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BATHINDA (PB.

) A PROJECT REPORT FOR

6 Weeks Industrial training


On

CHEEMA BOILERS LIMITED

BATCH 2010-2014
Partially Submitted To Fulfill the Award of Bachelor of Technology in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Under Punjab Technical University Submitted To: MR. CHARANJIT SINGH (HOD OF ME DEPARTMENT) Submitted By: NAME:-ISHLEEN SINGH ROLL NO. - 100311129882 ME (5th)

Supervised By:
Er. GURBAKSHISH SINGH (Production Deptt.)

DECLERATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled BOILERS is an authentic record of my own work carried out at CHEEMA BOILERS LTD.MOHALI as requirements of Industry Internship project for the award of degree of B.Tech in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. PTU GZS CAMPUS,BATHINDA, under the guidance of ER. GURBAKSHISH SINGH during may to july, 2011.

ISHLEEN SINGH
(Signature OF student)

DATE:

Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge and belief. ER. GURBAKSHISH SINGH

SIG.& SEAL

PREFACE
Knowledge can be acquired both through formal and informal methods of learning. In making of a professional both these methods play an important role. While classroom instructions, lab activities & reading through study material have a direct impact on the process of learning, practical methods such as observations, discussions, industrial visits & exhibitions etc, but the most important component in professional training comes from the shop floor. It is, therefore, imperative`, an engineering graduate pass through an industrial training program to acquire necessary hands-on experience to qualify him before he gets into the job market. This industrial training is highly conductive for the development of

Confidence Solid foundation of knowledge and personality Creativity Excellence and self-discipline

With this point of view, six months of our curriculum have been devoted to Project. It gives an engineer an exposure and insures him to face the actual problems and ground realities faced in the professional world. The experience gained by me in this semester has been prodigious and has given me a feeling of achievements towards my carrier as an upcoming electronics engineer. I have tried to assimilate all the information about my project in this dissertation, which is presented chapter wise in the forthcoming s

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A formal statement of acknowledgment is hardly sufficient to express my gratitude towards the personalities who have helped me to undertake and complete this project. Training in an organization like which is fuelled by the individuals with so much zest and energy, teaming up to form a formidable force, was in itself a true learning experience which is going to help me immensely in my career. I hereby convey my thanks to all those who have rendered their valuable help, support and guidance. Firstly I would thank MR. R.K. SINGH for granting me the permission to work as a Trainee in this esteemed company and for providing me all the facilities and helping me to undertake a project BOILERS and providing highly valuable technical guidance, constructive criticism and moral support. The acknowledgement would be incomplete if I dont mention the worthful guidance and unconditional support and cooperation I received from the Officers and staff of Bunker Busting. Lastly, I bow before the almighty with folded hands.

ISHLEEN SINGH

INDEX

1. Introduction 1.1.Company Profile 1.2.History and Evolution of Cheema Boilers Limited

1. Boiler

A stationary boiler A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications.[1][2]

2.Content Overview Materials


The pressure vessel in a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel is virtually prohibited (by the ASME Boiler Code) for use in wetted parts of modern boilers, but is used often in superheater sections that will not be exposed to liquid boiler water. In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as steel) are used instead. For much of the Victorian "age of steam", the only material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was often obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead moved towards the use of steel, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. Cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is usually to produce hot water, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and try to avoid actual boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high pressure steam boilers.

Diagram of a fire-tube boiler

Diagram of a water-tube boiler.

3. Fuel
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for generating steam. Heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use the heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbines.

4. Configurations
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:

"Pot boiler" or "Haycock boiler": a primitive "kettle" where a fire heats a partially-filled water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam, often hardly above that of the atmosphere. These could burn wood or most often, coal. Efficiency was very low.

Fire-tube boiler. Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. The heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface just below boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of a fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple tubes (two-pass or return flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be taken along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In the case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly increase the heating surface compared to a single tube and further improve heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers usually have a comparatively low rate of steam production, but high steam storage

capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety.

Water-tube boiler. In this type,the water tubes are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations: often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water and the upper ones, steam and water; in other cases, such as a monotube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type generally gives high steam production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high pressure applications since the high pressure water/steam is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.

Flash boiler. A specialized type of water-tube boiler.

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class

Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox contains an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases then pass through a conventional firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives, but have met with little success in other countries.

Sectional boiler. In a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside cast iron sections. These sections are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.

4. Safety
See also: Boiler explosion Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes could also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who loaded coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories could demolish entire buildings. A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler could also occur if a leak occurred in the steam supply lines that was larger than the make-up water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claims

Superheated steam boilers

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive. Main article: Superheater Most boilers produce steam to be used at saturation temperature; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further heat the steam in a superheater. This provides steam at much higher temperature, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the steam generating plant because the higher steam temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature. There are several ways to circumvent this problem, typically by providing an economizer that heats the feed water, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are advantages to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its utilisation: gains in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may also be practical limitations in using wet steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades. Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the intense heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.

Superheater operation is similar to that of the coils on an air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temperature in this area is typically between 1,3001,600 degrees Celsius (2,3722,912 F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb heat by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing heat from a fluid. Some are a combination of the two types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will also heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within. While the temperature of the steam in the superheater rises, the pressure of the steam does not: the turbine or moving pistons offer a continuously expanding space and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[5] Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generators


Supercritical steam generators (also known as Benson boilers) are frequently used for the production of electric power. They operate at "supercritical pressure". In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi/22.06 MPa or 220.6 bar) that actual boiling ceases to occur, and the boiler has no water - steam separation. There is no generation of steam bubbles within the water, because the pressure is above the "critical pressure" at which steam bubbles can form. It passes below the critical point as it does work in the high pressure turbine and enters the generator's condenser. This is more efficient, resulting in slightly less fuel use. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" actually occurs in this device.

History of supercritical steam generation


Contemporary supercritical steam generators are sometimes referred as Benson boilers. In 1922, Mark Benson was granted a patent for a boiler designed to convert water into steam at high pressure. Safety was the main concern behind Bensons concept. Earlier steam generators were designed for relatively low pressures of up to about 100 bar (10,000 kPa; 1,450 psi), corresponding to the

state of the art in steam turbine development at the time. One of their distinguishing technical characteristics was the riveted water/steam separator drum. These drums were where the water filled tubes were terminated after having passed through the boiler furnace . These header drums were intended to be partially filled with water and above the water there was a baffle filled space where the boiler's steam and water vapour collected. The entrained water droplets were collected by the baffles and returned to the water pan. The mostly dry steam was piped out of the drum as the separated steam output of the boiler. These drums were often the source of boiler explosions, usually with catastrophic consequences. However, this drum could be completely eliminated if the evaporation separation process was avoided altogether. This would happen if water entered the boiler at a pressure above the critical pressure (3,206 psi); was heated to a temperature above the critical temperature (706 degrees F) and then expanded (through a simple nozzle) to dry steam at some lower subcritical pressure. This could be obtained at a throttle valve located downstream of the evaporator section of the boiler. As development of Benson technology continued, boiler design soon moved away from the original concept introduced by Mark Benson. In 1929, a test boiler that had been built in 1927 began operating in the thermal power plant at Gartenfeld in Berlin for the first time in subcritical mode with a fully open throttle valve. The second Benson boiler began operation in 1930 without a pressurizing valve at pressures between 40 and 180 bar (4,000 and 18,000 kPa; 580 and 2,611 psi) at the Berlin cable factory. This application represented the birth of the modern variablepressure Benson boiler. After that development, the original patent was no longer used. The Benson boiler name, however, was retained. Two current innovations have a good chance of winning acceptance in the competitive market for once-through steam generators:

A new type of heat-recovery steam generator based on the Benson boiler, which has operated successfully at the Cottam combined-cycle power plant in the central part of England,

The vertical tubing in the combustion chamber walls of coal-fired steam generators which combines the operating advantages of the Benson system with the design advantages of the drum-type boiler. Construction of a first reference plant, the Yaomeng power plant in China, commenced in 2001.

Hydronic boilers
Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat for residential and industrial purposes. They are the typical power plant for central heating systems fitted to houses in northern Europe (where they are commonly combined with domestic water heating), as opposed to the forced-air furnaces or wood burning stoves more common in North America. The hydronic boiler operates by way of heating water/fluid to a preset temperature (or sometimes in the case of single pipe systems, until it boils and turns to steam) and circulating that fluid throughout the home typically by way of radiators, baseboard heaters or through the floors. The fluid can be heated by any means...gas, wood, fuel oil, etc., but in built-up areas where piped gas is available, natural gas is currently the most economical and therefore the usual choice. The fluid is in an enclosed system and circulated throughout by means of a motorized pump. The name "boiler" can be a misnomer in that, except for systems using steam radiators, the water in a properly functioning hydronic boiler never actually boils. Most new systems are fitted with condensing boilers for greater efficiency. These boilers are referred to as condensing boilers because they condense the water vapor in the flue gases to capture the latent heat of vaporization of the water produced during combustion. Hydronic systems are being used more and more in new construction in North America for several reasons. Among the reasons are:

They are more efficient and more economical than forced-air systems (although initial installation can be more expensive, because of the cost of the copper and aluminum).

The baseboard copper pipes and aluminum fins take up less room and use less metal than the bulky steel ductwork required for forced-air systems.

They provide more even, less fluctuating temperatures than forced-air systems. The copper baseboard pipes hold and release heat over a longer period of time than air does, so the furnace does not have to switch off and on as much. (Copper heats mostly through

conduction and radiation, whereas forced-air heats mostly through forced convection. Air has much lower thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity than copper, so the conditioned space warms up and cools down more quickly than with hydronic. See also thermal mass.)

They tend to not dry out the interior air as much as forced air systems, but this is not always true. When forced air duct systems are air-sealed properly, and have return-air paths back to the furnace (thus reducing pressure differentials and therefore air movement between inside and outside the house), this is not an issue.

They do not introduce any dust, allergens, mold, or (in the case of a faulty heat exchanger) combustion byproducts into the living space.

Forced-air heating does have some advantages, however. See forced-air heating.

Accessories
Boiler fittings and accessories

Safety valve: It is used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler. Water level indicators: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, also known as a sight glass, water gauge or water column is provided.

Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lie on the bottom of a boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened to use the pressure in the boiler to push these particulates out.

Continuous blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be carried over with the steam - a condition known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler water.

Flash Tank: High pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the steam can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.

Automatic Blowdown/Continuous Heat Recovery System: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash tank is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the temperature of the makeup water.

Hand holes: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installation of tubes and inspection of internal surfaces.

Steam drum internals, A series of screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators). Low- water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn off the burner or shut off fuel to the boiler to prevent it from running once the water goes below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failure.

Surface blowdown line: It provides a means for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler.

Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.

Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This may be fitted to the side of the boiler, just below the water level, or to the top of the boiler.

Top feed: A check valve (clack valve) in the feedwater line, mounted on top of the boiler. It is intended to reduce the nuisance of limescale. It does not prevent limescale formation but causes the limescale to be precipitated in a powdery form which is easily washed out of the boiler.

Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of tubes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the steam drum designed to cool superheated steam. Thus is to supply auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry steam.

Chemical injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.

Steam accessories

Main steam stop valve: Steam traps:

Main steam stop/Check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.

Combustion accessories

Fuel oil system: Gas system: Coal system: Soot blower

Other essential items


Pressure gauges: Feed pumps: Fusible plug: Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment: Name plate: Registration plate:

Controlling draught
Most boilers now depend on mechanical draught equipment rather than natural draught. This is because natural draught is subject to outside air conditions and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace, as well as the chimney height. All these factors make proper draught hard to attain and therefore make mechanical draught equipment much more economical. There are three types of mechanical draught:

Induced draught: This is obtained one of three ways, the first being the "stack effect" of a heated chimney, in which the flue gas is less dense than the ambient air surrounding the boiler. The denser column of ambient air forces combustion air into and through the boiler. The second method is through use of a steam jet. The steam jet oriented in the direction of flue gas flow induces flue gasses into the stack and allows for a greater flue gas velocity increasing the overall draught in the furnace. This method was common on

steam driven locomotives which could not have tall chimneys. The third method is by simply using an induced draught fan (ID fan) which removes flue gases from the furnace and forces the exhaust gas up the stack. Almost all induced draught furnaces operate with a slightly negative pressure.

Forced draught: Draught is obtained by forcing air into the furnace by means of a fan (FD fan) and ductwork. Air is often passed through an air heater; which, as the name suggests, heats the air going into the furnace in order to increase the overall efficiency of the boiler. Dampers are used to control the quantity of air admitted to the furnace. Forced draught furnaces usually have a positive pressure.

Balanced draught: Balanced draught is obtained through use of both induced and forced draught. This is more common with larger boilers where the flue gases have to travel a long distance through many boiler passes. The induced draught fan works in conjunction with the forced draught fan allowing the furnace pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric.

Boilermaking
Many boilermakers are employed in repairing, re-piping, and re-tubing commercial steam and hot water boilers used for heating and domestic hot water in commercial buildings and multifamily dwellings. Sometimes these boilers are referred to as pressure vessels. Generally, a pressure vessel is a storage tank or vessel that has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g. The two main tasks of boilermakers involve using oxy-acetylene gas torch sets to cut or gouge steel plate and tubes, followed by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), or gas metal arc welding (GMAW) to attach and mend the cut sections of tubes and steel plates .

R Stamp Welding
Boiler repair in the United States is governed by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors and the ASME under a classification called R Stamp Welding. In order to perform R Stamp welds and repairs, boilermakers are tested and certified in the quality of their weld joints through a rigorous testing procedure. R stamps are issued to companies that have existing ASME code stamps issued for construction and whose QC system covers repairs or follow the guidelines set up by ASME to obtain a R stamp. Welders identify their welds by stamping their identifying welder number adjacent to their completed weld with a set of steel stencils.

Power piping
The trade of Boilermaker evolved from the industrial blacksmith and was known in the early 19th century as a "boilersmith". The involvement of boilermakers in the shipbuilding industry came about because of the changeover from wood to iron as a construction material. It was easier (and cheaper) to utilize the boilermaker's skills to construct the ship as they were already present in the shipyard constructing iron boilers for wooden steamships. This utilization of skills extended to virtually everything that was large and made of iron, or later, steel. Welding, fitting, and installing the tubes and accessories that attach to the boiler can also be performed by boilermakers, and is governed by the same organizations as R Stamp Welding, except this certification is called Powerpiping certification. The Powerpiping stamp contains two "P"s, the first inverted so that it mirrors the second.

Application
Boilermaking, welding, and fitting tubes can be a full-time year round project at powerplantssince stress fractures, leaks, and rust and corrosion cause a continual need for repair or replacement, and power plants often operate at very high steam pressures. Other boilermakers might work seasonally or on an individual project such as re-fitting a boiler in a seagoing vessel, or in the one-time remodeling of a steam plant. Boiler repair can be a very valuable service since even the smallest steam boilers for dry cleaners, tailor and alterations shops can cost upwards of ten to twenty thousand dollars (US) to replace.

Fire-tube boiler

Sectioned fire-tube boiler from a DRB Class 50 locomotive. Hot flue gases created in the firebox (on the left) pass through the tubes in the centre cylindrical section, which is filled with water, to the smokebox and out of the chimney (far right). A fire-tube boiler is a type of boiler in which hot gases from a fire pass through one or more tubes running through a sealed container of water. The heat of the gases is transferred through the walls of the tubes by thermal conduction, heating the water and ultimately creating steam. The fire-tube boiler developed as the third of the four major historical types of boilers: lowpressure tank or "haystack" boilers, flued boilers with one or two large flues, fire-tube boilers with many small tubes, and high-pressure water-tube boilers. Their advantage over flued boilers with a single large flue is that the many small tubes offer far greater heating surface area for the same overall boiler volume. The general construction is as a tank of water penetrated by tubes that carry the hot flue gases from the fire. The tank is usually cylindrical for the most part being the strongest practical shape for a pressurized container and this cylindrical tank may be either horizontal or vertical. This type of boiler was used on virtually all steam locomotives in the horizontal "locomotive" form. This has a cylindrical barrel containing the fire tubes, but also has an extension at one end to house the "firebox". This firebox has an open base to provide a large grate area and often extends beyond the cylindrical barrel to form a rectangular or tapered enclosure. The horizontal fire-tube boiler is also typical of marine applications, using the Scotch boiler. Vertical boilers have also been built of the multiple fire-tube type, although these are comparatively rare: most vertical boilers were either flued, or with cross water-tubes.

Operation

Schematic diagram of a "locomotive" type fire-tube boiler In the locomotive-type boiler, fuel is burnt in a firebox to produce hot combustion gases. The firebox is surrounded by a cooling jacket of water connected to the long, cylindrical boiler shell. The hot gases are directed along a series of fire tubes, or flues, that penetrate the boiler and heat the water thereby generating saturated ("wet") steam. The steam rises to the highest point of the boiler, the steam dome, where it is collected. The dome is the site of the regulator that controls the exit of steam from the boiler. In the locomotive boiler, the saturated steam is very often passed into a superheater, back through the larger flues at the top of the boiler, to dry the steam and heat it to superheated steam. The superheated steam is directed to the steam engine's cylinders or very rarely to a turbine to produce mechanical work. Exhaust gases are fed out through a chimney, and may be used to preheat the feed water to increase the efficiency of the boiler. Draught for firetube boilers, particularly in marine applications, is usually provided by a tall smokestack. In all steam locomotives since Stephenson's Rocket, additional draught is supplied

by directing exhaust steam from the cylinders into the smokestack through a blastpipe, to provide a partial vacuum. Modern industrial boilers use fans to provide forced or induced draughting of the boiler. Another major advance in the Rocket was large numbers of small-diameter firetubes (a multitubular boiler) instead of a single large flue. This greatly increased the surface area for heat transfer, allowing steam to be produced at a much higher rate. Without this, steam locomotives could never have developed effectively as powerful prime movers.

Types of fire-tube boiler


For more details on this topic, see Shell boiler.

Cornish boiler
For more details on this topic, see Cornish boiler. The earliest form of fire-tube boiler was Richard Trevithick's "high-pressure" Cornish boiler. This is a long horizontal cylinder with a single large flue containing the fire. The fire itself was on an iron grating placed across this flue, with a shallow ashpan beneath to collect the noncombustible residue. Although considered as low-pressure (perhaps 25 psi) today, the use of a cylindrical boiler shell permitted a higher pressure than the earlier "haystack" boilers of Newcomen's day. As the furnace relied on natural draught (air flow), a tall chimney was required at the far end of the flue to encourage a good supply of air (oxygen) to the fire. For efficiency, the boiler was commonly encased beneath by a brick-built chamber. Flue gases were routed through this, outside the iron boiler shell, after passing through the fire-tube and so to a chimney that was now placed at the front face of the boiler.

Lancashire boiler in Germany

Lancashire boiler
For more details on this topic, see Lancashire boiler. The Lancashire boiler is similar to the Cornish, but has two large flues containing the fires. It was the invention of William Fairbairn in 1844, from a theoretical consideration of the thermodynamics of more efficient boilers that led him to increase the furnace grate area relative to the volume of water. Later developments added Galloway tubes (after their inventor, patented in 1848),[1] crosswise water tubes across the flue, thus increasing the heated surface area. As these are short tubes of large diameter and the boiler continues to use a relatively low pressure, this is still not considered to be a water-tube boiler. The tubes are tapered, simply to make their installation through the flue easier.[2]

Side-section of a Scotch marine boiler: the arrows show direction of flue gas flow; the combustion chamber is on the right, the smokebox on the left.

Scotch marine boiler


For more details on this topic, see Scotch marine boiler. The Scotch marine boiler differs dramatically from its predecessors in using a large number of small-diameter tubes. This gives a far greater heating surface area for the volume and weight. The furnace remains a single large-diameter tube with the many small tubes arranged above it. They are connected together through a combustion chamber an enclosed volume contained entirely within the boiler shell so that the flow of flue gas through the firetubes is from back to front. An enclosed smokebox covering the front of these tubes leads upwards to the chimney or funnel. Typical Scotch boilers had a pair of furnaces, larger ones had three. Above this size, such as for large steam ships, it was more usual to install multiple boilers.[3]

Locomotive boiler
A locomotive boiler has three main components: a double-walled firebox; a horizontal, cylindrical "boiler barrel" containing a large number of small flue-tubes; and a smokebox with chimney, for the exhaust gases. The boiler barrel contains larger flue-tubes to carry the superheater elements, where present. Forced draught is provided in the locomotive boiler by injecting exhausted steam back into the exhaust via a blast pipe in the smokebox. Locomotive-type boilers are also used in traction engines, steam rollers, portable engines and some other steam road vehicles. The inherent strength of the boiler means it is used as the basis for the vehicle: all the other components, including the wheels, are mounted on brackets attached to the boiler. It is rare to find superheaters designed into this type of boiler, and they are generally much smaller (and simpler) than railway locomotive types. The locomotive-type boiler is also a characteristic of the overtype steam wagon, the steampowered fore-runner of the truck. In this case, however, heavy girder frames make up the loadbearing chassis of the vehicle, and the boiler is attached to this. Taper boiler

Certain railway locomotive boilers are tapered from a larger diameter at the firebox end to a smaller diameter at the smokebox end. This reduces weight and improves water circulation. Many later Great Western Railway and London, Midland and Scottish Railway locomotives were designed or modified to take taper boilers.

Vertical Fire-Tube boiler


Main article: Vertical boiler A vertical fire-tube boiler (VFT), colloquially known as the "vertical boiler", has a vertical cylindrical shell, containing several vertical flue tubes.

Horizontal Return Tubular boiler

Horizontal Return Tubular boilers from the Staatsbad Bad Steben GmbH Horizontal Return Tubular boiler (HRT) has a horizontal cylindrical shell, containing several horizontal flue tubes, with the fire located directly below the boiler's shell, usually within a brickwork setting

Variations
Water tubes
Fire-tube boilers sometimes have water-tubes as well, to increase the heating surface. A Cornish boiler may have several water-tubes across the diameter of the flue (this is common in steam launches). A locomotive boiler with a wide firebox may have arch tubes or thermic syphons. These increase the heating surface and give additional support to the brick arch. Not all shell boilers raise steam; some are designed specifically for heating pressurised water.

Reverse flame
In homage to the Lancashire design, modern shell boilers can come with a twin furnace design. A more recent development has been the reverse flame design where the burner fires into a blind furnace and the combustion gasses double back on themselves. This results in a more compact design and less pipework.

Package boiler
The term "package" boiler evolved in the early- to mid-20th century from the practice of delivering boiler units to site already fitted with insulation, electrical panels, valves and gauges. This was in contrast to earlier practice where little more than the pressure vessel was delivered and the ancillary components were fitted on-site.

Safety considerations
Because the fire-flume boiler itself is the pressure vessel, it requires a number of safety features to prevent mechanical failure. Boiler explosion, which is a type of BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion), can be devastating.

Safety valves release steam before a dangerous pressure can be built up

Fusible plugs over the firebox melt at a temperature lower than that of the firebox plates, thereby warning the operators by the noisy escape of steam if the water level is too low to cool the firebox crown safely.

Stays, or ties, physically link the firebox and boiler casing, preventing them from warping. Since any corrosion is hidden, the stays may have longitudinal holes, called telltales, drilled in them which leak before they become unsafe.

The fire-tube type boiler that was used in the Stanley Steamer automobile had several hundred tubes which were weaker than the outer shell of the boiler, making an explosion virtually impossible as the tubes would fail and leak long before the boiler exploded. In nearly 100 years since the Stanleys were first produced, no Stanley boiler has ever exploded.[citation needed]

Maintenance
An intensive schedule of maintenance is needed to keep a boiler in safe condition. A typical regime will involve regular external inspections (including the inside of the firebox), washouts (with an internal inspection), periodic detailed examination and a general overhaul.

Daily inspection
The tube plates, the fusible plug and the heads of the firebox stays should be checked for leaks. The correct operation of the boiler fittings, especially the water gauges and water feed mechanisms, should be confirmed. Steam pressure should be raised to the level at which the safety valves lift and compared with the indication of the pressure gauge.

Washout

Cutaway of locomotive boiler. Note the narrow water spaces around the firebox and the "mudhole" for access to the crown sheet: these areas require special attention during washout The working life of a locomotive boiler is considerably extended if it is spared from a constant cycle of cooling and heating. Historically, a locomotive would be kept in steam continuously for a period of about eight to ten days, and then allowed to cool sufficiently for a hot-water boiler washout. The schedule for express engines was based on mileage.[4] Today's preserved locomotives are not usually kept continuously in steam and the recommended washout interval is now fifteen to thirty days, but anything up to 180 days is possible.[5] The process starts with a blowdown while some pressure remains in the boiler, then the draining away of all the boiler water through the mudholes at the base of the firebox and the removal of all the washout plugs. Scale is then jetted or scraped from the interior surfaces using a high pressure water jet and rods of soft metal, such as copper. Areas particularly susceptible to scale buildup, such as the firebox crown and narrow water spaces around the firebox, are given special attention. The inside of the boiler is inspected by sighting through the plug holes, with a particular check paid to the integrity of the firetubes, firebox crown and stays and absence of pitting or cracking of the boiler plates. The gauge glass cocks and tubes and fusible plug should be cleared of scale; if the core of the fusible plug shows signs of calcination the item should be replaced. On reassembly care should be taken that the threaded plugs are replaced in their original holes: the tapers can vary as a result of rethreading. The mudhole door gaskets, if of asbestos, should be renewed but those made of lead may be reused; special instructions are in force for the disposal

of these harmful materials.[5] At large maintenance facilities the boiler would have been both washed and refilled with very hot water from an external supply to bring the locomotive back to service more quickly.

Periodic examination
Typically an annual inspection, this would require the removal and check of external fittings, such as the injectors, safety valves and pressure gauge. High-pressure copper pipework can suffer from work hardening in use and become dangerously brittle: it may be necessary to treat these by annealing before refitting. A hydraulic pressure test on the boiler and pipework may also be called for.

General overhaul
In the UK the specified maximum interval between full overhauls is ten years. To enable a full inspection the boiler is lifted from the locomotive frame and the lagging removed. All firetubes are removed for checking or replacement. All fittings are removed for overhaul. Before returning to use a qualified examiner will check the boilers fitness for service and issue a safety certificate valid for ten years.[5]

1.AFBC Boiler

CAPACITY UPTO 175TPH PRESSURE UPTO 110 KG/CM2 STEAM TEMP UPTO 525C FUEL RICE HUSK, COAL, LIGNITE, WASHERY, REJECTS, CHAR ETC.

Salient Feature

Bad Evaporator Design for better reliability. Suitable for saturated and superheater steam. Suitable for Cogeneration and Captive Power Plants.

Multifuel firing options. Underbed / Overbed fuel feed system. Bottom Hopper Design for specific applications. Optimum combustion with staged Secondary Air System.

Traveling grate

CAPACITY Upto 170 TPH PRESSURE Upto 130 Kg/cm2 (g) STEAM TEMP UPTO 540C FUEL Baggase, Rice Husk, Cotton Stalk, Mustard Stalk, Wood Chips, Paddy Straw, Coal, Lignite Etc.

Salient Features

Continuous Ash Discharge.

Bi-Drum/Single Drum Design, Natural Circulation, Top Supported Design. Tall Furnace for Stagged/Complete Combustion. Optimum combustion with staged secondary air system. 2 Stage/3Stage Superheater with inters-tage Spray Attemperator. Even Fuel Distribution on the Entire Grate. Modulating Cyclo motor for Spreader Dampers. Grate Driven by Hydraulic Drive/ Mechanical Drive.

DAMPING GRATE

CAPACITY UPTO 175 TPH PRESSURE UPTO 110 KG/CM2 STEAM TEMP UPTO 540C FUEL BAGASSE, RICE HUSK ETC

Salient Featur

Generously sized grate. Soot Blowers for on load cleaning of heating surface.

HEAT RECOVERY BOILER 1.SPONGE BOILER

Generously sized grate. Soot Blowers for on load cleaning of heating surface. Secondary air distribution system. Pneumatically operated sectionalized dumping grate.

HEAT RECOVERY BOILER 1.SPONGE BOILER

Sponge Iron Kilns

CAPACITY 50 TPD,

100TPD, 350 TPD, TPD PRESSURE From 45 500

Kg/cm2(g) to 110 (g) STEAM TEMP UPTO 540C Kg/cm2

Salient Features

Natural circulation water tube design. Vertical Design for greater operational comfort. Design takes care of high dust concentration in gases. Gas tight Water Wall Furnace. Soot Blowing arrangement for proper operation.

2. Effpac

CAPACITY UPTO 75 TPH PRESSURE UPTO 110 KG/CM2(g) STEAM TEMP

UPTO 540C

Salient Features

Natural Circulation Water Tube Single Drum Drsign. Horizontal/Vertical Design for greater operational comfort. Gas tight Water Wall Furnace. Soot blowing arrangement for proper operation. Site Assembly with modularized construction.

1.FBC boilers
: Introduction, Mechanism of fluidized bed combustion, Advantages, Types of FBC boilers, Operational features, Retrofitting FBC system to conventional boilers, Saving potential.

6.1 INTRODUCTION

The major portion of the coal available in India is of low quality, high ash content and low calorific value. The traditional grate fuel firing systems have got limitations and are techno-economically unviable to meet the challenges of future. Fluidized bed combustion has emerged as a viable alternative and has significant advantages over conventional firing system and offers multiple benefits compact boiler design, fuel flexibility, higher combustion efficiency and reduced emission of noxious pollutants such as SOx and NOx. The fuels burnt in these boilers include coal, washery rejects, rice husk, bagasse & other agricultural wastes. The fluidized bed boilers have a wide capacity range- 0.5 T/hr to over 100 T/hr.

6.2 MECHANISM OF FLUIDISED BED COMBUSTION


When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As air velocity is gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended in the air stream the bed is called fluidized. With further increase in air velocity, there is bubble formation, vigorous turbulence, rapid mixing and formation of dense defined bed surface. The bed of solid particles exhibits the properties of a boiling liquid and assumes the appearance of a fluid bubbling fluidized bed. At higher velocities, bubbles disappear, and particles are blown out of the bed. Therefore, some amounts of particles have to be recirculated to maintain a stable system circulating fluidised bed. This principle of fluidisation is illustrated in Figure 6.1. Fluidization depends largely on the particle size and the air velocity. The mean solids velocity increases at a slower rate than does the gas velocity, as illustrated in Figure 6.2. The difference between the mean solid velocity and mean gas velocity is called as slip velocity. Maximum slip velocity between the solids and the gas is desirable for good heat transfer and intimate contact. If sand particles in a fluidized state is heated to the ignition temperatures of coal, and coal is injected continuously into the bed, the coal will burn rapidly and bed attains a uniform temperature. The
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fluidized bed combustion (FBC) takes place at about 840 C to 950 C. Since this temperature is much below the ash fusion temperature, melting of ash and associated problems are avoided. The lower combustion temperature is achieved because of high coefficient of heat transfer due to rapid mixing in the fluidized bed and effective extraction of heat from the bed through in-bed heat transfer tubes and walls of the bed. The gas velocity is maintained between minimum fluidisation velocity and particle entrainment velocity. This ensures stable operation of the bed and avoids particle entrainment in the gas stream

Combustion process requires the three Ts that is Time, Temperature and Turbulence. In FBC, turbulence is promoted by fluidisation. Improved mixing generates evenly distributed heat at lower temperature. Residence time is many times greater than conventional

Fixing, bubbling and fast fluidized beds As the velocity of a gas flowing through a bed of particles increases, a value is reaches when the bed fluidises and bubbles form as in a boiling liquid. At higher velocities the bubbles disappear; and the solids are rapidly blown out of the bed and must be recycled to maintain a stable system.

firing. Thus an FBC system releases heat more efficiently at lower temperatures.

. FBC Boilers Since limestone is used as particle bed, control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in the combustion chamber is achieved without any additional control equipment. This is one of the major advantages over conventional boilers. 6.3 TYPES OF FLU IDISED BED COMBUSTIO N BOILERS There are three basic types of fluidised bed combustion boilers: 1. Atmospheric classic Fluidised Bed Combustion System (AFBC) 2. Atmospheric circulating (fast) Fluidised Bed Combustion system(CFBC)

3. Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion System (PFBC).

6.3.1 AFBC / BUBBLIN G BED In AFBC, coal is crushed to a size of 1 10 mm depending on the rank of coal, type of fuel feed and fed into the combustion chamber. The atmospheric air, which acts as both the fluidization air and combustion air, is delivered at a pressure and flows through the bed after being preheated by the exhaust flue gases. The velocity of fluidising air is in the range of 1.2 to 3.7 m /sec. The rate at which air is blown through the bed determines the amount of fuel that can be reacted. Almost all AFBC/ bubbling bed boilers use in-bed evaporator tubes in the bed of limestone, sand and fuel for extracting the heat from the bed to maintain the bed temperature. The bed depth is usually 0.9 m to 1.5 m deep and the pressure drop averages about 1 inch of water per inch of bed depth. Very little material leaves the bubbling bed only about 2 to 4 kg of solids are recycled per ton of fuel burned. Typical fluidized bed combustors of this type are shown in Figures 6.3 and 6.4.

FEATURES OF BUBBLING BED BOILER Fluidised bed boiler can operate at near atmospheric or elevated pressure and have these essential features: Distribution plate through which air is blown for fluidizing. Immersed steam-raising or water heating tubes which extract heat directly from the bed. Tubes above the bed which extract heat from hot combustion gas before it enters the flue duct.

Figure 6.4 Bubbling Bed Boiler-2 The combustion gases pass over the super heater sections of the boiler, flow past the economizer, the dust collectors and the air preheaters before being exhausted to atmosphere. The main special feature of atmospheric fluidised bed combustion is the constraint imposed by the relatively narrow temperature range within which the bed must be operated. With coal, there
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is risk of clinker formation in the bed if the temperature exceeds 950 C and loss of combustion
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efficiency if the temperature falls below 800 C. For efficient sulphur retention, the temperature
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should be in the range of 800 C to 850 C.

GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS OF AFBC BOILER AFBC boilers comprise of following systems: i) Fuel feeding system ii) Air Distributor iii) Bed & In-bed heat transfer surface iv) Ash handling system MANY OF THESE ARE COMMON TO ALL TYPES OF FBC BOILERS 1. Fuel Feeding system For feeding fuel, sorbents like limestone or dolomite, usually two methods are followed: under bed pneumatic feeding and over-bed feeding. Under Bed Pneumatic Feeding If the fuel is coal, it is crushed to 1-6 mm size and pneumatically transported from feed hopper to the combustor through a feed pipe piercing the distributor. Based on the capacity of the boiler, the number of feed points is increased, as it is necessary to distribute the fuel into the bed uniformly.

OVER-BED FEEDING The crushed coal, 6-10 mm size is conveyed from coal bunker to a spreader by a screw conveyor. The spreader distributes the coal over the surface of the bed uniformly. This type of fuel feeding system accepts over size fuel also and eliminates transport lines, when compared to under-bed feeding system. 2. Air Distributor The purpose of the distributor is to introduce the fluidizing air evenly through the bed cross section thereby keeping the solid particles in constant motion, and preventing the formation of defluidization zones within the bed. The distributor, which forms the furnace floor, is normally constructed from metal plate with a number of perforations in a definite geometric pattern. The perforations may be located in simple nozzles or nozzles with bubble caps, which serve to prevent solid particles from flowing back into the space below the distributor. The distributor plate is protected from high temperature of the furnace by: i) Refractory Lining ii) A Static Layer of the Bed Material or iii) Water Cooled Tubes.

3. Bed & In-Bed Heat Transfer Surface: a) Bed The bed material can be sand, ash, crushed refractory or limestone, with an average size of about 1 mm. Depending on the bed height these are of two types: shallow bed and deep bed. At the same fluidizing velocity, the two ends fluidise differently, thus affecting the heat transfer to an immersed heat transfer surfaces. A shallow bed offers a lower bed resistance

and hence a lower pressure drop and lower fan power consumption. In the case of deep bed, the pressure drop is more and this increases the effective gas velocity and also the fan power. b) In-Bed Heat Transfer Surface In a fluidized in-bed heat transfer process, it is necessary to transfer heat between the bed material and an immersed surface, which could be that of a tube bundle, or a coil. The heat exchanger orientation can be horizontal, vertical or inclined. From a pressure drop point of view, a horizontal bundle in a shallow bed is more attractive than a vertical bundle in a deep bed. Also, the heat transfer in the bed depends on number of parameters like (i) bed pressure (ii) bed temperature (iii) superficial gas velocity (iv) particle size (v) Heat exchanger design and (vi) gas distributor plate design.

4. Ash Handling System


a) Bottom ash removal In the FBC boilers, the bottom ash constitutes roughly 30 - 40 % of the total ash, the rest being the fly ash. The bed ash is removed by continuous over flow to maintain bed height and also by intermittent flow from the bottom to remove over size particles, avoid accumulation and consequent defluidization. While firing high ash coal such as washery rejects, the bed ash overflow drain quantity is considerable so special care has to be taken.

b) Fly ash removal The amount of fly ash to be handled in FBC boiler is relatively very high, when compared to conventional boilers. This is due to elutriation of particles at high velocities. Fly ash carried away by the flue gas is removed in number of stages; firstly in convection section, then from the bottom of air preheater/economizer and finally a major portion is removed in dust collectors. The types of dust collectors used are cyclone, bagfilters, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or some combination of all of these. To increase the combustion efficiency, recycling of fly ash is practiced in some of the units.

6.3.2 Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC)


Circulating Fluidised Bed Combustion (CFBC) technology has evolved from conventional bubbling bed combustion as a means to overcome some of the drawbacks associated with conventional bubbling bed combustion (see Figure 6.5). This CFBC technology utilizes the fluidized bed principle in which crushed (6 12 mm size) fuel and limestone are injected into the furnace or combustor. The particles are suspended in a stream of upwardly flowing air (60-70% of the total air), which enters the bottom of the furnace through air distribution nozzles. The fluidising velocity in circulating beds ranges from 3.7 to 9 m/sec. The balance of combustion air is admitted above the bottom of the furnace as secondary air. The
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combustion takes place at 840-900 C, and the fine particles (<450 microns) are elutriated out of the furnace with flue gas velocity of 4-6 m/s. The particles are then collected by the solids separators and circulated back into the furnace. Solid recycle is about 50 to 100 kg per kg of fuel burnt. There are no steam generation tubes immersed in the bed. The circulating bed is designed to move a lot more solids out of the furnace area and to achieve most of the heat transfer outside the combustion zone - convection section, water walls, and at the exit of the riser. Some circulating bed units even have external heat exchanges. The particles circulation provides efficient heat transfer to the furnace walls and longer residence time for carbon and limestone utilization. Similar to Pulverized Coal (PC) firing, the controlling parameters in the CFB combustion process are temperature, residence time and turbulence. For large units, the taller furnace characteristics of CFBC boiler offers better space utilization, greater fuel particle and sorbent residence time for efficient combustion and SO capture, and
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easier application of staged combustion techniques for NOx control than AFBC generators.

CFBC boilers are said to achieve better calcium to sulphur utilization 1.5 to 1 vs. 3.2 to 1 for the AFBC boilers, although the furnace temperatures are almost the same. CFBC boilers are generally claimed to be more economical than AFBC boilers for industrial application requiring more than 75 100 T/hr of steam CFBC requires huge mechanical cyclones to capture and recycle the large amount of bed material, which requires a tall boiler.

A CFBC could be good choice if the following conditions are met. Capacity of boiler is large to medium Sulphur emission and NOx control is important The boiler is required to fire low-grade fuel or fuel with highly fluctuating fuel quality.

Major performance features of the circulating bed system are as follows: a) It has a high processing capacity because of the high gas velocity through the system.
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b) The temperature of about 870 C is reasonably constant throughout the process because of the high turbulence and circulation of solids. The low combustion temperature also results in minimal NOx formation. c) Sulfur present in the fuel is retained in the circulating solids in the form of calcium sulphate and removed in solid form. The use of limestone or dolomite sorbents allows a higher sulfur retention rate, and limestone requirements have been demonstrated to be substantially less than with bubbling bed combustor. d) The combustion air is supplied at 1.5 to 2 psig rather than 3-5 psig as required by bubbling bed combustors. e) It has high combustion efficiency.

f) It has a better turndown ratio than bubbling bed systems. g) Erosion of the heat transfer surface in the combustion chamber is reduced, since the surface is parallel to the flow. In a bubbling bed system, the surface generally is perpendicular to the flow.

FIGURE 6.5 CIRCULATING BED BOILER DESIGN CIRCULATING BED BOILER

At high fluidizing gas velocities in which a fast recycling bed of fine material is superimposed on a bubbling bed of larger particles. The combustion temperature is controlled by rate of recycling of fine material. Hot fine material is separated from the flue gas by a cyclone and is partially cooled in a separate low velocity fluidized bed heat exchanger, where the heat is given up to the steam. The cooler fine material is then recycled to the dense bed.

6.3.3 PRESSURISED FLUID BED COMBUSTION


Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion (PFBC) is a variation of fluid bed technology that is meant for large-scale coal burning applications. In PFBC, the bed vessel is operated at pressure
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upto 16 ata ( 16 kg/cm ). The off-gas from the fluidized bed combustor drives the gas turbine. The steam turbine is driven by steam raised in tubes immersed in the fluidized bed. The condensate from the steam turbine is pre-heated using waste heat from gas turbine exhaust and is then taken as feed water for steam generation. The PFBC system can be used for cogeneration or combined cycle power generation. By combining the gas and steam turbines in this way, electricity is generated more efficiently than in conventional system. The overall conversion efficiency is higher by 5% to 8%. . (Refer Figure 6.6).

Figure 6.6 PFBC Boiler for Cogeneration


At elevated pressure, the potential reduction in boiler size is considerable due to increased amount of combustion in pressurized mode and high heat flux through in-bed tubes. A comparison of size of a typical 250 MW PFBC boiler versus conventional pulverized fuel-fired boiler is shown in the Figure 6.7.

6.4 Retrofitting of FBC Systems to Conventional Boilers


Retrofitting fluidised bed coal fired combustion systems to conventional boilers has been carried out successfully both in India and abroad.

6.4 Retrofitting of FBC Systems to Conventional Boilers


Retrofitting fluidised bed coal fired combustion systems to conventional boilers has been carried out successfully both in India and abroad.

The important aspects to be considered in retrofit projects are: a) Water/steam circulation design b) Furnace bottom-grate clearance c) Type of particulate control device d) Fan capacity e) Availability of space.

Retrofitting of a fluidised bed combustor to a conventional stoker fired water tube boiler may involve: a) The replacement of grate by a distributor plate with short stand pipes for admitting air from the wind box located underneath. b) Installations of stand pipes to remove ash from the bed. c) Provision of horizontal hairpin tubes in the bed with a pump for forced circulation from the boiler drum. d) Modification of crusher to size the coal/limestone mixture for pneumatic underbed injection of the mixture.

It may be emphasised that conversion of a conventional coal fired system to a fluidised bed combustion system can be accomplished without effecting major changes, after making a costbenefit analysis. Oil fired boilers can also be converted to coal fired fluidised bed combustion systems. However it has to be examined on a case-to-case basis.

6.5 Advantages of Fluidised Bed Combustion Boilers

1. High Efficiency

FBC boilers can burn fuel with a combustion efficiency of over 95% irrespective of ash content. FBC boilers can operate with overall efficiency of 84% (plus or minus 2%).

2. Reduction in Boiler Size High heat transfer rate over a small heat transfer area immersed in the bed result in overall size reduction of the boiler.

3. Fuel Flexibility FBC boilers can be operated efficiently with a variety of fuels. Even fuels like flotation slimes, washer rejects, agro waste can be burnt efficiently. These can be fed either independently or in combination with coal into the same furnace.

4. Ability to Burn Low Grade Fuel FBC boilers would give the rated output even with inferior quality fuel. The boilers can fire coals with ash content as high as 62% and having calorific value as low as 2,500 kcal/kg. Even carbon content of only 1% by weight can sustain the fluidised bed combustion.

5. Ability to Burn Fines Coal containing fines below 6 mm can be burnt efficiently in FBC boiler, which is very difficult to achieve in conventional firing system.

6. Pollution Control SO formation can be greatly minimised by addition of limestone or dolomite for high
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sulphur coals. 3% limestone is required for every 1% sulphur in the coal feed. Low combustion temperature eliminates NO formation.
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7. Low Corrosion and Erosion


The corrosion and erosion effects are less due to lower combustion and low particle velocity (of the order of 1 m/sec). temperature, softness of ash

8. Easier Ash Removal No Clinker Formation


Since the temperature of the furnace is in the range of 750 900 C in FBC boilers, even coal of low ash fusion temperature can be burnt without clinker formation. Ash removal is easier as the ash flows like liquid from the combustion chamber. Hence less manpower is required for ash handling .
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9. Less Excess Air Higher CO in Flue Gas


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The CO in the flue gases will be of the order of 14 15% at full load. Hence, the FBC boiler can
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operate at low excess air - only 20 25% .

10. Simple Operation, Quick Start-Up


High turbulence of the bed facilitates quick start up and shut down. Full automation of start up and operation using reliable equipment is possible.

11. Fast Response to Load Fluctuations


Inherent high thermal storage characteristics can easily absorb fluctuation in fuel feed rates. Response to changing load is comparable to that of oil fired boilers. 12 . No Slagging in the Furnace-No Soot Blowing In FBC boilers, volatilisation of alkali components in ash does not take place and the ash is non sticky. This means that there is no slagging or soot blowing.

13 Provisions of Automatic Coal and Ash Handling System

Automatic systems for coal and ash handling can be incorporated, making the plant easy to operate comparable to oil or gas fired installation.

14 Provision of Automatic Ignition System

Control systems using micro-processors and automatic ignition equipment give excellent control with minimum manual supervision. 15 High Reliability

The absence of moving parts in the combustion zone results in a high degree of reliability and low maintenance costs. 16 Reduced Maintenance

Routine overhauls are infrequent and high efficiency is maintained for long periods. 17 Quick Responses to Changing Demand

A fluidized bed combustor can respond to changing heat demands more easily than stoker fired systems. This makes it very suitable for applications such as thermal fluid heaters, which require rapid responses. 18 High Efficiency of Power Generation

By operating the fluidized bed at elevated pressure, it can be used to generate hot pressurized gases to power a gas turbine. This can be combined with a conventional steam turbine to improve the efficiency of electricity generation and give a potential fuel savings of at least 4%.