

TO

ALLAH
2

INDEX

First Obligation (Personal Submission)


1. Islam 03
2. Obedience 05
3. Abstinence 10
4. Worship 12
Second Obligation (Disseminate the message of Islam to others)
1. Preaching 24
2. Calling others to Islam 26
3. Enjoining good and forbidding Evil 27
4. Witness unto Mankind 30
Third Obligation (Establishing Islam - Iqamat E Deen)
1. Supremacy of the Allah 33
2. Establishing Islam 34
3. Supereminence of Islam 35
4. Ascendancy or Domination of Islam 36
5. Political System of Islam 37
6. Social System of Islam 39
7. Social Justice in Islam 40
8. Economic System of Islam 43
First Prerequisite (Struggle in the way of Allah)
1. Introduction to Jihad 46
2. Jihad An Nafs 50
3. Jihad Bil Quran 53
4. Jihad Bis Saif 58
Second Prerequisite
1. Joining an Organization/Party 71
Third Prerequisite
1. Baiy'ah/Pledge of Allegiance 73
3

Islam
Literally it means to completely surrender, to give up resistance, and
unquestioningly obey Divine commandments of Allah SWT.

Truly, the Deen with Allâh is Islam. 3:19

“This day, I have perfected your Deen for you, completed my favor upon you, and
have chosen for you Islam as your Deen” (5:3)

He (Allâh) has ordained for you the same Deen (Islam) which He ordained for
Noah, and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad SAW), and that
which We ordained for Abraham, Moses and Jesus saying you should establish
this Deen and make no divisions in it. 42:13

And this (submission to Allâh, Islam) was enjoined by Ibrahim (Abraham) upon
his sons and by Ya'qûb (Jacob), (saying), "O my sons! Allâh has chosen for you
the (true) Deen, then die not except in the Faith of Islam (as Muslims - Islamic
Monotheism)." 2:132

And who can be better in Deen than one who submits his face (himself) to Allâh
(i.e. follows Allah's Deen of Islamic Monotheism); 4:125

"Say (O Muhammad SAW ): "Verily, my Salât (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and


my dying are for Allâh, the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists).
"He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the
Muslims." 6:162-163

"And I am commanded (this) in order that I may be the first of those who submit
themselves to Allâh (in Islam) as Muslims." 39:12

Say (O Muhammad SAW ): "O you mankind! If you are in doubt as to my Deen
(Islam), then (know that) I will never worship those whom you worship, besides
Allâh. But I worship Allâh Who causes you to die, I am commanded to be one of
the believers. 10:104

And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhâjirûn (those who migrated from
Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansâr (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped
and gave aid to the Muhâjirûn) and also those who followed them exactly (in
Faith). Allâh is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has
prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein
forever. That is the supreme success. 9:100

How shall Allâh guide a people who disbelieved after their belief and after they
bore witness that the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) is true and after clear proofs
4

had come unto them? And Allâh guides not the people who are Zâlimûn
(polytheists and wrong-doers). They are those whose recompense is that on
them (rests) the Curse of Allâh, of the angels, and of all mankind. They will abide
therein (Hell). Neither will their torment be lightened, nor will it be delayed or
postponed (for a while). Except for those who repent after that and do righteous
deeds. Verily, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.3:86-89

Most of the Muslims consider Islam only as a 'religion' but Islam is not merely a
religion it is 'Deen'. The term Deen is used for Islam. Religion is only a collection
of Doctrine, Rituals and Customs with no relevance for the Social, Economic, and
Political institutions of society. Deen on the other hand is a complete code of life
that embraces all aspects of human existence both individual and collective.

Deen e Islam not only deals with metaphysical Beliefs, Rituals of worship and
Social customs and ceremonies but that it also significantly affects and shapes
the Social, Economic and Political aspects of collective life.

Islam is the complete code of life. The essence of true and authentic Islamic
thought consists of the idea that it is not enough to practice Islam in the personal
life only, but that the teachings of the Quran and those of the Sunnah need also
be implemented in their totality in the social, economic, and political fields.

O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islam (by obeying all the rules and
regulations of the Islam ) and follow not the footsteps of Shaitân (Satan) Verily!
He is to you a plain enemy.2:208

There is no such thing as partial acceptance of Islam or partial obedience to


Allah. It is unacceptable to obey certain commands and disregard others. If one
is not prepared for an attitude of total submission then he/she must choose
another path. Islam represents a case of "take it all or leave it all". There cannot
be any compromise in this principle.

So if they dispute with you (Muhammad SAW) say: "I have submitted myself to
Allâh (in Islam), and (so have) those who follow me." And say to those who were
given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and to those who are illiterates (Arab
pagans): "Do you (also) submit yourselves (to Allâh in Islam)?" If they do, they
are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message;
and Allâh is All-Seer of (His) slaves. 3:20

Then if you slide back after the clear signs (Prophet Muhammad SAW and this
Qur'an, and Islam) have come to you, then know that Allah is All-Mighty, All-
Wise. 2:209

O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his Deen (Islam),
Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble
towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of Allah,
5

and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of Allah which He
bestows on whom He wills. And Allah is All Sufficient for His creatures' needs,
AllKnower.5:54

And whoever seeks a Deen other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him,
and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers. 3:85

Narrated Abbas ibn Abdul Muttalib RA: He heard the Messenger of Allah as
saying: He relished the flavor of faith (Imaan) who became pleased with Allah as
Lord, with al-Islam as the code of life and with Muhammad as the Messenger of
Allah. Muslim

The Prophet PBUH said: It is part of the excellence of a person's Islam that he
should discard that which is of no benefit to him either in this world or the
Hereafter. Tirmidhi

Narrated Abu Hurayrah RA: The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said: Islam initiated
as something strange, and it would revert to its (old position) of being strange, so
good tidings for the strangers. (Muslim).

Obedience
(Itaat)
Obedience represents the spirit of Islam from an enhanced perspective. While
Islam signifies surrender and giving up any resistance, obedience denotes one's
willing submission in an active and positive sense. One's resolve to observe the
dictates of faith willingly is branded as obedience. The Messenger, Prophet
Muhammad (SAW), had the duty of conveying the Divine message, a duty that
he discharged in an exemplary fashion. If one who has received the message
turns away from it, he/she will be solely responsible for this defiance and
rebellion.

Allah (swt) has also made it clear that what he (Muhammad saw) has ordered
are not from him but from Allah (swt) and thats why we have to obey him.
Muhammad (saw) did not come up with his own Quran, laws and regulations;
anything that Muhammad (saw) had commanded us to do in Islam came from
Allah (SWT). As Allah (SWT) says "Nor does he speak of (his own) desire. It is
no less than revelation sent down to him." 53:3-4

The obedience of Allâh cannot be carried out except through the obedience of
the Muhammad saw because Allâh conveys His injunctions only through him.
Therefore Allah says He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah,
but he who turns away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them. 4:80
6

And obey Allâh and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), if you are believers. 8:1

And obey Allâh and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) that you may obtain
mercy. 3:132

We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah's Leave. 4:64

"Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, the duty of our
Messenger is only to convey clearly." (64:12)

"And follow the best of that which is sent down to you from your Lord (i.e. this
Quran, do what it orders you to do and keep away from what it forbids), before
the torment comes on you suddenly while you perceive not!" 39:55

Say (O Muhammad SAW to mankind): "If you (really) love Allah then follow me
(i.e. accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Quran and the Sunnah), Allah will
love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."
3:31

Indeed in the Messenger of Allâh (Muhammad SAW) you have a good example to
follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allâh and the Last Day and
remembers Allâh much. 33:21

Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord (the Quran and
Prophet Muhammad's Sunnah), 7:3

"Whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you,
abstain (from it). And fear Allah; verily, Allah is severe in punishment." (59:7)

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Verily, if I disobey my Lord, I am afraid of the torment


of a great Day." 39:13

And whoever transgresses the limits ordained by Allah, then such are the
Zâlimûn (wrong-doers, etc.). 2:229

And whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah, then indeed he has wronged
himself- 65:1

And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our Remembrance,
one who follows his own lusts and whose affair (deeds) has been lost. 18:28

Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write
(i.e. Muhammad SAW) whom they find written with them in the Taurât (Torah)
and the Injeel .... Those who believe in him (Muhammad saw) and honor him
and help him, and follow the Light that has been sent down with him, they are the
ones who are successful. (7:157)
7

And, humiliation and powerlessness afflicted them, and they earned God's anger;
all this, because they persisted in denying God's messages and in slaying the
Prophets against all right; all this, because they rebelled [against God], and
persisted in transgressing [the bounds of God] (2: 61).

"Let those who oppose the Messenger’s order beware of a fitnah (trial) to befall
them, or a painful torment to be inflicted upon them." (24:63)

Abu Hurairah RA said: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Allah, the Exalted, becomes
angry, and His Anger is provoked when a person does what Allah has declared
unlawful.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Narrated Muawiya RA: I heard the Prophet saying, "A group of my followers will
keep on following Allah's Laws strictly and they will not be harmed by those who
will disbelieve them or stand against them till Allah's Order (The Hour) will come
while they will be in that state." Bukhari

Abu Huraira RA reported that he heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon
him) as saying: Avoid that which I forbid you to do and do that which I command
you to do to the best of your capacity. Muslim.

Narrated Abu Huraira RA Allah's Apostle said, "All my followers will enter
Paradise except those who refuse." They said, "O Allah's Apostle! Who will
refuse?" He said, "Whoever obeys me will enter Paradise, and whoever disobeys
me is the one who refuses (to enter it)”. Bukhari

Narrated Abu Huraira RA The Prophet said, "Leave me as I leave you) for the
people who were before you were ruined because of their questions and their
differences over their prophets. So, if I forbid you to do something, then keep
away from it. And if I order you to do something, then do of it as much as you
can." Bukhari

Narrated Abu Musa RA: The Prophet said, "My example and the example of what
I have been sent with is that of a man who came to some people and said, 'O
people! I have seen the enemy's army with my own eyes, and I am the naked
warner; so protect yourselves!' Then a group of his people obeyed him and fled
at night proceeding stealthily till they were safe, while another group of them
disbelieved him and stayed at their places till morning when the army came upon
them, and killed and ruined them completely So this is the example of that
person who obeys me and follows what I have brought (the Quran and the
Sunnah), and the example of the one who disobeys me and disbelieves the truth
I have brought." Bukhari

One who deems lawful what the Quran declares unlawful is not a believer in the
Quran (i.e., in reality, he does not hold it to be a Divine Revelation). (Tirmidhi)
8

Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: There will befall my Ummah exactly (all those)
evils which befell the people of Isra'il, so much so that if there was one amongst
them who openly committed fornication with his mother there will be among my
Ummah one who will do that, and if the people of Isra'il were fragmented into
seventy-two sects my Ummah will be fragmented into seventy-three sects. All of
them will be in Hell Fire except one sect. They (the Companions) said: Allah's
Messenger, which is that? Whereupon he said: It is one to which I and my
companions belong. Tirmidhi.

Al-Irbaadh bin Saariyah RA reported that Allah's Messenger PBUH gave the
Companions (Sahaba) an exhortation one-day after the fajr Prayer which caused
their eyes to shed tears and their hearts to quiver. So a man said, "This sounds
like a final exhortation, so counsel us, O Allah's Messenger (SAW)." He (SAW)
said," I enjoin you to fear Allah, and to hear and obey even if it be an Abyssinian
slave, for those of you who live after me will see great disagreement. You must
then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided caliphs. Hold to it and stick
fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation
is an error. " (Abu Daud)

Narrated 'Abdullah RA: The best talk (speech) is Allah's Book 'Quran), and the
best way is the way of Muhammad, and the worst matters are the heresies
(those new things which are introduced into the religion); and whatever you have
been promised will surely come to pass, and you cannot escape (it). Bukhari

On the authority of Abdullah bin ’Amr bin al-’Aas (RA) who said: The Messenger
of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “None of you [truly]
believes until his desires are subservient to that which I have brought.” (Hadith
Qudsi by Imam Nawawi)

Narrated Anas bin Malik: That he heard 'Umar speaking while standing on the
pulpit of the Prophet in the morning (following the death of the Prophet), when
the people had sworn allegiance to Abu Bakr. He said the Tashah-hud before
Abu Bakr, and said, "Amma Ba'du (then after) Allah has chosen for his Apostle
what is with Him (Paradise) rather than what is with you (the world). This is that
Book (Quran) with which Allah guided your Apostle, so stick to it, for then you will
be guided on the right path as Allah guided His Apostle with it." Bukhari

Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet
(PBUH) said, "Verily, Allah elevates some people with this Qur'an and abases
others.'' [Muslim]. Commentary: Only such people will be elevated who act upon
the teachings of the Qur'an and abstain from what is forbidden by Allah. The
Muslims of the early centuries of Islam were blessed with great honor by Allah
because they loved and applied the Qur'an. Because of this meaningful
attachment with the Qur'an, they made great achievements in religious and
worldly spheres. Those who neglected the teachings of Islam will be disgraced
and humiliated. May Allah guide and enable us to re-establish our contact with
9

the Qur'an so that we can regain our past glory. Exaltation and humiliation
mentioned in the Hadith is bound to happen in both this life and the Hereafter.

The Prophet said, "There will emerge from the East some people who will recite
the Quran but it will not exceed their throats and who will go out of (renounce) the
religion (Islam) as an arrow passes through the game, and they will never come
back to it unless the arrow, comes back to the middle of the bow (by itself) (i.e.,
impossible). The people asked, "What will their signs be?" He said, "Their sign
will be the habit of shaving (of their beards). Bukhari

The Prophet said in his narration of a dream that he saw, "He whose head was
being crushed with a stone was one who learnt the Quran but never acted on it,
and slept ignoring the compulsory prayers." Bukhari

Partial Obedience is Unacceptable

O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islam (by obeying all the rules and
regulations of the Islamic religion) 2:208

The above ayah asks the believers to enter into the fold of Islam completely, it
must be clear now that Islam does not admit partial obedience, but demands
complete submission.

Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture, and reject the rest? Then what is
the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in this life? And
on the Day of Judgment they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment.
For Allah is not unmindful of what you do. (2: 85)

The above ayah brings home this point even more emphatically. Although this
ayah addresses the Jews, it should be borne in mind that God's principles are not
different for the Muslims. Allah never changes his principles from person to
person and from Ummah to Ummah, Allah says

"That was the Way of Allâh (Sunnat Ulllah) in the case of those who passed
away of old, and you will not find any change in the Way of Allâh (Sunnat Ullah)"
33:62

The Qur'an projects the Jews as an example to show that if the Muslims behave
in the same manner, their fate shall be no different. The Qur'an says: The Jews
stand cursed for their partial and selective obedience to God's commands, which
is an attitude of hypocrisy and duality of behavior that is unacceptable in Islam. In
contrast, Allah demands total and exclusive devotion.
10

Abstinence
(Taqwa)

The Qur'an comprehensively uses the term Taqwa in the following ayah :

It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allâh. Verily,
Allâh is AllMighty, OftForgiving. 35:28

0 believers! Fear Allah as He should be feared, and die not except in a state of
Islam. (3:102)

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person
(Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them
both He created many men and women and fear Allâh through Whom you
demand your mutual (rights)... 4:1

O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allâh and fear Him, and speak (always) the
truth. 33:70

So keep your duty to Allâh and fear Him as much as you can... 64:16

Have taqwa of Allah, and be with the truthful ones. 9:119

Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him (keep their duty unto Him), and those who
are Muhsinûn 16:128

Verily, those who are Al-Muttaqûn, when an evil thought comes to them from
Shaitân (Satan), they remember (Allâh), and (indeed) they then see (aright).
7:201

And he (Muhammad SAW) who has brought the truth (this Qur'an and Islamic
Monotheism) and (those who) believed therein (i.e. the true believers of Islamic
Monotheism), those are Al- Muttaqûn (the pious and righteous persons) 39:33

The term abstinence approaches the concept of Islam from the opposite direction
of Itaat. Whereas obedience represents an active and positive response to the
requirements of Islam (submission), abstinence is its active but negative
dimension. Implicit in the term are the following connotations: Avoiding any
disobedience to divine commands, shunning any disobedience to Allah,
entertaining the fear of His displeasure and striving for avoiding His punishment.

Once Hazrat Umar (R.A.) enquired in regard to the meaning of word ‘taqwa’ and
Hazrat Ubai bin Ka’ab (R.A.) who was present there, explained as under:
11

'O, Caliph of Muslims, it means that when anyone who is passing through dense
forest full of wild thorny bushes, while passing through narrow lanes will take
every precaution that his clothes or any part of his apparel does not get
entangled in those thorns and may tear them. This cautious attitude is called
‘taqwa’ in Arabic'.

Hazrat Umar (R.A.) not only appreciated this explanation, but also applauded him
on its true translation.

In fact if we look around our worldly life we find it full of evil, attractive and lusty
bushes full of thorns to our right and left side with endless attractions driving us
towards evil designs and misdeeds. But a true Muslim who fears God and His
punishment, when passes his life by avoiding these and abiding by the demands
and responsibilities enjoined upon him by religion, then his attitude and practice
is called ‘taqwa’ which has been described in Holy Qur’an with emphasis, to be
adopted. In the marriage sermon the verses mainly deal with this subject and
convey instructions to become one who passes his life in its true perspective.

Narrated An-Nu'man bin Bashir: I heard Allah's Apostle saying, 'Both legal and
illegal things are evident but in between them there are doubtful (suspicious)
things and most of the people have no knowledge about them. So whoever
saves himself from these suspicious things saves his religion and his honor. And
whoever indulges in these suspicious things is like a shepherd who grazes (his
animals) near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment he
is liable to get in it. (O people!) Beware! Every king has a Hima and the Hima of
Allah on the earth is His illegal (forbidden) things. Beware! There is a piece of
flesh in the body if it becomes good (reformed) the whole body becomes good
but if it gets spoilt the whole body gets spoilt and that is the heart. Bukhari.

Atiyyah bin `Urwah As-Sa`di (RA) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "No
one will attain complete righteousness until he abandons (certain)
unobjectionable (but doubtful) things so as to remain on his guard against
something objectionable.'' [At-Tirmidhi].

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (RA) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "The life of the
world is sweet and green. Allah makes you generations succeeding one another
so that He may try you in respect of your actions. So beware of the beguilements
of the world and those of women. The first trial of Banu Israel was through
women". [Muslim].

An-Nawwas bin Sam`an (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet
(PBUH) said, "Piety is good manner, and sin is that which creates doubt and you
do not like people to know of it.'' [Muslim].
12

Hasan bin `Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: I have retained these
words of Messenger of Allah (PBUH), "Leave what causes you doubt and turn to
what does not cause you doubt.'' [At-Tirmidhi].

Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported: Abu Bakr (May Allah be
pleased with him) had a slave who brought him his earnings and Abu Bakr (May
Allah be pleased with him) would eat from it. One day he brought him something
and when Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) had eaten some of it, the
slave asked him whether he knew where he had got that (food) from, Abu Bakr
(May Allah be pleased with him) asked what it was, and he replied: I acted as a
soothsayer for a man in the pre-Islamic period, and not being good at it, I
deceived him; today he met me and he rewarded me for that soothsaying what
you have eaten. Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him) put his hand in his
mouth and vomited up all that he had eaten. [Al-Bukhari].

Abu Hurairah (RA) said: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "O people! Allah
is Pure and, therefore, accepts only that which is pure. Allah has commanded the
believers as He has commanded His Messengers by saying: `O Messengers! Eat
of the good things, and do good deeds.' (23:51) And He said: `O you who believe
(in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We
have provided you...''' (2:172). Then he (PBUH) made a mention of the person
who travels for a long period of time, his hair are disheveled and covered with
dust. He lifts his hand towards the sky and thus makes the supplication: `My
Rubb! My Rubb!' But his food is unlawful, his drink is unlawful, his clothes are
unlawful and his nourishment is unlawful, how can, then his supplication be
accepted?'' Muslim.

Worship
(Ibadat)
This is perhaps the most comprehensive term regarding personal submission. As
a term it might be defined as, "To surrender oneself completely out of love". The
word 'Ibadah' too has several different meanings like worshipping, praising etc.,
though all related to each other. In Quran this word 'Ibadat' used in three senses
that are "Slavery & Bondage, "Submission & Obedience" and "feeling of gratitude
& Invocation". The Qur'an declares that the very purpose of the creation of
human beings is to worship Allâh.

And I have not created Jinn and mankind except to serve and worship Me. 51:56.

"Verily! I am Allâh! Lâ ilâha illa Ana (None has the right to be Worshipped but I),
So Worship Me, 20:14
13

Such is Allâh, your Lord! Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped
but He), the Creator of all things. So Worship Him (Alone), 6:102

Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, so worship Him
(Alone) and be constant and patient in His worship. 19:65

And to Allâh belongs the Ghaib (unseen) of the heavens and the earth, and to
Him return all affairs (for decision). So worship Him (O Muhammad SAW ) and put
your trust in Him. And your Lord is not unaware of what you (people) do." 11:123

So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and
associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." 18:110

And We never sent, before you, any Messenger except that We revealed to him:
There is no god but I; so serve and worship only Me 21: 25

A person's relationship with Allah is similar to the relationship between a master


and his slave (Ghulam of earlier times). A slave by definition submits his/her
entire life to the will of his master. A slave is at the master's beck and call twenty-
four hours of the day, fulfilling every command, The slave serves the master all
the time and constantly and has no option of refusing to do so.

Hafiz ibn Qayyim says that 'Ibadat' comprises of two essential elements (1) Total
Obedience of Allah swt without any reservation and (2) Intense love for Allah swt.

The Worship (Ibadat) comprises of five essential elements.

1. Total Obedience to Allah swt without any reservations.


2. Obedience with intense Love for Allah swt.
3. Taazeem (Qiyam, Ruku & Sajda) for Allah swt only.
4. Dua from Allah swt only.
5. Ikhlaas, every deed should be done to please Allah swt only.

Worship is Reserved Exclusively for Allah (Mukhlisal Lahud Deen).

Verily, We have sent down the Book to you (O Muhammad SAW ) in truth: So
worship Allâh (Alone) by doing religious deeds sincerely for Allah's sake only,
(and not to show-off, and not to set up rivals with Him in worship). 39:2

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Verily, I am commanded to worship Allâh (Alone) by


obeying Him and doing religious deeds sincerely for Allah's sake only and not to
show off, and not to set up rivals with Him in worship; 39:11

Say (O Muhammad SAW) "Alone I worship Allah by doing religious deeds


sincerely for His sake only and not to show-off, and not to set up rivals with Him
in worship." 39:14
14

And they were commanded not, but that they should worship Allah, and worship
none but Him Alone (abstaining from ascribing partners to Him) 98:5

So, call you (O Muhammad SAW and the believers) upon (or invoke) Allâh
making (your) worship pure for Him (Alone) (by worshipping none but Him and by
doing religious deeds sincerely for Allah's sake only and not to show-off and not
to set up rivals with Him in worship). However much the disbelievers (in the
Oneness of Allâh) may hate (it). 40:14

He is the Ever Living, Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but
He), so invoke Him making your worship pure for Him Alone (by worshipping Him
Alone, and none else, and by doing righteous deeds sincerely for Allah's sake
only, and not to show off, and not to set up rivals with Him in worship). All the
praises and thanks be to Allâh, the Lord of the 'Alamîn (mankind, Jinns and all
that exists). 40:65

In the above six ayah Allah swt has stated very clearly that he want his slaves to
worship him alone with sincerity and not to set up rivals with Him in Worship.
Setting up rivals with Allah swt is termed as Shirk and this is the most greatest
sin in the sight of Allah. The three ayah below will show the evil of setting up the
rivals with Allah swt in Worship.

And (remember) when Luqmân said to his son when he was advising him: "O my
son! Join not in worship others with Allâh. Verily! Joining others in worship with
Allâh is a great Zûlm (wrong) indeed. 31:13

Verily, Allâh forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but
He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets
up partners with Allâh in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin. 4:48

Verily! Allâh forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners in worship with Him, but
He forgives whom he pleases sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners
in worship with Allâh, has indeed strayed far away. 4:116

Forms of Joining others in worship with Allâh.

(1) Worshipping our Own Desires/Self.

Have you (O Muhammad SAW) seen him who has taken as his ilâh (god) his own
desire? Would you then be a Wakîl (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over
him? 25:43

Have you seen him who takes his own lust (vain desires) as his ilâh (god), and
Allâh knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his
15

heart, and put a cover on his sight. Who then will guide him after Allâh? Will you
not then remember? 45:23

And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our Remembrance,
one who follows his own lusts and whose affair (deeds) has been lost. 18:28

Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own lusts without knowledge, Then who
will guide him whom Allâh has sent astray? And for such there will be no helpers.
30:29

In the above three ayah, Worship of own desire/self means to blindly fulfill the
desire of self without looking what is Halal and what is Haram. It also means If
someone obeys one command of Allah and disobeys the other, he in fact obeyed
his own desire his own self rather than Allah swt, When someone disobeyed
Allah he in reality obeyed his own self and this is termed as 'Joining others in
worship with Allâh' and when it is done with conscious mind it becomes an act of
Shirk. (Shirk fil Ibadat).

(2) Worship of Taghoot.

Say (O’ Prophet): "Shall I inform you of something worse than that, regarding the
recompense from Allâh: those who incurred the Curse of Allâh and His Wrath,
those of whom (some) He transformed into monkeys and swines, those who
worshipped Taghoot (false deities); such are worse in rank (on the Day of
Resurrection in the Hellfire)5:60

And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a


Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allâh (Alone), and avoid (or keep away from)
Taghoot (all false deities, etc. i.e. do not worship Taghoot besides Allâh)."16:36

Those who avoid At-Taghoot (false deities) by not worshipping them and turn to
Allâh in repentance, for them are glad tidings; so announce the good news to My
slaves, 39:17

Taghoot means a Person, Authority of State, Leadership, Government or Ruler


etc. who is in constant transgression against Allah swt and his laws. In all these
three verses, Worship of Taghoot means bondage to any or all who transgress
the limits of Allah swt and who makes his own word prevailing over the land,
whether by the use of force or intimidation or through temptation and so on.
According to the Qur’an to submit to the dictates of all such authority and follow
their commands amounts to no less than the Worship of Taghoot.
16

(3) Worship of Satan (Iblees).

Did I not ordain for you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaitân
(Satan). Verily, he is a plain enemy to you. And that you should worship Me.
36:60-61

(It will be said to the angels): "Assemble those who did wrong, together with their
companions (from the devils) and what they used to worship Instead of Allâh,
and lead them on to the way of flaming Fire (Hell); 37:22-23

And they will turn to one another and question one another. They will say: "It was
you (Devils) who used to come to us from the right side [i.e. beautify for us every
evil, order us for polytheism, and stop us from the truth ]." 37:28 They will reply:
"Nay, you yourselves were not believers. 37:29 "And we had no authority over
you. Nay! But you were transgressing people (disobedient, polytheists, and
disbelievers). 37:30

That I will fill Hell with you [Iblîs (Satan)] and those of them (mankind) that follow
you, together. 38:85

As everybody knows, no-one really worships Satan in the formal sense, and in
fact he is cursed by the whole world, and hence the above charge, which will be
made upon mankind on the Day of Judgement, means that people who obeyed
the commands of the Devil and allowed themselves to be misled to the path
shown by him thereby in effect Worship him.

The Worshipper of Satan and the Satan himself do not here comprise any gods
or idols but those religious or other popular leaders who came to the people in
the garb of well-wishers or saviors of the nation or liberators, etc., and led them
along the wrong path. The reference is to people who put on sanctified airs, and,
while claiming to be friends, caused mischief in the land. It is blind obedience to
such people that is here characterized as Worship.

(4) Worship of Religious Scholars or Rabbis.

They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords
besides Allâh (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful
according to their own desires without being ordered by Allâh), and (they also
took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and
Christians) were commanded [in the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)) to
worship none but One Ilâh (God - Allâh) Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to
be worshipped but He). 9:31

Here making of the learned men and priests into rabbs and the giving of Ibadah
to them does not mean believing them to be gods, but making them the sole
authority for deciding what to do and what not to do, and obeying their behests
17

without caring to look for any divine or prophetic sanction behind them. This is
the explanation, which was given by the Holy Prophet himself (may peace be
upon him) when, on an occasion, the question was put to him by a companion
Adi ibn Hatim RA who had previously been a Christian.

(5) Worshipping and Invoking Angels, Pious Slaves and Jinns.

This worship has two aspects: the first is that of performing one or more of the
various rites of worship, such as bowing before the person or thing, standing in
his or its presence with hands folded across the breast, offering sacrifices before
it, etc., irrespective of whether the person, etc., involved is regarded as god in his
own right or as someone able to intercede with a major god or having a share in
the running of the universe under the control of that god.

Second is to believe in the person, etc., as having control over the realm of
cause and effect, and praying to him, invoking him in times of distress or trial,
and seeking his protection against danger or disaster. Both kinds of acts amount,
according to the Qur’an, to worship, e.g.

Say, (O Prophet):' I have been forbidden to worship those whom you people
worship other than Allah now that I have clear guidance from my Rabb.” 40:66

And Ibrahim said to his people "And I shall turn away from you and from those
whom you invoke besides Allâh. And I shall call on my Lord; and I hope that I
shall not be unblest in my invocation to my Lord." 19:48

And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) besides Allâh, such as will
not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their
calls (invocations) to them? And when mankind are gathered (on the Day of
Resurrection), they (false deities) will become enemies for them and will deny
their worshipping. 46:5-6

In all these three verses, the Qur’an itself clarifies that Worship here is meant
calling on the supposed gods or invoking them for help.

(6) Worshipping Pious Slaves of Allah.

On the Day when Allah will gather them and the gods they used to worship other
than Him, He will ask the latter whether it was they who had misled the people or
it was the people who had themselves gone astray. And they will reply ”Glory be
to you! How could it have been fitting for us to take for protectors others besides
You?” 25:17-18

And they worship besides Allâh things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and
they say: "These are our intercessors with Allâh." Say: "Do you inform Allâh of
that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth?" 10:18
18

Do they attribute as partners to Allâh those who created nothing but they
themselves are created? No help can they give them, nor can they help
themselves. 7:191-192

Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allâh are slaves like you. So call upon
them and let them answer you if you are truthful. 7:194

"And those whom you call upon besides Him (Allâh) cannot help you nor can
they help themselves." 7:197

Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allâh only. And
those who take Auliyâ' (protectors and helpers) besides Him (say): "We worship
them only that they may bring us near to Allâh." Verily, Allâh will judge between
them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allâh guides not him who is a liar,
and a disbeliever. 39:3

Here particular acts of worship and the particular manner in which it is performed
is indicated.

The persons referred to here as having been worshipped are, obviously, the
saintly and the pious, while worship of them implies belief in their possessing
some of the attributes which are actually divine and in their being capable of
listening to and granting the prayers of someone far away, and the showing of
respect for them in such manner amounts to worship.

(7) Worshipping Angels.

And on the Day when Allah will gather them together, and will say to the angels:
”Are you those they worshipped?” and they will reply, ”Glory be to you what have
we to do with them? It is You Whom we regard as our Protector.” 34:40-41

And they make the angels who themselves are slaves to the Most Beneficent
(Allâh) females. Did they witness their creation? Their evidence will be recorded,
and they will be questioned! 43:19

The Messiah will never be proud to reject to be a slave to Allâh, nor the angels
who are near (to Allâh). And whosoever rejects His worship and is proud, then
He will gather them all together unto Himself. 4:172

Here the Ibadah of the Angels means their worship, for which purpose their idols
were kept in places of worship, and various acts of worship were gone through in
the hope of pleasing them and winning their favors and enlisting their help in
worldly affairs.
19

(8) Worshipping Jinns.

They used to worship the Jinns, and many believed in them. 34:41

And verily, there were men among mankind who took shelter with the masculine
among the Jinns, 72:6

And they have invented a kinship between Him and the Jinns, but the Jinns know
well that they have indeed to appear (before Him) (i.e. they will be brought for
accounts). 37:158

In other words, to seek the protection & shelter of the Jinns amounts to giving
them worship and believing that they have the power to grant such protection &
shelter.

Conclusion:

The Holy Qur’an pronounces all the above forms of worships or objects of
worship to be false, and their ‘worship’ to be wrong, irrespective of whether it
amounts to bondage, or obedience, or the actual observance of the ritual of
worship & Invocation. The Quran insists that they all are Allah’s creatures and his
slaves. They have no right to be given any kind of worship, nor does this worship
beget anything but frustration, and debasement. Allah alone is the Lord of all and
He alone has all the power and the authority , hence, He alone deserves the
worship. The Qur’an demands of all human beings and Jinns that Ibadah must, in
whatever form it take, be reserved exclusively for Allah. All bondage, submission,
Invocation etc. should be to or of Him alone, and there should not be even the
slightest semblance of these for anyone else:

Pillars of Islam and Their Importance

Ibn `Umar RA reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "(The


superstructure of) Islam is based on five (pillars), testifying the fact that La ilaha
illallah wa anna Muhammad-ar-Rasul-ullah [there is no true god except Allah,
and Muhammad ((PBUH)) is the Messenger of Allah], establishing As-Salat (the
prayers), paying Zakat (poor due), the pilgrimage to the House [of Allah
(Ka`bah)], and the Saum (fasting) during the month of Ramadan.'' [Al-Bukhari
and Muslim].

After testifying there is no Allah besides Allah and that Muhammad is His slave
and Messenger, Allah has been gracious to confer upon us four modes of
worship, which if performed diligently can make the task of Worship (Ibadat) easy
i.e Namaz, Roza, Hajj and Zakat. These all together, have become to be
commonly known as the "pillars of Islam".
20

Misconception

Most of the Muslims have a misconception that believing in Allah & Rasool and
offering Namaz, Roza, Hajj and zakat are termed as ibadat (Worship) and they
are created for fulfilling these obligations only.

But in reality if you analyze the above hadith these four are only the pillars on
which the super structure of Islam is rested. This super structure of Islam
provides guidance at individual level (Belief, Rituals and Social Customs) as well
as at collective level (Socio-Politico and Economic System).

We inadvertently call these four as 'Ibadat, whereas these are actually the
exercises that are to generate within us the spirit of Ibadat.

The Qur'an does not use the term Ibadat for any of these modes of worship.
Rather, it reserves the term Ibadat for describing the holistic concept and attitude
that has been presented earlier.

These modes of worship prepare the believer mentally for the life in which there
is complete obedience to Quran and Sunnah. It helps in removing the
hindrances in the path of Obedience and Worship.

Namaz (Salat):
The divine directive for Namaz is that one should suspend his/her worldly
activities five times a day and stand before Allah to affirm: "We worship only You
and we seek assistance only from You." This affirmation renews our relationship
with the Divine. The Qur'an describes the wisdom and purpose of prayers by
saying:

"Verily, As-Salat (the prayer) prevents from Al-Fahsha' (i.e., great sins of every
kind, unlawful sexual intercourse) and Al-Munkar (i.e., disbelief, polytheism, and
every kind of evil, wicked deed).'' (29:45)

"And perform AsSalât (Iqâmat-as-Salât) for My Remembrance. 20:14." By


keeping the remembrance of Allah fresh in the minds of those who pray, it
protects them from falling into forgetfulness and indifference.

Zakat:
and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and give Zakat, and that is the right
religion.'' (98:5)
Zakat has been prescribed so that one should be purged from the love of wealth,
which can be potentially fatal for one's moral and spiritual health and the root
cause of many evils.
21

Fasting:
Fasting has been prescribed so that one may develop a sense of Taqwa or
abstinence, enhancing the ability to avoid disobedience.

O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it
was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqûn (2:183).
The human self is prone to weaknesses. Fasting helps one to be protected from
the unbridled desires of the self.

Hajj:
"And Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka`bah) is a duty that mankind
owes to Allah, those who can afford the expenses (for one's conveyance,
provision and residence); (3:97)
All the blessings accruing from these "modes of worship" appear in their
combined form in the religious duty of Hajj. The Hajj includes prayer (the
remembrance of Allah, the Ihraam which has restrictions resembling fasting, and
the expenses that are incurred resembling the zakat.

In summary, these four pillars of Islam have been prescribed not as the essence
of the Islamic teachings, but as the basic foundation upon which the structure of
Islam can be erected. These pillars act as the ramparts for faith. Allah has done
us a great favor by giving us these methods for conditioning ourselves for His
service.

Removing the Hindrances in the Worship of Allah

Abu Hurairah RA reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "May he be miserable, the
worshipper of the dinar and dirham, and the worshipper of the striped silk cloak.
If he is given anything, he is satisfied; but if not, he is unsatisfied". [Al-Bukhari].
Commentary: "A slave of dinar and dirham and silk cloaks (clothes)" here
means a person who prefers these things to the Divine injunctions and
commands and strives day and night to amass worldly goods. Instead of
worshipping Allah, he worships such things and is thus guilty of worship of others
besides Allah, a condition which causes his ruin.

Rasool Allah said "Verily Allah says: O son of Adam, free yourself for my
worship, I will (in turn) fill your chest with satisfaction and remove your poverty,
and if you don't I will fill your hands with distraction and will not remove your
poverty." (Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah) In another narration, "I will fill your
chest with distraction." Al Suyuti said in explaining this hadith "Free yourself for
my worship means do not busy yourself in earning that which exceeds your
needs and the needs of those under your care".

This is the way a person should busy himself in obedience to Allah subhanahu
wa ta'ala. A person should look into his own and his family's necessities as
regards to wealth and work accordingly. When he earns enough to fulfill his
22

needs, the needs of those he is responsible for and whatever else is necessary,
he should not busy himself in acquiring beyond that because spending hours
working for the sake of acquiring extra wealth will only be at the cost of
knowledge & actions and for establishing his worldly life but destroying his
Hereafter. Yet it is surprising to find people who have thousands and thousands
of dollars or pounds, still running madly after the world and by so doing placing
upon themselves difficulties and hardships, embarking upon business ventures,
one after the other, which they could possibly do without.

Some more Hadiths.

Abu Huraira RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "The world is the
believer's prison and the non believer's Jannah". [Muslim].

Abdullah bin Mas`ud RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) slept on a straw


mat and got up with the marks left by it on his body. Ibn Mas`ud RA said, "O
Messenger of Allah! Would that you make us spread out a soft bedding for you.''
He (PBUH) replied, "What have I to do with the world? I am like a rider who had
sat under a tree for its shade, then went away and left it.'' Tirmidhi.

Abdullah bin `Umar RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) took hold of my


shoulders and said, "Be in the world like a stranger or a wayfarer". Ibn `Umar RA
used to say: "When you survive till the evening, do not expect to live until the
morning; and when you survive until the morning, do not expect to live until the
evening; (do good deeds) when you are in good health before you fall sick, and
(do good deeds) as long as you are alive before death strikes". [Al-Bukhari].

Anas RA reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said: "O Allah, there is no true life but
the life of the Hereafter". Bukhari and Muslim.

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "The world is
sweet and green (alluring); and verily, Allah is making you to succeed each other,
generations after generations in it in order to see how you act. So beware of this
world and beware of women". [Muslim].

Anas RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Three (things) follow a


dead person: Members of his family, his property and his deeds. Two of them
return; and one remains with him. The people and his wealth return; his deeds
remain with him". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Uthman bin `Affan RA reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "There is no right for
the son of Adam except in these (four) things: A house to live in, a cloth to cover
therewith his private parts, bread and water.'' Tirmidhi.

On the authority of Ibn Mas'ud RA who said that the Messenger of Allah saw
said, "The two feet of the son of Adam will not move from near his Lord on the
23

day of Judgement until he is asked about five (matters) 1. about his life - how he
spent it; 2. about his youth - how he took care of it; 3. about his wealth - how he
earned it; 4. and where he spent it 5. and about that which he acted upon from
the knowledge he acquired." Tirmidhi.

Abu Barzah RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Man's feet will not
move on the Day of Resurrection before he is asked about his life, how did he
consume it, his knowledge, what did he do with it, his wealth, how did he earn it
and how did he dispose of it, and about his body, how did he wear it out.''
Tirmidhi.

Commentary:
1. This Hadith first of all highlights the importance and value of this transitory life,
every breath of which is invaluable. Not a moment of it should, therefore, be
wasted in the disobedience of Allah because one shall also be made to account
for it.

2. Man shall also be answerable for his knowledge. Here, we find an inducement
for acquiring religious knowledge because that alone is beneficial for him. He
should make use of his knowledge for winning the pleasure of Allah. If he does
not do that then he must think about the justification for not doing so. He must
also think how he would be facing Allah on the Day of Resurrection.

3. The question in respect of wealth raised in this Hadith clearly shows that one
should earn wealth by legitimate means only and spend it strictly in a lawful
manner. If he takes to unfair means of income or squanders it, he will be sinful
and required to account for the violation of the Divine injunctions.

4. One should protect his body from everything that is unlawful and force himself
to submit to the Divine injunctions. When he is asked to account for neglecting
them, it will be difficult for him to escape the consequences of accountability.

In short, this Hadith makes one conscious of the accountability so that one keeps
it all the time in view so that he will be saved from humiliation on the Day of
Resurrection. How nice would it really be if one bears the accountability of the
Day of Resurrection always in mind!
24

Preaching
(Tableegh)
This literally means taking the message to others. Islam will reach far and wide
only when it is taken far and wide by those who profess to believe in it. Allah
enjoined the Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in the following manner:

"Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allâh
answered their invocation by sending Muhammad Peace be upon him ), who
shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur'ân)
and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islâmic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom
or Prophet hood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-
Wise." 2:129

Similarly (to complete My Blessings on you) We have sent among you a


Messenger (Muhammad SAW) of your own, reciting to you Our Verses (the
Qur'ân) and sanctifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Qur'ân) and the
Hikmah (i.e. Sunnah, Islâmic laws and Fiqh - jurisprudence), and teaching you
that which you used not to know. 2:151

Indeed Allâh conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them
a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from among themselves, reciting unto them His
Verses (the Quran), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and
instructing them (in) the Book (the Quran) and AlHikmah [the wisdom and the
Sunnah of the Prophet SAW (i.e. his legal ways, statements, acts of worship,
etc.)], while before that they had been in manifest error. 3:164

He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad SAW )


from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the
filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Qur'ân,
Islâmic laws and Islâmic jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways,
orders, acts of worship, etc. of Prophet Muhammad SAW). And verily, they had
been before in mainfest error; 62:2

And command people to do good deeds, and prevent them from forbidden
things, and bear patiently whatever befalls you (in the preaching of Truth):
undoubtedly this demands courage!" (31:17)

Say (0 Muhammad!): "and this Quran has been revealed to me that I may warn
you therewith and whomsoever it may reach” (6:19)

And remind (by preaching the Qur'an, O Muhammad SAW) for verily, the
reminding profits the believers. (51:55)
25

So remind them (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)), you are only a one who
reminds. You are not a dictator over them. 88:21-22

We have sent you [O Prophet] with the Truth, as a bearer of glad tidings and a
warner; not a community there is, but there has passed away in it a warner (35:
24).

O Messenger, deliver that which has been sent down to you from your Lord; for if
you do not, you will not have delivered His message (5: 67).

"O you who believe! Save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is
men and stones over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who
disobey not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do that
which they are commanded." (66:6)

Help you one another in AlBirr and AtTaqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but
do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear Allâh. Verily, Allâh is
Severe in punishment. 5:2

“Convey from me to the people even if it be a single ayah”. (Bukhari)

Muhammad saw on the occasion of his farewell pilgrimage entrusted the


responsibility of preaching to the Muslim community with the words: “Those who
are present should convey (Allah's Message) to those who are not here”.
(Bukhari)

Abu Hurairah (RA) reported: When this Verse was revealed: "And warn your tribe
(O Muhammad (PBUH)) of near kindred". (26:214) Messenger of Allah (PBUH)
called the Quraish; when they gathered, he said to them: "O sons of `Abd
Shams; O sons of Ka`b bin Lu'ai, rescue yourselves from the Fire! O sons of
Murrah bin Ka`b, rescue yourselves from the Fire! O sons of `Abd Manaf, rescue
yourselves from the Fire! O sons of `Abdul-Muttalib, rescue yourselves from the
Fire! O Fatimah, rescue yourself from the Fire, for I have no power (to protect
you) from Allah in anything except that I would sustain relationship with you".
Muslim.
26

Calling others to Islam


(Da'wah)
Dawah means calling others to Islam.

Invite (mankind, O Muhammad SAW) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with
wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Inspiration and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and
argue with them in a way that is better. 16:125

And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be
in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to
Islâmic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong, and
say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to
you; our Ilâh (God) and your Ilâh (God) is One (i.e. Allâh), and to Him we have
submitted (as Muslims)." 29:46

And who is better in speech than he who calls men to Allah and does righteous
deeds and says I am one of the Muslims. (41:33)

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "It is revealed to me that your Ilâh (God) is only one Ilâh
(God - Allâh). Will you then submit to His Will (become Muslims and stop
worshipping others besides Allâh)?" 21:108

Say (O Muhammad SAW ): "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians):
Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allâh,
and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others
as lords besides Allâh. Then, if they turn away, say: "Bear witness that we are
Muslims." 3:64

Say (O Muhammad SAW): "This is my way; I invite unto Allâh (i.e. to the Oneness
of Allâh - Islâmic Monotheism) with sure knowledge, I and whosoever follows me
(also must invite others to Allâh i.e to the Oneness of Allâh - Islâmic Monotheism)
with sure knowledge. 12:108

To spread the truth and invite people to the straight path one has to work in a
way the Qur’an describes in the prayers of Prophet Noah (Alaihis Salaam, AS).

He said: "O my Lord! Verily, I have called my people night and day (i.e. secretly
and openly to accept the doctrine of Islamic Monotheism) , But all my calling
added nothing but to (their) flight (from the truth). And verily! Every time I called
unto them that You might forgive them, they thrust their fingers into their ears,
covered themselves up with their garments, and persisted (in their refusal), and
magnified themselves in pride. Then verily, I called to them openly (aloud); Then
verily, I proclaimed to them in public, and I have appealed to them in private.
71:5-9
27

In the above ayah Allah has shown us different modes of calling others to Islam.

Sahl bin Sa`d (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (PBUH)
said to `Ali (May Allah be pleased with him), "By Allah, if a single person is
guided by Allah through you, it will be better for you than a whole lot of red
camels.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Abu Hurairah (RA) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "If anyone calls
others to follow right guidance, his reward will be equivalent to those who follow
him (in righteousness) without their reward being diminished in any respect, and
if anyone invites others to follow error, the sin, will be equivalent to that of the
people who follow him (in sinfulness) without their sins being diminished in any
respect". [Muslim].

Jabir (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said,
"My parable and that of yours is like a man who kindled a fire. When it has
illuminated all around him, the moths and grasshoppers began to fall therein. He
tried to push them away, but they overcame him and jumped into it. I am catching
hold of your waists ties (to save you) from fire, but you slip away from my hands".
[Muslim].

Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil


('Amr Bil Ma'ruf Wa Nahi 'Anil Munkar)
Amr bil ma'ruf wa nahi 'anil munkar is a very important Quranic term and is
performed at different levels.

And command people to do good deeds, and prevent them from forbidden
things, and bear patiently whatever befalls you (in the preaching of Truth):
undoubtedly this demands courage!" (31: 17)

Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good (Islâm),
enjoining Al-Ma'rûf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do)
and forbidding Al-Munkar (polytheism and disbelief and all that Islâm has
forbidden). And it is they who are the successful. 3:104

You [true believers in Islâmic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet


Muhammad SAW and his Sunnah (legal ways, etc.)] are the best of peoples ever
raised up for mankind; you enjoin Al-Ma'rûf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that
Islâm has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islâm
has forbidden), and you believe in Allâh. 3:110
28

They believe in Allâh and the Last Day; they enjoin Al-Ma'rûf (Islamic
Monotheism, and following Prophet Muhammad SAW) and forbid Al-Munkar
(polytheism, disbelief and opposing Prophet Muhammad SAW); and they hasten in
(all) good works; and they are among the righteous. 3:114

Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write
(i.e. Muhammad SAW) whom they find written with them in the Taurât (Torah)
(Deut, xviii, 15) and the Injeel (Gospel) (John xiv, 16), - he commands them for
Al-Ma'rûf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained); and forbids
them from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism of all kinds, and all that Islam has
forbidden); he allows them as lawful At-Taiyibât [(i.e. all good and lawful) as
regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.], and prohibits them as
unlawful Al-Khabâ'ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs,
persons, foods, etc.), he releases them from their heavy burdens (of Allah's
Covenant), and from the fetters (bindings) that were upon them. So those who
believe in him (Muhammad SAW), honor him, help him, and follow the light (the
Qur'an) which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful.
7:157

The believers, men and women, are Auliyâ' (helpers, supporters, friends,
protectors) of one another, they enjoin (on the people) Al-Ma'rûf (i.e. Islamic
Monotheism and all that Islâm orders one to do), and forbid (people) from Al-
Munkar (i.e. polytheism and disbelief of all kinds, and all that Islam has
forbidden); 9:71

(The believers whose lives Allâh has purchased are) those who repent to Allâh
(from polytheism and hypocrisy, etc.), who worship Him, who praise Him, who
fast (or go out in Allâh's Cause), who bow down (in prayer), who prostrate
themselves (in prayer), who enjoin (people) for Al-Ma'rûf (i.e. Islâmic Monotheism
and all what Islâm has ordained) and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar (i.e.
disbelief, polytheism of all kinds and all that Islâm has forbidden), and who
observe the limits set by Allâh (do all that Allâh has ordained and abstain from all
kinds of sins and evil deeds which Allâh has forbidden). And give glad tidings to
the believers. 9:112

Enjoining right and forbidding wrong has three levels it is done sometimes with
the heart, sometimes with the tongue, and sometimes with the hand (i.e. physical
force). As for practicing it with the heart, it is obligatory upon every Muslim in
every time and situation, since its practice brings no hardship. whoever fails to do
even that is not even a believer as in the full version of this hadith.

Narrated Abu Sa'id al-Khudri: I heard the Messenger of Allah as saying: He who
amongst you sees something abominable should modify it with the help of his
hand; and if he has not strength enough to do it, then he should do it with his
tongue; and if he has not strength enough to do it, (even) then he should (abhor
it) from his heart and that is the least of faith. (Muslim)
29

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) observed: There
was never a Prophet sent before me by Allah to his nation who had not among
his people (his) disciples and companions who followed his ways and obeyed his
command. Then there came after them their successors who said that which they
did not practice, and practiced that which they were not commanded to do. He
who strove against them with his hand was a believer, he who strove against
them with his tongue was a believer, and he who strove against them with his
heart was a believer, and beyond that there was no faith, not even as much as a
mustard seed. (Muslim)

Hudhaifah RA reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "By Him in Whose Hand my
life is, you either enjoin good and forbid evil, or Allah will certainly soon send His
punishment to you. Then you will make supplication and it will not be accepted".
Tirmidhi.

Ibn ‘Abbas narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: He is not one of us who
does not show kindness to our youngsters, does not show respect to our elders,
and does not enjoin unto good and does not forbid from evil. Tirmizi

Abdullah bin Mas`ud RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The first
defect (in religion) which affected the Children of Israel in the way that man would
meet another and say to him: `Fear Allah and abstain from what you are doing,
for this is not lawful for you.' Then he would meet him the next day and find no
change in him, but this would not prevent him from eating with him, drinking with
him and sitting in his assemblies. When it came to this, Allah led their hearts into
evil ways on account of their association with others.'' Then he (PBUH)
continued: "Nay, by Allah, you either enjoin good and forbid evil and catch hold of
the hand of the oppressor and persuade him to act justly and stick to the truth, or,
Allah will involve the hearts of some of you with the hearts of others and will
curse you as He had cursed them". Abu Daud

The narration in At-Tirmidhi is: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "When the
Children of Israel became sinful, their learned men prohibited them but they
would not turn back. Yet, the learned men associated with them and ate and
drank with them. So, they were cursed at the tongues of Dawud and `Isa (Jesus),
son of Maryam (Mary), because they were disobedient and were given to
transgression.'' At this stage Messenger of Allah (PBUH) who was reclining on a
pillow sat up and said, "No, By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, there is no
escape for you but you persuade them to act justly.'' Tirmidhi.

Abu Bakr RA reported: "O you people! You recite this Verse: `O you who believe!
Take care of your own selves. If you follow the (right) guidance [and enjoin what
is right (Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do) and forbid what
is wrong (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden)] no hurt can
come to you from those who are in error.' (5:105) But I have heard Messenger of
30

Allah (PBUH) saying: "When people see an oppressor but do not prevent him
from (doing evil), it is likely that Allah will punish them all.'' Abu Daud & Tirmidhi.

Nu`man bin Bashir RA reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "The likeness of the
man who observes the limits prescribed by Allah and that of the man who
transgresses them is like the people who get on board a ship after casting lots.
Some of them are in its lower deck and some of them in its upper (deck). Those
who are in its lower (deck), when they require water, go to the occupants of the
upper deck, and say to them : `If we make a hole in the bottom of the ship, we
shall not harm you.' If they (the occupants of the upper deck) leave them to carry
out their design they all will be drowned. But if they do not let them go ahead
(with their plan), all of them will remain safe". Bukhari

Usamah bin Zaid (RA) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "A man will be
brought on the Day of Resurrection and will be cast into Hell, and his intestines
will pour forth and he will go round them as a donkey goes round a millstone. The
inmates of Hell will gather round him and say: `What has happened to you, O so-
and-so? Were you not enjoining us to do good and forbidding us to do evil?' He
will reply: `I was enjoining you to do good, but was not doing it myself; and I was
forbidding you to do evil, but was doing it myself". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Being Witnesses unto Mankind


(Shahadat 'Alan Naas)
This fourth term most comprehensively describes the nature of our second
religious obligation. It stands for being Allah's witness over the people so that one
may affirm and testify on the Day of Judgment that the duty of conveying the
message to others and adequately representing the Divine commands had been
duly performed. In performing this duty one becomes representation of Allah's
messengers, since it was this very task that has been defined as the mission of
the messengers themselves.

How (will it be) then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring
you (O Muhammad SAW) as a witness against these people? 4:41)

Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order that mankind


should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-
Powerful, All Wise. 4:165

Thus We have made you [true Muslims - real believers of Islamic Monotheism,
true followers of Prophet Muhammad SAW and his Sunnah (legal ways)], a Wasat
(just) (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind and the
Messenger (Muhammad SAW) be a witness over you. 2:143
31

And strive hard in Allah's Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all
your efforts that His Name should be superior). He has chosen you (to convey
His Message of Islamic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion,
Islam), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship, it is the religion of your
father Ibrahim (Abraham) (Islamic Monotheism). It is He (Allah) Who has named
you Muslims both before and in this (the Qur'an), that the Messenger
(Muhammad SAW) may be a witness over you and you be witnesses over
mankind! 22:78

So, [on Judgement Day,] We shall most certainly call to account all those unto
whom [Our] message was sent, and We shall most certainly call to account the
Message-bearers and thereupon We shall most certainly relate unto them [their
account] with knowledge, for We were never absent (7:6-7).

On the Day of Judgment, the Messenger will testify that he had preached the
Divine message to them, thereby absolving him of any responsibility for the
conduct of their actions in this world.

Let us reflect on this whether this testimony by the Prophet (SAW) will be in favor
of or against the Muslims.

By any measure of the yardstick, this testimony will be against us. The Prophet
Muhammad (SAW) will affirm in Allah's court that he had faithfully conveyed
divine message to the people. It was, in turn, the responsibility of the people to
preach it to others. It is very clearly and forcefully stated in the following ayah that
Muslims, who are raised as the "best community" for all of mankind, owe the
responsibility of being the witnesses for all of humanity:

The Prophet Muhammad (SAW) had been sent down as the messenger for the
entire mankind, not just the Arabs. This point comes very sharply at several
places in the Qur'an. For example, it is said in Surah As-Saba that he was sent
as Warner and bearer of glad tidings for the whole mankind And We have not
sent you (O Muhammad SAW) except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to
all mankind, but most of men know not. 34:28 In Surah Al-Aaraf, it is declared
that he is the Messenger for all peoples. Almost the same point occurs in Surah
Al-Ambiya, where he is spoken of as mercy unto all of the worlds And We have
sent you (O Muhammad SAW ) not but as a mercy for the 'Alamîn (mankind, jinns
and all that exists). 21:107

If this task was his alone, then it does not make any sense that his life ended
before his mission was complete. The fact of the matter is that he entrusted this
responsibility on the Muslim ummah (as pointed out earlier that on the occasion
of the farewell pilgrimage he entrusted his duty to the whole Muslim community).
If this community of believers fails to deliver the goods, it will be condemned not
only for its own failure, but also for the errors and failures of all of humanity.
32

Others will be perfectly justified in making the plea on the Day of Judgment that
Muslims, though blessed with the final and complete Divine message, faith,
shariah, and despite being members of the final Messenger's community, not
only failed to convey this message to them but misrepresented the message
altogether, thus making it unappealing and repulsive.

Can any one give me a satisfactory reply to the question that during the final
accountability when we are interrogated about our duty of shahadah 'ala an-
naas, what answer we will possibly have? We happen to be members of the
Prophet Muhammad's (SAW) community. We possess his teachings and the
Qur'an, the very Word of Allah. It goes without saying that we will not have any
excuse or defense on this count. We will be certainly held responsible for our
failure to convey the Divine message to others. Sadly, far from preaching Islamic
faith and adequately representing it to others as a community, it is our misfortune
and plight that we ourselves are unable to practice sound faith and character as
individuals. We are Muslims only by birth and in name only.
33

Supremacy of the Lord


(Takbeer-e-Rabb)
And make your Lord Supreme. (74:3)

The Quranic expression employed in the above ayah literally means that Allah's
supremacy is established on earth. It is not easy to grasp the gravity of this
statement at a glance. However, since humanity by and large does not recognize
Allah's Supereminence, the Quranic command is that He be recognized by
humanity. The command and authority (hukm) belongs only to Allah in the
ultimate sense. Taken in this sense Allah's grandeur is not recognized in the
world presently. Humanity has usurped power and sovereignty and insists on
enforcing its own will to regulate human interaction, exchange and governance,
remaining oblivious of His greatness and true right as Sovereign.

However, in reality we do not recognize and concede His greatness as a living


force in our lives, which is clear by the fact that His will, as dictated to us in our
Scriptures, is not enforced anywhere. In our public life and institutions we do not
recognize Allah's absolute sovereignty. It is our duty as Muslims that all authority
and power be vested in Him and His judgment accepted unquestioningly. Only a
true Islamic system that protects the commands of Allah and ensures the
morality, ethics, brotherhood, sisterhood, and code of conduct (taught by Islam,
will signify in real terms Allah's glory and greatness.

0 you wrapped up in a mantle. Arise and warn the people, and make your Lord
Supreme! (74:l-3)

This address involves the very first command (not the first revelation) to the
Prophet (SAW) to arise from his condition of meditation and begin his second
obligation of taking the message to the people. The second command comes in
the very next ayah and it involves the third obligation of making his Lord
Supreme (or establishing the religion as a concrete reality). Since Muhammad
(SAW) is a messenger to all of humanity, he himself was obliged to respond to
these commands by taking the message to all of humanity and establishing Islam
over all peoples. Those lying in slumber of negligence should be told clearly that
it is not all about the life in this world, rather the real life has to begin after death -
a life that is everlasting:

And this life of the world is only an amusement and a play! Verily, the abode in
the Hereafter is indeed the real living, if they only knew. (29:64)

The Prophet (SAW) told mankind clearly that the real abode is the Hereafter.
Likewise, he warned them against the approaching Day of Judgment, when
everyone will stand before the Lord for reckoning:
34

Do they not think that they will be resurrected on a mighty day, a day when (all)
mankind will stand before the Lord of the worlds? (83:4-6)

Human beings should not suffer from the delusion that the Prophet Muhammad's
(SAW) warning is hollow. The Day of Judgment is an undeniable reality and on
that Day the real winners and losers will be decided:

The Day when He will assemble you (all) on the day of assembly, that will be the
Day of mutual loss and gain. (64:9)

This warning of the Hereafter marked the starting point of the Prophet
Muhammad's (SAW) call and struggle. So if this was the starting point, what was
the culminating point of his mission in this world? His ultimate goal, the
culminating point, was to instate Allah's greatness beyond the level of
hypothetical dogmatic assertions - as concrete reality. It is for anybody to decide
that in his Prophetic career of twenty-three years whether he accomplished this
mission or not. One is compelled to concede the fact that he did implement the
commands of Allah and established His supremacy within the Arabian
Peninsula.

Establishing Islam
(Iqamat-e-Deen)

This duty of establishing Islam is specifically mentioned in the Quran.

He (Allâh) has ordained for you the same religion (Islâm) which He ordained for
Nûh (Noah), and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad SAW), and
that which We ordained for Ibrahîm (Abraham), Mûsa (Mosesý) and 'Isa (Jesus)
saying you should establish religion (i.e. to do what it orders you to do
practically), and make no divisions in it (religion) (i.e. various sects in religion).
(42:13)

The expression employed in the verse is especially used for making something
stand upright. When something is laying flat on the ground, then it makes sense
to ask that it be made "upright". Whose responsibility is it to make something that
has fallen down, stand upright? Is it not the duty of those who profess to believe
in the reality and truth of the matter? If Islam is already established as a system
the believers are obliged to keep it in tact, keep it firmly upright. If it is lying
shattered on the ground, they are obliged to establish it. The economy, social life,
political system and all public institutions should be in accordance with the
dictates of Islam and under Divine authority. Only then it may be said that Islam
35

is established. Otherwise, it should be clear that Divine revelation is not merely


for recitation and praise. It is clearly said in the Quran:

0 people of the Book! You have nothing unless you establish the Law of the
Gospels and all the revelation that has come to you from your Lord. (5:68)

Once again, the same word 'to establish' occurs in the above ayah and even
though it refers to the Jews and Christians, it nevertheless serves the purpose of
an example for the Muslims, who are required to establish the commands of the
Qur'an. Since the Qur'an is a guide to human life in all its respects, it must be
enforced as a collective system. It is the responsibility of the Muslims to live in
accordance with the Quranic teachings individually as well as collectively. These
are the implications of the third duty.

Supereminence of Islam
(Ad-deenu kulluhu Lillah)
This term is of the Madinan period and comes in two Madinan Surahs - Al-
Baqarah and Al-Anfal:

And fight them on until there is no more tumult (or oppression) and the religion is
Allah's. (2:193)

And fight them on until there is no more tumult (or oppression) and there prevail
justice and faith in Allah alone." (8:39)

The fragmentation of religion is forbidden, and this point can only be understood
if the meaning of religion is understood in its complete and holistic capacity. We
might be offering Prayers, fasting, paying Zakat, performing Hajj and 'Umrahs,
but if the political system governing the country has no place for Islam, economic
matters are decided without any reference to Islamic economic teachings, rather
excuses are rapidly put forward to avoid implementation of Islam, it means that
there is no Islam, since partial obedience is tantamount to disobedience. Having
reservations in enforcing Islamic penal laws and declaring the segregation of the
sexes as an unacceptable practice in modem times (rather prescribing to the
equal social role of the sexes with no regard for female modesty*), is sheer
hypocrisy, not Islam.

We seem to be more concerned with appeasing a particular section of the


society while having little or no regard for displeasing Allah and in the process
incurring His wrath. In this way, the Muslims of today have fragmented' the
Islamic teachings into segments; there are some teachings that we consider as
essential and there are those teachings that are no longer applicable simply
36

because they appear to be impractical, outdated, inconvenient, or simply


embarrassing when viewed in terms of the current trends in society!

Ascendancy or Domination of Islam


(Izharu Deenil Haqq 'Alad-Deen Kullihi)

The fourth term in this context appears in the following ayah

It is He Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) with guidance and the
religion of truth (Islam), to make it superior over all religions even though the
Mushrikûn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah)
hate (it).9:33

He it is Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) with guidance and the
religion of truth (Islamic Monotheism) to make it victorious over all (other)
religions even though the Mushrikûn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and
disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammed SAW)
hate (it). 61:9

It is He who has sent forth His Messenger with the guidance and the way of the
Truth, so that he makes it prevail over all other ways of life; and God suffices as
a witness 48: 28

Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them
the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. And
We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power (in matters of war), as well as
many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help Him (His
religion), and His Messengers in the unseen. Verily, Allah is All-Strong, All-
Mighty. 57:25

Presently in all existing systems, collective life affairs are based on secularism &
Interest based Capitalism. The divine guidance has no relevance in this system.
This is shirk and in Quranic terms it is known as a system of taghoot (Evil and
devil)

Allâh has promised those among you who believe, and do righteous good deeds,
that He will certainly grant them succession to (the present rulers) in the earth, as
He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to
practice their Deen, that which He has chosen for them (i.e. Islam). And He will
surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear (provided) they
(believers) worship Me and do not associate anything (in worship) with Me. But
whoever disbelieved after this, they are the Fâsiqûn (rebellious, disobedient to
Allâh). 24:55
37

Since Islam is a complete way of life, it has Social, Political and Economic
system, a point explicitly made in the Qur'an, its very existence is meaningless
unless it is established as such and its limits enforced in regulating the collective
affairs of the people. Islam is a religion only if its injunctions are enforced and its
morality is established in society, otherwise, it represents at best a utopia, having
nothing to do with ground realities.

Political System of Islam


The non Islamic system provides popular sovereignty at political level of the
collective sphere of life. People are sovereign and can make any laws even if
they clash with the divine laws. God has nothing to do with their collective life
affairs. This is the first time in the history of mankind that man has taken out God
from their collective lives.

Where as in Islam the belief in the unity and the sovereignty of Allah is the
foundation of the social and moral system propounded by the prophets. It is the
very starting point of the Islamic political philosophy.

The basic principle of Islam is that human being must, individually and
collectively, surrender all rights of over lordship, legislation and exercising of
authority over others. No one ought to accept the obligation to carry out such
commands and obey such orders.

None is entitled to make laws on his own authority and none is obliged to abide
by them. No man, even if be a prophet, has the right to order others in his own
right to do or not to do certain things. The prophet himself is subject to Allah's
commands.

Political guidelines of Islam. (No oppression).

(1) Sovereignty belongs to Allah alone.

And to Allah belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth 48:14

The command (or the judgement) is for none but Allah. 12:40

And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son
(nor an offspring), and Who has no partner in (His) Dominion, nor He is low to
have a Walî (helper, protector or supporter). And magnify Him with all the
magnificence." 17:111.
38

And He makes none to share in His Decision and His Rule." 18:26

Know you not that it is Allah to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and
the earth 2:107.

For Whom there is no partner in the dominion 25:2

(2) No legislation will be done repugnant to the Quran and the Sunnah.

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and
those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything
amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger (SAW), if you believe in
Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final
determination. 4:59

O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allah and His
Messenger (SAW), and fear Allah. Verily! Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. 49:1

(3) No authoritarianism only mutual consultation.

Who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation 42:38

(4) Make a clear distinction between Muslims and Non-Muslims.

Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor
forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those
who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the
Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission,
and feel themselves subdued. 9:29

(5) No theocracy of Religious Scholars.

They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords
besides Allah (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful
according to their own desires without being ordered by Allah), 9:31

When ‘Adiyy ibn Haatim heard the Prophet (PBUH) reciting this aayah, he said,
“But they were not worshipping them.” The Prophet (PBUH) replied, “Yes, but
they permitted things that Allah had forbidden, and the people accepted this, and
they forbade things that Allah had allowed, and the people accepted this too, and
this is a form of worshipping them.” Tirmidhi.
39

Social System of Islam


At social level “freedom” is the catch word of secularism, and total freedom
ultimately leads to unwed mothers, single parents and high rate of divorces in the
society.

Islam has explained the wisdom of the principles and laws of nature on which it
bases its laws for regulating mutual relationships between man and woman etc.

Islam has given a social system in which all human beings belongs to one
creator (i.e. Allah) and everyone by birth is equal. Humankind has a common
origin from Adam and Eve hence no discrimination between black, white, Arab
and non Arab etc. Islam has also laid emphasis on the segregation of sexes so
that the family life system remains intact and strong.

Allah is the creator of man and woman, he is the creator of an employer and
employee and similarly he is the creator of landlords/businessmen and
farmers/labors etc. Allah knows what should be the rights of man, woman,
employer, employee, landlords and labors etc. Allah swt has said that the
humankind are like his ayaal (family). Therefore no one other than Allah is fair
enough to inform about the rights of people.

Therefore it is he, who only can give a just social order in which the rights of the
people are not under-estimated and not neglected and therefore humankind
should abide by that just social order and i.e. Islam.

Social guidelines of Islam (No discrimination).

(1) One creator (Al-Khaliq) and everyone (by birth) is equal.

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person
(Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them
both He created many men and women and fear Allah through Whom you
demand your mutual (rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs
(kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All Watcher over you. 4:1

O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into
nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of
you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa . Verily, Allah is All-Knowing,
All-Aware. 49:13

So their Lord accepted of them (their supplication and answered them), "Never
will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are
(members) one of another. 3:195
40

(2) Segregation of sexes.

And tell the believing women to lower their gaze (from looking at forbidden
things), and protect their private parts (from illegal sexual acts, etc.) and not to
show off their adornment except only that which is apparent (like palms of hands
or one eye or both eyes for necessity to see the way, or outer dress like veil,
gloves, head-cover, apron, etc.), and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i.e.
their bodies, faces, necks and bosoms, etc.) and not to reveal their adornment
except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their
husband's sons, their brothers or their brother's sons, or their sister's sons, or
their (Muslim) women (i.e. their sisters in Islam), or the (female) slaves whom
their right hands possess, or old male servants who lack vigor, or small children
who have no sense of the shame of sex. And let them not stamp their feet so as
to reveal what they hide of their adornment. And all of you beg Allah to forgive
you all, O believers, that you may be successful. 24:31

And when you ask (Muhammad's wives) for anything you want, ask them from
behind a screen, that is purer for your hearts and for their hearts. 33:53

O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to
draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely
except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should
be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is
Ever Of Forgiving, Most Merciful. 33:59

(3) Unity of the human race.

On the occasion of farewell pilgrimage the Prophet Muhammad saw said


meaning of that is No black is superior to white and no white is superior to black
similarly no Arab is superior to Non Arab and no Non Arab is superior to Arab the
only criteria for being superior is Taqwa (Fear of disobedience to Allah). The
whole humankind has a origin from Adam and Allah swt has created Adam from
clay. Hence total equality between black & white, Arab & non-Arab etc.

Social Justice in Islam


The purpose of the state visualizes by the Holy Quran is not merely to prevent
people from exploiting each other, to safeguard their liberty and to protect its
subjects from foreign invasion. It also aims at evolving and developing that well
balanced system of social justice which has been set forth by Allah in his Holy
Book. Its object is to eradicate all forms of evil and to encourage all types of
virtue and excellence expressly mentioned by Allah in the Quran. For this
purpose political power will be made use of as and when the occasion demands.
41

Mission of Muhammad saw.

Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them
the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. 57:25

I am commanded to do justice among you 42:15

And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad SAW ) the Book (this Qur'an) in
truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Mohayminan (trustworthy
in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures). So judge between them by
what Allâh has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging away from
the truth that has come to you. 5:48

Then We have put you (O Muhammad SAW) on a plain way of (Our)


commandment [like the one which We commanded Our Messengers before you
(i.e. legal ways and laws of the Islamic Monotheism)]. So follow you that (Islamic
Monotheism and its laws), and follow not the desires of those who know not.
45:18

Allah's Order

O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allâh, even
though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor,
Allâh is a Better Protector to both (than you). So follow not the lusts (of your
hearts), lest you may avoid justice, and if you distort your witness or refuse to
give it, verily, Allâh is Ever Well Acquainted with what you do. 4:135

O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and
those of you (Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you differ in anything
amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger (SAW), 4:59

And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allâh (He is the ruling
Judge). 42:10

Verily! Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom
they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. 4:58

Warning of Allah

And thus have We sent it (the Qur'an) down to be a judgement of authority in


Arabic. Were you (O Muhammad SAW ) to follow their (vain) desires after the
knowledge which has come to you, then you will not have any Walî (protector) or
defender against Allâh. 13:37

Have you seen those (hypocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has
been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish
42

to go for judgement (in their disputes) to the Tâghût (false judges, etc.) while they
have been ordered to reject them. But Shaitân (Satan) wishes to lead them far
astray. (4:60)

O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just witnesses and let not
the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. (5: 8) .

“Those who do not make decisions according to Allah's laws, are kafir”(5:44)

“Those who do not make decisions according to Allah's laws, are zalim
(mushrik)” (5:45)

“Those who do not make decisions according to Allah's laws, are fasiq
(disobedient”) (5:47)

Jabir bin `Abdullah RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Beware of


injustice, for oppression will be darkness on the Day of Resurrection; and beware
of stinginess because it doomed those who were before you. It incited them to
shed blood and treat the unlawful as lawful.'' [Muslim]

Anas (RA) reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Help your brother,
whether he is an oppressor or is oppressed". A man enquired: "O Messenger of
Allah! I help him when he is oppressed, but how can I help him when he is an
oppressor?'' He (PBUH) said, "You can keep him away from committing
oppression. That will be your help to him". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Abu Hurairah RA reported: Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Do you know who
is the bankrupt?'' They said: "The bankrupt among us is one who has neither
money with him nor any property". He said, "The real bankrupt of my Ummah
would be he who would come on the Day of Resurrection with Salat, Saum and
Sadaqah (charity), (but he will find himself bankrupt on that day as he will have
exhausted the good deeds) because he reviled others, brought calumny against
others, unlawfully devoured the wealth of others, shed the blood of others and
beat others; so his good deeds would be credited to the account of those (who
suffered at his hand). If his good deeds fall short to clear the account, their sins
would be entered in his account and he would be thrown in the (Hell) Fire".
[Muslim].

Aishah RA reported: The Quraish were much worried about the case of a
Makhzumiyah woman who had committed theft and wondered who should
intercede for her with Messenger of Allah (PBUH) (so that she would not get
punished for her crime). Some said Usamah bin Zaid RA was his beloved and so
he may dare do so. So Usamah RA spoke to him about that matter and the
Prophet (PBUH) said to him, "Do you intercede when one of the legal
punishments ordained by Allah has been violated?'' Then he got up and
addressed the people saying, "The people before you were ruined because when
43

a noble person amongst them committed theft, they would leave him, but if a
weak person amongst them committed theft, they would execute the legal
punishment on him. By Allah, were Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, to
commit the theft, I would have cut off her hand.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Abu Bakr's first address as a Caliph.

On the following day of Prophet Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr went to the
Prophet's mosque, here people took the general oath of loyalty. When this was
over, Abu Bakr mounted the pulpit as the Caliph of Islam. Then he spoke to the
gathering as follows:

"The weak among you are powerful in my eyes, as long as I do not get them
their due, Allah willing. The powerful among you are weak in my eyes, as
long as I do not take away from them what is due to others, Allah willing."

Such was the Magna Carta granted by the first Caliph of Islam to his people, on
the first day of his rule, without their asking. Abu Bakr showed by his example
that Social Justice is the necessary outcome of the Islamic government.

Economic System of Islam


At economic level, the landmark of secular system is interest based economy in
which a person owns everything. A person has free choice to spend/earn money
the way he pleases. Interest based economy necessarily creates “haves and
have nots”. The one who is rich will remain permanently rich and the one who is
poor will remain permanently poor. Interest has a sister known as insurance with
the help of which it is pretended that Allah is prevented from making the people
poor. Through speculation, the economy is in the hands of few people. When
ever, they want, they can suck blood of the masses.

Islam enters the field of Economic theory under the influence of its universal
philosophy and guided by its general ideology. Islam concerns about the welfare
of the individual and the ensuring of the welfare of society, it holds a position of
doing injury neither to the individual nor to society. It does not oppose human
nature nor it seek to impede the fundamental customs and the high and far
reaching objectives of life.

In order to implement this idea, Islam makes use of its two fundamental methods:
Legislation and exhortation. By the former it achieves the practical objective of
being responsible for the maintenance of a healthy community, capable of growth
and improvement by the latter it aims at raising men above the level of instinct to
achieve a more developed form of life.
44

Economic guidelines of Islam (No exploitation).

(1) Allah owns everything (Al-Malik).

And let not those who covetously withhold of that which Allah has bestowed on
them of His Bounty (Wealth) think that it is good for them (and so they do not pay
the obligatory Zakât). Nay, it will be worse for them; the things which they
covetously withheld shall be tied to their necks like a collar on the Day of
Resurrection. And to Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth;
and Allah is Well Acquainted with all that you do. 3:180

They are the ones who say: "Spend not on those who are with Allah's
Messenger, until they desert him." And to Allah belong the treasures of the
heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites comprehend not. 63:7

(2) Man is only a custodian.

Believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and spend of that
whereof He has made you trustees. And such of you as believe and spend (in
Allah's Way), theirs will be a great reward. 57:7

(3) Controlled capitalism minus interest & gambling.

Those who eat Ribâ (usury) will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except
like the standing of a person beaten by Shaitân (Satan) leading him to insanity.
That is because they say: "Trading is only like Ribâ (usury)," whereas Allah has
permitted trading and forbidden Ribâ (usury). So whosoever receives an
admonition from his Lord and stops eating Ribâ (usury) shall not be punished for
the past; his case is for Allah (to judge); but whoever returns [to Ribâ (usury)],
such are the dwellers of the Fire - they will abide therein. 2:275

Allâh will destroy Ribâ (usury) and will give increase for Sadaqât (deeds of
charity, alms, etc.) And Allâh likes not the disbelievers, sinners. 2:276

O you who believe! Be afraid of Allâh and give up what remains (due to you) from
Ribâ (usury) (from now onward), if you are (really) believers. 2:278

And if you do not do it, then take a notice of war from Allah and His Messenger
but if you repent, you shall have your capital sums. Deal not unjustly (by asking
more than your capital sums), and you shall not be dealt with unjustly (by
receiving less than your capital sums). 2:279

Shaitân (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with
intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the
remembrance of Allah and from As-Salât (the prayer). So, will you not then
abstain? 5:91
45

Abdullah bin Mas`ud RA reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) cursed the
one who accepts Ar-Riba (the usury) and the one who pays it. [Muslim]. The
narration in Tirmidhi adds: And the one who records it, and the two persons who
stand witness to it.

Commentary: Both the parties, that is the one who charges interest and the one
who pays it, are equally guilty in the matter of usury (or Riba). This Hadith
highlights the intensity of unlawfulness of Ar-Riba, or what has come to be called
nowadays interest which can be judged from the fact that not only the person
who charges it and the one who pays it are cursed but even those who write the
documents and bear witness to the transaction are condemned although the
latter two have no active part in the deal. They have been condemned for their
mere co-operation in the matter of interest. Thus, we learn that even co-operation
in the deal in which interest is involved is an invitation to the Curse and Wrath of
Allah. The reason for such severity in the matter of interest is that Islam wants to
create a society which is founded on fraternity, sympathy, selflessness and
sacrifice. If someone is in need of money, the rich should fulfill his needs for the
sake of Allah's Pleasure or give him a loan without interest. As against the
Islamic system, this system of interest is based on selfishness, exploitation and
suppression. In the interest-ridden societies, the affluent ones are not inclined to
co-operate with the needy for the sake of Allah. All they are concerned with is
their own interest. Their lust and greed are not reduced in the slightest measure
even after draining the last drop of the blood of the poor. This is the reason why
Shari`ah has forbidden interest of every kind and regarded it unlawful, no matter
whether the loan is for the personal need or commercial requirements.

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger PBUH said, "Usury has seventy parts,
the least important being that a man should marry his mother." Ibn Majah and
Tirmizi.

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger PBUH said, "On the night when I was
taken up to Heaven I came upon people whose bellies were like houses and
contained snakes which could be seen from outside their bellies. I asked Gabriel
who they were and he told me that they were people who had practiced usury."
Ahmad, Ibn Majah & Tirmizi.

Narrated Umar bin Khattab "The last verse to be sent down was that on usury,
but Allah's Messenger PBUH was taken without having expounded it to us; so
leave aside usury and whatever is doubtful". Ibn Majah & Tirmizi.
46

Introduction to Jihad
In order to fulfill our obligations to Allah, it is essential to strive in His cause
(which is the literal meaning of jihad). This is the starting point and also the
culminating point. Nothing can be accomplished without making sincere and
concerted effort. Likewise, Muslims are supposed to strive in the light of their
faith. The clashes that take place as a result of this striving (which might be of
multiple natures such as personal and internal, psychological, ideological or even
physical) are called 'Jihad'.

Misconceptions about Jihad:

The most prevailing misconception about Islam is Jihad, due to this it is normally
associated with violence and a threat to world peace. Rancid notions such as
Jihadism and Jihadists are now widely used to demonize and limit the concept of
Jihad to merely a synonym for war. Irrespective of the intentions of the
combatants’ actual motives, every Muslim war is wrongly labeled as Jihad. Even
massacres by oppressive rulers to strengthen their rule have been dubbed as
Jihad.

But in reality Jihad is absolutely not war. Instead, the Qur’an uses the term 'Qital'
for war at numerous places. Jihad is a very broad category which includes many
aspects of Deen (religion), as mentioned in the following text. Whereas 'Qital' is
the climax of struggle in the cause of Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala, SWT) after
fulfilling many prerequisites.

The term 'Jihad' does not means fighting and killing people only. Let us take
example from Quran itself.

And We have enjoined on man to be good and dutiful to his parents, but if they
strive to make you join with Me (in worship) anything (as a partner) of which you
have no knowledge, then obey them not. Unto Me is your return, and I shall tell
you what you used to do.29:8

But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that
of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not, but behave with them in
the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in
obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to
do. 31:15

So obey not the disbelievers, but strive against them (by preaching) with the
utmost endeavour, with it (the Qur'an). 25:52

In the first two ayah Allah says that if you parents wage jihad against you to join
in worship with me other false deity, then obey them not. Here Jihad does not
47

means fighting or killing because in the next ayah order has been given to
behave with them kindly, here Jihad only means 'pressurizing' or 'forcing'.

In the third ayah, Allah orders believers to wage Jihad with disbelievers with the
Quran. So one can easily understand if Jihad means fighting and killing then how
could Quran fight and kill people, it is only a divine book not a weapon to kill.

The Real Meaning of Jihad:

Most words in the Qur’an have a three-letter root which reflects in all derivatives
of these words. The root word for Jihad is 'Juhud' which means to exert one’s
utmost or to strive to achieve any objective. However this Juhud is a one sided,
uni-directional personal effort of an individual to achieve an objective. When
Juhud is converted into Mujahadah or Jihad, we see an additional meaning. The
effort is not a one sided attempt by a single party anymore. Mujahadah or Jihad
becomes a two sided struggle in which every side struggles to achieve its own
objective despite all odds and oppositions.

When it comes to struggle for any objective, one has to invest all his resources. A
never ending struggle goes on among human beings in every sphere of life for
self promotion, financial and material advancement, personal well being, national
honor, personal or national ideologies, or supremacy of different systems and
ideologies. All this comes under struggle, Jihad, the cause of one’s country,
nation, ideology, existence, etc.

The Qur’an, however, stresses on Jihad in the cause of Allah


(SWT) alone

The word Jihad and the verb that goes with it mean to struggle against some
opposition. Thus, each and every human being is engaged in Jihad, in the sense
that everyone has to struggle for his existence. However, the kind of Jihad we
are talking about should be qualified as Fi Sabi Lillah, that is to say, trying and
exerting one's utmost in the path of Almighty Allah. It is an earnest and ceaseless
activity involving the sacrifice of physical and mental resources, wealth, property,
and even life, only for the sake of attaining the pleasure Almighty Allah (SWT).

In order to understand the meaning of striving in the path of Allah, we should first
have a clear concept of the responsibilities of a Muslim. According to the Qur'an
and the Sunnah, the obligations of a Muslim are three-fold: A Muslim is required
to become an obedient slave of Almighty Allah (SWT), he is required to mold his
life, his values, his priorities, and his ambitions according to the commands of his
Lord. Secondly, he must preach and disseminate the ideational and practical
guidance of Islam to his fellow human beings, to enjoin all that is good and
prohibit all that is evil. Thirdly, he must try his utmost to establish the domination
of Islam over all other systems of life, all over the world.
48

Even a superficial analysis of these three obligations is enough to establish the


fact that none of them is easy to fulfill. There are immense difficulties to
overcome, all sorts of oppositions to put up with, and countless problems to solve
at each of the three levels. A Muslim must put in a great deal of hard labor in
fulfilling these obligations, he must exercise all his abilities and all his resources if
he is to fulfill his duties. In other words, he is required to engage in a constant
Jihad.

The Qur’an refers to two investments wealth and lives , when it discusses the
concept of Jihad Fi Sabi Lillah. The main prerequisite is setting the objective for
Jihad. Only those are the believers who have believed in Allâh and His
Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for
the Cause of Allâh. Those! They are the truthful. (49:15).

The smallest but most potent surah (chapter) of the Qur’an explains the most
important and inter-related issues in this respect. It says:

“I swear by the time. Most surely man is in loss. Except those who believe and do
good, and enjoin on each other truth, and enjoin on each other patience.” [103:1-
3] It is very logical that a man behaves in this fashion in every aspect of life: first
he has to look and find out the truth, the just and right point of view. Secondly, he
has to accept the truth when he finds it. Thirdly, he has to strive to propagate the
truth and say what he believes is just and right. Lastly, he has to bear all
problems he may face while upholding the truth. From an Islamic point of view,
the best title for all these factors is “Jihad in the cause of Allah (SWT).”
Whosoever understood the reality of the creation of the universe; recognized
Allah (SWT) and accepted Him, has to strive in the cause of Allah (SWT) with all
available means at his/her disposal. And Allah (SWT), of course, is not pleased
with mischief on earth. From here on we have to see the basic steps and the
ultimate destination of Jihad in the cause of Allah (SWT).

In a long hadith narrated by Muadh bin Jabal RA, Rasool Allah said "Shall I not
inform you of the head of the matter, its pillar and its peak?” I said, “Yes, O
Messenger of Allah.” He PBUH said, “The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is
the prayer and its peak is Jihad. Tirmidhi, Hadith Qudsi by Nawawi. Hence Jihad
is the highest virtue of the moral ideology/thought of Islam,

This struggle or Jihad covers a wide spectrum of religious obligations, and its
inherent activism can be understood as having nine different stages or aspects,
as explained below:
49

Types of Jihad

According to Imam ibn Qayyim 'Jihad is of four types'

1 Jihad an Nafs
(a) Striving hard to learn the true guidance and the religion of truth, meaning
Islamic Monotheism (Tawheed),
(b) One's striving hard to implement what he has learnt.
(c) Striving to deliver the Message and teach it to those who do not have
knowledge in it.
(d) Striving to be patient in the face of hardships of conducting Da'wah (inviting
mankind) unto Allah
2 Jihad ash-Shaitan
(a) Jihad against him to disregard the misgivings and doubts he raises to
invalidate Iman (faith).
(b) Jihad against him by ignoring what he tempts one with erroneous intentions
and desires.
3 Jihad al-Kuffar wal-Munafiqeen
(a) with the heart,
(b) tongue,
(c) wealth and
(d) one's self (body).
4 Jihad Against those who Practice Injustice, Innovations and Sin
(a) with the hand, when able to do so.
(b) But when one is unable, then he should revert to Jihad with the tongue and
(c) if again unable, then with the heart."

After Imam ibn al-Qayyim explained the types and categories of Jihad, he then
summarized his research by saying, "These are thirteen types of Jihad, and he
who dies without indulging in Jihad or encouraging himself to perform Jihad, will
die on a way (method, part, manner etc.) of hypocrisy"

Stages of Jihad fi Sabi Lillah

Jihad Ma’an Nafs (To become an obedient slave of Almighty Allah swt.)

 (1) Jihad against one’s own self

 (2) Jihad against shaitan (Satan).

 (3) Jihad against perverted social customs & beliefs.


50

Jihad bil Quran (For Dawah and Tableegh)

 (4) Jihad in acquiring the right knowledge of Quran & sahih hadith so as to
preach the educated and intelligent classes.

 (5) Jihad in transforming one’s own self according to the Quran so that
one may invite common people or the masses at large with his own
example.

 (6) Jihad in acquiring the detailed knowledge of Quran for 'Mujadilah &
Munazira' (used for convincing the rigid and inflexible adversaries).

Jihad bis saif (To Establish the Domination of Islam.)

 (7) Passive resistance. (enduring all verbal and physical persecution


without retaliation)

 (8) Active resistance (agitation or challenging the system in the form of


civil disobedience.)

 (9) Physical confrontation (which today might take the form of 'disciplined
unarmed revolt' against the system.)

Striving Against One's Own Self


(Jihad An-Nafs)
At this level, one has to wage jihad, a fierce battle against one's own self, against
Shaitan and against perverted social customs & beliefs.

One will have to strive hard to make his/her self sub-servant to the commands of
Allah. The human self is vulnerable and prone to transgressing on the basis of
the uncontrollable desires of his material existence:

The (human) soul is certainly prone to evil. (12:53)

The Holy Qur'an speaks of three types of human self or Nafs

Nafs-e-ammara is prone to evil (12:53) and, if unchecked and uncontrolled,


leads to perdition and eternal damnation;

Nafs-e-lawwama (75:2) which feels conscious of the evil and resists, asks for
God's grace and pardon after repentance and tries to amend;

Nafs-e-mutma'inna (89:27), the highest stage of all, when it achieves full peace
and satisfaction in obeying Divine commands.
51

You will never find a people who believe in Allah and the last day putting out their
love for those who oppose Allah and His Prophet, even though they be their
fathers or their sons or their brothers or their clansmen. These are the ones in
whose hearts Allah has written faith and He has aided them with a spirit from
Him. 58:22

When a person’s belief in Allah (SWT), His prophets, His Books, the Day of
Judgment and the life after death as not merely a dogma or a racial creed, and
he is truly illuminated from within, he is bound to go through a struggle against
the impurities within and factors that harm the humanity outside.

This struggle or resistance is a natural product of the clash between his powerful
animal instincts of the baser-self to which the Qur’an refers as Nafs-e-ammara,
and the modern researchers, such as Sigmund Freud, refer to as 'Id or Libido'
and his desire to be on the straight path. These blind instincts force human
beings to ignore the distinction between good and bad, right and wrong, moral
and immoral. They need satisfaction at all costs. However, if one has believed in
the truth, he has to respect the laws of Allah (SWT) and limits set by Him (SWT).
One of the pre-requisites of one’s belief in the truth is to obey Allah and obey the
Messenger.

Obey Allâh, and obey the Messenger (Muhammad SAW ), 64:12

O you who believe! Do not put (yourselves) forward before Allâh and His
Messenger (SAW), 49:1

These are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them, 2:187

For whosoever transgress these limits of Allah's are the wrong-doers.” 2:229

It shows that the internal resistance and struggles begin the moment one realizes
and accepts the ultimate truth from his heart.

As long as belief in the truth is limited to one’s tongue, no internal resistance


takes place. That’s why the Qur’an says:

O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do? Most hateful it is
with Allâh that you say that which you do not do. 61:2-3

Internal resistance takes place when the baser-self demands one thing and the
laws of Allah (SWT) demand another. That is why when Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH) was asked about the best form of Jihad, he replied “an-tujahida nafsaka
fi ta’atil ah,” which is to struggle against yourself to make your nafs (soul)
obedient to Allah (SWT). This is the starting point of Jihad.
52

Hafiz Ibn Qayyim said "I heard my Sheikh (ie. Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyyah)
saying: 'The Jihad against one's self and against al-Hawwa (desires) constitutes
the basis for the Jihad against the Kuffar and and the Munafiqeen, because one
is unable to make Jihad against them until he makes Jihad against himself and
his Hawwa first, so that he can go out to (confront) them" [Rawdaat-ul-Muhibeen
wa Nuzhat-ul-Mushtaqeen]

Discarding Allah's Command and Obeying Own Self

If someone is obeying his own self, his own desire rather than Allah (SWT), then
it gradually becomes an act of Shirk. (Shirk fil Ibadat). Below are the two ayah
that says if the desire is followed instead of following Allah's order then this
desire becomes God.

Have you (O Muhammad SAW) seen him who has taken as his ilâh (god) his own
desire? Would you then be a Wakîl (a disposer of his affairs or a watcher) over
him? 25:43

Have you seen him who takes his own lust (vain desires) as his ilâh (god), and
Allâh knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his
heart, and put a cover on his sight. Who then will guide him after Allâh? Will you
not then remember? 45:23

Abu Hurairah RA reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "May he be miserable, the
worshipper of the dinar and dirham, and the worshipper of the striped silk cloak.
If he is given anything, he is satisfied; but if not, he is unsatisfied". [Al-Bukhari]
Commentary: "A slave of dinar and dirham and silk cloaks (clothes)" here
means a person who prefers these things to the Divine injunctions and
commands and strives day and night to amass worldly goods. Instead of
worshipping Allah, he worships such things and is thus guilty of worship of others
besides Allah, a condition which causes his ruin.

Jihad against one’s inner-self—the baser-instincts—is like a root. If this root is


tightly held deep inside the human personality, the plant over it will thrive and
flourish. If the root lacks depth and thoroughness, any temptation or difficulty in
life would easily blow away the resistance required for overcoming baser
instincts.

Therefore first of all one has to bring evil desires under the control of his/her real
self, the soul that was breathed into each and every one of us by Allah himself.
For example, at dawn, there is Adhan signifying Allah's call to Prayer, but the self
desires the sweet sleep of the early morning hours. If one has control over one's
self, one will be able to overcome this physical desire in favor of a spiritual one
and will rise to pray. A failure to do so might ultimately lead to total disregard of
one's duties in favor of this worldly pursuits of wealth, luxuries and personal
gratification at the material level.
53

The struggle against the self is, in fact, the foremost and perhaps most vital stage
of jihad. The following Hadith demonstrates the importance of the struggle
against one's own self: The real mujahid is one who strives against the desires of
his/her material existence. It is therefore evident from the above Hadith that the
primary level of Jihad and its starting point is to fight against one's own material
self and try to control and subjugate it.

Jihad Through Qur'an


(Jihad Bil Qur'an)
But strive against them with this (Qur'an) a truly great struggle! 25:52

We fling (send down) the truth (this Quran) against the falsehood (disbelief) and
it knocks out its brain, and behold, it (falsehood) is vanished. 21:18

And We have not sent down the Book (the Qur'an) to you (O Muhammad SAW ),
except that you may explain clearly unto them those things in which they differ,
and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe. 16:64

So keep on reminding through the Qur'an whoever fears My warning. 50:45

(Say...) that this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may warn you with it, and
those whom it reaches. 6:19

So we have made this (Qur'an) easy in your tongue, that you may give good
tidings with it to those who take heed and warn with it the Ludda (most
quarrelsome) people. 19:97

Firstly Muslims should struggle to acquire the knowledge of Quran & Sunnah so
that they may preach the educated and intelligent classes, Secondly they should
struggle to transform their own self according to the Quran so that they may
invite common people or the masses at large with his own example and thirdly
they should struggle for acquiring the detailed knowledge of Quran for 'Mujadilah
& Munazira' (used for convincing the rigid and inflexible adversaries).

The importance of learning the knowledge of Quran & Sunnah is evident from the
below hadith.

Abud-Darda RA reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "He who follows
a path in quest of knowledge, Allah will make the path of Jannah easy to him.
The angels lower their wings over the seeker of knowledge, being pleased with
what he does. The inhabitants of the heavens and the earth and even the fish in
54

the depth of the oceans seek forgiveness for him. The superiority of the learned
man over the devout worshipper is like that of the full moon to the rest of the
stars (i.e., in brightness). The learned are the heirs of the Prophets who
bequeath neither dinar nor dirham but only that of knowledge; and he who
acquires it, has in fact acquired an abundant portion.'' [Abu Dawud and At-
Tirmidhi].

Abu Hurairah RA reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "Allah makes
the way to Jannah easy for him who treads the path in search of knowledge.''
[Muslim].

This jihad corresponds to our second religious obligation, that of taking the
message of Islam to others. When one enters the field of inviting others to faith,
countless obstacles come in the path to spread the word of truth. Striving against
these obstacles is jihad, but more at the conceptual level.

Many ideologies such as atheism, materialism, fascism, communism and other


faith and belief systems are poised to confront every effort of yours. Forces
representing unbelief are very well entrenched throughout society - a reality that
truly dawns only when one enters the struggle to confront them with the pristine
light of Islam. However this confrontation is purely on an ideological and
philosophical level. Our wealth and energy must be invested in this battle. When
Prophet Muhammad (SAW) was calling towards monotheism, Abu Jahl and his
followers were defending polytheism and idolatry. This eventually led to a bitter
encounter between them.

The basic objective of this Jihad is to discharge one’s responsibility of delivering


the message of Allah (SWT) and inviting human kind to the truth. This way, they
would not be able to pretend that no one informed them about the truth or that
they had no access to the truth.

According to the Qur’an, one of the main objective of the Messengers of Allah
(SWT) coming to mankind is:

And strive hard in Allah's Cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all
your efforts that His Name should be superior). He has chosen you (to convey
His Message of Islamic Monotheism to mankind by inviting them to His religion,
Islam), and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship, it is the religion of your
father Ibrahim (Abraham) (Islamic Monotheism). It is He (Allâh) Who has named
you Muslims both before and in this (the Quran), that the Messenger
(Muhammad SAW) may be a witness over you and you be witnesses over
mankind! 22:78

Whenever there is a struggle to preach faith, invite others to the path of Islam,
enjoin good and forbid evil, and act as a witnesses of Allah unto mankind, the
55

atheism and disbelief will not keep silent they will definitely wage an ideological
battle whenever there is a call for Islam in the real sense.

Thus this represents a more difficult or advanced stage in jihad than the first one.
In the first stage man engages in a jihad against his own self, but at this stage he
must confront the forces outside of himself - forces of falsehood, atheism,
permissiveness and wrong ideologies. Note that the first struggle (against one's
own self) intensifies as these challenges are confronted. As to the instrument to
be employed in this jihad, Allah guides Muslims to wage this jihad with the help of
the Qur'an:

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet
(PBUH) said, "The best type of Jihad (striving in the way of Allah) is speaking a
true word in the presence of a tyrant ruler.''[Abu Dawud and At-Timidhi].

On the authority of Abu Sa'id (may Allah be pleased with him), who said that the
Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: Let not any one of you belittle himself. They
said: O Messenger of Allah, how can any one of us belittle himself? He said: He
finds a matter concerning Allah about which he should say something, and he
does not say [it], so Allah (mighty and sublime be He) says to him on the Day of
Resurrection: What prevented you from saying something about such-and-such
and such-and-such? He say: [It was] out of fear of people. Then He says: Rather
it is I whom you should more properly fear. Ibn Majah (No 22 Forty Hadiths Imam
Nawawi)

Allah makes plain that the Qur'an stands out as a sword that is capable of rooting
out each and every false 'ism'. The Qur'an is described here in terms of a
weapon.

Allama Iqbal voices the same view when he says that with the sword of the
Qur'an Satan himself can be conquered:

Allah has blessed the Muslims with this Quran, the mighty and effective sword,
which represents the greatest miracle granted to Prophet Muhammad (SAW). It
is a pity that we treat the Qur'an as a mere object around which we can perform
our rituals rather than making it a living entity to be used in this dynamic fashion.

In this stage of jihad, Muslims should equip themselves intellectually and


ideologically by means of the Qur'an. They are supposed to uphold and establish
truth and in so doing they should expend their money and physical resources to
spread the light of Qur'an. They will have to use both the tongue and the pen in
order to fulfill the requirements of taking the message of Islam to others. They
have to employ all the modem mediums of communication and the facilities of
the mass media in order to promote and circulate the Quranic call and teachings.
56

Imam ibn al-Qayyim said: "Jihad with the clear proofs and the tongue comes
before Jihad with the sword and the spear" [Qaseedah an-Nooniyyah]

Literature & Methodology Used In Calling People unto Allah

"Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allâh
answered their invocation by sending Muhammad Peace be upon him ), who
shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Quran)
and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islamic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom
or Prophet hood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-
Wise." 2:129

Similarly (to complete My Blessings on you) We have sent among you a


Messenger (Muhammad SAW) of your own, reciting to you Our Verses (the
Quran) and sanctifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Quran) and the
Hikmah (i.e. Sunnah, Islamic laws and Fiqh - jurisprudence), and teaching you
that which you used not to know. 2:151

Indeed Allâh conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them
a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from among themselves, reciting unto them His
Verses (the Quran), and purifying them (from sins by their following him), and
instructing them (in) the Book (the Quran) and AlHikmah [the wisdom and the
Sunnah of the Prophet SAW (i.e. his legal ways, statements, acts of worship,
etc.)], while before that they had been in manifest error. 3:164

He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad SAW)


from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the
filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Qur'an,
Islamic laws and Islamic jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways,
orders, acts of worship, etc. of Prophet Muhammad SAW). And verily, they had
been before in mainfest error; 62:2

From the above four ayah it is clear that the Prophet Muhammad has gone
through a four step process in calling people to Allah and the only source to this
process was Quran.

(1) Reciting the verses of the Quran to them.


The Prophet Muhammad used to recite the verses of the Quran to the people
around him. The Quran attracts all the men with good characters (fitrat) and good
intellect from the crowd (like the magnet which attract all the iron particles from a
mixture of wood and iron.) recognizing the one and only Allah swt.

(2) Purifying them from the filth of Disbelief & Polytheism etc.
The Prophet Muhammad purifies this newly formed group from all forms of
disbelief and the diseases of heart with the help of the Quran only.
57

(3) Teaching them the book (this Qur'an, Islamic laws and Islamic
jurisprudence).
The Prophet Muhammad teach them the commandments of Allah SWT, he teach
them all the do's & don'ts prescribed by Allah swt in the Quran.

(4) Teaching them the Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of
worship, etc. of Prophet Muhammad PBUH).
The Prophet Muhammad teach them his Sunnah, legal ways of doing things and
acts of Worship etc. This includes the teaching of Quran and for us, the
teachings of Sahih Ahadith (The sayings of Muhammad saw are preserved in
Sahih Ahadith).

Conclusion.
Thus, it was nothing but the highly inspiring and moving verses of the Holy
Qur'an which were effectively used by Prophet Muhammad (SAW) to remove the
false beliefs from the minds of his audience, to inculcate the knowledge of reality
as revealed by Almighty Allah (SWT), to purify their hearts and to reform their
characters, to teach them the injunctions of their Lord and the wisdom contained
therein. The Qur'an repeatedly mentions the fact that the center and axis of the
Prophet's activities vis-à-vis the training and purification of his Companions was
the Holy Book itself.

But unfortunately we Muslims of today used to call people by false stories, weak
hadiths and the tales of sufi saints etc. We do not emphasize on the Quran, we
will never be successful unless we use Quran as a primary source followed by
Sahih Hadiths in calling people to Allah and this is the way of Muhammad saw.

We must look into the Seerah of Muhammad saw, how did he perform the
obligation of preaching, calling others to Islam and Witness unto mankind, how
did the party of Sahaba came into existence in Mecca, how the sahaba attain the
Imaan in their hearts, when we study the Seerah of Muhammad saw we came to
know that the primary source was only Quran.
58

To Fight in the Cause of Allah


(Jihad Bis-Saif)

Mission of Muhammad pbuh

It is He Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) with guidance and the
religion of truth (Islam), to make it superior over all religions even though the
Mushrikûn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah)
hate (it). 9:33

It is He who has sent forth His Messenger with the guidance and the way of the
Truth, so that he makes it prevail over all other ways of life; and God suffices as
a witness 48:28

He it is Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad SAW ) with guidance and the
religion of truth (Islamic Monotheism) to make it victorious over all (other)
religions even though the Mushrikûn (polytheists, pagans, idolaters, and
disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammed SAW)
hate (it). 61:9

Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them
the Scripture and the Balance (justice) that mankind may keep up justice. And
We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power (in matters of war), as well as
many benefits for mankind, that Allah may test who it is that will help Him (His
religion), and His Messengers in the unseen. Verily, Allah is All-Strong, All-
Mighty. 57:25

A careful study of the above verses reveals that Prophet Muhammad (SAW) has
been sent by Allah swt along with two items: (1) Al-Huda or The Guidance (i.e.
Quran) and (2) Deen al-Haq or the True Way of Life (Total, unconditional and
exclusive obedience and submission to Allah. ) so that he may prevail over all
other ways of life.

The mission of Muhammad pbuh was to establish Islam not just in the narrow
religious sense, but in a manner that includes all aspects of human life in all over
the world. Prophet Muhammad (SAW), after more than two decades of strenuous
struggle, succeeded in establishing in the Arabian peninsula the system of life in
which Allah (SWT) was accepted as the Supreme and Absolute Sovereign
59

Obligation of this Ummat in carrying out the Mission of Muhammad


saw.

And We have not sent you (O Muhammad SAW) except as a giver of glad tidings
and a warner to all mankind, but most of men know not. 34:28

And We have sent you (O Muhammad SAW ) not but as a mercy for the 'Alamîn
(mankind, jinns and all that exists). 21:107

He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad SAW )


from among themselves,........... And He has sent him (Prophet Muhammad SAW )
also to others among them (Muslims) who have not yet joined them (but they will
come). And He (Allâh) is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. 62:2-3

All convinced and committed Muslims must realize that, since after Prophet
Muhammad (SAW) there is going to be no prophet for the guidance of mankind,
Prophet Muhammad's mission has therefore acquired the following two-fold
direction and significance. Firstly, he is the Messenger of Almighty Allah (SWT)
to his contemporary Arab people (in particular) and, secondly, he is also the
Messenger to the entire humanity till the end of the world (in general). It is
stated quite clearly in the Holy Qur'an (Al-Jum'ah 62:2,3) that the Prophet (SAW)
was sent unto both the unlettered people (ummiyeen) and unto all the people
belonging to other lands and future times (akhereen). The latter aspect of
Muhammad's Prophet hood stresses the universality and timeless validity of all
that was revealed to him.

The climax and finale of the prophetic mission came at the pilgrimage performed
by Prophet Muhammad (SAW) in 9 AH, when he addressed a mammoth
gathering of Muslims at the Hajj Congregation and asked them whether he had
fully transmitted to them the Truth. In reply, all testified that he had indeed
communicated the Truth, that he had conscientiously discharged the duty
entrusted to him by Almighty Allah (SWT), and that he had worked for their
spiritual well being in the best possible manner. The Prophet Muhammad then
entrusted his mission of establishing Islam in other parts of the world on to the
shoulder of this Ummah. Only a few months later the Holy Prophet (SAW) left
this world for the Heavenly abode.

Now, in the light of the following Quranic verse:

He has chosen you.... so that the Messenger may be a witness (to Truth) before
you and you might bear witness (to it) before all mankind. 22:78

The execution of the prophetic mission at the global level is the obligation of the
Muslim Ummah as a whole. In the pursuance of this very objective the noblest of
the Prophet's Companions, i.e., the four Rightly Guided Caliphs, carried the
banner of Islam on his behalf to the wide world outside the Arabian Peninsula.
60

Indeed, Islam reigned supreme in its pristine excellence on a vast area of the
then civilized world, and the obligations of witnessing to the Truth before
mankind, preaching the message of Almighty Allah (SWT) and making Islam
dominant as a system of life were discharged with utmost dedication for almost
three decades. Thereafter, the Deen of Allah experienced a slow and
gradual decline till it reached its lowest ebb in the first quarter of the present
century.

Starting as an ideology believed in by a handful of people, Islam became the


rock-bottom foundation of a whole world civilization. Now it has been reverted
back to a position in which very few Muslims genuinely and whole-heartedly
adhere to its dictates. We have, however, seen that Almighty Allah (SWT)
demands of us a struggle and persistent endeavour to re-establish the link
between faith and power, bringing both of them into a single unified whole.

So let us passionately involve ourselves in our society to do His will, and still
more passionately let our hearts yearn for His pleasure. Let the life of the
Prophet energize our ambitions and priorities. Let his message be our
message, let his conduct be our conduct, and let his goals be our goals. Let
nothing motivate us but an intense longing to please our Lord in the world to
come, and let this expectation and desire give a decisive impetus to our life in
this world. If this community of believers fails to establish Islam, it will be
condemned not only for its own failure, but also for the errors and failures of all of
humanity.

Privilege of rule

“Verily the ‘Hukm’ (command, judgment) is for none but Allah” [12:40]

This ayah states that the privilege of rule is reserved for Allah (SWT) alone.

Hukum is a legal judgment. The Hukum is to pass judgment, issue a verdict, or a


sentence. Allah (SWT) has ordered the Prophet (SAW) to rule between Muslims
by that which He (SAW) revealed to him and has obliged Muslims to conform
themselves to all the rules of the Shari’ah. An order of Allah (SWT) to the
Prophet (SAW) is an order to the entire Ummah.

And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad SAW ) the Book (this Qur'ân) in
truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Mohayminan (trustworthy
in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures). So judge between them by
what Allâh has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging away from
the truth that has come to you. 5:48

Here the order refers to all of the aspects of governing that have been revealed,
and not merely a part of it. This order to the Prophet (SAW) has been given in a
decisive manner, and does not leave room for doubt or alternative meanings.
61

If we have a look at the global order today, the situation is totally different than
what was prescribed for the human beings. Therefore, establishing this truth
needs extra effort.

If someone is preaching or propagating something that does not challenge the


status quo or individual interests, no one will raise questions. If invitation to the
truth undermines vested interests, a bitter resistance is inevitable. However, true
believers have to endure the subsequent pain without resorting to violent reaction
or tit for tat revenge.

There was resistance to Prophet Muhammad saw's efforts in Mecca as well, but
the situation got worse when believers of the truth came out and declared that
they were not only preachers but also establishers of the Hukum of Allah (SWT)
in His land. They were not there to give sermons on justice and fairness. They
had to establish justice. This is what Allah (SWT) told Prophet Muhammad
(SAW) to say:

I am commanded to judge justly between you...42:15

This is not about introduction and description of a system, but it is about


establishing a just order. In this struggle, tough resistance is inevitable because
those in power would never lose sight of their vested interests. At this stage
resistance will touch the climax.

Conditions for the legality of Jihad bis Saif.

a) If the religion of truth (Islam) is not established as a socio-politico-economic


system.
b) If the social justice brought by Islam is not established and people are not
judged according to it.
c) If the opponents neither accept the call of Islam nor accept the domination of
Islam.
d) In the case of a people subject to the oppression and tyranny, Islam says that
we must fight those tyrants so as to deliver the oppressed from the claws of
tyranny. The Qur’an says And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the
Cause of Allâh, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men,
women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose
people are oppressors; 4:75
e) The other side intends to attack Muslims.

They intend to put out the Light of Allâh (i.e. the religion of Islâm, this Qur'ân, and
Prophet Muhammad SAW) with their mouths. But Allâh will complete His Light
even though the disbelievers hate (it). 61:8

They (the disbelievers, the Jews and the Christians) want to extinguish Allâh's
Light (with which Muhammad SAW has been sent - Islâmic Monotheism) with
62

their mouths, but Allâh will not allow except that His Light should be perfected
even though the Kâfirûn (disbelievers) hate (it). 9:32

Scholars unanimously agree that completing and perfecting His light means
completing the Deen of Allah (SWT), which is also the main objective of the
advent of the last Prophet Muhammad (SAW).

The third and final level of jihad corresponds to the third and final religious
obligation of establishing Islam as a socio-politico-economic reality. In the stage
of enforcing Islam at the collective level, there is a conflict with the forces of
immorality. They will naturally obstruct, rather obliterate, the efforts for enforcing
Islam in public life in a desperate effort to maintain the status quo in which they
have their vested interests. They will not easily bear with a situation in which
Islam gains ascendancy. There are privileged classes in every system based
upon a false ideology. They govern public life and reap the benefits of power and
authority, and they will never take kindly to the efforts for depriving them of their
sway. Therefore, confrontation is inevitable at the physical level, in spite of
winning the battle at the ideological level.

Stages of Jihad bis Saif

This final confrontation will be in three stages. The first stage is of passive
resistance, the second of active resistance (agitation or challenging the system in
the form of civil disobedience) and the third one is physical confrontation which
today might take the form of unarmed revolt against the system.

If people of faith lack the material resources (human or otherwise), they should
restrain themselves to passively resisting persecution and slander as they wage
their ideological battle. As a strategic move they should not initiate any physical
revolt against the system.

We find that this was the policy that was followed by the Prophet (SAW) and his
companions during the Makkan period. The believers were directed to bear all
kinds of persecution, violence and oppression. They were not allowed to retaliate
in the same coin, but were asked to bear it patiently. here example is perhaps the
highest representation of passive resistance witnessed in human history.

However, after gaining enough strength and resources, the believers are obliged
to launch an offensive against the status quo. Those who were forbidden from
taking an initiative in Makkah were permitted in Madinah to wage war according
to the following ayah.

Permission to fight is given to those (i.e. believers against disbelievers), who are
fighting them, (and) because they (believers) have been wronged, and surely,
Allâh is Able to give them (believers) victory 22:39
63

Armed conflict is the final stage of this struggle and in the fulfillment of our
ultimate obligation to Allah – to make a society whose principles are based on
His commands - a society based on justice and fair play.

Options given before fighting.

It was the practice of Muhammad saw and his companions that before launching
an offensive against the unbelievers, they give three options to them. First,
accept the call of Islam and become our brethren; your life, property, and honor
will be as sacred as our own. Second, accept the domination of Islam and pay
jizya (Islamic tax), you shall be allowed to practice your religion in your private
and personal affairs but the public order will be established in accordance with
Islam. Third, if you reject both of these options, then we must fight and the sword
will decide between us.

These three options clearly illuminate the difference between Deen and religion:
Islam was the dominant public order, under the rule of which all other faiths were
allowed to exist as religions. Nobody was forced to change his religion, but
everyone was obliged to accept Islam’s privileged status as the dominant public
order. This is precisely what is meant by the establishment of Islam as a socio-
political reality.

Concept of State and Government.

In the present scenario the concept of state is different from the concept of
Government, during medieval times there was no distinction between state and
government, to oppose the government was to oppose the state. By extension,
anyone opposing the state was a heretic, politically & religiously. However, the
concept of human rights and the rights of the citizens have evolved over the past
few hundred years. Today, the citizens of a state have the right to challenge the
government within the limits of the Constitution. They have the rights of
assembly, freedom of expression, and freedom of organization, these rights were
not present in the medieval period. From a purely theoretical and Constitutional
point of view, there are no restrictions on the citizens of the modern state to
organize and campaign so that a genuinely Islamic form of governance comes
into existence.

This can be done with peaceful non violent agitation without any armed conflict
for e.g. The revolt of Iranians against their ruler (Shah of Iran), the Iranians under
the leadership of Qumaini declared that they will not kill anybody but will face the
bullets of Shah on their chest and finally the Shah had to run away because it is
not possible for the military to kill the non violent Iranians any more.
64

Jihad is the Obligatory duty of a Momin:

"Jihad (holy fighting in Allah's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you
dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you
like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.'' (2:216)

They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and
12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say, "Fighting therein is a great
(transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allâh is to prevent mankind
from following the Way of Allâh, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-
Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah is
worse than killing. 2:217

And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others
along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). 2:193

Let those (believers) who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter fight in the
Cause of Allâh, and whoso fights in the Cause of Allâh, and is killed or gets
victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward. 4:74

And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the Cause of Allâh, and for those
weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is:
"Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; 4:75

Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are
disabled (by injury or are blind or lame, etc.), and those who strive hard and fight
in the Cause of Allâh with their wealth and their lives. Allâh has preferred in
grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above
those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allâh has promised good (Paradise), but
Allâh has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at
home) by a huge reward; 4:95

O you who believe! Do your duty to Allâh and fear Him. Seek the means of
approach to Him, and strive hard in His Cause as much as you can. So that you
may be successful. 5:35

O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion
(Islam), Allâh will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him;
humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way
of Allâh, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of Allâh
which He bestows on whom He wills. And Allâh is AllSufficient for His creatures'
needs, AllKnower. 5:54

And those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard in the Cause of Allah
(Al-Jihad), as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid; these are the
65

believers in truth, for them is forgiveness and Rizqun Karîm (a generous


provision i.e. Paradise).8:74

Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the
wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the
dwellings in which you delight … are dearer to you than Allah and His
Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His Cause, then wait until Allah
brings about His Decision (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are Al-
Fâsiqûn (the rebellious, disobedient to Allah). 9:24.

Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor
forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger (4) and those
who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the
Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission,
and feel themselves subdued. 9:29

O you who believe! What is the matter with you, that when you are asked to
march forth in the Cause of Allâh (i.e. Jihad) you cling heavily to the earth? Are
you pleased with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But little is the
enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the Hereafter. If you march
not forth, He will punish you with a painful torment and will replace you by
another people, and you cannot harm Him at all, and Allâh is Able to do all
things. 9:38-39

"March forth, whether you are light (being healthy, young and wealthy) or heavy
(being ill, old and poor), and strive hard with your wealth and your lives in the
Cause of Allah'' (9:41)

Those who believe in Allâh and the Last Day would not ask your leave to be
exempted from fighting with their properties and their lives, and Allâh is the All-
Knower of Al-Muttaqûn 9:44

But the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) and those who believed with him (in Islamic
Monotheism) strove hard and fought with their wealth and their lives (in Allah's
Cause). Such are they for whom are the good things, and it is they who will be
successful. 9:88

Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties; for the
price that theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah's Cause, so they kill
(others) and are killed. It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the
Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his
covenant than Allah? Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded.
That is the supreme success. 9:111.
66

O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let
them find harshness in you, and know that Allâh is with those who are the Al-
Muttaqûn 9:123

Thus [you are ordered by Allah to continue in carrying out Jihad against the
disbelievers till they embrace Islam (i.e. are saved from the punishment in the
Hell-fire) or at least come under your protection], but if it had been Allah's Will,
He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you
fight), in order to test you, some with others 47:4

Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and
afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of
Allah. Those! They are the truthful. 49:15.

Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His Cause in rows (ranks) as if they were a
solid structure. (61 :4)

O You who believe! Shall I guide you to a commerce that will save you from a
painful torment. That you believe in Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW),
and that you strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with your wealth and your
lives, that will be better for you, if you but know! 61:10-11

The reasons for jihad which have been described in the above verses are to
establish Allah's authority in the earth, to arrange human affairs according to the
true guidance provided by Allah, to abolish all the satanic force and satanic
systems of life and to end the lordship of one man over others since all men are
creatures of Allah and no one has the authority to make them his servants or to
make arbitrary laws for them. These reasons are sufficient for proclaiming jihad.

However on should always keep in mind that there is no compulsion in religion,


that is, once the people are free from the lordship of men, the law governing civil
affairs will be purely of Allah, while no one will be forced to change his beliefs
and accept Islam.

The jihad of Islam is to secure complete freedom for every man throughout the
world by releasing him from servitude to other human beings so that he may
serve Allah, who is one and who has no associates.

Rabati bin Amer, Huzaifa bin Muhsin and Mughira bin Shtuba answered the
persian general Rustum when he asked them one by one during three
successive days preceding the battle of Qadisiyyah, "for what purpose have you
come" Their answer was the same: "Allah has sent us to bring anyone who
wishes from servitude to men into the service of Allah alone, from the
narrowness of this world into the vastness of the world of Islam and the here-
after and from the tyranny of religions into the justice of Islam, Allah has raised a
messenger for this purpose to teach his creatures his way. If anyone accepts this
67

way of life, we turn back and give his country back to him and we fight with those
who rebel until we are martyred or become victorious"

Jihad is a test for believers.

Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allâh tests those of you who
fought (in His Cause) and (also) tests those who are As-Sâbirin (the patient ones,
etc.)? 3:142

Do you think that you shall be left alone while Allâh has not yet tested those
among you who have striven hard and fought and have not taken Walîjah
[(Batanah - helpers, advisors and consultants from disbelievers, pagans, etc.)
giving openly to them their secrets] besides Allâh and His Messenger, and the
believers. Allâh is Well-Acquainted with what you do. 9:16

And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth,
lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sâbirin (the patient ones, etc.). 2:155

You shall certainly be tried and tested in your wealth and properties and in your
personal selves. 3:186

Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those
who passed away before you? They were afflicted with severe poverty and
ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed
along with him said, "When (will come) the Help of Allâh?" Yes! Certainly, the
Help of Allâh is near! 2:214

And whosoever strives, he strives only for himself. Verily, Allâh is free of all
wants from the 'Alamîn (mankind, Jinns, and all that exists). 29:6

As for those who strive hard in us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our
Paths (i.e. Allah's Religion - Islamic Monotheism). And verily, Allâh is with the
Muhsinûn (good doers)." 29:69

You will be superior (in victory) if you are indeed (true) believers. 3:139

Hadiths regarding Jihad

Narrated Muadh bin Jabal RA, Rasool Allah said "Shall I not inform you of the
head of the matter, its pillar and its peak?” I said, “Yes, O Messenger of Allah.”
He PBUH said, “The head of the matter is Islam, its pillar is the prayer and its
peak is Jihad. Tirmidhi

Abu Dharr RA reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was asked: "Which
deed is the best?'' He (PBUH) replied, "Faith in Allah and Jihad (fighting,
struggle) in the Cause of Allah.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
68

Reported Ibn Abbas Allah's Apostle said, "There is no hijra (i.e. migration) (from
Mecca to Medina) after the conquest (of Mecca), but Jihad and good intention
remain; and if you are called (by the Muslim ruler) for fighting, go forth
immediately. Bukhari

Narrated Imran ibn Husayn: The Prophet (pbuh) said: A section of my community
will continue to fight for the right and overcome their opponents till the last of
them fights with the Antichrist. Abu Daud

Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah RA: I heard the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say: A
section of my people will not cease fighting for the Truth and will prevail till the
Day of Resurrection. He said: Jesus son of Mary would then descend and their
(Muslims') commander would invite him to come and lead them in prayer, but he
would say: No, some amongst you are commanders over some (amongst you).
This is the honor from Allah for this Ummah. Muslim.

Anas (RA) reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said, "Fight the polytheists with your
wealth, lives and tongues.'' [Abu Daud].

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah
(PBUH) said, "The best of people is a man who is holding his horse's rein in the
way of Allah (in Jihad) and is galloping towards the place wherever he hears a
call for war or detects a note of danger; he goes on proceeding, seeking
martyrdom or death wherever it is expected. And a man who retires with some
sheep in a mountainside or a valley. He performs Salat regularly and pays the
Zakat, continues worshipping his Rubb, till death overtakes him. He does not
interfere in the affairs of the people except for betterment.'' [Muslim].

Abu Hurairah (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was asked: "What
other good deed could be an equivalent of Jihad in the way of Allah?'' He (PBUH)
replied, "You do not have the strength to do it.'' (The narrator said:) The question
was repeated twice or thrice, but every time he (PBUH) answered, "You do not
have the strength to do it.'' Then he (PBUH) said, "One who goes out for Jihad in
the Cause of Allah is like a person who observes Saum (fasting), stands in Salat
(prayer) constantly, recites the Ayat of the Qur'an and does not exhibit any
lassitude in fasting and prayer until the participant of Jihad in the way of Allah
returns.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Narrated on the authority of Abu Hurairah, who said that the Prophet Muhammad
(SAW) said: One who dies in a state that he did not fight in Allah's cause and he
did not even wish that he should do so, he suffers from a sort of hypocrisy.
Muslim
Narrated Abu Huraira The Prophet said, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is!
Were it not for some men amongst the believers who dislike to be left behind me
and whom I cannot provide with means of conveyance, I would certainly never
69

remain behind any Sariya' (army-unit) setting out in Allah's cause. By Him in
Whose Hands my life is! I would love to be martyred in Allah's cause and then
get resurrected and then get martyred, and then get resurrected again and then
get martyred and then get resurrected again and then get martyred. Bukhari.

Sahl bin Hunaif (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Messenger of
Allah (PBUH) said, "He who supplicates Allah sincerely for martyrdom, Allah will
elevate him to the station of the martyrs, even if he dies on his bed.'' [Muslim].

Reported Anas bin Malik The Prophet said, "A single endeavor (of fighting) in
Allah's cause in the forenoon or in the afternoon is better than the world and
whatever is in it." Bukhari

Reported Abu Huraira Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is!
Whoever is wounded in Allah's cause....and Allah knows well who gets wounded
in His cause....will come on the Day of Resurrection with his wound having the
color of blood but the scent of musk." Bukhari

Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari RA reported that Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was asked
about who fights in the battlefield out of valour, or out of zeal, or out of hypocrisy,
which of this is considered as fighting in the cause of Allah? He said: "He who
fights in order that the Word of Allah remains the supreme, is considered as
fighting in the cause of Allah". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Abu Hurairah RA reported: One of the Prophet's Companions came upon a


valley containing a rivulet of fresh water and was delighted by it. He reflected: `I
wish to withdraw from people and settle in this valley; but I won't do so without
the permission of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH).' This was mentioned to the
Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and he said (to the man), "Do not do that, for when
any of you remains in Allah's way, it is better for him than performing Salat
(prayer) in his house for seventy years. Do you not wish that Allah should forgive
you and admit you to Jannah? Fight in Allah's way, for he who fights in Allah's
Cause as long as the time between two consecutive turns of milking a she-
camel, will be surely admitted to Jannah.'' [At-Tirmidhi].

Abu Bakr bin Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari reported: I heard my father saying in the
presence of the enemy: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The gates of
Jannah are under the shades of the swords.'' A man with a shaggy appearance
got up and said, "O Abu Musa! Did you hear the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) say
that in person?'' Abu Musa replied in the affirmative; so he returned to his
companions and said: "I tender you farewell greetings.'' Then he broke the
scabbard of his sword and threw it away. He rushed towards the enemy with his
sword and fought with it till he was martyred. [Muslim].
Commentary: Besides highlighting the distinction of Jihad, this Hadith tells us
about the Companions' passion for Jihad and ardent love for Allah and His
Prophet (PBUH). It also tells about their firm faith in what was ordained by Allah
70

and His Prophet (PBUH). In fact, it was this certitude which inclined them more to
the Hereafter rather than this world.

Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`as RA reported: A man came to the Prophet (PBUH) of
Allah and said, "I swear allegiance to you for emigration and Jihad, seeking
reward from Allah.'' He (PBUH) said, "Is any of your parents alive?'' He said,
"Yes, both of them are alive.'' He (PBUH) then asked, "Do you want to seek
reward from Allah?'' He replied in the affirmative. Thereupon Messenger of Allah
(PBUH) said, "Go back to your parents and keep good company with them". [Al-
Bukhari and Muslim] and Hadith No. 321 Riyaz Us Saliheen by Imam Nawawi.

In another narration it is reported that a person came to Messenger of Allah


(PBUH) and sought his permission to participate in Jihad. The Prophet (PBUH)
asked, "Are your parents alive?'' He replied in the affirmative. The Prophet a
(PBUH) said, "(You should) consider their service as Jihad.''

Commentary: Under normal circumstances, Jihad is Fard Kifayah (collective


duty -- which means that if some people observe it, the rest of the Muslims will be
exempted from its obligation). In such circumstances permission of parents to
participate in Jihad is necessary because their service is Fard-ul-`ain (individual
duty -- an injunction or ordinance, the obligation of which extends to every
Muslim in person), and the former cannot be preferred to the latter. This Hadith
explains such a situation. In certain circumstances, however, Jihad becomes
Fard-ul-`ain and in that case permission of the parents to take part in Jihad is not
essential because then every Muslim is duty-bound to take part in it.
71

To Join an Organization/Party
Whoever puts his allegiance with Allah, His Prophet, and those who believe, the
party of Allah are surely the victorious ones.5:56

O you who believe! Be you helpers (in the Cause) of Allâh as said 'Iesa (Jesus),
son of Maryam (Mary), to AlHawârîûn (the disciples): "Who are my helpers (in the
Cause) of Allâh?" AlHawârîeen (the disciples) said: "We are Allâh's helpers" (i.e.
we will strive in His Cause!). 61:14

You (O Muhammad SAW) will not find any people who believe in Allâh and the
Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allâh and His Messenger
(Muhammad SAW ), even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their
brothers, or their kindred (people). For such He has written Faith in their hearts,
and strengthened them with Rûh (proofs, light and true guidance) from Himself.
And We will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow, to dwell
therein (forever). Allâh is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the
Party of Allâh. Verily, it is the Party of Allâh that will be the successful. 58:22

On the authority of Harith Al 'Ashari (RAA), it is reported that the Prophet


Muhammad (SAW) said: I declare obligatory upon you five things; Allah (SWT)
has commanded me to do so. They are: organization, listening, obeying, making
Hijrah, and making Jihad for the cause of Allah. Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad &
Mishkat.

Narrated Umar bin Khattab RA, Rasool Allah said: It is obligatory upon you to be
in the form of a party, and you are forbidden from being alone. Satan becomes
the companion of the person who is alone; but if there are two Muslims, he runs
away. Tirmidhi

In another hadith reported by Abdullah Ibn Umar (RAA), Prophet Muhammad


(SAW) said: The Hand of Allah is upon the jama‘ah. Whoever cuts himself off
from the group is thrown into Hell-fire.

Allah's Messenger PBUH said: Verily Satan is the wolf of a man just as the wolf
is (the enemy) of a flock. He seizes the solitary sheep going astray from the flock
or going aside from the flock. So avoid the branching paths; it is essential for you
to remain along with the community. Ahmad & Tirmizi.

Hazrat Umar RA said: There is no Islam without Jama‘ah, there is no Jama‘ah


without an Ameer (Leader), there is no use having an Ameer if he is not obeyed.

One should join an organization that is working towards the establishment of


Islam. No one can dare claim that fulfilling the three duties completely is possible
by individual or personal struggle alone. It is beyond any doubt that these duties
72

can be performed only provided there is an organized movement. Since


worshipping Allah, obeying Him, acting as witnesses unto mankind, enjoining
good and forbidding evil, enforcing Islam and making the obedience wholly for
Allah's sake is obligatory, the pre-requisites are equally obligatory. Whatever is
required for performing an Islamic duty is an equally important duty in itself. For
example, offering the prayer is a duty and performing wudu is its pre-requisite
and it becomes a duty in order to fulfill the obligation of prayer.

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr: The Prophet said, "A Muslim is the one who avoids
harming Muslims with his tongue and hands. And a Muhajir (emigrant) is the one
who gives up (abandons) all what Allah has forbidden." Bukhari

According to the above Hadiths, both Hijrat and jihad are obligatory on every
believer, and it is apparent from the wordings in the narration that these must be
performed not only as individuals but in an organized and collective manner. It is
for every individual to assess whether he is a member of an organized collective
effort working towards establishing Islam and taking its message to all of
mankind. If one is a member of an organization working for public welfare, social
service, mass education or professional interests, it does not qualify as an
organization in the above sense, for Islam demands that Muslims join a group
working actively and specifically for the ascendancy of Islam.

Let it also be realized that this organization should run on the Islamic principles of
obedience. to the leader, a point eloquently made in the above-quoted Prophetic
saying. If one is not a member of such an organization, I must say that he
betrays lack of concern for fulfilling his religious duties. Let it be pointed out that if
one is not able to place his confidence in any group or leader because he finds
none worthy of such a claim, it by no means absolves him of his obligations to
Allah.

He must, then, make a call to others to join hands with him in the grand task of
establishing Islam and taking its light to all peoples. If he does not find himself
worthy or qualified to make such a call, then there is no justification for him to live
in society, since ultimately his obedience will be of a system that is not in
obedience to the Divine. This is a difficult point to swallow, but it is the only
logical conclusion to what I have come across by way of the teachings of Islam,
and it conforms to a Hadith in which the Prophet (SAW) advises those who do
not find an appropriate organization with a leader to leave civilization and live the
rest of their lives without participating in the institutions of society.
73

Baiy'ah or Pledge of Allegiance


The third pre-requisite for fulfilling our religious obligations is the method of
organization that a group striving for the establishment of Islam should adopt,
which is on the basis of the principle of Baiy'ah or personal allegiance to the
leader. The Qur'an and Sunnah guide us to follow this principle. It is the only
system of organization that we find mentioned in the Qur'an and practically
adopted in the Sunnah.

Verily, those who give Bai'â (pledge) to you (O Muhammad SAW ) they are giving
Bai'â (pledge) to Allah. The Hand of Allah is over their hands. Then whosoever
breaks his pledge, breaks only to his own harm, and whosoever fulfills what he
has covenanted with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward. 48:10

Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave their Bai'â (pledge)
to you (O Muhammad SAW ) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts,
and He sent down As-Sakinah (calmness and tranquility) upon them, and He
rewarded them with a near victory. 48:18

O Prophet, when believing women come to you and swear on oath that they will
not associate anything with Allah, nor steal, nor fornicate, nor kill their children,
nor accuse others for what they have fabricated themselves, nor disobey you in
any rightful thing, then you should accept their allegiance, and ask forgiveness of
Allah for them. Certainly Allah is forgiving and kind. (60:12)

Ubadah bin As-Samit (RA) reported: We swore allegiance to Messenger of Allah


(PBUH) to hear and obey; in time of difficulty and in prosperity, in hardship and in
ease, to endure being discriminated against and not to dispute about rule with
those in power, except in case of evident infidelity regarding which there is a
proof from Allah. We swore allegiance to Messenger of Allah (PBUH) to say what
was right wherever we were, and not to fear from anyone's reproach. [Al-Bukhari
and Muslim].

Narrated Ubada bin As Sabit, Who had taken part in the battle of Badr with
Allah's Apostle and had been amongst his companions on the night of Al-'Aqaba
Pledge: Allah's Apostle, surrounded by a group of his companions said, "Come
along and give me the pledge of allegiance that you will not worship anything
besides Allah, will not steal, will not commit illegal sexual intercourse, will not kill
your children, will not utter slander invented by yourself, and will not disobey me
if I order you to do something good. Whoever among you will respect and fulfill
this pledge, will be rewarded by Allah. And if one of you commits any of these
sins and is punished in this world then that will be his expiation for it, and if one of
you commits any of these sins and Allah screens his sin, then his matter, will rest
with Allah: If He will, He will punish him and if He will,. He will excuse him." So I
gave the pledge of allegiance to him for these conditions. Bukhari.
74

Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn Dinar that Abdullah ibn Umar wrote to Abd
al-Malik ibn Marwan, making an oath of allegiance. He wrote, "In the name of
Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate. To the slave of Allah, Abd al-Malik, the
amir al-muminin, Peace be upon you. I praise Allah to you. There is no god but
Him. I acknowledge your right to my hearing and my obedience according to the
sunna of Allah and the sunna of His Prophet, in what I am able." Muwatta.

A crucial point that must be addressed at this juncture is that since no Prophet or
infallible figure is amongst us, we will have to look among ourselves for a person
and a group that is striving to perform these duties and is inviting others towards
this end in the light of Quran and Sunnah. Obedience to Prophet Muhammad
(SAW) was unconditional and absolute, the obedience to any Muslim leader after
him has to be limited within the sphere of what is permitted in the Shari‘ah. No
leader/ameer has the prerogative to issue a command that is in conflict with the
established injunctions of the Shari‘ah, if he gives such a command, he must not
be obeyed. But within the sphere of what is allowed in the Shari‘ah, the Ameer
must be listened to and obeyed as a necessary condition of discipline.

Now let us try to understand first the meaning and implications of the.. Baiy'ah. It
stands for establishing a link with a man through a pledge for performing his/her
Islamic duties in an organized and disciplined manner. Included in it is the
commitment to join an organization based on the principle of obedience to its
leader (Ameer) and the resolve to conduct jihad and Hijrah under his leadership.

Abdullah bin Umar RA reported, Prophet Muhammad (saw) has said: " …
whosoever dies in a state that there is no bond of Baiy'ah around his neck, he
dies a death of jahiliyyah". Muslim.

This means that, to be without Baiy'ah is against the spirit of the Islamic way of
life. This hadith sheds light on a very important point. In terms of how they are
organized collectively, there can be only two possible situations for the Muslims:
1. Either Islam is dominant as the public order, in which case the Muslims must
pledge their allegiance to their leader or Khalifah and obey him within the bounds
of Shari‘ah or; 2. The Islamic order is not established anywhere on earth, in
which case they must pledge their allegiance to the Ameer of a Jama‘ah that is
struggling to re-establish Islam as a socio-political reality. Baiy‘ah is compulsory
for all Muslims irrespective of whether Islam is established or not. Generally
speaking, there is no third option for them.

Our recent history has witnessed the movement launched by Syed Ahmad
Shaheed in the lndian subcontinent - the "Tehreek-e-Shaheedain" (The
Movement of the two Martyrs). It is named after Syed Ahmad Shaheed and Shah
Ismail Shaheed, who was the grandson of Shah Waliullah. The entire movement
was based on the principle of the personal pledge taken by Syed Ahmed
Shaheed.
75

Those who have committed sincerely to the cause of Islam should -join a group
that they consider is the best for achieving the ultimate objective of making lslam
supreme. They must, however, keep their hearts and minds open to join another
organization if they happen to find one that fulfills their requirements in a better
fashion. Is it not the same that we do in our worldly dealings? If one embarks
upon a particular trade in business and fails to do well, he immediately changes
his trade and tries his luck elsewhere. This is normal human behavior that should
be displayed in matters of faith as well if there is a commitment to succeed.