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ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 40

4. Lab Two: DC Circuits


4.1 Prelab
DesignanequivalentresistorcircuitwiththeresistanceassignedtoyourgrouponCourselink,
usingonlyresistorsbetween1kand10k.Yourequivalentresistorcircuitshouldbewithin1%ofthe
desiredresistance.
Cometothelabwithyourequivalentresistancedesigned,aschematicdiagram(similartowhat
wegaveyouinlab1,Figure26)forFigure28:Lab2CircuitwithyourReq,aschematicdiagramfor
Figure31:LabTwoCircuit,Part2,andabreadboardlayoutofyourcircuitsprepared(usethe
breadboardlayoutprovidedattheendofthissection).Designyourcircuitlayoutsothatyoucaneasily
switchbetweenPart1andPart2ofthislab.
Theprelabwillbecheckedandgradedforcompletion.Youwillnotbeallowedtostartunless
youhavecompletedtheprelab.
Youwillalsoberequiredtoanswerademonstrationquestionregardingthelab(formarks),so
cometothelabwellprepared!
4.2 InLab Part 1: Thevenin and Norton Theorem
4.2.1 Purpose
ThepurposeofthislabistoobservetheTheveninandNortontheoremsexperimentally.
4.2.2 Procedure
1. BuildthecircuitshowninFigure28,whereVin=5VDC,RL=10k,Rf=1k,Rg=1.5kandReqis
thecircuitthatyoudesignedintheprelab.Tip:Planthecircuitalongthebreadboardsothat
youcaneasilychangetothecircuitshowninPart2.
2. UsingtheDMMconfiguredasavoltmeter,measurethevoltagedropacrossRL
3. ChangeRLto100k,measurethevoltagedropacrossitusingtheDMM.
4. RemoveRLfromthecircuit.MeasuretheopencircuitvoltageatVousingtheDMM.
5. UsingtheDMMconfiguredasanammeter,measuretheshortcircuitcurrentflowingfromVoto
thereturnpathofthecircuit.
6. Turnoffthepowersourceandremovethebananaleads.Replacethisvoltagesourcewitha
shortcircuit(useoneofthejumperwiresinyourkit)
7. WithRLstillremoved,thejumperstillinplace,andtheDMMconfiguredasanohmmeter,
measuretheresistancefromVotothereturnpath.(seeFigure29)
ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 41

Figure28:Lab2Circuit

Figure29:TheveninResistanceCircuit

4.2.3 Thevenins Theorem


Theveninstheoremstatesthatacircuitconsistingofanynumberofdifferentvoltagesources,
currentsources,andresistorsiselectricallyequivalenttoasinglevoltagesourceandresistorinseriesat
twoterminals(seeFigure30).NortonsTheoremisanextensionofTheveninstheorem,andstatesthat
anelectricallyequivalentcircuitcanberepresentedbyasinglecurrentsourceandresistorinparallel
(seeFigure30).Thetwotheoremsareinterchangeable.
ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 42

Figure30TheveninEquivalent(Left)andNortonEquivalent(Right)
Usingthedatacollected,youcancalculatetheTheveninequivalentcircuittothecircuitinFigure
28.TheTheveninequivalentvoltageistheopencircuitvoltagethatyoumeasuredatVoinstep4.To
calculatetheTheveninresistance,usetheshortcircuitcurrentthatyoumeasuredinstep5(whichis
alsotheNortoncurrent),andOhmslaw:
Rtb =
voc
Isc
.
TheTheveninresistanceshouldmatchtheresistancemeasuredacrossVowhenViwasturned
offandshortedout(instep7).

4.3 In Lab Part 2: Opamps


4.3.1 Purpose
Thepurposeofthislabistoobservehowanopampaffectsthebehaviourofanelectricalsignal
andhowdifferentresistorscanaffectthebehaviouraswell.
4.3.2 Background
Anopamp(operationalamplifier)asseeninFigure11isadevicethatperformsthefollowing
mathematicalfunction
I
out
= A
v
INT
(I
+
- I
-
)
Where,
Voutisthevoltageontheoutputpin
AVintistheopampsinternalamplificationfactor(usuallyveryhigharound
10,000.FortheLM741opamp,itisaround50,000)
V+isaninputpinontheopamp
Visanotherinputpinontheopamp
ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 43

Likeallactiveelectricaldevices,opampsrequireanexternalpowersourcetoperformtheirjob(inthe
samewaythatavacuumcleanerneedstobepluggedinthewall,theopampneedstobepluggedinto
thevoltagesupply).Infact,theoutputpinoftheopampcanonlyprovideasmuchvoltageastheop
ampspowersourcehasavailable(thismakessensethereisnowhereelseforthatvoltagetocome
from!).Thisvoltagelimitisdirectlydeterminedbythevoltageappliedtothepositiveandnegative
powerpins(+VCCandVCCrespectively)ontheopamp;whentheopampoutputpinsvoltage
attemptstogohigherthanthevoltagesourcethatsuppliestheopamp,itcant;wecallthisopamp
clipping.
4.3.3 Procedure
1. ChangethecircuityoubuiltinPart1sothatitmatchesthecircuitshowninFigure31,where
Rg=1.5k,Rf=1k,RL=10k,andReqistheequivalentresistanceyoudesignedintheprelab.
Vcc+=5V,Vcc=15V.
2. ConnectchanneloneofthescopetoViandchanneltwotoVo.
3. Applyasinewavewithafrequencyof100HztoVi.Adjustthesignalgeneratoroutputleveluntil
a1Vpeaktopeakisreached(the20dBbuttonshouldbepressedin).Recordyourobservations
oftheoutputvoltagesignal.
4. ReplaceRfwitha15kresistor.
5. RepeatStep3.
6. ReplaceRfwitha150kresistor.
7. RepeatStep3.
8. ReplaceRfwitha1kresistor.
ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 44

9. ReplaceRLwitha100kresistor.Recordyourobservationsoftheoutputvoltagesignal.

Figure31:LabTwoCircuit,Part2

Figure32OpampPinOut

ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 45

ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 46

4.4 Report
Includethefollowingsectionsinyourlabreport:

Introduction
Describeinyourownwordsthepurposeofthislab.Describetherelevantcomponentsand
theoriesusedinthislab.
Observations
Presentyourobservationsinaclearandprofessionalmanner.
Discussion
Discusstheresultsofthislabusingthetheoryandmathlearnedinclass.Answerthefollowing
questionsaspartofyourdiscussion.
Part1
Whatwasyourequivalentresistorcircuit?Includeacircuitdiagramandcalculations.
WhatistheTheveninequivalentcircuit?Includeacircuitdiagram.Comparethemeasured
TheveninequivalentcircuitwiththetheoreticalTheveninequivalentcircuit.
DidthevoltagedropacrossRLchangewithdifferentresistances?Whyorwhynot?
IftheTheveninequivalentcircuitwasbuiltandtwodifferentRLswereappliedtothecircuit,
wouldyouobservetwodifferentvoltagedropsacrossRL?Whyorwhynot?
Drawapicturethatidentifiestheinput,theoutput,andthesystemundertest
Part2
HowdoeschangingRfaffectVo?Doesthismakesense?Explainusingcircuittheory.Whatdid
younoticeabouttheoutputsignalasRfincreased?
DidchangingRLaffectVo?Whyorwhynot?Explainusingcircuittheory.
WhateffectdoesReqhaveonVo?HowdoesthisdifferfromtheReqinPart1?Why?
Drawapicturethatidentifiestheinput,theoutput,andthesystemundertest
Thissectionmustbenomorethan3pagesinlength.
Conclusions
Presentanyrelevantconclusionsinaclearandconcisemanner.

HanddrawncircuitsandequationsareOK,buttheymustbelegible.


ENGG2450ElectricCircuits LabManual 47

No Somewhat Yes
PreLab
Prelabwascompletedwithsufficientdetail

2
Introduction
Describedthepurposeofthelab

0.5

1
Observation
Presentedalltheirobservationsinaclearandprofessional
manner

0.5

1
Discussion
Thevenin
IncludedtheresistorequivalentandTheveninequivalent
circuit(calculationsanddiagrams)
DescribedhowachangeinRLaffectsthecircuit
Figure
OpAmp
Describedthechangestotheoutputvoltagecausedby
opampandRf
DescribedtheeffectRLandReqhadoncircuit
Figure

0
0

0
0

0.5

0.5
0.5

0.5

0.5
0.5

1
1

1
1
Conclusion
Presentedconclusionsinaclearandconcisemanner

0.5

1
Formatting
Reportispresentedinaprofessionalmanner

0.5

1

Demos
Individualanswereddemoquestioncorrectly

2
CleanlinessandSafety
Individualfollowedsafepracticesandcleanedtheirlabstationat
theendofthelabsession
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