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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

Lecture 10 Becoming Singaporean Ethnic Relations and Language A. Objectives

Managing Ra e Relations !"roug" Multi ulturalism in Singapore

#anguage $oli ies and Ra e Relations in Singapore% &ulture' $oliti s' ( onomi s

epts our di))eren es*

&"inese% &entral problem o) singapore+ Ho, to unit group o) people into one nation-

!opulation b" Ethnic #roup$ Singapore$ 1%1&'(00% Year 1%1& 1%() 1%*+ 1&01 1&), 1&%0 (00% &"inese 30 3300 23134 13700 24534 154000 27234 729800 27634 1685200 27734 3561500 275+534 Mala.s 120 5400 25034 12800 24234 35000 21534 113600 21234 381800 21834 572000 21434 /ndians 600 2734 2900 21034 17000 2634 71900 2634 184500 2534 379200 27+934 0t"ers Ra))les 1 re, 200 2234 600 2334 9600 2434 22900 2234 81500 2234 57200 21+434

Sour e% &"ie, Seen 9ong 219914 1 SingStats

HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

:;or Singapore is not .et a nation+ /t is onl. a state' a so<ereign entit.* We do not all speak the same language+ Nor do we share the same religion and customs+ =e "a<e di))erent an estors* and a disparate collection of people' most o) ,"om "ad migrated )rom ot"er parts o) t"e ,orld*+> - $rime Minister ?o" &"o@ !ong 219994

:Not yet a nation.We are a nation in the making *+ /tAs an aspiration' itAs somet"ing ,e must ma@e into realit. probabl. in anot"er 20' 30' 40' 80 .ears*+ I do not deceive myself for one moment that our differences of race, culture and religion will disappear.> - Minister Mentor #ee 9uan Ye,' 22 Ban 2011

-istorical Bac.ground 1. /olonial 0a"s1 A !lural Societ" 2:so ial orders ,"i " li<e side b. side' .et ,it"out mingling' in one politi al unit>' B+S+ ;urni<all'19604 Ra ial di<ision o) labour and li<ing Mala.s usuall. )is"man' CCCCCC

Derna ular s "ools in a strati)ied edu ation s.stem

(. !ost'2ar communal3racial stri4e Maria Hertog" Riots 1980

&"inese edu ation and &"inese student riots 1980s

HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

i+e+ NS' student un"app.+ =ell@no,n riots+ $oliti al sensiti<e issues+ $A$ go<ernment+

Ra ial Riots Bul. 1 September 1954

#essons )rom t"e )ailure o) Merger

/mportan e o) managing ra ial relation issues+ &are)ull.+ not repeat in modern Singapore+ =ant to a<oid seening t"is again+

:=e "a<e a <ested interest in multi-ra ialism and a se ular state' )or t"e antit"esis o) multi-ra ialism and t"e antit"esis o) se ularism "old perils o) enormous magnitude+> $M #ee 9uan Ye,' Ee ember 1958

B. 5he 6anagement o4 Ethnicit" in Singapore !rinciples$ !lat4orms$ !olicies . !rinciples 1+ Se ularism Separation o) religion and politi s

2+

Multi ulturalism
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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

(Fual status )or all ra esG mala.s are re ogniHed spe ial group mala.+ --

3+

Merito ra . (Fual opportunities )or all based on abilit. and a "ie<ement+ no one got ad<antages to ot"ers be ause o) ra e+

"o,%

6ulticulturalism3 multiracialism central to Singapore7s identit" as a nation8


:=e' t"e itiHens o) Singapore' pledge oursel<es as one united people, regardless of race, language or religion. !o build a demo rati so iet.' based on Iusti e and equality' so as to a "ie<e "appiness' prosperit.' and progress for our nation.> - !"e Singapore $ledge

A -istor" o4 Ethnic 6anagement 9Eugene 5an (00): 1+ 1958 J 79 % A $K!A!/D( S/N?A$0R(AN-S/N?A$0R( /E(N!/!Y emp"asiHe+ ;o us on building a ne, Singapore national identit.

2+

1979-90 % HY$H(NA!(E S/N?A$0R(ANS

HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

reenbra e lo al identities+ Lelie<e <alue t"roug" .our o,n lo al ulture+ #earn mot"er tongue+ State start to emp"asiHe .ou are not Iust Singaporean' but "inese singaprean' *

3+ 1990-99 % /N&R(AS(E (!HN/& &0NS&/0KSN(SS =/!H/N AS/AN/MA!/0N tr.ing to trade ,it" "ina' CCC en ourage .ou to remember .our roots and learn .our ulture+ more religious+

4+ 2000- (M$HAS/S/N? &0MM0N S$A&( /N 0D(R#A$$/N? &/R&#(S ma@e sure Singaporean to remember t"e. are still Singaporean+ ea " ra es ir le' but tr.ing to eCpand ommon spa e ,"ere Singaporean omes )irst++ "o, to manage-

;.

Racial and Religious -armon"1 A 6ulti'pronged approach

1+

Education S"stem' ntegrated Schools &i<i s 219554' Moral (du ation 219794' Religious 9no,ledge 219644' National (du ation 219974

&o- urri ular a ti<ities

HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

&ommemorations e+g+ Ra ial Harmon. Ea. 21 Bul.

pre ent on)li t/de<elop edu ation% ommon spa e )or all singaporean+ Knderstand ea " ot"erAs ulture' be om)ortable about ot"er ra es+ (du ate .ou as singaporean and a ept multi ulture+ Stud. ,"at ot"er ultures are li@e' prati e in dail. li)e+

2+

Legislation Sedition A t 219464

Administration o) Muslim #a, A t 2AM#A4 219554

set up rig"t a)ter independa e ,e do re ogniHe mala. as a spe ial group+ sensiti<e issue+ Muslim mala.+ !ension bt, Singapore and Mala.sia+

$residential &oun il )or Minorit. Rig"ts 219704

Maintenan e o) Religious Harmon. A t 219904

"ea<. set o) la,s+ poli ies and la,s to ensure no on)li ts and does not des riminate an. parti ular ra e+ As a result' 1990+ &on erns about some ma. begin to be ome too open+ So allo,s to "arge an. member+ &"ur " too open' ministr. an ta@e
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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

a tion+ $re<enting on)li ts+ Re entl. .ears' t"e a t "as been used to pre<ent+ &"inese bloggers+ Eistri t Budge% allous' denigrator.' o))ensi e and insensiti<iti<e statements on religion ,it" aspersions on ra e+ Ha<e apa it. to *

3+ !olitical Representation ' #roup Representation /onstituencies 9#R/S: 1&%% numours ?R&s' a team o) andidates+ !o ensure ra ial palament+ EonNt neglets minorit. ra es+ /dea o) minorit. **

4+

/ommon space <ational Service

ommon spa e )or singaporeans to learn and * multira ial+ Lorn' intera t+

8+

/ommon !lat4orms and /ommon Space ?rassroots 2$eopleAs Asso iation4 a ti<ities and e<ents )orm 1950' promote so ial "armoni s+ 0rganiHe a ti<ities )or people to ma@e )riends** design and en ourage + ommon spa e )or singaporeans to inter t+ $la.ground+

$ubli Housing J (t"ni /ntegration $oli . 1969

5+

/onsultation$ nter4aith$ 0ialogue /ommunit" Engagement

Religious Loards )or minorit. ommunities


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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

a+

Hindu Ad<isor. Loard

b+ Hindu (ndo,ments Loard + Si@" Ad<isor. Loard

/nter-Religious Harmon. &ir les 2$ost- 9/114

/nter-Ra ial and Religious &on)iden e &ir les 2/R&&s4 :Ei))erent Ra es' Man. Lelie)s' 0ne Nation>

National Steering &ommittee on Ra ial and Religious Harmon. 220054

;.

Outcomes 1+ Hig" le<el o) on)iden e in merito ra . and eFual opportunities

2+ Most Singaporeans a ept ra ial and religious "armon. as part o) being Singaporean

3+

?o<ernment poli ies generally per ei<ed to be )air to all ra es

ertain' li@e de)en e' seems to be un)air+ -+

4+ So ial o"esion and "armon.G stable and sa)e so io-politi al en<ironment

8+ SingaporeAs multi ulturalism as an e onomi and ultural resour e !ourism% S!L Singapore tourism board+
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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

Attra ting ?lobal !alent

/mage as a :?lobal &it.> open to international e onomi and ultural eC "ange%

global talent+ ?ood li<ing en<ironment+ ( onomi Mi e industr.+ Sa)e pla e+

apital+

good ra ial relations+

institute o) poli . studies and onepeople S?+ Ra ial "armoni s ma. not be t"e issue no,' but itiHens and ne, itiHens' Singaporean and non Singaporean+

;.

Recent and !resent 5ensions 1+ September 9' 2001 1 religious eCtremism 2+ $er ei<ed in reasing separate-ness o) t"e Mala.-Muslim ommunit. based on in reased religiosit. 3+ Rising ra ism and Cenop"obia amidst e onomi and so iopoliti al "allenges o) globaliHation 4+ StateAs desire )or ultural elites <s edu ational and e onomi under-a "ie<ement o) minorities

HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

/. /haracteristics o4 Singapore7s 6ulticulturalism1 the /6 O 6odel 1 chinese mala" indian others. . Multi ulturalism not uniFue to Singapore but SingaporeAs model o) multi ulturalism is

&olonial /n"eritan e % !"e ra ialiHed organiHation o) Singapore so iet. based on :pla e o) origins>' :language use> and :essential "ara teristi s o) people>+

&ontinued b. t"e $A$ go<ernment and ,o<en into so ial and politi al li)e in Singapore' e+g+ edu ation' "ousing

"ousing+ (/$ based on .our ra e+ )at"erAs ra e ra e O ulture O et"ni it.+ ;at"erAs ra e t"e double barrelled/".p"enated identit. option )rom 1 Ianuar. 2011 on,ards+ More and more miC marriges+ limitation% )irst ra e still parentAs ra e+

;.

Singaporeans7 0ual'identities

1+ National /dentit. 2Singaporean4 P Ra ial /dentit. 2&"inese/Mala.//ndian/0t"ers4

2+

$res ribed )rom birt" based on )at"erAs ra e

3+

Ra e O &ulture O (t"ni it.

4+ !"e :double-barrelled>/ ".p"enated identit. option )rom 1 Banuar. 2011 on,ards


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;.

ssues 2ith Singapore7s multiculturalism 1+ O44icial denial o4 distinctive =Singaporean culture>1 2h"? Assumes t"at reation o) distin ti<e Singaporean ulture goes against &M/0 model' or t"e stateAs model o) multi ulturalism state belie<es t"ere are di))erent ra es in singapore+ !ensions and Dalidit.' espe iall. in age o) globaliHation and a)ter 80 .ears o) nation-building globaliHation+ /n reasingl. ulture* annot be purel. "inese ulture or+ Singaporean pre)er to be singaporeans+

2+ 5op'do2n management and regulation sti4ling o4 debate and discussion and maturit" o4 societ"? Ra e and religion as Q0ut-o)-LoundsA Mar@ers anot dis uss ra e and religin on )a eboo@*++ instead o) true "armoni s+ Ha<e religions toleran e+ Le ause a)raid o) onseFuen s+ Not true "armoni + multira ialism' ironi all.' also rein)or es et"i essentialism b. reating a greater ons iousness o) di))eren es and boundaries b. ir ue o) ra e as t"e l.n "pin+ More a,are o) boundaries+ #ess multi ulture and reminding t"em a,are o) identities+ S"ould a tuall. )orget ra ial identit.' onl. singaporean+ Lest ,a. to ensure singapore multi ulturism+ 2some one argue4+

Regulated be"a<iour and spee " instead o) genuine "armon. and understanding

3+ 5ensions bet2een <ational identit" and Racial3Ethnic3/ultural identit"?1

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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

A de-ra ialiHed Singaporean identit. possible or onl. t"e Q"ig")alutinA <ision and ideal o) an edu ated elite/ intelle tual lass-

:Multira ialism' ironi all.' also rein)or es et"ni essentialism b. reating a greater ons iousness o) di))eren es and boundaries b. <irtue o) ra e as t"e l.n "pin+> - (ugene !an 220044

E+ Language !olicies$ 1&@+' !resent 2#in@ to pre<ious le ture on (du ation4

/olonial Singapore 1+ Derna ular s "ools 1 4 separate streams o) edu ation

2+ &ontestation o<er (du ation and #anguage J Angli iHation <s $arit. )or all #anguages

3+ 1985 and 1989% All $art. Report on &"inese (du ation and $A$As edu ation poli .

1&@& 1&+@ 5o2ards 6erger 1+ Mala. as t"e national language &ompulsor. Mala. language lasses in all s "ools Mala. lessons o<er publi radio

mala. lass o<er radio+ (<en "inese s "ools "a<e mala. lasses to prepare merger ,it" mala.+ 0n e upon a time' most importan e language o) singapore+ politi all.+

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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

1&+@ Separation 1+ Mala. remains national language but de<alued

2+

(nglis" as ommon ,or@ing language

3+

Lilingualism made ompulsor. 1955

;.

1&,& English'.no2ing 6other 5ongue bilingualism 1+ !"e ?o" 29eng S,ee4 Report 2See pre<ious #e ture on edu ation4 enlisg omes )irst+ !"en )at"erAs ra e+ language o) te "nolog.' ommuni ation' edu ation+ /ntrodu tion o) streaming t"roug" language-,eig"ted eCaminations

National edu ation s.stem b. 1967 2all s "ools tea "ing (nglis" as )irst language4

;.

Ah" =English'.no2ing> Bilingualism? 1+ English :#in@ #anguage> - #anguage o) administration' edu ation' ommer e' s ien e and te "nolog.' and global ommuni ation

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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

Neutral Kni).ing #anguage a+ SingaporeAs :double-minorit. situation> "inese and mala.+ singapore tr.ing to a<oid been seening t"ird "ina* englis"+

b+ (Fualit. and &ommuni ation )or t"e Ra es

2+

6other 5ongue $oliti al Sensiti<ities 2sin e 1980s4 ra es donNt )eel t"eir ultures are not ta@en are o)+

HomogeniHing #anguage )or t"e &"inese 2Mandarin <s Eiale ts4

&M/0+ Kni). "inese+ (ssentialise+ Eiale ts de<ides di))erent ommunities o) "inese+ (t +

&ultural /dentit. 1 &ultural Lallast 21970s on,ardsGAsian Dalues4

ulture identit. and <alues+ Respe t )or ot"ers+ #ess ,esternli@e' more asian' more respe t )or elders+ More olle ti<e mindsets+ /n s "ools' 0nl. a)ter 1990s + omes important+

( onomi #in@ #anguage 21990 on,ardsG Rise o) &"ina and /ndia4


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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

e onomi de<elopment+ Mot"er tongue not important at earl. stage+

:0ur poli . o) bilingualism t"at ea " "ild s"ould learn (nglis" and "is mot"er tongue / regard as a )undamental )eature o) our edu ation s.stem*+&"ildren must learn English so that they will have a window to the knowledge, technology and expertise of the modern world+ !"e. must know their mother tongues to ena le them to know what makes us what we are+> - Er !on. !an' 1965' Minister o) (du ation :!"e prin ipal <alue o) tea "ing t"e se ond language is the imparting of moral values and the understanding of cultural traditions in the transmission of the norms of social or moral ehaviour*No "ild s"ould lea<e s "ool a)ter 9 .ears ,it"out having the !soft"ware# of his culture programmed into his su conscious+> - $M #ee 9uan Ye, in response to t"e ?o" 9eng S,ee report' Mar 1979

;.

c1&,,'present1 5he Spea. 6andarin /ampaign 1+ =".-

diale ts at "ome pinponted as ause o) ,ea@ Mandarin+ #earning diale ts more t"an mandarin+ Radios are not allo,ed to board ast diale ts+ H9 drama in mandarin+ Kse less diale ts+ $roblem is dialects.

2+

&ounter-arguments Mandarin not mot"er tongue o) maIorit. o) Singapore &"inese

Eiale t spea@ing $A$ M$s

(nglis"-edu ated%

Against Nation-building-

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; .

1&,% Special Assistance !lan Schools 1&,&

1+

(nglis" and Mandarin as )irst language in t"ese s "ools

2+

;or top 63 o) primar. s "ool students ,"o passed $S#(

3+ =".- J !o $reser<e &"inese ulture in t"e )a e o) t"e ?rie<an es o) &"inese-edu ated &"inese

)all in enrolment in "inese medium s "ools and ine))e ti<e bilingualismG merger o) nan.ang uni<ersit. into uni<ersit. o) singapore+ integrated s "ools <s "inese s "ools+ MaIorit. are "inese+ /) .ou going t"roug" t"is s "ool s.stem+ /) .ou tr.ing to unit "inese nation' "o, an .ou "a<e a nation ,it"in a nation- &on)li t ,it" building a nation o) singaporean ommunit.+ issues+

&ounter-arguments mandarin not mot"er tongue o) maIori. o) singapore "inese diale t spea@ing $A$ M$s+ englis" eu ated+ against nation buidling- La @)iring+ Eiad<antage+

R;or t"e &"inese ommunit.' our aim s"ould be a single people' spea@ing t"e same primar. language' possessing a distin t ulture and a s"ared past' and s"aring a ommon destin. )or t"e )uture+ Su " a &"inese ommunit. ,ill t"en be tig"tl. @nit+ $ro<ided it is also tolerant and appre iati<e o) t"e ot"er ommunitiesN "eritage' able to ommuni ate ,it" t"em in (nglis"' and ,or@ ,it" t"em )or a ommon )uture' Singapore ,ill gro, to be ome a nation+R " $M ?o" &"o@ !ong' #aun " o) t"e Spea@ Mandarin &ampaign 1991 15

HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

; . /hanges in S6/ 4rom 1&&0s on2ards earl. SM& diale ts+ Eiale t-spea@ing "inese+ no, target englis"-spea@ing "inese + better at englis" t"an mandrain+ 1990s on,ards+ Ei rimination muslim+ Spea@ing mandarin in ,or@spa e+ 1+ 1990 &ampaign :Huaren' Hua.u> 2/) .ou are &"inese' ma@e a statement J in Mandarin4 Ne, target% (nglis"-spea@ing &"inese Singaporeans 2+ La @)ired

3+ 2004-present% &ampaign aim at post-1958 .oung generation BB lin+ tr.ing to en ourage mandarin+ politi all. tr.ing to ta@e are o) "inese sensiti it.+ e onomi + en ourage+ $pl as middle man+ Li ulture+ ;un tion bot" ,it" ,est and east+ B. Ah" changes in 65 policies? 1+ /n reasing need )or Mot"er !ongue to spread desirable ultural' so ial and i<i <alues due to pressures o) globaliHation

2+

Ei))i ult. o) learning t,o languages

3+

!o engage rising &"ina

B.

Other !olic" Revie2s 9Re4inements to 6other 5ongue 5eaching:$ 1&&0s'


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1+

1&&1 mproving !rimar" School Education Report Streaming at primar. 4 2(M1/ (M2/ (M3/(M04 (M0% (nglis"' mot"er tougon as oral le<el+ La @las" )rom &"inese-edu atedG (M0 "anged to M( 3 2Mot"er !ongue as 1st language 1 (nglis" at 3rd language4

e<en t"oug" .ou are not able to learn language ,ell' .ou are able to @no, .our ulture+ So oral+

2+

(001 ' ntroduction o4 /hinese Language CB7 s"llabus to assist &"inese students ,it" :eC eptional di))i ulties> )rom Se ondar. 3 in learning &"inese

3+

(00) ' Re4inement o4 /hinese Language CB7 s"llabus ;or students ,ea@ in Mandarin )rom Se ondar. 1 2s ored & )or $S#(4 ;or students ,it" learning disabilities

4+

(00) ' ntroduction o4 Bicultural Studies !rogram 9/hinese: Aims% ;or reation o) :bi ultural elite>

8+

(010 6other 5ongue Language Revie2 More targeted' inno<ati<e use o) /!' tea "ing resour es and met"ods to in rease Mot"er !ongue pro)i ien .

Also re ognition t"at students "a<e di))erent learning abilities in learning t,o languages

;o us on reading and oral ommuni ation

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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

M0!H(R !0N?K( #AN?KA?( R(D/(=' 2010 2"ttp%//,,,+moe+go<+sg/media/press/2011/01/en"an ing-t"e-tea "ing-andtesting-o)-mtl+p"p4

E. ssues E44ectiveness$ desirabilit" and possibilit" o4 bilingualism? . E44ectiveness$ desirabilit" and possibilit" o4 bilingualism? 1+ $ressures o) t"e edu ation s.stemAs )o us on bilingualism

2+ MarginaliHation o) #ate Ee<elopers/ $oor #anguage #earners/ Non-(nglis"-spea@ing Monolinguals

Language !olicies and Social Strati4ication 1+ #anguage "oi es and pro)i ien . O Ei))erent e onomi and so ial out omes

2+ &orrelation bet,een So ial ( onomi Status and Lilingual $ro)i ien . 2and not Iust &ompeten e4

3+ Superiorit. o) t"e (nglis"-Mandarin bilingual o<er ot"er bilingual and monolinguals 2Bo. e Bames 20034

4+

SA$ s "ools as bastions o) t"e ultural elite

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HY2229/SSA2204 Nation-building in Singapore AY2013-14 Semester 2

Linguistic 4ault'lines 1+ Marginalit. o) :&"inese-edu ated> generation ,it"in t"e &"inese ommunit. 2be)ore 1990s4

2+ (le<ated e onomi <alue 1 status o) (nglis" and Mandarin 2a)ter 19794G de<aluation o) Mala. 1 !amil

3+ !"e inter-generational gap% (nglis"-spea@ing post-1979 generation <s non-(nglis"-spea@ing elders

ertain languages are more e onomi all. <alued t"an ot"ers+

;.

5he ssue o4 Singlish 1+ !6 #oh /ho. 5ong7s <ational 0a" Rall" speech in August 1&&&

2+

Launch o4 Spea. #ood English 6ovement (000 La @ground a+ :!"e $"ua &"u 9ang 2$&94 A))air>' 1999 and t"e :Singlis" $roblem> b+ $&9 sent to :L(S!> (nglis" lass

3+ Arguments Dor Singlish1 EniFuel" and Organic Singaporean culture G EniFue mar.er o4 national identit"

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:Singlis" is not simpl. t"e use o) Qla"sA and Qlo"sA+ /t is our interpretation o) t"e (nglis" language and our uniFue usage o) it in e<er.da. spee ">+ Straits !imes Reader' Ri "ard So"' 1999 =". ,eAre )ig"ting )or Singlis"' is be ause itAs simpl. a part o) our ulture+ /n )a t' it ma. be t"e 0N#Y t"ing t"at ma@es us uniFuel. Singaporean+ /t miCes all t"e <arious languages' ,"i " to me' seems to spread multi- ultural understanding+ / t"oug"t t"is ,as somet"ing to be proud o)+ J $alkingcock.com#s Sa<e our Singlis" ampaign 220024

4+ Arguments Against1 Bad 4or econom" and English standards


:2$rime-time omed. s"ould be blamed4 )or propagating and repeating all t"ose sill. and asinine p"rases ,"i " are de<oid o) grammati al tenses and proper senten e' li@e QdonAt pra. pra.A' Q annot u"A and Qno good me"-+++ !ele<ision "as t"e biggest in)luen e on "ildren and i) t"e. adopt Singlis" as part o) e<er.da. use' it ,ill be "ard to orre t t"em later**A>2S! Reader' Eouglas &"ua' 19994

o (mbedded lass issue% Spea@ing Singlis" and :good (nglis"> ="at is bad (nglis" and ,"at is Singlis" depends on t"e user ="o promotes Singlis"- J MaIorit. middle- lass' (nglis"pro)i ient

D. /onclusion . Multi ulturalism and #anguage $oli ies &entral to A SingaporeanAs eCperien e and to Nation-building in Singapore . $oints to ponder 1+ &"allenge o) globaliHation and need to integrate immigrants J Same $roblem' Ei))erent ;orm' Same Solutions2+ /s t"e &M/0 model still use)ul or rele<ant- Are t"ere alternati<e models o) multi ulturalism )or nation-building in Singapore3+ $ossibilit. o) a Ee-ra ialiHed Singapore and Singaporean identit. in t"e )uture-

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All Rig"ts Reser<ed+ (dgar #iao 1 Er Sai Sie, Min 2014

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