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Submitted By Ruby kumari 11BSFT056 APFE-410 B.Sc.Food Tech. Submitted To Er. S.S.



Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

Historically,people secured through two methods : hunting and gathering and agriculture. Today most of the food energy consumed by the food industry.

Definition of Packaging
Packaging is defined in the regulations as "all products made of any materials of any nature to be used for the containment, protection, handling, delivery and preservation of goods from the producer to the user or consumer." The main packaging materials included in the regulations are:

paper/fibreboard plastic glass

steel aluminium

Food packaging

Food packaging is packaging for food. It requires protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs. It also shows the product that is labeled to show any nutrition information on the food being consumed.

Functions of food packaging

Physical protection - The food enclosed in the package may require protection from, among other things, shock, vibration, compression,temperature, etc. Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc., is often required. Permeation is a critical factor in design. Some packages contain desiccants or Oxygen absorbers to help extend shelf life. Modified atmospheres or controlled atmospheres are also maintained in some food packages. Keeping the contents clean, fresh, and safe for the intended shelf life is a primary function. Containment or agglomeration - Small items are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of efficiency. powders, and granular materials need containment. Information transmission - Packages and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product. Some types of information are required by governments. Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product. Package design has been an important and constantly evolving

Classifications ~ Packing Industry in India: a. Functions of Packages:

Protective Function Shock, Drop, Pressure, Vibration Heat, Water or Moisture Convenient Function Transportation, Stocking (User, Ware House), Image, Design, Size Protection, After Re-Use Productivity Graphic Design Design

Colour Size Psychological Function


b. Classification of Packaging:
1. By Shape (Form or Size) Heavy Packaging (Large) Container Wooden Packs Medium Packaging (Middle) Carton Box Woven Bag Can, Barrel, Tub Light Packaging (Small) Flexible Packaging Bottles, Can (Small)

Paper Container

2. By Methods (Way of Packing) Vacuum Packaging Aseptic Packaging Retortable Packaging Shrink Packaging Strip Packaging Gas Flush Packaging Moisture Proof Packaging Blister Packaging Skin Packaging Tamper Evidence Packaging 3. By Contents Food Packaging Cosmetics Packaging

Powder Packaging Toiletry Packaging Drug Packaging Liquid Packaging Clothing Packaging Dangerous Packaging 4. By Materials

Rigid Packaging
Bottle, Metal Can Wooden Box Metal Box, etc Semi Rigid Packaging Carton Box Plastic Bottle Flexible Packaging Paper, Plastic Film, Alu- Foil

Cellophane The Indian packaging industry itself is growing at 14-15% annually. This growth rate is expected to double in the next two years. Indian Packaging industry is USD 14 billion and growing at more than 15% p.a. These figures indicate towards a change in the industrial and consumer set up

Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable. Safety can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to something that causes health or economical losses. It can include protection of people or of possessions

A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm; however, once a hazard

becomes "active", it can create an emergency situation. A hazard does not exist when it is not happening. A hazardous situation that has come to pass is called an incident. Hazard and vulnerability interact together to create risk. For hazards in the context of risk assessment, see Hazard (risk)

PRESERVATION- the act or process of pereserving or keeping safe; the state of

being preserved or kept from injury destruction or decay;security; safety; as preservation of life,fruit, jam etc.

Preservatives are ingradients added to curb the growth of bacteria, mold, fungus, and yeast to maintain the integrity of an edible product. Appearance and taste are important to consumers and manufactures want a long shelf life to ensure that people keep purchasing the item; natural and chemical preservatives are the obvious solution.

CRITICAL CONTROL POINT- CCP is a specific point, procedure or

step in food manufacturing at which control can be exercises to reduce, eliminate or prevent the possibility of a food safety hazard.

CRITICAL POINT- the critical point or critical state is the point at which
two phases of a substances initially become indistinguishable from one another.

ISO 9000:2000
ISO 9000 describes the fundamentals of a quality management system and the definitions of terms used in ISO 9000, 9001, and 9004. The philosophy, intended purpose and general nature of the elements of the quality management system are also discussed. As with any requirements document, whether legal, regulatory, or voluntary, the definitions are a very important part of the document. Through these definitions, the scope and intent of the specific requirement are defined.

The 2000 version of the standard focuses more on management, the customer, and continuous improvement. This version establishes a management system model that is intended to continually improve customer satisfaction and the effectiveness of the management system. It is based on eight Quality Management Principles to be used by management as a guide towards improving performance. The principles were derived from the experience of experts on the technical committees and represent the main elements that a good quality system must have.


The word qualitative refers to descriptions or distinctions based on some quality or characteristic rather than on some quantity or measured value. It can be a form of analysis that yields the identity of a compound. It may also refer to:

Qualitative property, a property that can be observed but not measured numerically Qualitative research, featuring a high degree of subjectivity Qualitative data, data that is not quantified quantitative: Related to, or expressed in terms of measured numeric values, quantity or statistical comparison derived from systematic survey, observation or analysis of the subject; this may include probabilistic evaluation. Quantitative research is based on measurable data gathered from a wide range of sources, often followed by objective analysis. A general description includes facts, figures and scientific observation that can be statistically analyzed and then can be reduced to something that can be enumerated. The collected data is often subjected to statistical tests to see if the results are internally consistent or representative of random chance. Typically, it describes patterns and trends in size and quantity. Quantitative data is often classified as being real.

WRITE DOWN THE FOLLOWING ABBREVIATIONSPFAThe Preservation food adultration, Act,1954


The fruit product order,1973 The milk and milk product order,1992 The Standard of Weights Measure, Act 1976 and measure rules 1977.


calcium propionate Quarter-master sergeant Process quality management International organization for standerization Total Quality Management THE END