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Serviceability Limit States

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1 MPA The Concrete Centre
Outline
Crack control and limitations
Crack width calculations
Crack width calculation example
Crack width calculation problem
Restraint cracking
Deflection calculations
Deflection calculation example


3 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack control and limitations

MPA The Concrete Centre 4
EC 2: Concise:
(Flexural) Crack Width Limits (Table 7.1N)
Table 7.1(N) 10.2
Exposure class RC or unbonded PSC
members
Prestressed members
with bonded tendons
Quasi-permanent load Frequent load
X0,XC1 0.3 0.2
XC2,XC3,XC4 0.3
XD1,XD2,XS1,XS2,
XS3
Decompression
5 MPA The Concrete Centre
EC 2: Concise:
(Flexural) Crack Width Control
Cl. 7.3.3 10.2
Crack control may be achieved:
Limiting the maximum bar diameter using Table 7.2
Limiting the maximum bar spacing using Table 7.3
(this table is not applicable for restraint loading)
Calculating cracks to ensure they are within limits


6 MPA The Concrete Centre
EC 2: Concise:
(Flexural) Crack Width Control
Cl. 7.3.3 10.2
Crack control may be achieved:
Limiting the maximum bar diameter using Table 7.2
Limiting the maximum bar spacing using Table 7.3
(this table is not applicable for restraint loading)
Calculating cracks to ensure they are within limits


7 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack width calculations
MPA The Concrete Centre 8
Basis
Figure 7.2
Slab soffit
(h - x)
Neutral axis
Crack
width
w
Actual crack width
Section
Crack width vs spacing
Crack width predicted by
Expressions (7.8) & (7.11)
Crack width predicted by
Expressions (7.8) & (7.14)
5(c + |/2)
9 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack width calculation
The crack width may be calculated from:
w
k
= s
r,max
(
sm
-
cm
)
where
s
r,max
= maximum crack spacing

sm
= mean strain in reinforcement

cm
= mean strain in concrete between cracks
10 MPA The Concrete Centre
EC2 Exp (7.8)
Maximum crack spacing
s
r,max
= 3.4c + 0.425k
1
k
2
/
p,eff

c = (nominal) cover to the longitudinal reinforcement
k
1
= factor to take account on bond properties
= 0.8 for high bond bars
= 1.6 for plain bars
k
2
= factor to take account of strain distribution
= 0.5 for flexure
= 1.0 for pure tension
= bar diameter
When spacing > 5(c + /2);
s
r,max
= 1.3(h x)

11 MPA The Concrete Centre
(
sm
-
cm
)
Difference in concrete and reinforcement strain

Strain diagram

cs

cult


S
w
k
= s .(
sm
-
cm
)
(s
r,max
includes fos of 1.7)
(s
r,max
includes fos of 1.7)

C
r
a
c
k

12 MPA The Concrete Centre
For flexure,(
sm
-
cm
) may be calculated from:



where:

s
= stress in the tension steel calculated using the cracked concrete section
k
t
= factor that accounts for the duration of loading
= 0.6 for short-term load
= 0.4 for long-term load

e
= E
s
/E
c
= modular ratio

s
s
s
eff p e
eff p
eff ct
t s
cm sm
E E
f
k
o
o

o
c c 6 . 0
) 1 (
,
,
,
>
+
=
13 MPA The Concrete Centre
(
sm
-
cm
)
Difference in concrete and reinforcement strain
where cont.

p,eff,
is the effective reinforcement ratio.

p,eff
= A
s
/A
c,eff
where
A
s
= area of tension reinforcement
A
c,eff
= effective area of concrete in tension around the reinforcement
h
c,ef
= Min{2.5(h - d); (h - x)/3; h/2}

Figure 6.12: Typical examples of effective concrete tension area
h
d
Effective
tension area
Beam
h
c ,eff
Effective
tension area
h
c ,eff
d
d
h
h
c ,eff
h
c ,eff
Effective
tension area
for this face
Effective
tension area
for this face
Slab
Member in tension
h = lesser of 2.5(h-d), (h-x)/3 or h/2
c ,eff
14 MPA The Concrete Centre
(Flexural) Crack width calculation
example

MPA The Concrete Centre 15
(Flexural) Crack width calculation
Calculate the design flexural crack
for the beam shown.
M
QP
= 650 kNm
Concrete class C25/30
A
s
= 3770 mm
2

(,t0)
= 2.63

h

=

1
0
0
0


d

=

9
3
0


3 No H40 bars
(d x/3)
F
c
F
s
x
d = 400
16 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack width example
Step 1 Calculate effective modulus
From Table 3.1, E
cm
= 31 kN/mm
2
E
c,eff
= E
cm
/(1 +
(,t0)
) = 31 / (1 + 2.63) = 8.54 kN/mm
2


Step 2 Calculate the stress in the tension steel : find x
Taking moments about neutral axis:
b x
2
/2 =
e
A
s
(d x)
400 x
2
/2 = 200/8.54 x 3770 (930 x)
This has the solution, x = 457 mm
17 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack width example
Step 3 Calculate stress in the tension steel
Taking moments about the level of force in the concrete:

s
= M
QP
/(d x/3)A
s
= 650 x 10
6
/((930 457/3) x 3770)
= 222 MPa
18 MPA The Concrete Centre
Step 4 Calculate difference in concrete and reinforcement strains
Crack width example

k
t
= 0.4 (long-term loading)
f
ct,eff
= f
ctm
= 2.6 MPa (Table 3.1)

e
= E
s
/E
cm
= 200 / 31 = 6.45
h
c,ef
= Min{2.5(h - d); (h - x)/3; h/2}
= Min{2.5(1000 - 930); (1000 - 457)/3; 1000/2}
= Min{175; 181; 500} = 175 mm
s
s
s
eff p e
eff p
eff ct
t s
cm sm
E E
f
k
o
o

o
c c 6 . 0
) 1 (
,
,
,
>
+
=
19 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack width example
A
c,eff
= 175 x 400 = 70 000 mm
2

p,eff
= A
s
/A
c,eff
= 3700 / 70 000 = 0.0539




001 . 0
00067 . 0
10 200
97 . 19 222
10 200
222
6 . 0
10 200
) 0539 . 0 45 . 6 1 (
0539 . 0
6 . 2
4 . 0 222
3
3 3
=
>

>

+
=
cm sm
c c
20 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack width example
Step 5 Calculate the maximum crack spacing
s
r,max
= 3.4c + 0.425k
1
k
2
/
p,eff

c = 1000 930 - 40/2 = 50 mm
k
1
= 0.8 (ribbed bars)
k
2
= 0.5 (flexure)
= 40 mm
s
r,max
= 3.4 x 50 + 0.425 x 0.8 x 0.5 x 40 /0.0539
= 296 mm < 5(c + /2) = 350 mm
Step 6 Calculate crack width
w
k
= 0.0010 x 296 = 0.30 mm

21 MPA The Concrete Centre
EC 2: Concise:
(Flexural) Crack Width Control
Cl. 7.3.3 10.2
Crack control may be achieved:
Limiting the maximum bar diameter using Table 7.2
Limiting the maximum bar spacing using Table 7.3
(this table is not applicable for restraint loading)
Calculating cracks to ensure they are within limits


22 MPA The Concrete Centre
Say 110 mm
cf (400 2 x 40 -40) /3
= 93 mm . . . .OK
Say
435/ 1.4 =
310 MPa
d

=

1
9
2


Workshop problem
Calculate the design flexural crack for the slab shown.
M
QP
= 85 kNm
Concrete class C35/45
A
s
= 2010 mm
2
/m
Assume the depth to neutral axis, x = 63.5 mm




HINT: You can start the calculation from step 3

h

=

2
5
0


H16 bars @ 100 mm CTRS
(d x/3)
F
c
F
s
x
23 MPA The Concrete Centre
Workshop problem
Step 3 Calculate stress in the tension steel
Taking moments about the level of force in the concrete:

s
= M
QP
/(d x/3)A
s
= 85 x 10
6
/((192 63.5/3) x 2010)
= 247.5 MPa
24 MPA The Concrete Centre
Step 4 Calculate difference in concrete and reinforcement strains
Workshop problem

k
t
= 0.4 (long-term loading)
f
ct,eff
= f
ctm
= 3.2 MPa (Table 3.1)

e
= E
s
/E
cm
= 200 / 34 = 5.88
h
c,ef
= Min{2.5(h - d); (h - x)/3; h/2}
= Min{2.5(250 - 192); (250 63.5)/3; 250/2}
= Min{145; 62.2; 125} = 62.2mm
A
c,eff
= 62.2 x 1000 = 62 200 mm
2
s
s
s
eff p e
eff p
eff ct
t s
cm sm
E E
f
k
o
o

o
c c 6 . 0
) 1 (
,
,
,
>
+
=
25 MPA The Concrete Centre
Workshop problem
A
c,eff
= 62.2 x 1000 = 62 200 mm
2

p,eff
= A
s
/A
c,eff
= 2010 / 62 200 = 0.0323

0010 . 0
00074 . 0
10 200
2 . 47 6 . 247
10 200
6 . 247
6 . 0
10 200
) 0323 . 0 88 . 5 1 (
0323 . 0
2 . 3
4 . 0 6 . 247
3
3 3
=
>

>

+
=
cm sm
c c
26 MPA The Concrete Centre
Workshop problem
Step 5 Calculate the maximum crack spacing
s
r,max
= 3.4c + 0.425k
1
k
2
/
p,eff

c = 50 mm
k
1
= 0.8 (ribbed bars)
k
2
= 0.5 (flexure)
= 16 mm
s
r,max
= 3.4 x 50 + 0.425 x 0.8 x 0.5 x 16 /0.0323
= 254.2 mm < 5(c + /2) = 290 mm
Step 6 Calculate crack width
w
k
= 0.0010 x 254 = 0.25 mm

27 MPA The Concrete Centre
Restraint cracking

MPA The Concrete Centre 28
Restraint cracking
Movement occurs not only
due to loading but also
due to:
Early thermal effects
Shrinkage
drying
autogenous,
seasonal/long term
temperature drop




That becomes a problem when
there is Restraint:
Edge:
adjacent slab pours,
wall on base,
adjacent wall pours
End:
infill bays,
large area ground slabs
(friction, foundations),
piled slabs
Internal (not covered . .
members > say 750 mm th.)



29 MPA The Concrete Centre
Restraint cracking
End restraint: restrained strain & stresses

Original poured length
Free contraction: R = 0


Partial restraint R = 0.0 to 1.0
Restrained strain: Stresses induced

Fully restrained: R =1.0
Restrained strain: Large stresses
induced


30 MPA The Concrete Centre
c
r
= R
ax
c
free

= K
1
{ |o
c
T
1
+c
ca
| R
1
+ |o
c
T
2
R
2
| + c
cd
R
3
}
where:
K
1
= allowance for creep = 1.0 to BS EN 1992-3 or = 0.65 to CIRIA
C660
o
c
= coefficient of thermal expansion (typical design value 12 c)
T
1
= Peak to ambient temperature
o
C (See CIRIA C660). (e.g. 500 mm
thick wall formed using 18 mm ply, using C30/37 concrete with
40%ggbs = 29
o
C)
c
ca
= Autogenous shrinkage strain (typical design values using C30/37
concrete 15 c @ 3days, 50 c long term)
R
1
, R
2
, R
3
= appropriate restraint factor for the short-term, medium term
and long term see figure L1 of BS EN 1992-3 (includes for creep) or
calculated for base wall restraint in accordance with CIRIA C660
(excludes for creep)

1) Cracking will occur if c
r
> c
ctu

Restraint cracking
CIRIA C660: Cl 3.2
31 MPA The Concrete Centre
c
r
= R
ax
c
free

= K
1
{ |o
c
T
1
+c
ca
| R
1
+ |o
c
T
2
R
2
| + c
cd
R
3
}
where:
c
cd
= drying shrinkage strain, a function of time, thickness, RH, cement
Class (BS EN 1992-1-1 or CIRIA C660) (e.g. 500 mm thick wall,
using C30/37 concrete with 40% ggbs Class N = 340 c)
T
2
= long-term drop in temperature after concreting. Recommended
values: of 20
o
C for concrete cast in the summer and 10
o
C for
concrete cast in winter. (See CIRIA C660),
c
ctu
= tensile strain capacity of the concrete. A function of concrete
strength and type of aggregate used. (Typical design values of 76
c @ 3 days and 108 c for > 28 days may be used for initial
calculations. See CIRIA C660.


1) Cracking will occur if c
r
> c
ctu

Restraint cracking (contd)
CIRIA C660: Cl 3.2
32 MPA The Concrete Centre
Restraint factors
Table 1 Values of restraint factor R for a particular pour
configuration
0,8 to 1,0 Infill bays, i.e. rigid restraint
0,2 to 0,4 Suspended slabs
0,3 to 0,4 at base
0,1 to 0,2 at top
Massive pour cast onto existing concrete
0,1 to 0,2 Massive pour cast onto blinding
0,6 to 0,8 at base
0,1 to 0,2 at top
Thin wall cast on to massive concrete base
R Pour configuration
BS EN 1992-3
Annex L
Beware: effects
of creep
included
usually 0.5
33 MPA The Concrete Centre
Restraint cracking
CS TR 67
Short term load strength
Long term load strength
Stress due to early thermal
allowing for creep
Stress due to early
thermal & drying
shrinkage
Stress due to
early thermal &
shrinkage &
seasonal
34
c
r
= R
ax
c
free

= K
1
{ |o
c
T
1
+c
ca
| R
1
+ |o
c
T
2
R
2
| + c
cd
R
3
}


1) Cracking will occur if c
r
> c
ctu

Restraint cracking
CIRIA C660: Cl 3.2
Short term
( 3 days)
Medium
term
( 28 days)
long term
( > 10000
days)
35 MPA The Concrete Centre
BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.8)
1) Cracking will occur if c
r
> c
ctu

2) Minimum reinforcement,
(with respect to restraint to movement):
A
s,min
= k
c
kA
ct
(f
ct,eff
/ f
yk
)
3) Controlled cracking:
Crack width w
k
= s
r,max
c
cr
where
Maximum crack spacing s
r,max
= 3.4c + 0.425 (k
1
|/
p,eff
)
Crack inducing strain c
cr

Restraint cracking
CIRIA C660: Cl 3.2
BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.1)
Where:
k
c
= coeff. for stress distribution = 1.0 for full tension
k = coeff. for thickness 1.0 for h < 300 mm and 0.75 for h > 800 mm
(interpolation allowed)
A
ct
= area of concrete in the tension zone just prior to onset of cracking.
Most often based on full thickness of the section. (
f
ct,eff
f
ctm
= mean tensile strength when cracking may be first expected to
occur (Typical design values for a C30/37 concrete, 1.73 MPa @ 3 days
and 2.9 MPa @ 28 days See BS EN 1992-1-1
f
yk
= 500 MPa
36 MPA The Concrete Centre
Restraint cracking
Watchpoints:
Ensures rebar does not yield
Typically 0.58% for C30/37 in a 300 mm wall
0.8 factor on f
ct,eff
for sustained loading? or 0.67 to TR 59
Early age only? B Hughes
Revised CIRIA C660?


MPA The Concrete Centre 37
BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.8)

1) Cracking will occur if c
r
> c
ctu

2) Minimum reinforcement,
(with respect to restraint to movement):
A
s,min
= k
c
kA
ct
(f
ct,eff
/w f
yk
)
3) Controlled cracking:
Crack width w
k
= s
r,max
c
cr
where
Maximum crack spacing s
r,max
= 3.4c + 0.425 (k
1
|/
p,eff
)
Crack inducing strain c
cr
(c
sm -
c
cm
)
. . . . . .

Restraint cracking
CIRIA C660: Cl 3.2
BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.1)
As before where:
c = nominal cover, c
nom
in mm
k
1
= 0.8 for high bond bars (CIRIA C660 suggests a value 1.14 to account
for poor bond conditions)
k
2
= 1.0 for tension (e.g. from restraint), 0.5 for bending, (c
1
+ c
2
)/ 2c
1
for
combinations
| = bar diameter, mm

p,eff
= A
s
/A
c,eff
,
where A
c,eff
is calculated for each face = min{0.5h or 2.5(c + 0.5|)} x b
BS EN 1992-1-1 Exp (7.11)
38 MPA The Concrete Centre
(
sm
-
cm
)
Difference in concrete and reinforcement strain

Strain diagram

cs

cult


S
w
k
= s .(
sm
-
cm
)
(s
r,max
includes fos of 1.7)
(s
r,max
includes fos of 1.7)

C
r
a
c
k

39 MPA The Concrete Centre
Crack inducing strain, c
cr
a) Edge restraint:- early thermal effects
c
cr
= k |o
c
T
1
+c
ca
| R 0.5 c
ctu

b) Edge restraint:- long term restraint effects
c
cr
= k { |o
c
T
1
+c
ca
| R
1
+ |o
c
T
2
R
2
| + c
cd
R
3
} 0.5 c
ctu
c) End restraint
c
cr
= 0.5 o
e
k
c
kf
ct,eff
|1 + (1/o
e
)| /E
s


where:
k
c
= coeff. for stress distribution = 1.0 for full tension
k = coeff. for thickness 1.0 for h < 300 mm and 0.75 for h > 800 mm
f
ct,eff
= f
ctm
for long-term effects, 28 day value considered to be reasonable e.g. 2.9 Mpa
for C30/37. NB Possible 0.8 factor for sustained load in CIRIA C660
o
e
= modular ratio, E
s
/E
c
. Typical values are 6 @ 3 days, 7 @ 28 days and 12 long-
term. When cracking occurs, no creep has taken place so a modular ratio of
7 should be used.
= ratio of total area of reinforcement to the gross section in tension.
Note that this different from
p,eff
.
BS EN 1992-3 Exp (M.1)
CIRIA C660: Cl 3.2
CIRIA C660: Cl 3.2
Can be critical!
Deflection calculations

MPA The Concrete Centre 41
Deflection limits


Deflections are limited for the following reasons:

1. Excessive deflections are unsightly and alarming. EC2 restricts
total deflections to span/250.
2. To avoid damage to cladding, partitions and finishes due to
increments in deflection following their construction. EC2 limits
deflections after construction of finishes to span/500.
3. Both construction tolerances and deflections need to be
considered in the design of fixings for cladding systems and
partitions. In practice it can be difficult to separate
construction tolerances from deflections.

MPA The Concrete Centre 42
Deflection limits


The EC2 deflection limits are guidelines. It is the designers
responsibility to agree suitable deflection limits with his client
taking into account the nature of the structure and finishes.

MPA The Concrete Centre 43
Introduction
Four factors need to be considered in the calculation of
deflections

1. criteria defining the limiting deflections
2. appropriate design loads
3. appropriate design material properties
4. means of predicting behaviour

Deflections cannot be predicted exactly before construction since
neither the loading or material properties are accurately known at
the design stage.
MPA The Concrete Centre 44
Calculated
assuming
concrete has no
tensile strength
Actual behaviour
Deflection calculation
Deflection
L
o
a
d

Calculated assuming no cracking
45 MPA The Concrete Centre
Basic behaviour
o = ,(o
II
) + (1 - ,)(o
I
)
where:
o = deformation parameter considered
(e.g. strain, curvature)
o
I
is the calculated uncracked parameter
o
II
is the calculated cracked parameter
, = distribution coefficient allowing for tension stiffening at a
section.

e.g. total curvature = E(cracked curvature + uncracked curvature)
for each effect considered

46 MPA The Concrete Centre
(1 - ,)S
,S ,S
Basic behaviour
Steel
stress
o
s2
o
s1
Concrete
stress
S
Crack Crack Crack
0

Idealised
steel
stress
Where
, = distribution coefficient allowing for
tension stiffening at a section.

47 MPA The Concrete Centre
Basic behaviour
where:
, = distribution coefficient
= 1 - | (o
sr
/o
s
)
2
where:
| = coefficient taking account of the influence of the
duration of the loading or of repeated loading on
the average strain
| = 1.0 for first loading
= 0.5 for long-term loading
But always use 0.5


o
s
= stress in tension steel based on cracked section
o
sr
= stress in tension steel based on cracked section at first cracking


NB o
sr
/o
s
M
cr
/M for flexure
48 MPA The Concrete Centre
Basic behaviour
, = 1 - | (first crack result/cracked analysis result)
2

Deflection
Load

no cracking
Actual
cracked
M
cr
M
Ed
, = 0.0 for un-cracked sections
, = 1.0 for fully cracked sections
(in theory)
49 MPA The Concrete Centre
Concrete material properties
for deflection calculation
It is only possible to estimate concrete material properties at the
design stage. Actual material properties may differ significantly
from those assumed in design. Therefore, it is prudent to assume a
range of material properties in deflection calculations.

EC2 relates all the concrete properties required for deflection
prediction to the concrete grade and cement type. In practice,
properties are influenced by the aggregate type, curing etc.

Mean values should be used for the tensile strength and elastic
modulus of concrete to obtain a best estimate of the actual
deflection.


MPA The Concrete Centre 50
Concrete tensile strength
Deflections in slabs depend significantly on the effective concrete
flexural strength which governs the cracking moment. The flexural
strength of concrete is calculated from the peak failure load of
unreinforced concrete beams with engineers bending theory.
EC2 defines the flexural strength of concrete as follows:
f
fl
=(1.6-h/1000)f
ctm
>f
ctm
where fctm = 0.3fck
2/3
is the mean tensile strength of concrete which
can be estimated indirectly in the splitting test. fck is the
characteristic cylinder compressive strength of concrete.
The flexural strength is greater than the tensile strength since the
tensile stress distribution is not linear at failure as assumed in its
derivation.
MPA The Concrete Centre 51
Flexural strength of concrete
The flexural strength is greater due the assumptions implicit in its
derivation as illustrated below.
Stress at
peak load
f
ct

Strain
Stress assumed in
calculation f
fl
f
fl
>f
ct
52 MPA The Concrete Centre
Concrete tensile strength
In reinforced concrete structures the effective flexural strength of
concrete is reduced by tensile stresses induced by restraint of
shrinkage by reinforcement and restraining elements such as stiff
columns and shear walls.

It is conservative to use the tensile strength f
ctm
in deflection
calculations.

The How to Leaflet suggests that the design value concrete tensile
strength for a low restraint layout is taken as the mean of the
tensile and flexural strengths.
MPA The Concrete Centre 53
Long-term deflections

Three additional factors must be considered in the long term
calculation of deflections.

1.Loading
2.Creep
3.Shrinkage
MPA The Concrete Centre 54
Design loads: Permanent loads
In concrete structures, deflections increase with time under
sustained load. The greater part of the deflection normally occurs
under sustained loads. Therefore, long-term deflections are
calculated under a best estimate of the sustained load during the
lifetime of the structure.
The design load for calculating long-term deflections is the
permanent load:
Permanent load = G
k
+
2
Q
k
where
G
k
= dead load
Q
k
= imposed load
Recommended values for
2
are:
0.3 for residential and offices,
0.6 for parking
0.8 for storage
MPA The Concrete Centre 55
Design loads: Frequent load
Cracking is irreversible. Therefore, it is prudent to calculate long-
term deflections using a modified flexural strength which
corresponds to the worst cracking during the lifetime of the
structure. The How to Leaflet suggests that the frequent load
combination is used to calculate the deflection affecting cladding.
The frequent load is given by:
Frequent load = G
k
+
1
Q
k

Recommended values for
1
are:
0.5 for residential and offices,
0.7 for parking
0.9 for storage

56 MPA The Concrete Centre
Time dependent deformation
Creep is the continuous deformation of a member under
sustained load.
Shrinkage consists of autogenous (due to hydration) and
drying shrinkage.
57 MPA The Concrete Centre
Creep
EC2 uses the effective modulus method to model creep in which
creep is modelled as a delayed elastic strain.
The creep strain at time t is given by:
c
cc
(t) = c(t0) |*
where
c(t0) = the strain at the time of first loading t
0
and
= o/Ec(t0)
where
Ec(t0) is the elastic modulus of the concrete at time t
0
.
|* = the true creep coefficient.
= |
EC2
[E
c
(t
0
)/E
c28
]


58 MPA The Concrete Centre
E
c

EC2 defines the creep coefficient in
terms of the 28 day tangent modulus of
concrete, E
c

E
c
= 1.05 E
cm
where
E
cm
= secant modulus
= 22[f
cm
/10]
0.3
See table 3.1



59 MPA
|
EC2
Annex B or . . .


Figure 3.1
60 MPA The Concrete Centre
Creep
So total strain:
c(t) = c(t0) (1+ |*)
= [o/Ec(t0)] (1+ |*)
= o/E
ceff

where
E
ceff
= effective elastic modulus
= E
c
(t0)/(1+ |*)
For practical purposes
E
ceff
= E
c28
/(1+ |
EC2
)



61 MPA The Concrete Centre
In practice, there are usually several loads placed at different times.
In that case long term modulus, E
LT
for n serviceability loads, W
i
:-

E
LT
= EW/{ (W
1
/E
ceff,1
) + (W
2
/E
ceff,2
) + (W
3
/E
ceff,3
) + . . . . +(W
n
/E
ceff,n
)}



Shrinkage induced curvature
Shrinkage induces curvatures in asymmetrically reinforced
sections that can increase deflections by as much as 25%.
The reinforcement restrains the shortening of the member due to
shrinkage which induces tension in the concrete. Consequently,
the cracking moment is reduced.
MPA The Concrete Centre 62
Tensile stress
Shrinkage induces a curvature
that is given by:
1/rcs = ccso
e
S/I
where
cc = free shrinkange strain
o
e
= E
s
/E
ceff

S = Ase = the first moment of area of the reinforcement
about the centroid of the transformed section
I = second moment of area of the section

EC2 extends the distribution coefficient approach to cover cracked
sections by applying , to S
cr
/I
cr
and (1- , ) to S
uncr
/I
uncr
.
MPA The Concrete Centre 63
Accuracy of deflection
calculations
Many factors influence the accuracy of deflection calculations
including:
1. actual loading relative to design loading
2. early age striking and loading from constructing slabs above
3. differences between actual and assumed material
properties
4. Composite action between floor slabs and floor screeds and
partitions
5. Temperature effects
MPA The Concrete Centre 64
Use of finite element analysis
to calculate deflections

Two approaches are commonly used:

1.Cracked section analysis in which the plate stiffness is reduced
to account for cracking
2.Elastic analysis with reduced stiffness to allow for cracking
creep and shrinkage. In this case, the effective E value can be
taken as:
E*
ceff
=0.5E
c
/(1+|)
where the factor of 0.5 accounts for the effects of cracking and
shrinkage

65 MPA The Concrete Centre
Deflection

The deflection may be calculated:
Either by calculating the curvatures (due to load, shrinkage,
creep) at a number of sections and then double
integrating numerically
Or by the simplified formula:

= kL
2
(1/r)

k depends on the shape of the bending moment
diagram.
Both methods are described in detail in How to design concrete
structures using Eurocode 2: Deflection
66 MPA The Concrete Centre
Rigorous method
67 MPA The Concrete Centre
Rigorous method
,
| |
|,
,
68 MPA The Concrete Centre
Rigorous method
69 MPA The Concrete Centre
Rigorous method
This is the approach used in the Rigourous RC Spreadsheets
70 MPA The Concrete Centre
Rigorous method TCC41R
71 MPA The Concrete Centre
Simpler method (outline)
72 MPA The Concrete Centre
Essentially add curvature due to SLS moments:
shrinkage uncracked shrinkage cracked shrinkage
r r r
, ,
) (
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
1 1
, ,
To curvature due to shrinkage:
moments sls uncracked slsmoments cracked moments sls
r r r
, , , .
) (
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
1 1
, ,
= kL
2
(1/r)
Calculate deflection:
shrinkage slsmoments
r r r
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
1 1 1
So total curvature:
k from chart depends on shape of BMD
Simpler method (in detail)
73 MPA The Concrete Centre
Simpler method
, ,
74 MPA The Concrete Centre
Simpler method
75 MPA The Concrete Centre
Simpler method
76 MPA The Concrete Centre
Simpler method
|
| |
|
|
| |
77 MPA The Concrete Centre
Deflection calculation
example

MPA The Concrete Centre 78
Estimate the long-term deflection for the beam
shown.
Span = 9.5 m
M
QP
= 200 kNm
Concrete class C25/30
A
s
= 2450 mm
2

x
c
= 329 mm
I
cr
= 7976 x 10
6
mm
4
x
u
= 350 mm (ignoring reinforcement)
I
u
= 8575 x 10
6
mm
4
(ignoring reinforcement)

(,t0)
= 2.8

cs
= 470 x 10
-6




Worked example
h

=

7
0
0


d

=

6
0
0


5 No H25 bars
d = 300
79 MPA The Concrete Centre
Deflection calculation example
Step 1 Calculate cracking moment


f
ctm
= 2.6 MPa (Table 3.1)



If uncracked section properties are used, M
cr
= 57.3 kNm
Section is cracked, therefore:
= 1 0.5(57.3/200)
2
= 0.95

u
u ctm
cr
x h
I f
M

=
9 . 0
kNm 3 . 57
350 700
10 8575 6 . 2 9 . 0
6
=


=
cr
M
80 MPA The Concrete Centre
Deflection calculation example
Step 2 Calculate flexural curvature


E
c,eff
= E
cm
/(1 +
(,t0)
) = 31 / (1 + 2.8) = 8.15 kN/mm
2





u eff c
QP
u
I E
M
r
,
1
= |
.
|

\
|
mm / 10 86 . 2
10 8575 10 15 . 8
10 200 1
6
6 3
6

= |
.
|

\
|
u
r
mm / 10 08 . 3
10 7976 10 15 . 8
10 200 1
6
6 3
6
,

= = |
.
|

\
|
c eff c
QP
c
I E
M
r
mm / 10 07 . 3 10 86 . 2 ) 95 . 0 1 ( 10 08 . 3 95 . 0
1
) 1 (
1 1
6 6 6
= + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
u c n
r r r
, ,
81 MPA The Concrete Centre
Deflection calculation example
Step 3 Calculate shrinkage curvature

where:
S
c
= A
s
(d x) = 2450 (600 329) = 664 x 10
3
mm
3


S
u
= A
s
(d x) = 2450 (600 350) = 612.5 x 10
3
mm
3



I
S
r
e cs
o c
= |
.
|

\
| 1
mm / 10 96 . 0
10 7976
10 664 ) 15 . 8 / 200 ( 10 470 1
6
6
3 6


= |
.
|

\
|
s
r
mm / 10 82 . 0
10 8575
10 5 . 612 ) 15 . 8 / 200 ( 10 470 1
6
6
3 6


= |
.
|

\
|
su
r
mm / 10 95 . 0 10 82 . 0 ) 95 . 0 1 ( 10 96 . 0 95 . 0
1
) 1 (
1 1
6 6 6
= + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|

\
|
u c n
r r r
, ,
82 MPA The Concrete Centre
Deflection calculation example
Step 4 Calculate deflection
Total curvature = 3.07 x 10
-6
+ 0.95 x 10
-6
= 4.02 x 10
-6
/mm
For a simply supported slab, k = 0.104
= kL
2
(1/r)
= 0.104 x 9500
2
(4.02 x 10
-6
)
= 37.8 mm
83 MPA The Concrete Centre
Serviceability Limit States
www.eurocode2.info
84
MPA The Concrete Centre