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2005:06

TECHNICAL REPORT

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons


Literature review

Hkan Nordin

Lule University of Technology Technical Report Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Division of Structural Engineering
2005:06 - ISSN: 1402-1536 - ISRN: LTU-TR--05/06--SE

TECHNICAL REPORT

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons


Literature review

PREFACE
In this literature review focus has been placed on external prestressing of civil engineering structures. In particular for the purpose of external strengthening of existing structures. External prestressing with steel and FRP tendons, as well as plate bonding, have been covered in the study. The study has been supported by my supervisor Prof. Dr. Bjrn Tljsten. The financial support for the study was given by the Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry (Svenska Byggbranchens Utvecklingsfond, SBUF). Also Skanska AB should be acknowledged for their support. Lule December 2004

Hkan Nordin

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

SUMMARY
Strengthening and/or upgrading of concrete structures with bonded steel or FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers) materials or by use of external tendons have now been used for some time. External prestressing may be defined as a prestress introduced by tendons located outside a section of a structural member, only connected to the member through deviators and end-anchorages. The main advantages using this technique are; higher utilization of small sectional areas, ease in inspection of the tendons and in their replacement and low friction losses. This type of prestressing can be applied to both new and existing structures that need to be strengthened due to several reasons such as: changes in use, deficiencies in design or construction phase and structural degradation. External prestressed cables of FRP materials have shown to be an alternative to steel cables. Good durability properties and a first-rate behaviour in creep and relaxation have given very good results so far. Bonding prestressed FRP laminates or sheets to a structures surface has proven to be efficient and gives also a better utilization of the strengthening material. The weak part for both external cables as well as bonded laminates, when using FRP materials, has shown to be anchorage. Often the anchorage has problem to handle the high stresses that would justify the use of FRP materials in prestressing. However this is changing with a number of research projects around the world focusing on the anchorage issue. This literature review gives a short description of external prestressing for concrete structures and steel structures. The report then focus on the different types of external prestressing, with steel tendons, FRP tendons and bonded FRP materials. A review of some examples of theory follows and then a view on some codes, ending the report with structures strengthened with external prestressing.

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

SAMMANFATTNING
Utanpliggande frspnning kan beskrivas som en frspnning som frs in via kablar som placerats utanp konstruktionen, kontakten till konstruktionen r via ankarblock och vaggor. De viktigaste frdelarna med tekniken r hgre utnyttjande av sm tvrsnittsareor, ltt att inspektera kablarna och byta ut dem, och sm friktionsfrluster. Denna typ av frspnning kan anvndas bde vid nybyggande och befintliga konstruktioner dr frstrkning eller uppgradering behvs. Utanpliggande spnnkablar av FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers) material har visats vara ett alternativ till stlkablar. God hllbarhet och mycket bra beteende i krypning och relaxation har gett mycket bra resultat, speciellt fr kablar av kolfiber. Att limma frspnd FRP till en konstruktions yta har visat vara effektivt och ger en bttre utnyttjande av frstrkningsmaterialet. Den svaga delen fr bde utanpliggande kablar och limmad frstrkning, fr FRP material, r frankringen. Ofta har frankringen problem att klara de hga spnningar som uppstr fr att rttfrdiga anvndandet av dessa material. Detta ndras dock kontinuerligt genom ett antal forskningsprojekt runt om i vrlden som fokuseras p frankringsproblematiken. Denna litteraturstudie ger en kort beskrivning av utanpliggande frspnning fr betong konstruktioner och stlkonstruktioner. Rapporten fokuseras sedan p olika typer av utanpliggande frspnning, med stlkablar, FRP-kablar och plimmad FRP. Drefter fljer ngra exempel p teori och byggnadsnormer, avslutande med ngra exempel p konstruktioner som blivit frstrkta med utanpliggande kablar.

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE SUMMARY SAMMANFATTNING TABLE OF CONTENTS NOTATIONS AND SYMBOLS 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background 1.2 Upgrading 1.3 Scope of the report 1.4 Limitations PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES 2.1 General 2.2 Pre-tensioning 2.3 Post-tensioning 2.4 FRP for civil structures FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERS, FRP 3.1 Composites 3.2 FRP 3.3 Fibres 3.4 Matrix 3.5 Creep and relaxation 3.6 Fatigue loading 3.7 Alkaline environment EXTERNAL PRESTRESSED REINFORCEMENT 4.1 General

1 3 5 7 11 13 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 21 21

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Advantages and disadvantages with external prestressing Deviators and second-order effects Concrete structures 4.4.1 General 4.4.2 Laboratory tests Steel structures 4.5.1 General 4.5.2 Steel-concrete composite bridges

22 23 25 25 25 26 26 26 29 29 29 30 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 36 36 36 37 39 41 41 42 44 45 47 47 49 50 52 52 53 53 53 54 55

EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING WITH STEEL MATERIALS 5.1 Types of Prestressing Tendons 5.2 Mechanical and Stress-Strain Properties 5.3 Relaxation 5.4 Effects of Temperature 5.5 Fatigue 5.6 Corrosion EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING WITH FRP MATERIALS 6.1 General 6.2 Prestressing systems for FRP 6.2.1 Tendons 6.3 Anchorage 6.3.1 General 6.3.2 Wedge anchors 6.3.3 Grout-Potted Anchorages 6.3.4 Comparison between wedge and grout potted anchorages STRENGTHENING WITH BONDED NON-PRESTRESSED CFRP 7.1 General 7.2 Sheets and laminates 7.3 NSMR 7.4 Comparison between laminates, sheets and NSMR STRENGTHENING WITH BONDED PRESTRESSED CFRP 8.1 Why strengthening with prestressed FRP 8.2 Sheets and laminates 8.2.1 Prestressing systems 8.2.2 Quality 8.3 Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement 8.3.1 Pre-treatment 8.3.2 Force transfer 8.3.3 Different bonding agents 8.3.4 Prestressing system 8.3.5 Quality

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

THEORY 9.1 General 9.2 Moment capacity 9.3 Tensile stress in tendons 9.3.1 Unbonded tendons 9.3.2 External tendons CODES AND GUIDELINES 10.1 Eurocode 2 10.1.1 Material 10.1.2 Structural analysis 10.1.3 Detailing 10.1.4 Additional rules 10.2 BBK 04 10.2.1 Demands 10.2.2 Design conditions 10.2.3 Design 10.3 Bro 2004 10.3.1 Loads 10.3.2 Concrete structures - Generally 10.3.3 Concrete structures Material 10.3.4 Concrete structures Execution 10.3.5 Steel structures Material 10.3.6 Improvement Concrete structures 10.4 FHWA design recommendations, FRP tendons 10.4.1 Jacking stresses and losses 10.4.2 Flexural design 10.5 Comments about the codes STRENGTHENED STRUCTURES 11.1 Aramid rod anchor block reinforcement 11.2 Hythe Bridge, Oxford 11.3 Stork bridge 11.4 Southfield bridge 11.5 Ruderting 11.6 Roquenaure Bridge 11.7 Ruhr Bridge 11.8 Bridge over Wangauer Ache DISCUSSION

57 57 57 58 58 59 63 63 63 63 64 64 64 64 64 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 66 66 66 67 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 72 73 75 77

10

11

12

REFERENCES

Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

NOTATIONS AND SYMBOLS


Ac As
As' Aps
Area of concrete [m2] Area of steel reinforcement, tensile zone [m2] Area of steel reinforcement, compression zone [m2] Area of prestressing steel [m2] Secant modulus of elasticity for concrete [GPa] Modulus of elasticity for prestressing material [GPa] Moment of inertia for cracked section [m4] Moment of inertia for total section [m4] Moment of inertia for transformed section [m4] Length of structure or tendon [m] Initial length [m] The sum of lengths loaded spans containing tendons [m] Total length of tendons between anchorage [m] Change in length [m] Moment [Nm] Change in moment [Nm] Maximum stressing force [N] Change in prestressing force [N] Width of structure [m] Width of web [m] Effective depth [m] Effective depth to tensile reinforcement [m] Effective depth to compressive reinforcement [m] Effective depth to prestressing tendon [m] Initial effective depth to prestressing tendon [m] Effective depth to prestressing tendon at ultimate load [m]

Ecm Ep I cr Ig I tr L L0

L1 L2 L M M Pmax P

b bw
d ds

d s' dp d ps 0 d ps ,u

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

e0
fy f ps f pu f ps
,f
' y

Eccentricity of the centroid of the tendon Maximum tensile stress in steel [MPa] Initial tensile stress in prestressing tendon [MPa] Stress in prestressing tendon [MPa] Ultimate stress in prestressing tendon [MPa] Stress change in prestressing tendon [MPa] Height of structure [m] Height of flange [m] Radius of gyration [m] Lever arm of internal force [m] Initial strain in concrete [-] Ultimate strain in concrete [-] Initial strain in prestressing tendon [-] Initial strain in steel [-] Creep coefficient [-] Compressive stress of concrete [MPa] Tensile stress in prestressing tendon [MPa]

f pe , f pi

h hf r z

ce cu pe s (t , t0 ) c p

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

External prestressing was initially developed for strengthening of bridges, but is today used for both strengthening and for new built structures. Prestressed concrete bridges with external prestressing are becoming popular because of their advantages, such as simplicity and cost-effectiveness. External prestressing is defined by unbonded tendons that are placed, and prestressed, outside a structure and anchored at the ends, sometimes with one or several deviators during the length of the structure. This reinforcement method is advantageous for strengthening of structural members to obtain improved load-carrying capacity. The most commonly-used material for external tendons is steel, but also fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials can be used. With consideration to the need for upgrading the infrastructure the use of external prestressing provides one of the most efficient solutions to increase the load carrying capacity. The method can be used on concrete as well as steel and timber structures.

1.2

Upgrading

Upgrading may be defined as improving the performance level of an existing structural member. To obtain an improved performance level, one or several of the following upgrading methods may be used- refined calculation methods, strengthening, improved durability and/or aesthetic appearance. The performance level can also be increased by replacing the existing member with a new. In this report, focus is placed on strengthening. There are many different ways to strengthen a structure. There is often a possibility to change the physical appearance of the structure and in that way give it somewhat different properties in strength and stiffness. However, this will also mean that the structure will need more space, which is not always possible. Another way of improving the load carrying capacity may be to change the static behaviour, for example a column can be added to support a beam or a slab. In the last decades the development of strong epoxy adhesives has led to the plate bonding strengthening technique. This strengthening technique may be defined as one in which plates of relatively small thickness are bonded with an epoxy adhesive to, in most cases, a concrete structure in order to improve its structural behaviour and strength. The

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

advantage with the technique is that there is no large physical change of the structure. If the structure is of good quality no damaging work on the structure, such as replacing concrete cover or steel corrosion repair, will be needed. There also exist many other methods to upgrade a structure. In particular one of those will be focused on in this report; namely external prestressing tendons for strengthening purposes of structural members.

1.3

Scope of the report

This report aims to present the research that has been done and is in progress in the world today on the use of prestressed strengthening with steel and FRP for civil structures. The focus is on external prestressing and strengthening with bonded FRP. Both concrete and steel structures are covered although strengthening with bonded FRP is focused on concrete structures.

1.4

Limitations

The report assumes that the reader has basic knowledge about fibre reinforced polymer composites. For information about FRP, refer to, for example, Teng et al (2001) and Tljsten (2000). The report is mainly focused on carbon fibres although other kinds of fibres, such as glass and aramid, are mentioned.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

PRESTRESSED STRUCTURES

2.1 General
Pre-stressed concrete is reinforced concrete in which the steel reinforcement has been tensioned against the concrete. This tensioning operation results in a self-equilibrating system of internal stresses (tensile stress in the steel and compressive stresses in the concrete) which improves the response of the concrete to external loads. (Collins and Mitchell 1991). The first attempts to prestress concrete structures were with normal strength steel, which were unsuccessful. The first practical use of prestressed concrete was in France 1928, when Eugene Freyssinet began to use high-strength steel wires for prestressing (Collins and Mitchell 1991). The basic idea is to create a negative moment in the construction part to enhance its capabilities. A prestressed structure can be made much thinner then a structure with nonprestressed steel reinforcement. Since the method is more costly, it is mainly used on larger structures or for structures where higher demands for small deformations exist. There are two different ways of prestressing, pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. Moreover, there are mainly two ways in which to place the reinforcement, inside the concrete or outside as external reinforcement.

2.2

Pre-tensioning

Pre-tensioning is when the cables are stressed prior to casting of the concrete. The cables remain stressed until the concrete has cured and then they are released or cut. The cables can be bonded in two ways, to the concrete only or with a mechanical anchorage. Pre-tensioned cables are used for structures with the reinforcement inside the structure. As shown in figure 2.1 the rod or strand is tensioned before the concrete is cast. After curing of the concrete the stressing force is released and the rod introduces a compressive force to the concrete member.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

Step 1 - Tensioning of the prestressing rod before casting

Step 2 - Casting of concrete around tensioned rod

Step 3 - The prestressing force is released and the rods cut, causing the shortening of member

Figure 2.1 Step-by-step for pre-tensioning, from Collins and Mitchell (1991)

2.3

Post-tensioning

Post-tensioning is when the cables are stressed on an existing structural element, for example after the concrete has cured if it is a concrete structure. The cables can be located both inside and outside of the structure. Here a mechanical anchorage in the end must be used to hold the cables in place and to keep the prestress active. An externally stressed cable is defined as post-tensioned. External tendons can be used in new structures but also on existing structures.

2.4

FRP for civil structures

The use of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymers) as prestressed reinforcement for concrete structures has increased over the last two decades, mainly with the use of CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers). CFRP has the potential to become widely used in concrete structures with its relatively low weight, high stiffness and strength, very good fatigue properties and the fact that it is non-corrosive. Therefore no prestress loss should be experienced due to long-term corrosion as might be with steel cables. Consequently they are ideal materials with which to restore the prestress in structures whose tendons have suffered corrosion, Garden and Hollaway (1998). However, the linear elastic behaviour of the FRP material up to failure requires special design consideration to ensure a safe structure due to possible brittle failure. For example, it is more difficult to anchor tendons made of FRP materials than steel. Traditional steel wedge anchors will most likely crush the fibres, therefore specially designed systems have to be used.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

FIBRE REINFORCED POLYMERS, FRP

3.1 Composites
The term composite often refers to a material consisting of two or more distinct parts working together. Mostly one of the parts is harder and stronger then the other while the other is more of a force transferring material.

3.2 FRP
Fibre reinforced polymer, FRP, is a composite material consisting of fibres and a polymer matrix. The FRPs mostly used for civil engineering applications are CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer), GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer) and AFRP (Aramid Fibre Reinforced Polymer). The polymer matrix has three major purposes- force transfer between fibres, binding together and protection of fibres.

3.3 Fibres
In civil engineering applications the most suitable fibre has proven to be carbon fibre. Almost 95% of all applications for strengthening purposes are by carbon fibres. Therefore the focus in this report is placed on CFRP. The fibres are what make the FRP strong and there are three things that control the mechanical properties of the FRP: Constituent material Fibre amount Fibre orientation Constituent material As mentioned earlier there is a wide array of different materials to use, too many to describe in this report. What is important to remember is that the choice of fibre material determines, together with choice of polymer, what kind of quality, properties and behaviour the FRP will finally obtain.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

Fibre amount When it comes to the amount of fibre used in the FRP it is easy to say that the more fibre used the better properties will be achieved. This is true to an extent but with too high fibre content there will be a manufacturing problem. If the fibres are too tightly packed the matrix will have problems enclosing the fibres which might deteriorate the FRP. Usually a fibre amount above 70% by volume is not recommended for pultruded products such as rods and bars. In hand-lay up application a typical amount of fibre is 35% by volume. Fibre orientation The FRP will have highest material properties in the fibre direction. For example, a rod with all the fibres is very strong in its fibre direction but in perpendicular direction the FRP has different material properties. A typical FRP product for the construction industry has therefore an anisotropic behaviour compared to steel which is isotropic. Nevertheless, the orientation of the fibres can be tailored to suit the requested properties of the FRP product.

3.4 Matrix
The matrix, the polymer, is used to bind the fibres together, transfer the forces between the fibres and to protect the fibres from external mechanical and environmental damage. The shear forces created between the fibres are limited to the properties of the matrix. The matrix is also the limited factor when applying forces perpendicular to the fibres. The most usual polymeric matrixes for FRP are polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy.

3.5 Creep and relaxation


Glass and carbon fibre has an almost perfect linear behaviour to failure. For most FRP composites, creep deformation becomes a more important role at high stress levels or high temperatures or a combination of the two. Creep will not be a significant factor if the loads on the structure are kept within manufacturer-recommended stress levels, (Busel 2000). Both the GFRP and the AFRP show an important decrease in their tensile strength when they are subjected to a long-term constant load, (Pisani 1998), while studies show that CFRP has very little loss in tensile strength. The resistance to creep and relaxation is a huge advantage when using the materials in prestressed applications. If a material has problems with creep and relaxation there will be losses in the prestressing force over time. Structures can be made to make it possible to put extra stress in the material during the constructions life span, but if this can be avoided it will be beneficial.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

3.6 Fatigue loading


FRP show significantly enhanced fatigue resistance over metallic materials, (Busel 2000), but this is limited to the material, i.e. rods etc. One problem that still remains is joints, connections and anchorage. Since the material is strong it is not likely to have a fatigue failure in the FRP. Although it has been limited research in larger structures it can be said that fatigue failure in the FRP is unlikely to occur except in joints, connections and anchorage details.

3.7 Alkaline environment


Concretes alkaline environment has very little effect on CFRP materials. Sen et al. (1998) showed that after three years of exposure, ultimate capacity reduction was less than four percent. Micell and Nanni (1998) perfomed tests with 3 types of CFRP and 2 types of GFRP. The CFRP specimens showed very good durability to the alkaline exposure. For the GFRP the rod with a thermoplastic matrix showed good durability while with the rod with a polyester matrix the polyester did not provide protection and was strongly damaged by the alkaline.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

EXTERNAL PRESTRESSED REINFORCEMENT

4.1 General
External prestressing refers to a post-tensioning method in which tendons are placed on the outside of a structural member. It is an attractive method in rehabilitation and strengthening operations because: It adds little weight to the original structure Its application poses little disturbance to users It allows the monitoring, re-stressing and replacement of tendons.

The first use with external steel tendons was in the 1950s, but after that it lay dormant for some time. Now external prestressing techniques with steel tendons have been widely used with success to improve existing structures in the United States, Japan and Switzerland. However there can be a problem with corrosion in the steel that forces the use of steel protection on the external tendons, for example by plastic sheeting. This problem can be resolved by the use of FRP materials. Therefore research in the area has been conducted since the early 1970s. In the beginning, glass FRP was used but at the moment aramid and carbon are mainly used due to higher modulus of elasticity. However it is important to remember that FRP and steel have different material properties and different behaviours when loaded. In table 4.1 a short comparison is made between steel, GFRP, AFRP and CFRP. Note that this shows the characteristics of FRP tendons from specific manufacturers and might not be valid to other tendons even though the same fibres are used. Experimental tests have shown that the loaddisplacement relationship of concrete beams reinforced with FRP has almost the same behaviour as beams reinforced with steel, (Mutsuyoshi 1991). FRP tendons lack the ductility under extreme loading exhibited by steel, which means that a CFRP prestressed beam may simultaneously provide greater ultimate load capacity and lower energy absorption than a similar steel prestressed beam, (Stoll et al. 2000). Research has shown that a prestress loss within 5 7 percent can be expected, (Grace and Abdel-Sayed 1998).

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

Table 4.1 Characteristics of steel and FRP tendons, Pisani (1998)


Steel (ASTM GFRP AFRP Grade 270, Glassline Arapree Euronorm Fe7S1860) --7.85
o

Typical proporties

CFRP Leadline

Fibre volume fraction (%) Density (g/cm ) Tensile strength, 20 C (MPa) Tensile modulus, 20 C (GPa) Ultimate elongation (%) Thermal expansion coefficient, axial direction (10-6/oC) Thermal expansion coefficient, radial direction (10-6/oC) Strength decrease after a 100 year loading (%) Relaxation, 20oC (%)
o 3

65 2.15 1500 50 3.0 5.2 ~35 30 4

50 1.25 1490 62 2.4 -1.8 ~35 35 >30

65 1.6 1840 147 1.3 0.68 ~20 ~0 3

1860 195 > 3.5 12 12 ~0 3

4.2

Advantages and disadvantages with external prestressing

External prestressing, both for new and existing structures, has proven to be an effective technique. Picard et al. (1995) listed the following advantages: Concreting of new structures is improved as there are no or few tendons and bars in the section Dimensions of the concrete section can be reduced due to less space needed for internal reinforcement. Profiles of external tendons are simpler and easier to check during and after installation. Grouting is improved because of a better visual control of the operation. External tendons can be removed and replaced if the corrosion protection of the external tendons allows for the release of the prestressing force. Friction losses are significantly reduced because external tendons are linked to the structure only at the deviation and anchorage zones.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

The main construction operations, concreting and prestressing, are more independent of one another; therefore the influence of workmanship on the overall quality of the structure is reduced. But it is also important to understand the weaknesses of the technique. The following disadvantages should be kept in mind, (Picard et al. 1995): External tendons are more easily accessible than internal ones and, consequently, are more vulnerable to sabotage and fire. External tendons are subjected to vibrations and, therefore, their free length should be limited. Deviation and anchorage zones are cumbrous additions to the cross section. These elements must be designed to support large longitudinal and transverse forces. In the deviation zones, high transverse pressure acts on the prestressing steel. The saddles inside the deviation zones should be precisely installed to reduce friction as much as possible and to avoid damage to the prestressing steel. In the case of internal grouted tendons, the long-term failure of anchor heads has limited consequences because prestressing may be transferred to the structure by bond. In the case of external tendons, the behaviour of anchor heads is much more critical. Therefore, anchor heads should be carefully protected against corrosion. At ultimate limit states, the contribution of external tendons to flexural strength is reduced compared to internal grouted tendons. The stress variation between the cracking load and ultimate load cannot be evaluated at the critical section only, as is done for internal bonded tendons. At ultimate limit states, failure with little warning due to insufficient ductility is a major concern for externally prestressed structures. The actual eccentricities of external tendons are generally smaller compared to internal tendons.

4.3 Deviators and second-order effects


As the tendons are placed outside the structure the connection to the structure are at deviators and anchorage. Between those points the tendons are free to move relative to the section of the structure. If deviators are not used the second-order effects due to changing tendon eccentricity, see figure 4.1, lead to a lower load carrying capacity, (Tan and Ng 1997).

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

Figure 4.1 Second-order effects without deviators, Tan and Ng (1997). The use of deviators along the span of the structure can effectively reduce those effects, tests conducted by Tan and Ng (1997) showed that a single deviator at the section of maximum deflection resulted in satisfactory service and ultimate load behaviour. Harajli et al. (1999) studied the influence of deviators, the tests were without deviatiors, with one deviator and with two deviators. The magnitude of the external prestressing force for each configuration was selected so as to produce three levels of reinforcing indexes (0.025, 0.010 and 0.20), see Harajli et al. (1999) for further details about the reinforcing indexes. The results can be seen in figure 4.2.

Figure 4.2 Effect of deviators, Harajli et al. (1999) The tests showed that the behaviour of the beams with one and two deviators were more or less identical, and that the responses for those configurations were even similar to the response of members with internal tendons, (Harajli et al. 1999).

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

4.4
4.4.1

Concrete structures
General

The repair and strengthening of deteriorated damaged and substandard infrastructure has become one of the important challenges confronting civil engineering worldwide, (Hollaway 2003). Strengthening continuous beams using external tendons is an attractive method. However, the increase in flexural strength is not always accompanied by an equivalent increase in the shear capacity. Results from tests perfomed by Tan and Tjandra (2003) show that the shear capacity limits the degree of strengthening and ignoring this will lead to undesirable shear-type failure. Beside beams work has also been done on strengthening concrete columns with external prestressing, (Saatcioglu and Yalcin 2003). A large study of prestressing concrete with FRP tendons has been done at Lawrence Technological University with good results, (Grace et al 1996, Grace and AbdelSayed 1998, Grace 2000 and Grace et al. 2002). 4.4.2 Laboratory tests A series of five Japanese articles present results conducted with externally prestressed concrete beams with T-shaped cross-sections, compiled of a 100250 mm2 beam with a 27575 mm2 slab on top. Experiments undertaken to study the shear strengthening effects are presented by Kondo et al. (1994). The report demonstrates that external prestressing systems can also be used to strengthen the shear capacities of existing concrete beams. The RC beams tested were simply supported with a span of 2.7 m, loaded at two points. Each beam had four 19 mm steel bars as flexural reinforcement and two prestressing strand wires as external cables. These were bent up at an angle of about 7 degrees at the deviators at the points of loading. The reduction in ultimate flexural strength due to loss of tendon eccentricity was studied by Matupayont et al. (1994). Beams with different arrangements of deviators were used to demonstrate how large beam deflections cause secondary effects due to the fact that tendons only follow the concrete deflection at the deviator points. All beams were simply supported with a span of 5.20 m and loaded at two points, in two cycles to determine the crack loads and failure loads. The tested beams either had two deviators, at distances of 1.803.00 m, or three deviators at distances of 1.50 m. Externaly two tendons with a diameter of 15.2 mm were used or a single with a diameter of 19.3 mm. Tests of the moment redistribution in monolithic beams and beams of joined precast segments are presented by Aravinthan et al. (1995). The 300 mm segments of the latter beam type were epoxy-joined. The beams were continuous, spanning two times 4.05 m and were loaded at two points in each span. The beams were prestressed using two tendons with 12.4 mm diameter.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

Tests conducted on concrete beams with T-shaped cross-sections are presented by Tan and Ng (1997). Each beam was compiled of a 110250 mm2 beam with a 30050 mm2 slab on top, simply supported, spanning 3.0 m and loaded at their third-points, see figure 4.3. Beams with different tendon configurations were used to study the secondorder effects caused by the displacement of the tendons under load. The tested tendon configurations were straight with one, two or no deviators, using effective depths at the midspan of 200250 mm and 127200 mm at the anchorage. The internal reinforcement consisted of two 16 mm steel bars at the bottom, four 8 mm bars at the top and a transverse reinforcement of 6 mm stirrups. The external tendons consisted of the 7-wire strands with a diameter of 9.5 mm.

Figure 4.3 Test setup, Tan and Ng (1997)

4.5
4.5.1

Steel structures
General

The upgrading of steel structures is not as widespread as concrete structures. This is mainly because steel structures pose a different and a more difficult set of problems, (Hollaway 2003). 4.5.2 Steel-concrete composite bridges Prestressing of continuous steel-concrete bridges is applied to obtain an economy in steel and prevent cracks in the concrete deck. One of the major problems with steelconcrete bridges appears to be cracking in the concrete slab resulting in problems for durability and maintainability, (Brozzetti 2000). The prestress significantly increases the yield and ultimate loads; and prestressing a negative moment zone adds compression forces to the concrete deck decreasing the cracks, (Li et al. 1995).

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

Ryu et al. (2004) strengthened continuous steel-concrete beams with external steel tendons to prevent cracking in the prefabricated concrete deck. The tendons were placed on the webs of the steel structure over the supports, see figure 4.4. The incremental force in the tendons was calculated and then compared to the measured values, see Ryu et al. (2004) for more details. The results can be seen in figure 4.5.

Figure 4.4 Test set-up for a continuous box girder beam, Ryu et al. (2004)

Figure 4.5 Load incremental prestress relationship, Ryu et al. (2004)

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

Albrecht et al. (1995) investigated the fatigue strength of pre stressed composite steelconcrete beams. They studied three parts of a beam as the fatigue strength of the beams depends on the fatigue strength of its components. The studied components were the prestressing strands, the shear studs and a cover plate that was added to the tensile flange. The test set-up can be seen in figure 4.6.

Figure 4.6 Test set-up for the beams tested by Albrecht et al. (1995) The results from those tests showed no problems with the fatigue strength in the components studied. However, the stress ranges in these details were lower than the applicable fatigue limits.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING WITH STEEL MATERIALS

5.1

Types of Prestressing Tendons

An ideal tendon material should not only have high-strength but it also has to remain in elastic range until relatively high stresses are reached. Furthermore, it has to show sufficient ductility and good bonding properties, low relaxation and high resistance to fatigue and corrosion. There are three main types of tendons used in prestressed concrete: wires, strands (made of several wires), and bars. The high tensile strength and ductility of prestressing - steels are obtained by a production process using: 1) High carbon hot rolled alloy steel; 2) Cold drawn or deformed carbon steel (preferably tempered); 3) Hot rolled and heat-treated carbon steel; Most of the prestressing wires are produced with a cold working process (drawing or rolling). There are several kinds of cross-sectional shapes and surface conditions for wires, the most common are round or oval, smooth or indented, ribbed, twisted, or crimped. The strands are made by several wires. For example, in the seven-wire strand six spherical wires are helically wound over a central wire which has a larger diameter than the surrounding wires. Because wires are usually produced with small diameters, the strands show superior properties than single bars due to better quality control. They are also easier to handle due to more flexibility than in a single bar of the same diameter. Prestressing bars are produced with smooth or ribbed surfaces. The first ones can be mechanically end-treated to be used in anchoring systems, while the second ones can be anchored anywhere along their length.

5.2

Mechanical and Stress-Strain Properties

The mechanical properties of prestressing steel must satisfy some requirements, which include the tensile strength and the corresponding strain, the yield point and the modulus of elasticity.

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In figure 5.1, typical stress-strain curves are plotted for prestressing steel compared with reinforcing steel .

Figure 5.1 Stress-strain curves, (Collins and Mitchell 1991). In prestressing steel the yielding point is not well defined and because of this, the yield strength is determined according to strain criteria. There are different equations according to the building codes. Theoretically, the proportional limit is fixed to the point in which the stress-strain curve deviates from the linear trend; usually the proportional limit is determined by the stress corresponding to a residual of 0.01 %. The elasticity modulus of steel is essentially a constant, independent from strength. However, this modulus is smaller for the strands which are made with several wires.

5.3

Relaxation

The force required to hold a highly stressed tendon at a given elongation will reduce with time, also known as relaxation. Relaxation is negligibly small if the initial stress, f pi , is less then 0.55 f py , (Collins and Mitchell 1991). Relaxation of steel is analogous in many ways to creep in concrete and, like creep, relaxation can be accurately predicted only if information for the specific material under the specific conditions is available. The relaxation is described in figure 5.2.

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Figure 5.2 Variation of relaxation with time, (Collins and Mitchell 1991) The temperature of the steel strongly influences the magnitude of the relaxation; a change in temperature from 20C to 40C can lead to an increase in relaxation by about 50%. after 1000 hours. Therefore, at a higher temperature the prestress loss due to relaxation will be reached earlier in time.

5.4

Effects of Temperature

Above about 200C there is a substantial decrease in both the stiffness and the strength of the steel. By 400C, the tensile strength of wires or strand will be only about 50% of its value at room temperature. Figure 5.3 shows the typical behaviour for the strength at high temperature, (Collins and Mitchell 1991).

Figure 5.3 Strength reduction of reinforcement at high temperatures, (Collins and Mitchell 1991)

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5.5

Fatigue

Fatigue is the process of deterioration of the mechanical properties of materials under fluctuating stresses, generally due to repetitive application of live loads on the structure. The lifetime of the steel could be shorter in prestressed concrete, because of the fact that steel is stressed up to 50-60% of its ultimate strength, and this modifies its fatigue behaviour. A limit of endurance has not been found for prestressing steel, but as said above, a fatigue life of 2 million cycles is considered sufficient in the main part of the application. The design of cracked partially prestressed concrete beams should be based on limiting both the stress range in the reinforcement and the crack width range in the concrete to reduce fretting or abrasion between wires of the same tendon or between the tendon and the concrete. The addition of ordinary reinforcing bars to a prestressed concrete member should improve its fatigue resistance even if this reinforcement is not needed for strengthening. It is important to recognize that fatigue properties, which are governed by the presence of small flaws, are inherently highly variable and hence mean values need to be treated very cautiously, (Collins and Mitchell 1991).

5.6

Corrosion

The prestressing steel is more sensitive to corrosion than reinforcement steel bars. This is because the diameter of tendons is relatively small and high-grade steel is more susceptible to corrosion compared to ordinary reinforcement steel. Even a small uniform corrosive layer or a corroded spot can substantially reduce the cross-sectional area of the steel. The exposition of unprotected steels to the environments, even for a few months, can produce a larger reduction of mechanical properties but also in the fatigue life. If unbonded tendons are used, they must be protected by anti-corrosive material such as asphalt, grease, oil or a combination of grease and plastic tubing.

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EXTERNAL PRESTRESSING WITH FRP MATERIALS

6.1 General
In Japan extensive national programs have been undertaken to examine the use of FRP (Fibre Reinforced Poylmer) reinforcement in concrete structures. Several commercial tendon systems have been developed. In 1993 the Japanese were first with creating a design guideline for FRP reinforcement and prestressed concrete structures for building engineering; it first came in Japanese 1995 and in English in 1997. For civil engineering a guideline became available in 1996 (English version 1997). In Canada several researchers have been investigating the application of FRP prestressing tendons. At the University of Manitoba research on CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers) has been taking place, (Fam et al. 1997) and at the Royal Military College work on AFRP has been done, (McKay and Erki 1993), just to mention some examples. In the 70s, research started in Germany to investigate the use of prestressed GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers) tendons but it showed to be less appropriate due to its low modulus of elasticity. A joint venture between Strabag-Bau and chemical producer Bayer resulted, in the end of the 70s, in GFRP bars and an anchorage system that has been used in Germany and Switzerland. In the Netherlands a chemical producer and a contractor, HGB, developed AFRP prestressing elements in the beginning of the 80s. At the moment research in this field is being lead in Europe by Switzerland. The material properties for FRP tendons vary depending on the producer. Therefore there will only be a short description here of some examples of tendons that are used. For further information refer to the manufacturers. One of the largest advantages of FRP tendons is its low weight to high strength ratio. Compared to steel tendons FRP tendons can be made with down to one tenth of the weight, (Jungwirth and Windisch 1995).

6.2

Prestressing systems for FRP

Although FRP materials have many good qualities for prestressing purposes there is still research needed in the area. One problem with external FRP tendons is the

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anchorage. Due to its anisotropy as a material, perpendicular forces might crush the tendon, which is a problem for some wedge systems. EMPA Switzerland has developed a system where a conical anchorage system is used. In general, the anchor casing is made of steel, but it can also be made of fibre composite materials, (Meier 1998). 6.2.1 Tendons FRP tendons are available in the form of rods or cables, rectangular strips, braided rods and multi-wire strands. Below is a short presentation of four different commercially available rods, Arapree, Technora, Leadline and CFCC, (Benmokrane et al 2000 and Nanni et al. 1996). Arapree: a tendon developed by AKZO Chemicals and Hollandsche Beton Groep, even if by now the manufacturing rights are transferred to Sireg S.p.a. an Italian industry. Arapree is a tendon made of aramid fibres embedded in epoxy resin. The anchorage device for this tendon consists of a tapered metal sleeve into which the tendon can be grouted or clamped with two wedges. FiBRA: is a rod that is produced by the Mitsui Construction Company of Japan. It is produced by the braiding of fibre tows followed by epoxy resin impregnation and curing. The fibre can be different, but commonly aramid fibres are used. It is possible to use two types of anchor. The first is a resin-potted anchor for single tendon anchoring and the second a wedge anchor for multiple tendon anchoring. Carbon Stress: is a tendon produced by Nederlandse Draad Industrie, but the original technology for this prestressing system was developed by AKZO Chemicals and it is similar to Arapree. The rod can be flat or round and both are formed by pultrusion of epoxy-impregnated carbon fibres. The anchoring systems for Carbon Stress are similar to those of Arapree, the only difference is the need for a dry lubricant coating on the exterior surface of the plastic wedges to improve the wedge setting. Leadline: Mitsubishi Kasei Corporation of Japan produces this pith-based carbon FRP rod, that is pultruded and epoxy impregnated. There are several types of Leadline, round, indented and rib shapes rods.

Figure 6.1 Example of Leadline rods and strands, (Karbhari 1998)

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

Technora: this rod was developed by Sumitomo Construction Company and Teijin Corporation, both of Japan. It is a spirally-wound pultruded rod impregnated with a vinyl ester resin. Technora tendons can use both wedge and potted anchoring systems, but in the research a potted anchor was used.

Figure 6.2 Example of Technora rods and strands, (Karbhari 1998) CFCC: is the trade name for Carbon Fibre Composite Cable and it is produced by Tokyo Rope and Toho Rayon Co., both of Japan. The cable is formed by twisting a number of small diameter rods. The materials used for this tendon are PAN-based carbon fibre and epoxy resin developed by Tokio Rope. CFCC anchoring system is classified as resin filling and die-cast methods.

Figure 6.3 Example of CFCC strands, (Karbhari 1998) Lightline: is a tendon produced by Neptco Inc. and it is composed by seven rods, one central rod surrounded by six others. The Lightline tendon is formed by E-glass fibre and epoxy resin. Because at the time of research the manufacturer had not yet developed an anchor for utilization of this particular rod, in the research the authors have used a resin potted anchor. In table 2 four of the above products are presented with the material data presented by the manufacturer.

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Table 6.2: Manufacturers data for FRP rods, Benmokrane et al (2000)


Tendon Nominal diameter [mm] Crosssection [mm2] Mean tensile strength [MPa] 1506 2140 2550 2120 Elastic Ultimate Density modulus strain [g/cm3] [GPa] [%] Possions ratio

Arapree-8 Technora Leadline CFCC

7.5 8 7.9 7.5

44.2 50.2 46.1 30.4

62.5 54 150 137.3

2.40 3.70 1.30 1.57

1.25 1.30 1.67 2.10

0.38 0.35 n.a. n.a.

6.3
6.3.1

Anchorage
General

A key design issue for composite cables is how to harness all of the available tensile strength. Conventional anchoring systems for steel cables cannot be used with large composite cables because of the material's relatively low lateral properties, including shear strength. Cable manufacturers have developed new anchorage systems, enabling composite cables to achieve upwards of 90 percent of the total ultimate strength of the individual strands before failure in the anchorage. There are mainly two types of anchors used, wedge anchor and grout-potted anchor.

FRP tendon

Anchor sleeve Anchor wedge

FRP tendon

Anchor sleeve

Anchor matrix

Figure 6.4 Sketch of a wedge anchor and a grout-potted anchor 6.3.2 Wedge anchors The wedge anchor system is similar to those used in steel prestressing systems. One of the problems with this type of anchor for FRP materials is the local damage to the tendon that can occur, however tests have shown that tendons are still efficient after such a local damage, (Nanni et al. 1996). It has been proposed that the wedge surface

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

is gritted to ensure proper gripping, see for example Nanni et al. (1996). Al-Mayah et al. (2001) has tested a stainless steel wedge anchor with positive results. Anchor wedges have also been made using non-metallic materials, (Harada et al.), besides some slippage between the rods and the anchor the authors found it to be a practical method. Pincherira and Woyak (2001) compared a resin filled sleeve with an anchor wedge with a thin metal sleeve between the rod and the wedge, see figure 6.5. The conclusions from those tests were that the resin-filled sleeve was more labour intensive and required much longer anchor length to transfer the forces.

Figure 6.5 The different types of anchors tested by Pincherira and Woyak (2001) 6.3.3 Grout-Potted Anchorages A grout-potted anchor is when the tendons are placed in a cone that is filled with resin or grout. One problem with this type is failure due to pullout from the cone. A way to make a resinfilled anchor more efficient can be to have the stiffness vary over the length of the anchor. This can reduce the stresses that occur during loading. In the figure 6.6 a cone is filled with three different grouts with increasing stiffness. At the end of the anchor the modulus of elasticity of the grout is lower, the result is a

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

better stress distribution with lower stress peaks. In the diagrams first the modulus of elasticity is shown with A constant modulus, i.e. same material through the cone, B three different moduli and C a continuously changing modulus. The lower part shows the result as stress distribution from the different approaches. Tests with varied anchorage bond lengths have been conducted, (Benmokrane et al. 2000), which show that the shape of the load-slip curve pull-out tests of grouted anchors is similar but both the pull-out capacity and initial stiffness increased with the increase in bonded length. Although the pullout capacity increases with longer bond lengths, the maximum bond stress decreases. This indicates that the bond stress distribution along the bonded length of the rods is not uniform.

FRP tendon

Anchor sleeve

Anchor matrix

A B C

A Typical stress distribution for


constant modulus anchor A B Improved stress distribution with soft cone concept C Optimized stress distribution with continouly varying anchor stiffness C

Figure 6.6: Stress distribution in a cone, from Erki and Rizkalla (1993)

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6.3.4

Comparison between wedge and grout potted anchorages

Nanni et al. (1996) performed a number of tests on different anchor systems. For the tests, ten specimens for each type of tendon were used. In the first the specimens were tensioned up to failure and the second and final were a high temperature test. Each specimen was 1200 mm long and the anchoring system was installed at one end of the rod. After the tests the following conclusions were made: Wedge Anchor Types Arapree: The tendon/anchor system supported only 40% of the manufacturers reported ultimate load because of continuous slips between tendon and wedges during testing. FiBRA: The specimens tested exceeded the ultimate tensile strength by more than 10% and the computed E value and ultimate strain were very close to those specified by the manufacturer. FiBRA was also subjected to the high temperature test and after the rod had reached the uniform temperature of 60C, the tendon was tensioned up to failure. The differences from the room temperature test were negligible. Carbon Stress: The specimens of flat-strip Carbon Stress supported a load that was over 70% of the ultimate load pointed out by the manufacturer and the computed E value was about 85% of the reported one. For the round Carbon Stress a load of 60% of the manufacturers ultimate load was reached and a very high correspondence was found between the computed and specified E values. Leadline: The test results were in very good agreement with the manufacturers values. An ultimate load, more than 15% higher than the specified was reached during testing and the computed E value was greater than reported. Potted Anchor Types Technora: The tested specimens supported an ultimate load that was 6% higher than reported, an ultimate strain 15% below the specified and E values of about 15% lower than that presented by the manufacturer. Ultimate failure resulted from pull-out of the tendon from the grouted anchor. CFCC: The failure during testing was reached with a load of 109% of the expected one and the corresponding strain was 20% less than the reported. This was due to the fact that the modulus of elasticity computed was 16.5% higher than specified by the manufacturer. Lightline: The ultimate load was about 70% of the reported one and the corresponding strain was 45% of the specified value. Instead, a value of the modulus of the elasticity, much greater than the reported was computed.

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STRENGTHENING WITH BONDED NONPRESTRESSED CFRP

7.1

General

There are many different methods to strengthening a concrete structure such as changing the cross-section, external prestressing, changing the static system or using the plate bonding technique. In this chapter only flexural strengthening will be addressed. There are many other areas of use for strengthening with CFRP, such as steel columns, shear strengthening of concrete structures etc, Carolin (2003). In recent years the development of the plate bonding repair technique has been shown to be applicable to many existing strengthening problems in the building industry. This technique may be defined as one in which composite sheets or plates of relatively small thickness are bonded with an epoxy adhesive to, in most cases, a concrete structure to improve its structural behaviour and strength. The sheets or plates do not require much space and give a composite action between the adherents. The adhesives most used to bond the fabric or the laminate to the concrete surface are twocomponent epoxy adhesives. The old structure and the new bonded-on material create a new structural element that has a higher strength and stiffness than the original one. In figure 7.1 two CFRP strengthening methods are shown, strengthening with laminates and strengthening with NSMR rods.

Laminate and NSMR

Figure 7.1 Sketch of the difference between plate bonding and near surface mounted reinforcement

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7.2

Sheets and laminates

The method of plate bonding started with the use of steel plates in the mid sixties and was quite extensively used during the 1970s. However, one problem with using steel plates is the risk of corrosion, another problem is that steel plates are quite heavy to lift and laborious to mount. In addition the steel plates need to be joined by overlap plates due to limitations in transportation lengths and weight. Consequently if the plate bonding methods were going to be used more widely, an invention was needed. The invention was to use a material that does not corrode, is strong and stiff and yet lightweight. Carbon fibre laminates fulfilled these demands. In the late eighties the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research (EMPA) started to us CFRP for strengthening and 1991 the first bridge in Switzerland was strengthened, (Meier et al. 1992). One of the advantages with plate bonding is its possibility to be used for many geometrical shapes. Another advantage of plate bonding is that the method can be applied with dynamic loads on the structure during the work, (Tljsten and Carolin 1999). Furthermore, the method doesnt need large material transportation or special expensive equipment. In addition the strengthening method does not change the physical dimensions of the structure Today strengthening concrete structures in bending with CFRP laminates and fabrics is a widely accepted repair and strengthening method. Many researchers have performed tests and derived theories in this field. A large number of structures all over the world have been strengthened with this technique. National codes have been compiled and several are in the process of being written. In Sweden, for example, a guideline exists for CFRP strengthening of concrete bridges accepted by the Road Administration since 1999, (Tljsten 2003).

Figure 7.2 Heavily degraded beam with concrete removed before strengthening Next, a brief description of how to undertake a strengthening work with laminates and fabrics will be given. In practical execution in general the following steps must be performed during strengthening:

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

Pre-treatment of the surface with grinding or sandblasting. The aggregates shall be uncovered, this to increase the bond for the adhesive to the concrete. In some situations, with extensive corrosion, the concrete behind the steel bars needs to be removed, the steel bar protected against future corrosion and the surface levelled out before CFRP strengthening can be used, see for example figure 7.2. Careful cleaning of the surface is important. Dust, grease and other contaminates may lower the quality of the bond. Larger holes and irregularities on the surface shall be filled with putty. A primer for the system chosen is applied and allowed to harden. Some laminate systems do not use a primer. The application of the adhesive depends often on the strengthening system used. For fabrics the adhesive is placed on the concrete surface and the fabric on the adhesive, a new layer of adhesive is then rolled on the fabric. The procedure is repeated until enough layers have been mounted. For laminates, the adhesive is mostly applied on the laminate and the laminate and the adhesive are then mounted to the concrete surface. Adhesive is applied on the surface. Then the laminate or the fabric area placed on the surface. If fabric is used adhesive is applied on the fabrics after bonding and additional layers of fabrics can be used. At the end adhesive is placed on the fabrics, this is not necessary with laminates. In figure 7.3 a column strengthening with fabrics is shown. Protective clothing shall always be worn to minimise the contact with epoxy.

Figure 7.3 Strengthening of a column using CFRP fabrics

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7.3

NSMR

The use of Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement for concrete structures is not a new invention. A type of NSMR has been used since the 1940s, where steel reinforcement is placed in slots in the concrete cover or in an additional concrete cover that is cast onto the structure (Asplund, 1949). Here steel bars are placed in slots in the concrete structure and then the slots are grouted. It has also been quite common to use steel bars, fastened to the outside of the structure, covered with shotcrete. However, in these applications it is often difficult to get a good bond to the original structure, and in some cases, it is not always easy to cast the concrete around the whole steel reinforcing bars. From the 1960s the development of strong adhesives, such as epoxies, for the construction industry moved the method further ahead by bonding the steel bars in sawed slots in the concrete cover. However, due to the corrosion sensitivity of steel bars an additional concrete cover is still needed. For these applications, epoxy coated steel bars have also been used. However, it has been shown that over time, epoxy coated steel bars are not always corrosion resistant for various reasons that will not be discussed here. The use of steel NSMR cannot be said to have shown great success. Nevertheless, by using CFRP NSMR some of the drawbacks of steel NSMR can be overcome. Firstly, CFRP NSMR does not corrode; so thick concrete covers are not needed. Secondly, the CFRP laminate can be tailor-made for near surface applications and moreover, the light weight of the CFRP laminates makes them easy to mount. Finally, depending on the form of the NSMR rod air voids behind the laminates can be avoided. Both epoxies and systems using high quality cement mortar can be used. Next a short description of how to undertake a strengthening work with NSMR will be given. In practical execution in general the following steps must be performed during strengthening: Sawing slots in the concrete cover, with the depth depending on the product used and the depth of concrete cover. Careful cleaning of the slots after sawing using high-pressurised water. No saw mud is allowed to remain in the slot. If an epoxy system is used, the slot must be dry before bonding. If a cement system is used it is generally recommended that the existing surfaces are wet at the time of concrete mortar casting. Adhesive is applied in the slot as in figure 7.4, or with a cement system, cement mortar is applied in the slot. The NSMR laminates are mounted in the slot and the excess adhesive or cement mortar is removed with a spatula or similar tool. There are mainly three types of laminates that have been used in NSMR applicationscircular rods (De Lorenzis et al. 2000, De Lorenzis and La Tegola 2002 and De

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

Lorenzis 2002), rectangular laminates (Tljsten and Carolin 2001), and quadratic rods (Carolin et al. 2001).

Figure 7.4 Slots being filled with epoxy adhesive, laboratory tests in Lule 2001

7.4

Comparison between laminates, sheets and NSMR

The CFRP strengthening systems described in Table 7.1 may be used for different applications. For example CFRP fabrics are often used for curved surfaces whereas CFRP laminates are used for flat surfaces. A NSMR rod may be used for both flat and curved surfaces as long as the radius is not too small. Before a project is planned consideration must be given as to what system best suits the strengthening object. All systems have their strengths and weaknesses that have to be understood if an optimised strengthening is to be achieved. In Table 7.1 some characteristics and aspects of externally bonded FRP reinforcement are listed.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons - Literature review

Table 7.1 Characteristics and aspects of externally bonded FRP reinforcement Laminates Sheets NSMR
Shape Dimension: thickness width Use Rectangular strips Ca: 1.0 - 2.0 mm Ca: 50 - 150 mm Simple bonding of factory-made profiles with adhesives Thin unidirectional or bi-directional fabrics Ca: 0.1 - 0.5 mm Ca: 200 - 600 mm Bonding and impregnation of the dry fibre with resin and curing at site Rectangular strips or laminates Ca: 1.0 - 10.0 mm Ca: 10 - 30 mm Simple bonding of factory made profiles with adhesive or cement mortar in presawed slots in the concrete cover For flat surfaces Depends on the distance to steel reinforcement A slot needs to be sawn up in the concrete cover The slot needs careful cleaning before bonding

Application aspects

For flat surfaces Thixotopic adhesive for bonding Not more than one layer recommended Stiffness of laminate and use of thixotropic adhesive allow for certain surface unevenness Simple in use

Easy to apply on curved surfaces Low viscosity resin form bonding and impregnation Multiple layers can be used, more than 10 possible. Unevenness needs to be levelled out

Need well documented quality systems Can easily be combined with finishing systems, such as plaster and paint Suitable for strengthening in shear and bending Needs to be protected against fire

Bonded with a thixotropic adhesive Possible to use cement mortar for bonding Protected against impact and vandalism Suitable for strengthening in bending Minor protection against fire

Quality guaranteed from factory

Suitable for strengthening in bending Needs to be protected against fire

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

STRENGTHENING WITH BONDED PRESTRESSED CFRP

8.1

Why strengthening with prestressed FRP


Better utilisation of the strengthening material Unloading of the steel reinforcement Decreased crack size and mean crack distance Higher steel yielding loads

There are four main reasons why it can be an advantage to prestress FRP.

The greatest advantage with prestressing FRP is the increased steel-yielding load. Studies have shown almost 50% increase in steel yielding compared to unstrengthened structures and up to 25% compared to non- prestressed strengthened structures, see for example Wight et al. (1995a) and Nordin et al. (2001). Figure 8.1 shows the typical behaviour of beams loaded with four-point bending. The values are from Nordin et al. (2001) but other studies show the same behaviour, (ElHacha et al. 2001b) and Wight et al 1995). The plot in figure 8.1 shows three important stages, concrete cracking, steel yielding and ultimate load. A nonprestressed strengthened beam has about the same cracking load as a non-strengthened beam, where the beam with prestressed strengthened FRP has about twice the load. For steel yielding the strengthening effect is almost double for prestressed strengthening compared to non-prestress, (Wight et al. 1995a). In figure 8.1 a load versus midpoint deflection plot is drawn. Two dotted ellipses encircle A) the concrete cracking load and B) the steel yield load. When strengthening with non-stressed FRP it is often the strain in the steel reinforcements that is the limiting factor. Even if the strengthening material carries larger parts of the load, the steel reinforcement has yielded. This also implies a low utilisation of the FRP laminate, NSMR or sheet used. A low utilisation leads to higher costs for the client. This means in many situations that it would be beneficial if the structure could be unloaded before strengthening. However, this is not always possible.

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140

120

c B

100

Load [kN]

80

60

40

20

A
0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Midspan deflection [mm]


Figure 8.1 Beams strengthened with CFRP, (a) unstrengthened, (b) strengthened without prestress and (c) strengthened with prestress Nevertheless, if the FRP material can be prestressed, the stress on the steel will be decreased and with the FRP stressed there will be higher utilisation of the FRP material and in addition lower deflections may be obtained. Now the strengthening material and the steel reinforcement will work together directly from loading leading to higher concrete cracking load, (A), and in addition the steel yielding will occur at a higher load as well, (B). It is also important to remember that after prestress the ductility of the structure has been reduced, compared to non-prestressed strengthening, due to the fact that a part of the strain capability in the FRP has already been used. In figure 8.2 a theoretical stress and strain distribution is shown for a concrete beam without external loads. In b) the strain distributions of a strengthened beam without prestressed FRP (continuous line) and with prestressed FRP (dotted line) are shown. In c) the stress distribution for a beam strengthened without prestress is shown and in d) the stress distribution of a rectangular beam with prestressed FRP can be seen.

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Strengthening structures with externally prestressed tendons Literature review

Figure 8.2 The theoretical stress distribution, c) is without prestress and d) is with prestress, (Nordin et al. 2001) By prestressing the FRP the crack load is increased and the steel-yielding load is increased. As for pre- or post-stressed steel structures the ultimate load is not increased since the same amount of strengthening material is added, (Wight et al. 1995a, El-Hacha et al. 2001a and Nordin et al. 2001).

8.2

Sheets and laminates

Prestressed CFRP sheets and laminates is the strengthening technique that has been investigated the most. Although there have been problems with end peeling the results have been interesting when using mechanical anchorage, (Wight et al. 1995a, and ElHacha et al. 2003). It has been found that the pultruded composite plates fail progressively when plate fracture occurs, and a considerable further load may be carried after the first fracture. Such a failure in practice would provide a visual warning of imminent structural collapse, (Garden and Hollaway 1998). Applying a prestress to the plate, prior to bonding, also affects the mode of failure. The plate has a compressive effect on the base of the beam, which tends to confine the concrete, resulting in a reduction in the amount of shear cracking which could initiate failure in the shear spans. As a result, the failure surface is shifted downwards, appearing to occur most readily at the adhesive/CFRP interface or within the bottom layers of the concrete, (Garden and Hollaway 1998). Prestressing produced significant increases in the load which causes yield of the internal steel over a non-prestressed specimen (Quantrill and Hollaway 1998). If there are imperfections on the tension face the FRP sheet might separate itself from the beam surface, (Wight et al. 1995a). This indicates that the pre-treatment of the surface is more important when prestressing the laminates, mainly due to the higher shear stresses. The shear stress dramatically increases near the end of the sheets Wight et al. 1995a). This makes an anchorage system useful for prestressing applications.

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In figure 8.3 the sketch shows an example of how to strengthen with prestressed FRP. An adhesive is applied to the FRP material, and then the FRP is placed on the surface of the structure. When the FRP is placed a force is applied to the FRP, a force that has to be applied during the curing of the adhesive. When sufficient curing of the adhesive has been achieved the applied force is released and the FRP is cut.

Beam Adhesive FRP

Fp

Fp

Figure 8.3 Post-Reinforcing with pre-tensioned FRP Sheets, from Triantafillou and Deskovic. (1991). The FRP is applied to the surface and a prestressing force, Fp, is applied. After curing the prestressing force is released and the FRP are cut. 8.2.1 Prestressing systems

Mainly three systems have been investigated for prestressing FRP plates and laminates for strengthening of structures. These are: Unloading the structure by, for example, hydraulic jacks and then strengthening. This will then give a prestressing effect when the load is released. Prestressing the FRP against external independent structures Prestressing the FRP against the strengthened structure itself. One of the biggest issues with strengthening with prestressed FRP has been how to carry it out in the field. Often the physical appearance of the construction makes the methods used in the laboratory more or less useless in the field. A complete system has to have both a prestressing technique and an anchorage system.

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A system to prestress plates and strips has been developed in Switzerland where a hydraulic cylinder miniature press is used (Andr and Maier 1999), see figure 8.4.

Figure 8.4 Sketch of the prestressing system developed at EMPA Switzerland, Andr and Maier (1999) El-Hacha et al. (2003) describe a method that has larger parts but has shown promising results, see figure 8.5. On the left side an anchor plate that has been glued on to the FRP which is bolted to an angle iron that is bolted to the beam. On the right side bars have been welded on the anchor plate, the bars go through the angle iron and are then attached to a hydraulic cylinder that applies the prestressing force.

Figure 8.5 Anchorage system for the prestressing (El-Hacha et al. 2003) This can also be made in a smaller scale, Garden and Hollaway (1998). Here a block is bonded to the laminate and bolted in to the concrete creating a fixed anchor system, see figure 8.6.

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Adhesive-filled bore

CFRP plate

Anchorage block

Mild steel bolt

Figure 8.6 Example anchorage for strips, based on Garden and Hollaway (1998) 8.2.2 Quality

Before a strengthening is performed, it is important that the original structures condition is examined to verify if the strengthening technique will be applicable, Tljsten (2002). If the existing concrete is in too poor condition strengthening with prestressed laminates might not be possible. The quality of the system is highly dependent on the surface that the FRP will be bonded to. The surface will be sandblasted or grinded and cleaned with pressurised air or a vacuum cleaner before bonding to achieve the best bond between the materials. No loose particles, grease or other contaminations are allowed on the surface at time of bonding. During the strengthening the climate demands stated by the manufacturer of the products must be achieved. Also it is important that the products included are used in the correct manner. After the strengthening is completed the FRP composite can be tapped on using, for example, a hammer to find any possible voids, (Tljsten 2002).

8.3

Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement

The idea of Near Surface Mounted Reinforcement is to insert the added reinforcement into sawed grooves in the concrete cover. Some researchers have tested NSMR with circular rods, (De Lorenzis 2002 and Hassan and Rizkalla 2001). A pilot study with rectangular rods has earlier been undertaken at Lule University of Technology, (Tljsten and Carolin 2001). The sawing of grooves is only possible on structures with enough depth to the steel reinforcement. One should remember that the thickness of the concrete cover depends more on the workmanship from when the structure was built than the code that the design was based upon. Anyhow, it is easy to believe that the method is more suitable for outdoor structures such as bridges then indoor structures with normally less concrete cover.

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8.3.1

Pre-treatment

Full-scale tests have shown that the pre-treatment when using plate bonding may be labour intensive and therefore expensive. In traditional plate bonding the concrete laitance layer must be removed and the aggregates must be exposed to ensure good anchorage before the composite can be applied. This can in the most cases be done by sandblasting and is then neither complicated nor expensive. However, if the surface has irregularities, from formwork for instance, or if the sand blasting does not have any effect then the surface needs grinding or a more powerful treatment to uncover the aggregate. Whichever method is chosen, the work will be time consuming and costly. For NSMR, a groove has to be sawn; this may be difficult to do by hand only, since the equipment is heavy. But if a stiff rail is used for support of the saw the work will be much easier and the grooves will be straight. It will even be possible to saw on rough surfaces. After the grooves have been sawn the concrete has to be chiselled out and the grooves cleaned from contamination. If the right equipment is used this might be less labour intensive than the pre-treatment for plate bonding 8.3.2 Force transfer

The insertion of the reinforcement should vouch for a better force transfer between the concrete and the composite compared to plate bonding. The bonded area will change and be dependent on the geometry of the inserted reinforcement. If the rods are placed too close to each other, a possible failure may occur from interaction between the two rods. If the strengthening work has been performed correctly there should not be problems with the FRP bond to the adhesive, this goes for both plate bonding and NSMR. The energy needed to get a failure in the concrete to adhesive bond is larger then the plate bonding technique. 8.3.3 Different bonding agents

Another issue is the use of thermosetting polymers such as epoxy. Epoxy may be allergenic and harmful, if it is handled incorrectly,. Therefore, the possibility to replace epoxy by cement grout would be preferable. The use of polymer cement as a bonding agent when strengthening with NSMR has proven to work well with unstressed CFRP, (Carolin et al. 2001). The downside is that the cement has a much longer curing time then epoxy, which may create problems if used with prestressed CFRP. Another way to do the bonding is to use injection or infusion. Different application techniques can be found in Tljsten and Elfgren (2000). This can be made with, for example, vacuum injection as in figure 8.7. The first advantage is that with this method it is possible to avoid hand contact with the epoxy adhesive and wastage at the work site can be kept to a minimum. Furthermore, the quality of the composite can be improved. However, this method requires a large investment and there can be some difficulties in achieving a high degree of vacuum with surfaces of rough texture or in

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complicated geometries and locations. This implies higher prices for the strengthening work. For this application, a low viscosity cold-cured epoxy adhesive is used.

Figure 8.7 Vacuum injection system with a CFRP-fabric for strengthening purposes, (Tljsten and Elfgren 2000) 8.3.4 Prestressing system

Due to the fact that limited research has been published regarding the use of prestressed Near Surface Mounted CFRP rods there is no practically-useful method developed at the moment. The use of unstressed Near Surface Mounted CFRP rods in concrete structures has applied in real structures, but no recorded use of prestressed NMSR has been found. Prestressing Prestressing NSMR has so far only been done in laboratory environments. The prestressing operations done have used external supports to prestress against, see figure 8.8. This is in most cases not possible to do on a real structure; therefore a prestressing system has to be developed.

Figure 8.8 Prestressing in laboratory, Lule University of Technology 2002

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Since there have not been any reports found containing prestressed NSMR with an anchorage system the technique described here is without anchorage. When prestressing NSMR the rod is placed in the adhesive filled groove and then the prestressing force is applied, similar to figure 8.3. When the adhesive has cured the prestressing force is released and the force is transferred via the adhesive to the concrete. Because there is no anchorage there will be a loss of strain in the rod at end points. The strain loss is large at the ends decreasing over 200 mm, afterwhich there is only a small loss of prestressing strain in the rod. Mechanical anchorage Although it is possible to avoid failure at the end without mechanical anchorage it would be beneficial to use such devices. A mechanical anchorage would help decreasing the loss of strain at the ends when releasing the prestressing force. It might also be able to help keep the prestress in the rod over a long-time perspective, but without mechanical anchorage it is likely that there will be problems with creep. One other important aspect for an anchor system is for the prestressing operation. Without an anchor to apply the prestressing force to it is difficult to get higher prestressing levels. A mechanical anchorage system has to contain a device placed in the groove or an expanded section of the groove. The device has to be bonded to the CFRP rod, either by a wedge anchor or with adhesive. Then there are mainly two alternatives, the device will be locked to the soffit only or it will be bonded deeper in the structure. If the anchor is to be bonded to the soffit, for example with a V-shape, it is important that the concrete can take the stresses that will occur, otherwise the concrete might be crushed at the ends. The alternative of bonding the anchor deeper in the concrete can be made by bolts drilled into the concrete, similar to the method used for plates shown in figure 8.6. No matter what method that will be used for anchoring the ends it is still an important area that needs research. Not before a sufficient anchor system is developed will it be possible to use the method of prestressed NSMR outside the laboratory. 8.3.5 Quality

Traffic running underneath a bridge with low clearance, results sooner or later, in damages on the bridge from vehicle impact. For a concrete bridge this is not critical but can cause severe damages to an unprotected and badly designed reinforcement. Plate bonding as well as external post tensioning can be sensitive to vehicle impact if that has not been considered in the design. Damages caused underneath by passing trucks can be seen in figure 8.9.

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Figure 8.9 Damages of strengthening system caused by vehicle impact, (Carolin et al. 2001) Fire, vandalism and environmental loads can also harm the composite. A damage of the reinforcement can produce severe problems and eventually failure of the structure. With NSMR the fragile composite will be better protected from outer damage than traditional plate bonding and external post tensioning.

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THEORY

9.1 General
There is a difference in the ductility behaviour between beams with prestressed FRP tendons compared to steel tendons. In general, a conventional prestressed concrete beam with steel tendons will deform elastically until cracking, and then the member deflections will progressively increase as the tendon yields. FRP prestressed beams deform elastically until cracking and then continue to deform under increasing load until the tendons rupture or the concrete crushes.

9.2

Moment capacity

Figure 9.1 Strain and stress distribution at critical section of externally prestressed beam at ultimate limit state, (Ng 2003) The ultimate moment can be determined using the following equation, (Ng 2003)

M u = Aps f ps (d ps ,u k 1c) + As f y (d s k 1c) + As' f y' (d s' k 1c)

(9.1)

k 1c is the depth of centroid of the concrete compression zone. For a rectangular section or a T-section with 1c h f (hf is the flange thickness) k = 0.5. For 1c h f

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then k has to be determined from the centroid of force in the concrete compression zone.

9.3 Tensile stress in tendons


The tensile stress in the prestressing tendon is calculated from equation 9.2 where the total stress is the stresses from the prestress and the stresses from the loading.

f ps = f pe + f ps
where

(9.2)

f ps =

L Ep L0

(9.3)

The deflection profile of the beam is the main variable because it governs the value of L , (Aparicio et al. 2002). The variable that changes the value of L0 is the slip of the tendons at the deviator and the total length of the tendons. 9.3.1 Unbonded tendons

Figure 9.2 Strain distribution along section of maximum moment, (Naaman et al. 2002)

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To be able to calculate the stress in unbonded tendons at ultimate, Naaman et al. (2002) propose the following equations, see also figure 9.2: For steel tendons

d L f ps = f pe + u E ps cu p 1 1 c L2
For FRP tendons

(9.4)

d L f frp = f pe + u E frp cu p 1 1 c L2
is a strain-reduction coefficient, (Naaman et al. 2002), that is defined as

(9.5)

2 M max (e0 ) max L

L/2

M ( x)e ( x)dx
0 0

(9.6)

c =

I cr 2 I cr + 1 Ig L Ig

LC / 2 M ( x)e0 ( x)dx M ( e ) max 0 max 0

(9.7)

where is for the case of an uncracked section and c is for a cracked section. Simply supported beams with constant EIg throughout their lengths, symmetrical loadings, and tendon profiles are considered. 9.3.2 External tendons

In externally prestressed beams, the stress in the tendons depends on the deformation of the whole structure and is assumed uniform at all sections, (Tan and Ng 1997). However, the stress f ps can be calculated, by introducing the concept of bond coefficient, following the method of equilibrium and strain compatibility, see figure 9.3. Neglecting the dead load, the stress in the tendons, f ps , in the critical section under applied moment M is given by:

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Figure 9.3 Stress and strain distribution in externally prestressed sections, (Tan and Ng 1997) 1. Within the linear elastic uncracked state ( 0 M M cr )

f ps = f pi +

Me E I tr c + Aps (r 2 + e2 ) E ps

(9.8)

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2. Within the linear elastic cracked state ( M cr M M ecl )

f ps = E ps ( pe + c ce ) + c

E ps

d c f ct ps Ec c

(9.9)

3. Within the ultimate flexural limit state ( M = M u )

d f ps = f pi + u E ps cu ps 1 c
2 (a) 3 = 23 (b) 54 I cr 1 I cr + 1 ( a ) I tr 3 I tr c = I cr + 1 1 I cr (b) I tr 8 I tr 5.4 u = L d

(9.10)

(9.11)

Where (a) is for a straight tendon and (b) is for a draped tendon. is a bond reduction coefficient, if the tendons are fully bonded is assumed to be 1.

Figure 9.4 Tendons eccentricity, Tan and Ng (1997). To consider the tendons eccentricity as can be seen in figure 9.4 the values e and dps have to be recalculated with the upward displacement , (Tan and Ng 2002). That gives:

e = e0
d = d ps 0

(9.12) (9.13)

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10

CODES AND GUIDELINES

In this chapter different codes approaches to prestressing will be presented. None of the presented codes have special guidelines for external prestressing Instead it is only the general prestressing that is in focus.

10.1 Eurocode 2
Eurocode 2 has four sections where prestressing is mentioned, those are 3.3, 3.4, 5.10, 8.10 and 10.3.2. Next follows a short description of those sections, all references to sections in this chapter are sections in Eurocode 2. 10.1.1 Material In section 3.3 and 3.4 the code covers the material aspect for prestressing steel and prestressing devices. 10.1.2 Structural analysis Section 5.10 in the code, structural analysis, covers most of the prestressing forces and behaviour of the tendons, including maximum stressing force

Pmax = Ap p ,max
limitation of concrete stress

(10.1)

c 0.6 f ck (t )

(10.2)

where fck(t) is the characteristic compressive strength of the concrete at the time when it is subjected to the prestressing force. Also included are immediate losses of prestress for post-tensioning, and instantaneous deformation of concrete j c (t ) (10.3) Pel = Ap E p Ecm (t ) losses due to friction

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P ( x) = Pmax (1 e ( + kx ) )
and time dependent losses of prestress for pre- and post-tensioning

(10.4)

Pc + s + r = Ap p ,c + s + r = Ap

cs E p + 0.8 pr +
1+ E p Ap Ecm

Ep Ecm

(t , t0 ) c ,QP
(10.5)

A 2 (1 + c zcp ) [1 + 0.8 (t , to ) ] Ac Ic

For further details see Eurocode 2. 10.1.3 Detailing Section 8.10 covers the detailing for prestressing tendons, arrangement of tendons, anchoring and anchorage zones, and deviators. 10.1.4 Additional rules For pre-tensioning members, the effect on the relaxation losses of increasing the temperature while curing the concrete shall be considered.

10.2 BBK 04
BBK 04 (Boverkets handbok om betongkonstruktioner) is the Swedish code for concrete structures. Here follows the parts that are specific for prestressing. 10.2.1 Demands All prestressing has to be registered in prestress lists, with extra 10.2.2 Design conditions For prestress there has to be consideration for relaxation, friction and time dpendent effects. The relaxation in the tendons is defined as:

= 1

(10.6)

where is the stress after time and 0 is the initial stress. The friction has to be considered for the prestressing force. At an arbitrary section in a post-stressed structure the prestress should be calculated as:

P ( s) = P(0)e ( + 0.01s )

(10.7)

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And the prestress time dependent reduction can be calculated as:

s = Es cs +
10.2.3 Design

Es cp + cp Ec

(10.8)

The compressive stress in the concrete during prestress is limited to 0.6fcck and the stress in the tendons after prestress should not be more than 0.85fst or 0.75fstu.

10.3 Bro 2004


The Swedish bridge code, Bro 2004, has sections for prestressing concrete but none for steel and wood structures. The focus is mainly on material and execution. 10.3.1 Loads For prestressed concrete structures a time dependent effect has to be shown. The effect should be presented for the construction date, after 30 days and finally after 100 years when the bridge is supposed to be taken out of service. Also the bridge should be calculated for tendon failure in a arbitrary tendon. 10.3.2 Concrete structures - Generally In the general section for concrete structures, together with appendix 4-2, the code covers prefabricated prestressed concrete girders. This is, however, for prestressed concrete and does not mention post-tensioned structures. 10.3.3 Concrete structures Material The materials section covers the required material demands on the tendons as well as acceptance tests for relaxation, fatigue and corrosion resistance. Prestressing systems and casing pipes are also included. 10.3.4 Concrete structures Execution The section about execution covers the prestressing as well as the work after, such as injection of pipes. 10.3.5 Steel structures Material The strength of tendons and protection against corrosion are the only references to tendons.

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10.3.6 Improvement Concrete structures The code states that external tendons are acceptable to improve the capacity of the structure.

10.4 FHWA design recommendations, FRP tendons


The following recommendations and equations are taken from the design recommendations in Dolan et al. (2001), a FHWA report. 10.4.1 Jacking stresses and losses In table 10.1 the recommended maximum stresses for straight FRP tendons are presented, Dolan et al. (2001). Overstressing is not recommended as it may inflict negatively on the service life of the structure. Table 10.1 Recommended jacking stresses, Dolan et al. (2001) Pre-tensioning Post-tensioning Carbon 0.65 f pu 0.65 f pu Aramid Glass

0.60 f pu
Not recommended

0.50 f pu 0.45 f pu

The designers have to ensure that the glass is isolated from the alkali in the cement. Relaxation losses in FRP tendons derive from three sources, 1) when the tendon is initially stressed a portion of the load is carried in the resin matrix, 2) the fibres in a pultruded section nearly but not completely parallel, 3) the fibres themselves relax. These three sources give the total relaxation R (R1+R2+R3). The initial matrix relaxation occurs in the first 24 to 96 hours. The modular ratio ( nr ) of the resin and fibre and the volume fraction of the resin ( r ) are the variables in the process.

R1 = nr r

(10.9)

Straightening of fibres is a function of the quality control of the pultrusion process and the relaxation from that is predicted between one and two percent. Thus, R2 = 0.02 (10.10)

Fibre relaxation is dependent on the fibre type. For carbon tests have shown it to have no relaxation and for aramid fibres 6 to 18 percent over a 100-year design life. Other losses traditionally associated with prestressing tendons are computed in the same manner as for steel tendons.

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10.4.2 Flexural design The approach to strength design of beams with prestressed FRP is based on the concept of a brittle ratio, failure in tendons and concrete simultaneously. Tendon failure is defined as the ultimate tensile strain, pu , and the concrete compression strain cu = 0.003 . Having defined the brittle ratio, design conditions for members with reinforcement ratios above and below the brittle ratio are developed.

Figure 10.1 Brittle ratio, stress and strain conditions, Dolan et al. (2001) The brittle ratio can be simplified with

br = 0.851

f c' cu f pu cu + pu pi

(10.11)

Equations for flexural design can then be defined for normal, under and over reinforced beams. Normal reinforced 0.5 br br

M n = bd 2 f pu (1

f pu
1.7 f c'

(10.12)

Under reinforced 0.5br

k M u = bd 2 f pu 1 where k = ( n) 2 + 2 n n 3
Over reinforced br

(10.13)

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k M o = 0.85 f c'b1ku d 2 1 1 u 2
where

(10.14)

pi ku = + 1 cu
and

pi 1 2 cu

(10.15)

E p cu 0.85 f c' 1

(10.16)

10.5 Comments about the codes


When looking at the construction codes the space for prestressed structures is very limited. But it is also important to remember that what has been written here from the codes is the prestress specific content. When comparing the codes there is not that big difference between the construction codes, there is some variations on the focus and on a few values. But when looking at the design recommendations for FRP tendons there is more details. This is probably because is focused on FRP tendons only, as the construction codes covers a wider area.

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11

STRENGTHENED STRUCTURES

11.1 Aramid rod anchor block reinforcement


Rehabilitation and strengthening of existing concrete bridge girders with external tendons at the Sone Viaduct, Hyogo Prefecture. Anchorage blocks for external tendons are post-tensioned to the existing girders with Technora multistrand tendons. Fifty-six anchor blocks for external post-tensioning have been stressed to existing concrete girders with Technora 9-strand aramid tendons, made from 7.4 mm diameter deformed (spirally wound) aramid rods. The rehabilitation and strengthening was performed for the Japan Highways Public Corporation (JHC). Each tendon has a nominal design load of 850 kN, and six tendons were used to anchor each anchorage bracket. The adjustable tendon end anchorages consist of epoxy-mortar-filled steel housings. The existing concrete girders were cored at the anchor block tendon locations. Six 9strand Technora tendons were placed over the entire bridge width through multiple girders and anchor blocks and pretensioned against bulkheads at both sides of the bridge. Anchor blocks were cast around the pretensioned tendons. After curing of the concrete, the tendons were cut between girders, and longitudinal external posttensioning with conventional steel tendons began. No testing or monitoring of the anchor block tendon force was planned for this project.

11.2 Hythe Bridge, Oxford


From December 1998 to April 1999 the Hythe Bridge in Oxford was strengthened with prestressed CFRP strips. Prior to the strengthening Mouchel Consulting undertook a feasibility study into methods of strengthening the bridge, with the objective to raise its capacity. The degree of prestress was designed to remove all tensile stresses from the cast iron beams under the full 40 tonnes loading. Four CFRP tendons per beam were stressed to a total of 18 tonnes. Prestress effectively counteracts the dead load effects, releasing additional capacity for the live load, (Darby et al. 1999).

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Figure 11.1 Photograph of the Hythe Bridge, (Darby et al. 1999)

11.3 Stork bridge


EMPA's anchor design has been used at one of the first cable-stay bridge applications for composite cables. Located in Winterthur, Switzerland, the Storchenbrucke ("Stork Bridge") carries vehicles over railroad tracks. The bridge deck is supported by two main steel girders and suspended by 24 stay-cables, 12 for each of the two spans of 63.1 metres and 61,3 metres. In April 1996, EMPA replaced two of the conventional stays, consisting of 130 steel wires of 7-mm diameter, with carbon-fibre/epoxy cables consisting of 241 strands of 5-mm diameter. The composite strands are fabricated from 24K tow, with 17 tows comprising each strand. The fibre volume is 70 percent in these strands. Anchors for the two stays are high-strength alloy steel with a seven-step gradient of load transfer medium. A polyethylene duct -- identical to those used on the steel cables -- sheaths the cables, and polyethylene foam keeps the cable from rattling inside the sheath during high winds. Each of the composite cables is 37 meter long and weighs 251.5 kg. Laboratory fatigue testing of the cable as configured for Storchenbrucke has shown no performance loss after 10 million cycles. Because the composite stays work in concert with steel stays, EMPA designers performed thorough static evaluations to ensure that the difference in thermal expansion and stiffness would not compromise the bridge's suspension. The composite cables will experience 10 percent greater load than the steel cables during the summer due to steel's higher thermal expansion rate.

11.4 Southfield bridge


Another important application of composite tendons is found in a joint demonstration project between Lawrence Technological University (LTU, Southfield, Michigan.) and the city of Southfield. The city wanted to create an in-use durability benchmark for a composite demonstration bridge that is directly comparable to a steel-reinforced concrete bridge. Parallel bridges with identical vehicular traffic loads and the same weather conditions would be constructed by Southfield in 1999 after LTU completed its extensive three-year bridge model testing program under the direction of Nabil Grace, professor of civil engineering at the university. The research project is funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

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The composite bridge design is based on a double-T configuration of precast concrete girders pre-tensioned with 30 internal 10-mm diameter carbon fibre/epoxy rods running the length of each girder. Mitsubishi Chemical's (San Jose, California) Leadline tendons have been used to construct Southfield's composite-reinforced bridge. The concrete girders were transversely post-tensioned with carbon rods to transfer loads across the width of the bridge deck. Finally, tensioning with additional longitudinal carbon rods created an upward camber (or arch) on the bridge deck.

11.5 Ruderting
In 1994, the valley bridge Ruderting, on route 85 from Passau to Cham, was designed as a Bavarian pilot project using external prestressing. This bridge has 6 spans - 36 m 4x45m - 36m (Fig. 4), and crosses the valley Haselbachtal at a height of approximately 43 m. The straight routing and light curvature of the gradient offer the optimal requirements for the use of external prestressing. A detailed invitation to bid was prepared by the highway administration in Passau, with co-operation from the author. A box section was chosen for the superstructure, with height of 2.7 m and regular span of 45.0 m (slenderness = 1/16.7). Partial prestressing was planned. About 2/3s of tendons were eccentric. They ran along the bottom of the spans and above and over the columns (Fig. 5). The anchoring of these tendons was done in the opening of the span cross girders, which were placed 8 m in front and behind the column cross girders. The remaining tendons were placed at the centroid of the crosssectional area and are only anchored in the final state in the end cross girders. Due to the slight sag of the bridge, the continuous, coupled tendons had to be deflected at two saddles. The construction of the superstructure followed in three sections on falsework.

11.6 Roquenaure Bridge


This bridge is part of Motorway A9 Orange-Narbonne in Southern France, Aeberhard (2003). The structure is 420 m long with 6 spans. The 21.60 m wide superstructure consists of a double-T section with a depth between 5.40 m at piers and 1.80 m at midspans. It was built from 1971 to 1974 by the free cantilevering method, with cast-inplace segments up to 6.12 m in length. In 1975 a surveillance campaign revealed the presence of major cracks (as wide as 8 to 10 mm) at the mid-span sections. After examination of the damage and after checking of the design, it was found that no temperature gradient had been considered and that the cover of the prestressing tendons was insufficient. The structure therefore had to be repaired in the shortest possible period. A complete interruption of the highway being unacceptable, the owner had to allow for the repair work to be done under light traffic. Therefore, the consultant proposed to apply external longitudinal prestressing after the cracks had been grouted with resin. The work was executed in 1975 and 1976.

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The longitudinal prestressing force required amounted to 54,000 kN after losses. It was proposed to use 8 tendons of the unit 5-55 (ultimate force 9,169 kN) running from one end of the bridge to the other without any coupler (table length thus 430 m!). Four spare ducts were also installed in case additional prestressing should be needed. Placing of the tendons was the most demanding part of the job. Placing preassembled strand bundles was excluded from the beginning because of the limited space available in the working chambers and because of the length and the weight of the tendons. Thus only the pushthrough method was applicable. Before the tables were stressed each individual strand was pretensioned to 1 N/mm by means of a monojack to bring all strands to the same length. Stressing had to be done on two cables simultaneously and at both ends for symmetry reasons. The time available for stressing 4 of the 8 tendons was fixed at 6 hours and therefore great mobility of the equipment was required. Stressing was done in steps of 5 N/mm. The cable extension amounted to 3,150 mm. The cables of the end cross-beams were stressed in groups of two at the same time as the longitudinal tendons. In view of the quantity of material to be injected and of the length of the cables, the use of a special grout mix with retarded hardening and consisting of clinker and resin was required by the client. Grouting was executed in sections, which made movable equipment necessary. The grout mix was injected over a distance of 180 m before the installation had to be moved. Two tables were grouted per day, requiring 12 m of grouting material.

11.7 Ruhr Bridge


This two-span post-tensioned concrete bridge has a multicell box superstructure with a deck width over the intermediate pier of 34.41 m, (Aeberhard 2003). This width increases on both sides towards the abutments. In the bottom slab and in the web of the larger span, numerous cracks due to bending had developed making rehabilitation measures necessary especially in view of the corrosion protection of the posttensioning tables in the cracked area. Grouting the cracks was disregarded since it was established that the cracks originated from temperature gradients; thus new cracks would have appeared near the grouted cracks. Furthermore, it was established that the stress variation in the post-tensioning steel considerably exceeded the allowed value. Thus a static strengthening was required, not only corrosion protection measures. In view of the limited space available inside the box cells, which did not allow for adding reinforcement, strengthening the larger span by means of post-tensioning tables offered the best solution. Straight unbonded tendons were selected, the number of which had to be the smallest possible. The strengthening was done during 1985 and 1986. A total of 24 tendons with threaded anchor heads and an average length of 75 m were required. At the abutment side these were anchored in anchor blocks added to the web

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prolongations, while buttresses were provided behind the pier diaphragm, which itself also had to be post-tensioned to take the additional forces. The monostrands were placed in PE ducts which were provided with two movable joints to absorb temperature movements. As strand deviations could not be avoided and inaccuracies in the boring had to be expected and in view of the large elongations, the likelihood of damage on the strand coating due to transverse pressures caused by strand deviations was evaluated in tests. The coating remained safe in these tests. The strand bundles were prepared in the workshop. The diaphragm tables were placed by means of a movable crane. The longitudinal tendons were stressed at the anchorages behind the pier diaphragm. Elongations measured 440 mm on average. Post-tensioning work lasted for seven days. All cracks closed after stressing. The rehabilitation work overall took five months.

11.8 Bridge over Wangauer Ache


This bridge is part of the highway Vienna-Salzburg, Aeberhard (2003). It was built from 1962-1964. In recent years improvements have been made several times, but a thorough inspection revealed a large number of deficiencies, making a general rehabilitation necessary. In particular, a lack of longitudinal prestressing force was detected, which had become obvious in opened construction joints. Thus, rehabilitation had to include also the installation of additional tendons. Since a closure of the motorway was not acceptable, one structure was strengthened first, followed by the other. The execution was perfomed in 1987 and 1988. The twin bridge has a total length of 384.50 m divided in 13 spans. Each superstructure has a double-T cross-section, 13.05 m wide and 2.20 m deep. Since the existing longitudinal post-tensioning was bonded, and no spare ducts were available, the additional post-tensioning had to be placed on the outside of the webs. However, the total length of 386 m was considered to be a problem. Four VSL tendons EE 5-12 per web were selected as the additional post-tensioning. Polyethylene tubes of 90 mm diameter and 4 mm wall thickness were chosen as sheathings. At the ends of the superstructures, end diaphragms, each post-tensioned by 3 VSL tendons EP 5-7, were provided. The ducts were fixed to the webs at the quarter points of the spans by means of clamps. In between, additional cable supports were provided in order to avoid wobble. These supports were hung from the deck slab. In order to prevent the strands from abrading the polyethylene duct at clamping points, steel tubes were placed inside the polyethylene ducts at those points. These steel tubes also act as stiffeners at the joints of the polyethylene ducts. Before stressing all joints were checked for tightness. Stressing was done from both ends. A friction coefficient of only 5% was observed. Grouting was provided for corrosion protection, not bond. It was performed from the lowest point in the middle of the table, towards both ends. Vent hoses were provided at distances of 40 to 50 m. Two grouting pumps were required.

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12

DISCUSSION

Placing prestressed tendons outside a structural member is an effective strengthening method to improve load carrying capacity. It requires a relatively small work effort and can be made very cost effective in comparison to other strengthening methods. The majority of experience is with steel tendons which are most widely. The use of external steel tendons is well-known and tested. FRP materials can be used in prestressed applications and have really good results. The material properties speak for the fact that FRP could be used as a compliment to steel. This literature review has shown that FRP materials can be a good substitute to steel for external tendons. The tendons, if the right materials are used, are not affected by environmental influences in the same way as steel. Research has been done in the area but there is however still a need for further research. When it comes to FRP tendons the anchorage of the tendons is still the critical area. Anchoring systems have been developed but there is still work to be done in making an anchorage system that works as easily as the wedge system for steel tendons. Strengthening of steel structures with external tendons is not as widely used as on concrete structures, although tests have shown that the method can work very well. The importance when working on steel structures is to remember not to treat the strengthening the same way as for concrete, it is important to take into consideration the different behaviour steel structures have. Prestressed FRP for strengthening with plate bonding or NSMR has been shown to be a good alternative for strengthening or upgrading a structure. However, there is still a problem concerning anchorage of the FRP. When bonding the FRP in most cases there must be an anchor system that has to be able to withhold the prestressing force during curing of the adhesive. Due to the materials weak performance perpendicular to the fibre direction, this is a problem that has to be given more research.

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