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# Aerospace

Civil Structures

Energy

Industrial

Transportation

Engineering Drawing

## Prepared by : Ajitanath QuEST, Bangalore,

Contents

Why Engineering Drawings? Projections Plan your drawing & views Lines and line styles Sectional views, Types & Best practice Dimensioning Types of dimensioning & Best practice ISO limits and fits Conventional representation of parts Abbreviations of terms frequently used on drawings Tips on Thread Assemblies Assembly Drawings Trend

## Why Engineering Drawings?

The main purpose of engineering drawings is to communicate to other engineers, machinists, etc. Engineering drawing is a formal and precise way of communicating information about the shape, size, features and precision of physical objects. (Also specifies material, define processes like heat treatment, surface treatment, welding specs, etc) Drawing is the universal language of engineering. Just like written language has standards, the grammar of technical drawing is defined by... the

## ANSI Y14.5 or the ISO standard or so

These standards must be understood to draw & read a drawing. Drawings do the communication best merely because a picture is worth a thousand words. Engineers are very picky about their drawings and must pay attention to detail.

Projections

Back in the 18th century a French mathematician and engineer, Gaspard Monge (1746-1818), was involved with the design of military armoury. He developed a system, using two planes of projection at right angles to each other, for graphical description of solid objects. This system, which was, and still is, called Descriptive Geometry. Monge's Descriptive Geometry forms the basis of what is now called Orthographic Projection. The word orthographic means to draw at right angles and is derived from the Greek words: ORTHOS - straight, rectangular, upright GRAPHOS - written, drawn Projections created with the object placed in the first quadrant are said to be in First Angle projection, and likewise, projections created with the object placed in the third quadrant are said to be in Third Angle projection.

Projections...

Both systems of projection, First and Third angle, are approved internationally and have equal status. The system used must be clearly indicated on every drawing, using the appropriate symbol shown in figure.
First Angle projection is more common in Europe. Third Angle projection is widely used in both the USA and the UK.

## Plan your drawing & views

Before starting your engineering drawing you should plan how you are going to make best use of the space. It is important to think about the number of views your drawing will have and how much space you will use of the paper.
Always use the appropriate & standard drawing size & sheets. Use recommended standard scale to the drawing. Try to make maximum use of the available space. Place minimum two-three appropriate views in the planed space. If a view has lots of detail, try and make that view as large as possible. If necessary, draw that view on a separate sheet. If you intend to add dimensions to the drawing, remember to leave enough space around the drawing for them to be added later.

## Lines and line styles

The lines we created were all of the same thickness and type. But lines on an engineering drawing signify more than just the geometry of the object and it is important that you use the appropriate line types.

Line Thickness : For most engineering drawings you will require two thickness', a thick and
thin line. The general recommendation are that thick lines are twice as thick as thin lines. A thick continuous line is used for visible edges and outlines. A thin line is used for hatching, leader lines, short centre lines, dimensions and projections.

Line Styles : Other line styles used to clarify important features on drawings are:
Thin chain lines are a common feature on engineering drawings used to indicate centre lines. Centre lines are used to identify the centre of a circle, cylindrical features, or a line of symmetry. Dashed lines are used to show important hidden detail for example wall thickness and holes. etc..

## Lines and line styles...

Continuous
0.7mm

Visible outlines
Dimension lines Hidden detail Center lines Section cutting planes Developed views

Continuous (thin)
0.3mm

Short dashes
0.3mm

Long chain
0.3mm

0.7 0.3mm

Short chain
0.3mm

Continuous wavy
0.3mm

Straight zigzag
0.3mm

0.3mm

## Sectional views & Types

Sectional views are produced to: Surfaces cut by the cutting plane are clarify details usually hatched at an appropriate show internal features clearly angle, say 45 with a density of lines reduce number of hidden detail lines required in proportion with the component. aid dimensioning Sectional View in a single Sectional View in two plane planes show cross-section shape clarify an assembly

## Sectional views & Best practice

An assembly drawing view, clarified sections, where to hatch & hatch pattern
Note: Revolved sections. Part sections. Different hatching directions and spacing's. Un-sectioned components such as shafts, keys, nuts all standard pats like motors, etc.
Wrong! Web is not sectioned.

Correct

## Sectional views & Best practice

The cross-section on the right of figure is technically correct. However, the convention in a drawing is to show the view on the left as the preferred method for sectioning this type of object.

Dimensioning
General rules.
Standards and conventions should be followed. Dimensions should be placed on drawings so that they may be easily read. The drawing must include the minimum number of dimensions required to accurately manufacture the design. A dimension should not be stated more than once, unless it aids communication. It should not be necessary for the operator manufacturing the component to have to calculate any dimensions.

Types of dimension.
Size dimensions: Used to describe heights, widths, diameters, etc. Location dimensions: Used to place various features of a component relative to each other, such as a hole centre line to a reference surface. Mating dimensions: Used for parts that fit together requiring a certain degree of accuracy

## Dimensions have four basic components:

1. Dimension Text 3. Extension Lines 2. Dimension Line and Arrows 4. Gap

Dimensioning

An Overview
Dimensions are always drawn using continuous thin lines. Two projection lines indicate where the dimension starts and finishes. Projection lines do not touch the object and are drawn perpendicular to the element you are dimensioning. All dimensions less than 1 should have a leading zero. i.e. .35 should be written as 0.35 Edges A and B are being used as the reference edges Minimum number of dimensions required are specified Evenly spaced dimension lines UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED

Types of dimensioning
Parallel Dimensioning Superimposed Running Dimensions Chain Dimensioning

Combined Dimensions

Dimensioning by Co-ordinates

## Simplified dimensioning by co-ordinates

Dimensioning circles

## Dimensioning & Best practice

The simple bearing bracket casting shows both size and location dimensions

## A Dimensioning Example, showing that placement should match intent :

These drawings show bolts holes for mounting a flange onto a plate. When mounting the flange, the position of the holes with respect to each other is very important, or else the flange (or part) wont fit. It makes sense to dimension the distance between the holes, instead of the distances to the edge.

0.753 0.747

0.756 0.744

## Tabulated guide to types of ISO limits and fits.

Conventions

Conventional Breaks are a way of depicting a very long object without showing the entire length. It is often used for objects like rods, tubing/piping or wooden objects. Here are some examples of commonly used engineering components and features of components.

## Abbreviations of terms frequently used on drawings

A/F Across flats HEX HD Hexagon head STD UCUT ASSY Assembly M/CD CL Center line mm CHAM Chamfer NTS CH HD Cheese head RPM CSK Counter sunk SWG TPI CBORE Counter bore CYL Cylinder or cylindrical DIA Diameter (in a note) Diameter (preceding a dimension) R Radius (preceding a dimension, capital only) RAD Radius (in a note) DRG Drawing LH Left hand MATL Material NO. Number PATT NO. Pattern number PCD Pitch circle diameter I/D Inside diameter O/D Outside diameter RH Right hand SQ Square (in a note) TYP Typical or typically THK Thick 2012, Quality Engineering and Software Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. UNCONTROLLED WHEN PRINTED

Square (preceding a dimension) Standard Undercut Machined Millimeter Not to scale Revolutions per minute Standard wire gauge Teeth per inch

Note that the tapped hole is sectioned, the fastener is not.

## Observe the types of holes & how they machined.

Assembly Drawings

The assembly of the parts is shown in an assembly drawing also known as a general arrangement Features of an assembly drawing Assembly views (with c/s views) Exploded views (if required) Dimensions Internal Parts Parts list Ballooning

Assembly Drawings

## Examples of Assembly Drawings

Trend

The graph below gives a very crude indication of the productivity of companies developing CAD software, through time.

As time passes more and more 3D CAD software packages allow you to create high quality photorealistic images of your designs.