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PAPER 2011: Q.I. W !"# $%& " '&"#$ &' (') "% ## &* "%# *&++&,!'-: (() M(.& WTO / &0!$!&'$ #+("!'- "& #'0! &'1#'" Ans. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1 1!!" under the #arra$ech Agreement replacing the %eneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (%ATT). The organization deals &ith regulation of trade bet&een participating countries' it provides a frame&or$ for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants( adherence to WTO agreements &hich are signed by representatives of member governments. There are several provisions in the WTO agreements dealing &ith environment. There is a reference to sustainable development as one of the general ob)ectives to be served by the WTO in the #arra$ech Agreement &hich established the WTO. There are provisions in the Agreement on Agriculture and the %eneral Agreement on Trade in *ervices (%AT*). +o&ever by far and a&ay the most important provisions as far as environmental issues are concerned are Article ,, of the %ATT and the Agreements on *anitary and -hytosanitary #easures and the Agreement on Technical .arriers to Trade. 1. Article ,, of the %ATT/ Article ,, specifies &hat activities are e0empt from %ATT rules. These e0emptions give members very &ide latitude to control trade to protect the environment. They include protection of national security protection of morals preservation of national cultural heritage. Of particular importance is the right to &aive the rules in order to protect human animal plant health and safety.

2. -reventing abuse 1 the role of the Agreement on *anitary and -hytosanitary #easures (*-*)/ *uch provision stated that decisions be based on science and a process of ris$ assessment introduced transparency into decision2ma$ing by creating a visible chec$ on abuse of e0ecutive discretion. This not only protected the rights of members of the WTO it also gave assurance to consumers that governments &ere not abusing their po&ers. 3. -reventing abuse 33 1 the role of the Agreement on Technical .arriers to Trade (T.T)/ The Agreement on Technical .arriers to Trade (T.T). 3t &as designed to reduce the scope for countries to use technical standards as disguised barriers to trade. 3t obliges members to ensure that national treatment and non2discrimination apply &hen technical standards are adopted as mandatory regulations. *ound regulation standards and eco2labeling/ There is large body of standards &hich aim to improve the 4uality of goods and services and provide information to consumers. #ost of these are national standards and are set by national standard setting organizations. A set of international standards is produced by the 3nternational *tandards Organization. Well2$no&n 4uality standards developed by that organization include the 3*O !555 series (to improve 4uality in organizations) and 3*O 16555 (to set 4uality standards to improve environmental management.). 7co2labelling systems are applied by commercial entities for the information of consumers these are voluntary standards. (2) F(3"& $ &* +('4 4#- (4("!&' 8apid increase in industrialization urbanization and other

activities or civilized man have e0ercised a tremendous impact on the soils and on other components of the biosphere.

9eforestation or :nplanned destruction of forests and forest litter has brought about serious changes both in land and &ater.


&ashing off of fine

soil particles from

deforested areas has

caused great soil erosion.

*oil erosion has resulted in a great increase in run2off pollution turbidity and mineralization in rivers and e0tensive silting in &ater reservoirs

Water2logging 70cessive use of chemicals agricultural mismanagement soil salinity fuel &ood consumption ;limatic factors such as rainfall temperature etc. Over2e0ploitation of land for short2term gain Overgrazing -lanting unsuitable crops -oor crop rotation poor soil and &ater management <re4uent use of heavy machinery such as tractors etc. 3&'3# '$ &*

Q.2. (I) W%(" !$ S5$"(!'(2+# D#0#+&/1#'"6 7!-%+!-%" "%# 1(.& $5$"(!'(2+# 4#0#+&/1#'".

A'$. ;oncept of *ustainable 9evelopment/ The concept of sustainable development &as brought into focus by .randtland 8eport.

The concept of *ustainable 9evelopment provides a frame&or$ for the integration of developmental strategies &ith environmental protection. This concept includes reducing e0cessive resource use and enhancing resource conservation recycling = reuse of materials &aste minimization &ith proper technological input and scientific management of rene&able resources. 3n other &ords sustainable development concept underscores that rate of consumption or use of natural resources should appro0imate the rate at &hich these resources can be substituted or replaced. To maintain a balance bet&een environment and development it is necessary to strive sustainable development to meet the needs of present generation &ithout closing option for future generation. *ustainable 9evelopment maintains a balance bet&een social and economic development along &ith protection of the environment. Thus in order to prevent an ecological crisis and for a ne& sustainable society the follo&ing strategies should be follo&ed/ ;onservation and reduction of e0cessive use of resources. 8ecycling and reuse of materials. #ore use of rene&able resources (solar energy) than non2rene&able resources (oil coal) for energy.

Therefore sustainable development means concerns for protecting environment and avoiding depletion of non2rene&able resources. 3t refers to e4uity i.e. e4ual access to resources. M(.& C&'3# '$ & I$$5#$ "& 2# #$&+0#4 "& (3%!#0# "%# $5$"(!'(2+# 4#0#+&/1#'": 1. T ('$*& 1("!&' &* A""!"54#: One of the best &ay to achieve sustainable development is through transformation of attitude. We must inculcate the habit of sufficiency. 3t re4uires thorough transformation at local national = global level. We must consider it for the interest of future development. Earths Summit slogan for future growth: Let us do something for the next generation 2. P !'3!/+# &* 85$"!3# 9 E:5!"): The principle emphasize that in)ustice and ine4uity bet&een developed and developing countries should be eliminated or minimized. <or this national leaders and international 3nstitutions have responsibility for sound development of economies and environment.

Slogan: The Polluter must ha e to !a" 3. E (4!3("!&' &* P&0# "): 3n order to achieve sustainable development poverty in developing countries must be reduced. The poor people being poor cause more environmental degradation. 3t is rightly said by #s. 3ndira %andhi at :> ;onference in 1!?@ at *toc$holm A-overty = >eeds are greatest pollutantsB ;. 751(' S#""+#1#'" I$$5#$: +uman settlement conditions especially in developing countries are deteriorating mainly as a result of lo& investment in sectors li$e housing = social &elfare. The focus of human settlement programmes should be on/ -roviding shelter to all -roviding infrastructure such as &ater managing se&age and solid &aste -romoting land2use management -romoting energy = transport system etc.

<. B!&4!0# $!"): .iodiversity helps in achieving sustainable development as the country &hich is rich in biodiversity can generate more revenues than other countries. 3t is unfortunate that human activities cause decline in the biodiversity. Thus &e can prevent or increase biodiversity by conserving our flora = fauna. =. B5$!'#$$ 9 I'45$" ): .usiness = 3ndustry play a very important role in achieving sustainable development since they can change production process. They can chec$ the level of emission of pollutants. >. C&'$# 0("!&' &* #$&5 3#$ 5$!'- $#0# (+ "#3%'!:5#$: Carious methods should be adapted to conserve natural resources as &ell as the environment. Adopting 3ntegrated approach for planning = management of land resources Adopting rational approach for the management of forest and forest lands2 dealing &ith the issues of environmental problems such as deforestation. *ustainable forest development afforestation production of forest products and forest services should be focused upon. 8ecycling and reuse of materials Alternative for fossil fuels

?. A- !35+"5 #: Ad)ustments are re4uired in agricultural policy for increasing food production and farm products. To achieve the sustainable development it is necessary to understand environmental implications arising out of the fertilizers pesticides and methods used in agriculture. @. P #0#'"!&' &* #$&5 3#$ * &1 4#- (4("!&': >atural resources can be prevented from degradation through/ (a) Watershed 9evelopmentD 8ain2&ater harvesting (b) Treatment of Affected Areas in terms of air &ater and soil by discouraging those practices that can further degrade those areas. <ir this %ovt. initiative is re4uired. <or e0ample/ (1) %ovt. banned on the construction of tube&ells &ithout the permission of #;9 in 9elhi' (@) 9elhi %ovt. has shifted many industries from residential location to its outs$irts. (c) Transfer of technology/ <urther degradation can be prevented by transfer of technology from lo& efficient o high efficient devices. <or e0ample/ :se of ;>% vehicle on place of 9iesel. (d) .iomass -roduction/ :se of Animal &aste domestic &aste se&age from &hich energy can be derived is a great source. #anure is the best &ay of handling &aste. This gives clean fuel and reduces further depletion of soil = &ater. (e) 8emote2sensing/ 8emote2*ensing is done for survey of affected areas &ith the help of 8emote2sensing satellites. 10. U$!'- (// &/ !("# "#3%'&+&-): is one &hich is locally adaptable eco2friendly resource2efficient and culturally suitable. 3t mostly involves local resources and local labour. 3ndigenous technologies are more useful cost2effective and sustainable. We should use that technology &hich uses less of resources and should produce minimum &aste. 11. R#$&5 3# 5"!+!A("!&' ($ /# 3( )!'- 3(/(3!"): *ustainability of a system depends largely upon the carrying capacity of the system. 3f the carrying capacity of a system is crossed environmental degradation starts and continues till it reaches a point of no return. 12. P &1/"!'- #'0! &'1#'"(+ #453("!&' ('4 (,( #'#$$ / #a$ing environmental education the centre of all learning process &ill greatly help in changing the thin$ing and attitude of people to&ards our earth and the environment. 13. R#453#, #5$#, #3)3+# (// &(3%: The E28 approach advocating minimization of resource use using them again and again instead of passing it to the &aste stream and

recycling the materials goes a long &ay in achieving the goals of sustainability. 3t reduces pressure on our resources as &ell as reduces &astage of resources and pollution.

Q.2. (II) EB/+(!' "%# 1(.& / &0!$!&'$ &* C)&"& P &"&3&+. W%(" ( # "%# 1( D#"-2($#4 #1!$$!&' " (4!'- 1#3%('!$1$ / &0!4#4 5'4# "%# P &"&3&+6 Ans. The Fyoto -rotocol has the same ultimate ob)ective as the :nited >ations

<rame&or$ ;onvention on ;limate ;hange (:><;;;) &hich is the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that &ould prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference &ith the climate system. *uch a level should be achieved &ithin a time2frame sufficient to allo& ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. At the first :nited >ations <rame&or$ ;onvention on ;limate ;hange ;onference of the -arties in .erlin in 1!!" the ;ontracting -arties revie&ed the commitments by the developed countries under the ;onvention and decided that the commitment to aim at returning their emissions to 1!!5 levels by the year @555 &as inade4uate for achieving the ;onvention(s long2term ob)ective. The ;onference adopted the G.erlin #andateG and launched a ne& round of negotiations on strengthening the commitments of the ;ontracting -arties from developed countries. At the third ;onference of the -arties in Fyoto in 1!!? the -arties adopted the Fyoto -rotocol. C#) P &0!$!&'$

3n accordance &ith the Fyoto -rotocol ;ontracting -arties from developed countries are committed to reducing their combined greenhouse gas emissions by at least " per cent from 1!!5 levels by the period @55H2@51@. The targets cover the si0 main greenhouse

gases namely carbon dio0ide (;O@) methane (;+6) nitrous o0ide (>@O) hydrofluorocarbons (+<;s) perfluorocarbons (-<;s) and sulphur he0afluoride (*<I) along &ith some activities in the land2use change and forestry sector that remove carbon dio0ide from the atmosphere (carbon Gsin$sG). 7ach ;ontracting -arty from developed countries is re4uired to have made demonstrable progress in implementing its emission reduction commitments by @55". 3mplementation of the legally binding -rotocol commitments promises to produce an historic reversal of the up&ard trend in emissions from developed countries.

The Fyoto -rotocol also establishes three innovative mechanisms $no&n as )oint implementation emissions trading and the clean development mechanism &hich are designed to help ;ontracting -arties included in Anne0 3 of the :nited >ations <rame&or$ ;onvention on ;limate ;hange to reduce the costs of meeting their emission targets. The clean development mechanism also aims to promote sustainable development in developing countries. The operational details of these mechanisms are no& being fleshed out by the ;ontracting -arties.

The procedure for the communication and revie& of information is established in the Fyoto -rotocol. ;ontracting -arties from developed countries are re4uired to incorporate in their national communications the supplementary information necessary to demonstrate compliance &ith their commitments under the -rotocol in accordance &ith guidelines to be developed. The information submitted shall be revie&ed by e0pert revie& teams pursuant to guidelines established

by the ;onference of the -arties &hich is the supreme body that shall regularly revie& and promote effective implementation of the :nited >ations <rame&or$ ;onvention on ;limate ;hange and the Fyoto -rotocol.

The -rotocol provides that the ;ontracting -arties shall periodically revie& the -rotocol in the light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts. The first revie& &ill ta$e place at the second session of the ;onference of the -arties serving as the meeting of the -arties to the -rotocol. <urther revie&s shall ta$e place at regular intervals and in a timely manner. A frame&or$ for a compliance system is re4uired to be developed under the -rotocol.

M( D#"-2($#4 " (4!'- 1#3%('!$1$ / &0!4#4 5'4# C)&"& P &"&3&+: Three mechanisms have been established under the Fyoto -rotocol/ 7T the clean development mechanism (;9#) and )oint implementation (J3). 1. E1!$$!&'$ " (4!'7missions trading is established by Article 1? of the Fyoto -rotocol. Anne0 3 -arties may participate in 7T for the purposes of fulfilling their commitments under Article E. 7T is closely related to the accounting of assigned amounts under the Fyoto -rotocol the modalities of &hich are defined under the follo&ing Articles of the Fyoto -rotocol/ (a) Article E/ paragraphs ? and H deal &ith the establishment of assigned amounts' (b) Article E/ paragraphs 15 11 and 1@ deal &ith the transfer and ac4uisition of some types of units' (c) Article ?/ paragraph 6 deals &ith the modalities for accounting assigned amounts.

A summary of decisions by the ;#- relating to the above Articles is presented in the anne0 table 1. 2. C+#(' 4#0#+&/1#'" 1#3%('!$1 The ;9# is established by Article 1@ of the Fyoto -rotocol to assist non2Anne0 3 -arties in achieving sustainable development and in contributing to the ultimate ob)ective of the ;onvention and to assist Anne0 3 -arties in achieving compliance &ith their 4uantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under Article E. The ;9# is supervised by the 70ecutive .oard &hich inter alia recommends modalities and procedures for the ;9# to the ;#- and performs operational functions under the authority and guidance of the ;#-. 3.8&!'" !1/+#1#'"("!&' Joint implementation is established by Article I of the Fyoto -rotocol to assist Anne0 3 -arties in meeting their commitments under Article E. A host -arty of an Article I pro)ect that meets all the eligibility re4uirements for participation may verify its o&n emission reductions by sources or enhancements of removals by sin$s from J3 pro)ects and issue the resulting emission reduction units (so2 called Trac$ 1). 3f a -arty does not meet those re4uirements such verification ta$es place through the verification procedure under the Joint 3mplementation *upervisory ;ommittee (J3*;) (so2called Trac$ @). The J3*; operates under the authority and guidance of the ;#-. Q3 () W%(" ( # 4!**# #'" ")/#$ &* '("5 (+ #$&5 3#$6 7&, 3(' "%# #$&5 3#$ 2# #3&'&1!$#4 !' "%# / &3#$$ &* #3&'&1!3 4#0#+&/1#'"6 A'$: >atural 8esources N("5 (+ #$&5 3#$ occur naturally &ithin environments that e0ist relatively undisturbed by humanity in a natural form. >atural resources are derived from the environment. *ome of


them are essential for our survival &hile most are used for satisfying our &ants. >atural resources may be further classified in different &ays. There are various methods of categorizing natural resources these include source of origin stage of development and by their rene&ability.

1. O' "%# 2($!$ &* O !-!'/ #i$ %ioti& 1 These are obtained from the biosphere (living and organic material) such as forests and animals and the materials that can be obtained from them. <ossil fuels such as coal and petroleum are also included in this category because they are formed from decayed organic matter. #ii$ '(ioti& 1 These are those that come from non2living non2organic material. 70amples of abiotic resources include land including ores such as gold iron copper silver etc. fresh &ater airand heavy metals

2. O' "%# 2($#$ &* "%#! $"(-# &* 4#0#+&/1#'": (i) Potential resour&es 1 -otential resources are those that e0ist in a region and may be used in the future. <or e0ample petroleum occurs &ith sedimentary roc$s in various regions but until the time it is actually drilled out and put into use it remains a potential resource. #ii$ '&tual resour&es 1 Actual resources are those that have been surveyed their 4uantity and 4uality determined and are being used in present times. The development of an actual resource such as &ood processing depends upon the technology available and the cost involved.


#iii$ )eser e resour&es 1 The part of an actual resource &hich can be developed profitably in the future is called a reserve resource. #i $Sto&* resour&es 1 *toc$ resources are those that have been surveyed but cannot be used by organisms due to lac$ of technology. <or e0ample/ hydrogen. 3. O' "%# 2($#$ &* R#'#,(2!+!"): #i$ )enewa(le resour&es 1 8ene&able resources can be replenished naturally. *ome of these resources li$e sunlight air &ind etc. are continuously available and their 4uantity is not noticeably affected by human consumption. #ii$ +on,renewa(le resour&es 1 >on2rene&able resources either form slo&ly or do not naturally form in the environment. #inerals are the most common resource included in this category. .y the human perspective resources are non2rene&able &hen their rate of consumption e0ceeds the rate of replenishmentDrecovery' a good e0ample of this are fossil fuels &hich are in this category because their rate of formation is e0tremely slo& (potentially millions of years) meaning they are considered non2rene&able. ;. O' "%# 2($!$ &* "%#! D!$" !25"!&': (!) N("!&'(+ R#$&5 3#$ - >ational resources are those resources that are available &ithin the national boundaries of a country. 3n this respect a fe& e0amples &ould be the minerals and lands available in profusion in the country.

(!!) M5+"!'("!&'(+ R#$&5 3#$ - #ultinational resources are those that are shared by more than one country bet&een t&o geographical boundaries. 8ivers migratory animals and la$es are definite e0amples.


(!!!) I'"# '("!&'(+ R#$&5 3#$ - These resources are shared by all nations and are provided in bounty to all the countries in the earth. Oceans air solar energy and precipitation are a fe& e0amples of international resources. There are t&o fundamental facts that constitute the #3&'&1!$!'- / &2+#1. *ocietyJs material &ants that is the material &ants of its citizens and institutions are virtually unlimited or insatiable and another is 7conomic resources &hich means of producing goods and servicesKare limited or scarce. 1. U'+!1!"#4 ,('"$ At any given time the individuals and institutions that constitute society have innumerable material &ants unfulfilled. *ome of these material &antsKfood clothing and shelterK have biological roots. The social and cultural environment in &hich &e live influence our material &ants as &ell. As a group our material &ants are unlimited and are incapable of ever being completely satisfied. 2. S3( 3# #$&5 3#$ All the natural human and manufactured resources that go into the production of goods and services &hich re4uire innumerable types of labour' and land and mineral resources of all $inds 3f our resources are scarce &e cannot satisfy all of societyJs material &ants. *ociety &ishes to use its limited resources efficiently' that is it &ants to obtain the ma0imum amount of desired goods and services producible &ith its available resources. To achieve this it must achieve both full employment and full production. 7conomics is a science of #**!3!#'3)Kefficiency in the use of scarce resources.

(. F5++ #1/+&)1#'" F5++ #1/+&)1#'" means that all available resources should be employed/ no &or$ers


should be involuntarily out of &or$' no capital e4uipment or arable land should sit idle. <or e0ample legislation and custom provide that children and the very aged should not be employed. <urther it is desirable for productivity to allo& land to lie fallo& periodically. Along &ith this some resources &ill need to be conserved for the future.

2. F5++ / &453"!&' The employment of all available resources is ho&ever insufficient to achieve efficiency. <ull production means that all employed resources should be used to ma$e the most valued contributions to output. 3f &e fail to achieve full production economists say that our resources are underemployed. <ull production implies that t&o $inds of efficiencyKallocative and productive efficiency are achieved. i. A++&3("!0# #**!3!#'3) means that resources are devoted to the combination of goods and services most &anted by society. <or e0ample society &ants ;9s rather than records. The most desired combination of goods and services is $no&n as optimum product mi0. ii. P &453"!0# #**!3!#'3) occurs &hen the least costly production techni4ues are used to produce the desired goods and service.

PAPER 2012

Q.1. (4) PIL Ans. -ublic 3nterest Litigation means a legal action initiated in a court of la& regarding a matter &hich relates to or is connected &ith the interest of the public. 3ts purpose is to provide )ustice to the ordinary people. 3t has been devised for those people &ho are unable to approach the court on their o&n because of their deprived conditions i.e. illiteracy poverty social and economic bac$&ardness lac$ of a&areness. The -3L can be filed by a third party if the constitutional rights of an individual or group of individuals are violated. 3n such case the individual or groups of individuals is not able to move court personally for )ustice because of poverty helplessness lac$ of a&areness or socially and economically disadvantaged conditions. The petitioner of the -3L does not file it for personal gain or private profit. +eDshe does not file it for political or other obli4ue motivation. The -lL can also be filed by a petitioner by &riting a letter to the court. The right of a person to file a suit or conduct a litigation in a court of la& is $no&n as (Locus *tandi(. There are t&o types of -3Ls / i) 8epresentative *ocial Action and ii) ;itizen *ocial Action !) R#/ #$#'"("!0# S&3!(+ A3"!&': This is a form of -3L &hereby any member of the public can see$ )udicial redressal for a legal &rong caused to a person or a determinate class of persons &ho by reason of poverty or socially and economically disadvantaged position is unable to approach the court. 3n such case the petitioner is Maccorded locus standiJ to sue as the representative (of other person or group.


C!"!A#' S&3!(+ A3"!&':


3n a -3L under this category a -etitioner sues not as a representative of a class but as a member of the public to &hom a public duty is o&ed. hence the aim of this category of -3L is not to improve access to )ustice for the poor unli$e a 8epresentative *ocial Action but to vindicate rights that are diffused among the public to be enforced though no traditional individual right e0ists. A40('"(-#$ The first and foremost advantage of -3L is access to a >ational <orum of decision ma$ing and po&er by those &ho &ere until no& voiceless and invisible. The rela0ation from long procedural formalities and thus ensuring the poor people to have access to )ustice. The rela0ation of the rule of locus standi has resulted in representative action &here a person or a group &ith a sufficient interest in a particular cause litigates on behalf of a large number of others &ho cannot afford the cost of litigation. -lL has also given the court an opportunity to address important issues in areas li$e environmental protection consumer protection etc. &hich affect a large number of people. The acceptance of even letters and telegrams by the courts as -3Ls reduces the cost of such litigation and also encourages public spirited individuals and groups to bring to the notice of the court any situation &hich re4uires the ;ourts interference. The appointing of commissions by the courts as fact finding bodies to chec$ into the allegation made in the petition has established a ne& mode of proof. These commission reports have formed the basis of direction of the court in cases complaining of violation of rights. The monitoring by the ;ourt of the implementation of the directions at periodic intervals to ensure compliance enable the vindication of rights in practice. The monitoring function has also often been vested in vigilance bodies &ith participation of *ocial Action %roups. Q.2. (() W%(" !$ #3&$)$"#16 D!$35$$ 0( !&5$ ")/#$ &* #3&$)$"#1.


Ans. ECOSYSTEM According to EEOREE 8ACCSON, an 7cosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro2organisms in an area functioning together &ith all of the non2 living things. An ecosystem is the smallest unit of biosphere that has all the characteristics to support life. -ond ecosystem forest ecosystem desert ecosystem marine ecosystem urban ecosystem are some of the e0amples for ecosystems. An ecosystem varies in sizes from a fe& s4uare $ms to hundreds of s4uare $ms. *imilarly an ecosystem may be temporary li$e a fresh pool D agriculture field or permanent li$e a forest D ocean. 3n an ecosystem both organisms (biotic communities) and abiotic environment (rainfall temperature humidity) each influencing the properties &ith other for maintenance of life. TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS/ 7cosystem may be natural or artificial. A "!*!3!(+ E3&$)$"#1: These are maintained or created artificially by man. The man tries to control biotic community as &ell as physico chemical environment. 7g/ Artificial pond urban area development. N("5 (+ E3&$)$"#1: These ecosystem are more stable. :nder the natural conditions a variety of ecosystem operates themselves such type of ecosystem are called >atural ecosystem. N("5 (+ #3&$)$"#1 ( # &* *&++&,!'- ")/#$: (1) Terrestrial ecosystem (@) A4uatic ecosystem T# #$" !(+ E3&$)$"#1 A:5("!3 E3&$)$"#1 This ecosystem relates to biotic components This ecosystem relates to biotic community living on the land. V#-#"("!&' 4&1!'("#$ "%# living in &ater. The types of &ater ( fresh 3&115'!") and the types of vegetation affect &ater saline &ater polluted &ater ) dominate the climate soil structure = a rapid e0change of O@ &ater = ;O@ and affect the p+ of &ater depth of &ater temperature of &ater etc.. A:5("!3 #3&$)$"#1 has been sub2divided into * #$% ,("# and $(+!'# ,("# based on the 4uality of &ater.



7co system that e0ists in &ater is $no&n as a4uatic ecosystem . Water is the primary re4uirement for life in biological community. The a4uatic ecosystems range from a small pond to a large ocean. Carying 4uantities of nutrients are carried from terrestrial ( land ) ecosystem by the movement of &ater and deposited in a4uatic ecosystems. The life in a4uatic communities is influenced mostly by physical factors li$e: W("# 4#/"%F (1&5'" +!-%"F

"#1/# ("5 #F $(+!'!") &* ,("# ('4 (1&5'" &* &B)-#' ('4 C( 2&' 4!&B!4#. and 1( !'# ,("#

A4uatic ecosystems are broadly classified into * #$% ,("# AE$"5( !#$B. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM FRES7 WATER MARINE E-. +(D#$, /&'4$, $" #(1$, E-. $(+" +(D#$, $#($, &3#('$ !0# ,("# A. F #$%,("# E3&$)$"#1- (P&'4G L(D# E3&$)$"#1)

ecosystems. 3n some regions the marine and fresh &ater environment overlaps creating

ESTUARIES E-. ,("# 2&4!#$ M!B &* * #$% ,("# ('4 $#(

A pond is a small area of still &ater especially is artificial &hereas a la$e is a large area of &ater body and the &ater is natural. The life span of ponds range from a fe& &ee$s or months and &hereas the life span for la$es depend upon their location size and depth. 9epending upon temperature the upper part of the la$e becomes &arm and is called #/+!1'!&' and the lo&er part of the la$e becomes cold &hich is called as %)/&+!1'!&'. These t&o zones are separated by "%# 1&3+!'# A&'# &hich acts as a barrier to e0change of material D nutrients &ithin the pond. 9uring rainy season entire &ater body gets same temperature due to mi0ing of &ater &hile in non2rainy season very small amount of mi0ing occurs by surface &aves due to &ind blo&. A fresh&ater ecosystem is of @ types/ 1. Lotic (<lo&ing &ater)/ eg. fresh&ater streams springs rivers etc. @. Lentic (*tagnantD *till &ater)/ eg. ponds la$es s&amps etc. The components of fresh&ater ecosystem are as follo&s/ 1. Abiotic (non2living) ;omponents/ include +eat' light p+ value of &ater' organic compounds ( &ater ;O@ O@ ;a > - ..) @. .iotic (living) ;omponents/ include/ A) -roducers2 eg. %reen plants photosynthetic bacteria etc.

.) ;onsumers2 are classified as/ -rimary (+erbivores) 1eg. Noo plan$ton *econdary (*mall ;arnivores)2 eg. *mall fishes. They serve on primary consumers. Tertiary (Top ;onsumers)2 eg. Large fishes. They depend on secondary consumers. ;) 9ecomposers2 eg. .acteria fungi etc. B. M( !'# E3&$)$"#1 (& O3#(' E3&$)$"#1): The marine environment is characterized by its high concentration of salts and minerals. The ma)or oceans of the &orld are Atlantic' -acific' 3ndian Arctic and Antarctic. These are deep and life e0tends to all its depths. The sea &ater contains salt content in the form of >a;l and rest are #g ;a F . The components of marine or ocean ecosystem are as follo&s/ 1. Abiotic ;omponents2 eg. ;hemical components o0ygen temperature light etc. @. .iotic ;omponents2 include/ A) -roducers2 eg. -htoplan$tons green algae sea &eeds red algae etc. .) ;onsumers2 are classified as/ -rimary (+erbivores)2 eg. *mall fishes *econdary (;arnivores)2 eg. *had mac$erel (carnivores fishes) Tertiary (Top carnivores)2 eg. ;od halibut etc.

;) 9ecomposers2 eg. #arine fungi and bacteria C. S" #(1 9 R!0# E3&$)$"#1$: 8ivers and streams are flo&ing fresh &ater bodies. Out of all natural ecosystems rivers are the most intensively used ecosystems by man. The organization of river and stream ecosystem includes/ 1. Abiotic components/ include volume of &ater speed of &ater flo& dissolved o0ygen content temperature etc.. The energy flo& usually the organic matter &hich is being imported from ad)acent terrestrial ecosystems.


@. .iotic components/ include -roducers ( algae grass amphibians )' consumers ( leaches &ater insects snails fishes crocodiles reptiles ) and 9ecomposers (bacteria fungi protozoa). D. E$"5( !'# E3&$)$"#1 7stuary is the area at the mouth of the river )oins the sea and continents. 3t has a free connection &ith the open sea and is thus strongly affected by tidal action. 7stuaries are mi0ed &ith fresh &ater from land drainages. 8iver mouth coastal bays tidal marshes etc. are the e0amples for estuarine ecosystem. 7stuaries are one among the naturally fertile in the &orld. The components of The components of 7stuarine ecosystem are as follo&s/ 1. Abiotic ;omponents2 eg. >utrients received from land as &ell as sea' rooted plants @. .iotic ;omponents2 include/ A) -roducers2 Three ma)or life forms of Autotrophs play a significant role in grass production. They are (a) macrophytes ( sea &eeds sea grass spartina Thalassia marsh grass nagrove trees ) (b) -hytoplan$ton and (c) .enthic flora (algae ). B) ;onsumers2 eg. Nooplan$ton Oysters shrimps crabs and some species of fishes capable of surviving in estuarine conditions form primary secondary tertiary consumers of the estuarine ecosystem. C) 9ecomposers2 9ecomposers include bacteria and fungi &hich actively ta$e part in the brea$ing do&n the comple0 and dead organic matter ( <ungi of actinomycites ). II. TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM: Terrestrial ecosystem is of follo&ing types/ A. <orest 7cosystem .. 9esert 7cosystem ;. %rassland 7cosystem 9. ;ropland ecosystem

A. F& #$" E3&$)$"#1: <orest is a type of terrestrial ( land ) ecosystem. 3t consists of trees shrubs or &oody vegetation occupying an e0tensive area of land. <orests are important rene&able resources. A different types of forests are seen on this earth. The type of forest depend upon its geographical location and environment factors ( Temperature and moisture ) that influence the $ind of vegetation that occur in an area. T)/#$ &* *& #$"$: 1. S(0(''($: These forests develop &here a seasonal rainfall occurs. The grass lands of >orth Africa are $no&n as savannas. 7g/ >orth Africa America .urma = 3ndia. 2. T &/!3(+ *& #$"$: These e0its in areas of good rainfall (O@55cm per year) &ith uniform &arm temperature. The *oils found in there forests are old acidic in nature = poor in nutrients. 7g/ Amazon rain forest (*outh America 3ndia). 3. D#3!45&5$ *& #$"$ (& ) T#1/# ("# *& #$"$: 9eciduous forests consists of broad leaved trees = occur &here rainfall is plenty (?"5 2 1555 cms per year). 7g/ 7urope = >orth27ast America. ;. C&'!*# &5$ *& #$": These occur in areas &ith long &inters &ith heavy sno&fall. 3n other &ords &here moisture is limited = rainfall is lo&. +erbivores (animals eating plants) = insects e0ist in these forests. 7g/ #osco&. (<) T5'4 ($/ These are the large flat Arctic regions of >orthern 7urope Asia and >orth America &here no trees gro& and &here the soil belo& the surface of the ground is al&ays frozen. The gro&ing season is short and plants gro& very slo&ly. <ollo&ing are the types of forests present in 3>93A/ 1. Tropical forests present in Western %hats of #aharashtra Farnata$a Ferala. @. 9eciduous forests present at 9ehradun 7astern %hats of Andhra -radesh Tamil >adu #.-. :.-. E. Littoral and s&amp forests present at *underbans in West .engal and Andaman islands. 6. Tropical Thorn forests present in >e& 9elhi -un)ab and %u)arat. ". #ountain &et temperature forests present at >ilgiri and -alani hills.

I. Alpine scrub forests present at Lada$h and *i$$im. The components of forest ecosystem are as follo&s/ A. Abiotic ;omponents/ are non2living components of forest ecosystem. These include/ 1. 3norganic >utrients2 eg. ;a > - s F etc. are found in the soil in a large 4uantity. @. Organic ;ompounds2 includes dead remains of palnts and animals such as carbohydrates fats etc. E. ;limatic factors2 eg. Temperature light rainfall humidity etc. .. .iotic ;omponents/ are living organisms of forest ecosystem. These include/ (a) -roducers/ %reen plants (producers) is classified as a biotic components. 3n a forest there are different types of plants trees shrubs herbs ferns etc. (b) ;onsumers/ comprise of E categories/ -rimary ;onsumers/ are herbivores animals &hich depend directly on producers (green plants). 7g. .eetles flies ants grasshoppers spiders deer elephants rats etc. *econdary ;onsumers/ are primary carnivores &hich depend on primary consumers. 7g. *na$es fo0 &olf frogs eagles vultures )ac$als etc. Tertiary ;onsumers/ are top consumers (top carnivores) &hich depend on secondary consumers. 7g. Lion tiger leopard etc. (c) 9ecomposers/ are the micro2organisms &hich depend on dead2organic matter. The micro2organisms include/ .acteria <ungi #y0omycetes etc.

B. D#$# " E3&$)$"#1: 9esert consists of bare2ground or bush covered by land &here the average annual rainfall is less than @" cm. 3n 3ndia abou1?P land is desert. 7g. Thar 9esert The components of desert ecosystem are as follo&s/ 1. Abiotic ;omponents/ includes 9ry soil &ith poor nutrients days are hot and nights are cold lo& humidity high temperature and less &ater etc. @. .iotic ;omponents/ includes/ a) -roducers/ includes .ushy shrubs scanty trees 0erophytic vegetation etc. 7g. ;actus bunch grass etc. b) ;onsumers/ includes/ -rimary (+erbivores)/ eg. ;amel )ac$ rats rabbits insects etc. *econdary (;arnivores)/ eg. 8eptiles lizards fo0 sna$es insect2 eating birds etc. Tertiary (Top carnivores)/ eg. Cultures &ild cats etc.

c) 9ecomposers/ eg. <ungi bacteria. 9ue to scarcity of plants and animals dead organic matter is less and hence decomposers are also fe& in number. C. E ($$+('4 E3&$)$"#1: %rasslands are characterized by tall or short grasses herbs and shrubs &ith lo& rainfall. They occupy about 1!P of the earthJs total surface. The components of a grassland ecosystem are as follo&s/ 1. Abiotic ;omponents/ includes2 a) 3norganic or nutrient elements2 eg. * ;a F #g > - etc.

b) Organic matter2 eg. fats proteins carbohydrates etc. derived from dead organic matter or plants or animals. c) ;limatic factors2 eg. light high temperature lo& rainfall etc. @. .iotic ;omponents/ includes2 a) -roducers/ eg. grasses herbs shrubs b) ;onsumers/ are classified as/ -rimary ;onsumers/ They feed directly on grasses and include herbivores animals li$e co&s goats buffaloes mouse rabbits etc. *econdary ;onsumers/ These are primary carnivores animals that feed on herbivores such as lizards sna$es )ac$als fo0 etc. Tertiary ;onsumers/ These are called Top consumers. They depend on secondary consumers. 7g. +a&$s eagles vultures tigers leopards etc. c) 9ecomposers/ includes microbes bacteria fungi etc. D. C &/+('4 E3&$)$"#1 (& A- & E3&$)$"#1): ;ropland also called artificial ecosystem is a man2engineered ecosystem. The components of cropland ecosystem are as follo&s/ 1. Abiotic ;omponents/ includes2 a) 3norganic or nutrient elements2 7g. * ;a #g * F - etc. b) Organic matter2 includes fats proteins derived from dead plants and animals. c) ;limatic factors2 includes light temperature rainfall etc.


@. .iotic ;omponents/ includes2 a) -roducers2 crops such as &heat pulses vegetables etc. b) ;onsumers2 are classified as/ -rimary consumers2 are called as +erbivores. 7g. 3nsects beetles rats rabbits etc. *econdary consumers2 are called as primary carnivores. 7g. frogs fo0 )ac$als etc. Tertiary consumers2 are called as top consumers. 7g. ha&$s sna$es etc. (B) D!$35$$ "%# 0( !&5$ 3(5$#$ *& "%# $&!+ ('4 +('4 4#- (4("!&'. L('4 4#- (4("!&' L('4 4#- (4("!&' is a process in &hich the value of the biophysical environment is affected by combination of human2induced processes acting upon the land also environmental degradation is the gradual destruction or reduction of the 4uality and 4uantity of human activities animals activities or natural means e0ample &ater causes soil erosion &ind etc. 3t is vie&ed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. >atural hazards are e0cluded as a cause ho&ever human activities can indirectly affect phenomena such as floods and bush fires. Land degradation is a broad term that can be applied differently across a &ide range of scenarios. There are four main &ays of loo$ing at land degradation and its impact on the environment around it/

A temporary or permanent decline in the productive capacity of the land. This can be seen through a loss of biomass a loss of actual productivity or in potential productivity or a loss or change in vegetative cover and soil nutrients.

Action in the lands capacity to provide resources for human livelihoods. This can be measured from a base line of past land use.

Loss of biodiversity/ A loss of range of species or ecosystem comple0ity as a decline in the environmental 4uality.

*hifting ecological ris$/ increased vulnerability of the environment or people to destruction or crisis. This is measured through a base line in the form of pre2e0isting ris$ of crisis or destruction.


Land clearance such as clear cutting and deforestation Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices Livestoc$ including overgrazing and over drafting 3nappropriate irrigation and over drafting :rban spra&l and commercial development *oil contamination Quarrying of stone sand ore and minerals 3ncrease in field size due to economies of scale reducing shelter for &ildlife as hedgero&s and copses disappear

70posure of na$ed soil after harvesting by heavy e4uipment #onoculture destabilizing the local ecosystem 9umping of non2biodegradable trash such as plastic

3n recent years industrial effluents and &astes have become causes of land and &ater pollution in several parts of 3ndia. 9egradation of natural vegetation caused by over2

grazing by animals. 9eforestation and careless management of forests. #ining and industry are t&o important activities of man &hich cause degradation of land. *urface mining lead to degradation of land. There are certain natural causes soil degradation such as running &ater glaciers &ind etc. The mineral processing li$e grinding of lime stone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generates heavy amount of dust and releases it in the atmosphere. 3t latter on settles do&n in the surrounding areas affecting infiltration of &ater and crop cultivation.

S&!+ E &$!&' *oil erosion is a naturally occurring process that affects all landforms. 3n agriculture soil erosion refers to the &earing a&ay of a field(s topsoil by the natural physical forces of &ater and &ind or through forces associated &ith farming activities such as tillage. 7rosion &hether it is by &ater &ind or tillage involves three distinct actions 1 soil detachment movement and deposition. Topsoil &hich is high in organic matter fertility and soil life is relocated else&here Gon2siteG &here it builds up over time or is carried Goff2 siteG &here it fills in drainage channels. *oil erosion reduces cropland productivity and contributes to the pollution of ad)acent &atercourses &etlands and la$es. *oil erosion can be a slo& process that continues relatively unnoticed or can occur at an alarming rate causing serious loss of topsoil. *oil compaction lo& organic matter loss of soil structure poor internal drainage salinization and soil acidity problems are other serious soil degradation conditions that can accelerate the soil erosion process. D! #3" 3(5$#$ &* 4#- (4("!&' D#*& #$"("!&' &* 5'$5!"(2+# +('4 9eforestation is both a type of degradation as such and also a cause of other types principally &ater erosion. 9eforestation in itself is not necessarily degrading &ithout it most productive agricultural lands (in the temperate zone as &ell as the tropics) &ould not be available. 9eforestation becomes a cause of

degradation first &hen the land that is cleared is steeply sloping or has shallo& or easily erodible soils' and secondly &here the clearance is not follo&ed by good management. O0# 35""!'- &* 0#-#"("!&'. 8ural people cut natural forests &oodlands and shrublands to obtain timber fuel&ood and other forest products. *uch cutting becomes unsustainable &here it e0ceeds the rate of natural regro&th. This has happened &idely in semi2arid environments &here fuel &ood shortages are often severe. 3mpoverishment of the natural &oody cover of trees and shrubs is a ma)or factor in causing both &ater erosion and &ind erosion. O0# - (A!'-. Overgrazing is the grazing of natural pastures at stoc$ing intensifies above the livestoc$ carrying capacity. 3t leads directly to decreases in the 4uantity and 4uality of the vegetation cover. This is a leading cause not only of &ind erosion but also of &ater erosion in dry lands. .oth degradation of the vegetation cover and erosion lead to a decline in soil organic master and physical properties and hence in resistance to erosion. EB"#'$!&' &* 35+"!0("!&' &'"& +('4$ &* +&'-# /&"#'"!(+ ('4G& %!-% '("5 (+

%(A( 4$. These are also called (fragile( or marginal lands. +istorically the more fertile or high2potential agricultural lands &ere the first to be occupied. -opulation increase has led to the &idespread use of lands of longer potential those &hich are less fertile or have greater degradation hazards. O0# /51/!'- &* - &5'4,("# . 3n areas of non2saline ((s&eet() ground&ater the

technology of tube&ells has led to abstraction of &ater in e0cess of natural recharge by rainfall and river seepage. This has progressively lo&ered the &ater table as in 3ran 3ndia and -a$istan.

Q.<. (II) EB/+(!' *& #$" 4#- (4("!&'. W%(" ( # "%# 4!**# #'" #'0! &'1#'"(+ !$$5#$ #+("#4 "& M#-( 7)4 &#+#3" !3 P &.#3"$G D(1$6


According to <AO (@55I) <orest 9egradation is the changes &ithin the forest &hich negatively affect the structure or function of the stand or site and thereby lo&er the capacity to supply products andDor services. This ta$es different forms particularly in open forest formations deriving mainly from human activities such as overgrazing overe0ploitation (for fuel2&ood or timber) repeated fires or due to attac$s by insects diseases plant parasites or other natural sources such as cyclones. <orest degradation means any negative changes in a forest that damage its productivity' any time a forest is made &orse by

overe0ploitation (any time it is used too much by farmers or tourists) logging (deforestation) logging camps and logging roads built through the forest. air pollution fires insects and vegetation diseases. fire&ood scavenging animal foraging pasturing industrialisation (factories) urbanisation (buildings)

The causes of forest degradation have economic social ecological policy and institutional dimensions and could be categorized as/


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-hysical environmental factors/ sloppy topography fragility erosion by &ind and &ater soil fertility decline lo& organic matter and associated physical problems salinity al$alinity bush fires etc. ;limatic factors/ insufficient and variable total rainfall unpredictable variation in rainfall pattern &ithin and bet&een seasons occurrence of intermittent but serious drought periods that affect natural and plantation forests etc. .iological factors/ diseases and pests e.g. high malaria and tsetse infestations in the lo&lands leading to burning of forests and &oodlands and hence constraining tree planting practices' aggressive perennial plants' termite attac$ etc.

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9eforestation 1 destruction clearing or incineration of forest and &oodland resources for/ (i) e0panding crop cultivation spurred by the ever2increasing human population coupled &ith several constraints preventingDnarro&ing possibilities of options for economic diversification' (ii) charcoal and &ood production meant for domestic re4uirements of energy (because of shortage or lac$ of alternative sources of energy) construction material (because of shortage or lac$ of alternative sources of construction materials) and carpentryDhousehold utensils as &ell as for sale to generate income and support household livelihood' (iii) urgently re4uired socio2 economicDinfrastructural construction etc. OvergrazingDgrazing by livestoc$/ leading to soil compaction herbivore damage of seedlings and hampered natural regeneration. :nsustainable utilization/ improper and unplanned harvesting practices resulting in &astage of &ood (because of very lo& recovery rates) and damage to the residuals treesDplants and stands






3ntroduction of invasive alien species/ resulting in the displacement of the native forest flora in particular and biodiversity in general.

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-overty population gro&th and poor economic performance/ declining standard of livelihood of the farming communities and their close dependence on forests and &oodlands have lead to clearingDburning for subsistence farming cutting of treesDshrubs for fuel&ood and charcoal production (both for consumption and sale) construction material overgrazing burning associated &ith traditional apiculture etc. 3nade4uate or Absence of land2use classification land use and forest policies and legislation/ lac$ or inade4uate policies and legislation that lay do&n guidelines for development conservation and sustainable utilization as &ell as research in forests' Absence of land and tree tenureDo&nership right/ because trees have long gestation period the decision to plant trees is generally influenced by farmersJ perception of ris$s and absence of secured access to land that reduces investment ris$s. Lac$ of pricing and incentive policies/ Aunder pricingB of fuel&ood and construction &ood that occurs as a result of Aopen accessB to forest resources in state and communal land. 3nade4uate institutional arrangementsDset2up for forestry/ lo& profile given to forestry by %overnments and fre4uent restructuring of forestry institutions leading to discontinuity of planned activities and inade4uate budget 4ualified manpo&er and infrastructure. 3nade4uate or lac$ of viable forestry development strategies/ inade4uate participation of rural population and no demand2driven forest development strategy. Wea$ forestry research system/ general absence forest research policy that clearly defines research directions priorities strategies and &ea$ performance that has not


been able to generate $no&ledge and technologies useful for forest development conservation and utilization. 3nsufficient information ac4uisition management and dissemination/ lac$ of or insufficient $no&ledge about forests &oodlands and their components leading to inappropriate management and utilization as &ell as inade4uate conservation practices and lac$ of or insufficient a&areness of the environmental role of forestry by communities' etc. E'0! &'1#'"(+ I$$5#$ #+("#4 "& M#-( 7)4 &-#+#3" !3 P &.#3"$G D(1$: Ans. 9ams are the means to store the &ater in the river valleys and to release it for hydro2 electric pro)ects irrigation or other purposes as re4uired. There are various benefits of constructing dams. *ome of the benefits include 2 year round &ater supply use of reservoirs to breed fishes multi2river valley pro)ects used for inland &ater navigation manage droughts etc. 9espite various benefits dam create a number of environmental problems such as they alter river flo&s change natureJs flood control mechanisms such as &etlands and flood plains and destroy the lives of local people and the habitats of &ild plant and animal species particularly is the case &ith mega dams. *ome of the problems are mentioned belo&/ RS9am construction and submersion leads to significant loss of areable farmland and forest and land submergence RS*iltation of reservoirs &ater logging and salination in surrounding lands reduces agricultural productivity RS*erious impacts on ecosystems 2 significant and irreversible loss of species and ecosystems deforestation and loss of biodiversity affects a4uaculture RS*ocio economic problems for e0ample displacement rehabilitation and resettlement of tribal people. RS<ragmentation and physical transformation of rivers RS9isplacement of people 2 -eople living in the catchment area lose property and livelihood


RS3mpacts on lives livelihoods cultures and spiritual e0istence of indigenous and tribal people RS9islodging animal populations RS9isruption of fish movement and navigational activities RS7mission of green house gases due to rotting of vegetation RSLarge landholders on the canals get the lionJs share of &ater &hile poor and small farmers get less and are seriously affected leading to conflicts. 3rrigation to support cash crops li$e sugarcane produces an une4ual distribution of &ater. RS>atural disasters 1 reservoirs induced seismicity flash floods etc and biological hazards due to large2scale impounding of &ater 1 increase e0posure to vectorbrone diseases such as malaria schistosomiasis filariasis.

PAPER 2013: Q.1. W%(" !$ B!&4!0# $!")6 D!$35$$ !"$ !1/& "('3#. EB/+(!' 1(.& 3&'$#:5#'3#$ &* 4#-#'# ("!&' &* 2!&4!0# $!"). The variety of life on 7arth its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity.The number of species of plants animals and microorganisms the enormous diversity of genes in these species the different ecosystems on the planet such as deserts rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse 7arth. The e0istence of biodiversity of species helps in resisting any e0treme disturbances caused to the ecosystems by natural calamities. 3t is also essential to deal biodiversity of plants animals and microorganisms at the levels of terrestrial fresh &ater and marine systems. #any pharmaceuticals have traditionally been derived from plants and animal sources. 70tracting medicines from plants are &orth over I5 billion dollars a year (%ovt. of 3ndia @55I). The total percentage of the people in tropical areas depends upon traditional medicines.

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-enicillin and tetracycline and amongst the E555 antibiotics e0tracted from micro2 organisms. %uggal is an oleogum &hich is used in ayurvedic medicines for its anti2 inflammatory anti2rheumatic and hypocholesteral activity. W%) I$ B!&4!0# $!") I1/& "('"6 B#(3(5$# !" / &0!4#$ *&++&,!'- $# 0!3#$:P &0!$!&'!'- S# 0!3#$ -roducts obtained from ecosystems/

diverse food products timber and fuel te0tiles medicinal products fresh &ater

R#-5+("!'- S# 0!3#$ .enefits obtained from regulation of ecosystem processes/

regulate our climate control floods pollinate crops purify our &ater absorbs ;O@ gases stops erosion


C5+"5 (+ S# 0!3#$ >on2material benefits obtained from ecosystems/

beautiful landscapes a sense of place cultural heritage peace and tran4uillity a healthy environment recreation and tourism

.iodiversity matters for a &hole variety of reasons/ ethically emotionally environmentally and economically. 3t is at the very foundation of our society and the basis of our economic success and &ellbeing. Living things the roc$s and soils &ater and air interact to provide a range of conditions that favour life on 7arth. 3f the ecological systems that support life on 7arth collapse or radically change our very e0istence is threatened. *oil biodiversity alone influences a huge range of processes and functions vital to ecosystem services. <rom the harvesting of fish to the gro&ing of timber biodiversity provides the source for an enormous range of products &e consume and use. #any pharmaceuticals as &ell as soaps starches rubber oils dyes and fabrics have been derived from &ild plant products 1 and many more are yet to be discovered. At the larger ecosystem scale biodiversity plays an enormous role in regulation of the atmosphere of the &ater cycle and the nutrient cycles of the soil. <rom flood control to soil conservation the annual contribution of these services is &orth millions. T%# C(5$#$ ('4 C&'$#:5#'3#$ &* D#-#'# ("!&' &* B!&-D!0# $!") .iodiversity contains various species sub2species and types. 9ifferent species and sub2 species have different types of nature and 4ualities.


These nature and 4ualities are e0ploited by man$ind for benefit and progress e.g. &e use some types of vegetation for food purpose and some types of animals for transportation and some others for food also. .ut this bio2diversity gets degenerating due to some or the other reasons as narrated belo&/ (. Over e0ploitation of a particular type of species gets them reduced to such a lo&er number to sustain. 2. *ome species of birds are in danger due to hunting andDor loss of their natural habitats. 3. *ome animals are also on the verge of e0tinction because of hunting loss of their natural home in forests etc. 4. *ome species of animals and birds are used for medicinal and e0perimental purposes. . #. *ome forests are being destroyed for urbanization and &ith them gets destroyed habitation of many species of living beings. *. ;limate change also destroys species because some species cannot adapt to such changes. -. *ometimes some natural calamity or sudden change in geographical set2up may destroy species. C&'$#:5#'3#$: *uch degeneration of bio2diversity creates imbalance in the food2chain. This does not only affect the nature but also human being and their daily activities. *uch changes also destroy Aother species dependent upon the diversity e.g. oceanic activities change chemistry of oceanic climate that destroy corals and some other organisms dependent upon them.3ndia is one of the 1@ countries &ith most bio2diverse area. *o naturally its economical cultural and social activities are closely related to them

Q 2 ((). W%(" !$ A-#'4( 216 Ans. A-#'4( 21 is a non2binding voluntarily implemented action plan of the :nited >ations &ith regard to sustainable development. 3t is a product of the :> ;onference on 7nvironment and 9evelopment (:>;79) held in 8io de Janeiro .razil in 1!!@. 3t is an action agenda for the :> other multilateral organizations and individual governments around the &orld that can be e0ecuted at local national and global levels. The G@1G in Agenda @1 refers to the @1st ;entury. 3t has been affirmed and modified at subse4uent :> conferences. 3t offers policies and programmes to achieve a sustainable balance bet&een consumption population and the 7arthJs life2supporting capacity. 3t describes some of technologies and techni4ues that need to be developed to provide for human needs &hile carefully managing natural resources. Agenda @1 does not shun business. 3t says that sustainable development is the &ay to reverse both poverty and environmental destruction. S" 53"5 # &* A-#'4( 21: Agenda @1 is a E552page document divided into 65 chapters that have been grouped into 6 sections/

S#3"!&' I: *ocial and 7conomic 9imensions is directed to&ard combatting poverty especially in developing countries changing consumption patterns promoting health achieving a more sustainable population and sustainable settlement in decision ma$ing.

S#3"!&' II: ;onservation and #anagement of 8esources for 9evelopment 3ncludes atmospheric protection combating deforestation protecting fragile environments conservation of biological diversity (biodiversity) control of pollution and the management of biotechnology and radioactive &astes.

S#3"!&' III: *trengthening the 8ole of #a)or %roups includes the roles of children and youth &omen >%Os local authorities business and industry and

&or$ers' and strengthening the role of indigenous peoples their communities and farmers.

S#3"!&' IV:



3mplementation/ implementation includes science technology transfer education international institutions and financial mechanisms. Agenda @1 calls on governments to adopt national strategies for sustainable development. These should be developed &ith &ide participation including non2government organizations and the public. Agenda @1 puts most of the responsibility for leading change on national governments but says they need to &or$ in a broad series of partnerships &ith international organizations business regional state provincial and local governments non2governmental and citizensJ groups. As Agenda @1 says only a global partnership &ill ensure that all nations &ill have a safer and more prosperous future. Q. 2(2). EB/+(!' "%# $(+!#'" *#("5 #$ &* RIO 4#3+( ("!&' &' E'0! &'1#'" ('4 D#0#+&/1#'". Ans. The 1!!@ 8io 9eclaration on 7nvironment and 9evelopment defines the rights of the people to be involved in the development of their economies and the responsibilities of human beings to safeguard the common environment. The declaration builds upon the basic ideas concerning the attitudes of individuals and nations to&ards the environment and development first identified at the :nited >ations ;onference on the +uman 7nvironment (1!?@). The 8io 9eclaration states that long term economic progress is only ensured if it is lin$ed &ith the protection of the environment. 3f this is to be achieved then nations must establish a ne& global partnership involving governments their people and the $ey sectors of society. Together human society must assemble international agreements that protect the global environment &ith responsible development.


There are a number of principles to the 8io 9eclaration. The main features of the declaration are/ -eople are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony &ith nature. 9evelopment today must not undermine the developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations. >ations have the sovereign right to e0ploit their o&n resources but &ithout causing environmental damage beyond their borders. >ations shall develop international la&s to provide compensation for damage that activities under their control cause to areas beyond their borders. >ations shall use the precautionary approach to protect the environment. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage scientific uncertainty shall not be used to postpone cost2effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. 3n order to achieve sustainable development environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it. 7radicating poverty and reducing disparities in living standards in different parts of the &orld are essential to achieve sustainable development and meet the needs of the ma)ority of people. >ations shall cooperate to conserve protect and restore the health and integrity of the 7arthJs ecosystem. The developed countries ac$no&ledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in vie& of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.


>ations should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies.

7nvironmental issues are best handled &ith the participation of all concerned citizens. *tates shall facilitate and encourage public a&areness and participation by ma$ing environmental information &idely available.

>ations shall enact effective environmental la&s and develop national la& regarding liability for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage. Where they have authority nations shall assess the environmental impact of proposed activities that are li$ely to have a significant adverse impact.

>ations should cooperate to promote an open international economic system that &ill lead to economic gro&th and sustainable development in all countries. 7nvironmental policies should not be used as an un)ustifiable means of restricting international trade.

The polluter should in principle bear the cost of pollution. >ations shall &arn one another of natural disasters or activities that may have harmful trans2boundary impacts.

*ustainable development re4uires better scientific understanding of the problems. >ations should share $no&ledge and innovative technologies to achieve the goal of sustainability.

The full participation of &omen is essential to achieve sustainable development. The creativity ideals and courage of youth and the $no&ledge of indigenous people are needed too. >ations should recognize and support the identity culture and interests of indigenous people.


Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development and >ations shall respect international la&s protecting environment in times of armed conflict and shall cooperate in their further establishment.


development and environmental protection are interdependent and