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7

Answers and solutions to selected problems

7 Answers and solutions to selected problems 1. FBDs are Moments about 0 gives where Thus

1. FBDs are

Moments about 0 gives

where

Thus

and

1,B’ = -mgL9 - ka29,

I, = mC.

o+( mgLmL2+ ka2>,=o,

f = L277 J(mg2:2)Hz.

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

329

2.

Answers and solutions to selected problems 329 2. f=- 1 Jk -=- ln J(2 ~IT m

f=- 1

Jk-=-lnJ(2

~IT

m

3. FBDs are

x:&106)

Moments about pivot gives

so

1

+ml28’ = mg - 8 - 2k128,

2

#+e[ 2k121- mg1/2]=o.

and

4.

%ml2

f = _r_2n /(12k,~mg)

Hz.

= 5.8 Hz.

330

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

Equation of motion is

-+--Ty

x

Ty - -my, L-x

so

TL x(L - x)

mj + ~

y = 0,

and f = L J(&)

27T

XL-x

Hz.

5. For vehicle,

so

 

mi

+ k(z - h sin vt) = 0.

Thus

 

mz

+ kz = kh sin vt,

and

 

z= (k~

fmv2)

sin vt,

= (1 -;;sin vt.j

Hence

z=(I-(L7jl)sin(F)t.

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

331

7.

and

1

A = - 10

100

In -

1

= 0.46

*2~[,

SO

i = 0.0732.

0, = wJ(1 - i2), so

f, = fJ(1 - i2),

T = T,J(1

- i2)

= 1 J(1 - 0.07322)

= 0.997 S.

8. j = 0.72

9. FBDs:

Moments about 0 gives

1,0 = -mgrB

- c0,

so equation of motion is

I,$

+ CB + mgre = 0.

Now if T, = 1.6 s, and A = In 6 = 1.792,

1.792 = 2~</J(1- i2)

SO i = 0.273.

1

f, = - = 0.625 Hz,

TV

so

o, = oJ'(1 - i2),so

Now,

W = &)

=

J(20

x ; 9; .

w, = 3.92 rad/s.

w = 4.075 rad/s.

x 0.02

1 rad/s,

332 Answers and solutions to selected problems

so

Io = 0.236 kg m2

[Ch.7

=

I,

+ mr2,

and

I,

= 0.228 kg m2.

cc = 2J(mgr 10)

 

=

1.925 N

m

s/rad,

Hence

c = [c, = 0.525 N m s/rad.

10. Equation of motion

is log + cb + ke = 0. Require critical damping so

cc = 2JWO) = 241.2 x 10-5 x

1.5 x

10-6)

= 8.48 x 1O-6 N m s/rad.

11. FBDs without damping:

Equation of motion is md2g = mgde - ke2B, so frequency of undamped oscilla-

tions is L2n /(ke2iygd)Hz.

With damping, equation of motion is

md2g+ cf 28+ (ke2 - rngd) 8 = 0,

so

c

c

12. FBDs:

2

=-

f2

J((ke2 - mgd) md 2).

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

333

so

Fr = imr2g.

Thus F = imx because rB' = x. Body floats half submerged so

and

71

m = - 4 d 2Dp,,y

p -1

b - 2PL'

171

= - 24 - d 'Dpliquid,

When body displaced distance x downwards (say), liquid level rises by y where

so

and

71

- d 'X = -

4

4

71

y=x

(D2

x+y=x

(D2- d 2,

d2

-d2)'

y,

(D2?~

d2)'

Equation of motion therefore

13.

Hence

mk = -+mx - pL id2 (Di - d2) ''

D2

f='J(271

3(D24Dg-d2) )Hz.

Equation of motion is IB' + co + kfl = 0, so that

6 = e-W (A sin w,t + B cos ~,t),

where

334

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

Now

and

so that

o=/F,

c, =2J(Ik)

w, = 0 J(1 - [ ').

I = 20 x - 0.8'

3

= 4.27 kg m',

k = 100 N m/rad,

c, = 2J(100 x 4.27) = 41.3

Also

o = /E= 4.84 rad/s.

For critical damping,

8 = (A + Bt) e-"'.

and

[=-.C

cc

N m s/rad.

Initial conditions are t = 0, 6 = n/2, and t = 0, 4 = 0. Hence

0 =

7T

- 2 (1 + 4.84t) e-4.84r.

Require

e = 0.01745.

Trial and error, or graphical solution gives t = 1.3 s.

14. c = 7.9 N s/m3; f= 0.789 Hz.

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

335

15. In 2 s execute 3 cycles, so

11

A = 3 In -

0.9

= 0.035.

For small A, A e 2n[, hence J = 0.0056. Also for small c, mew,

so

c, = 2J(km) = 2mo = 2 x

10'

x 3n = 10 600 N m s/rad.

m = 59000 kg.

Equation of motion is

ZOO+ cp2d+ kq20 = 0.

When c = 0,

w = /(?)rad/s.

With damping w, = oJ(1 - c ') where

Thus 0, = w /[1 -I)*(

4kq21,

rad/s.

336

Answers and solutions to selected problems

18. FBDs are

19.

Equation of

motion is Fd + mghe - 2kc% = Io& or

g+(2kc21:mgh)e=-. Fd

IO

C.F. + P.I. give solution as

8 = A sin wt + B cos wt + ~ OZI, Fd

where

w = ,/[(2kc2- mgh)/I,].

Substitute initial conditions for

e=-

Fd

W210

Solution is

(1 - cos wt).

Equation of motion is

mE + kx = ky,

where y = 7 at ’. Hence

1

k

mE + kx = - at ’.

2

[Ch.7

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

x = A cos of

+ B sin of

+

at2

am

2k

Initially t = 0 and x = 0 and i = 0 so that

x

=-(cos am k

at

or - 1)+ -.

2

When t = 0.19 s,

and

X= ;:1

'Po3

= 0.275 m,

10.9 x 103

90

am

i = - -

k

o sin or + at

= 5.45 m/s.

)

-

I)

+

49 x 0.192

2

337

Now for r > 0.19 s, initial velocity is 5.45 m/s, acc is -9.81 m/s2 and if distance to max. height is s, then

so

0 = 5.54'

-

s =

1.51 m.

2 x 9.81 s

Thus max. height of pilot

=

1.51 + 0.275 = 1.785 m.

Max. value of cos or is 0.5 when t = 0.19 s, so

x=

amo2

-~

k

3a

cos ot + a = - = 73.5 m/s2.

2

20. x = 5.25 mm; N = 424 rev/min.

21. Equation of motion is

mx + kx = m,rv2 sin vt,

so the amplitude of the motion is m,rv2/(k - mv2).Thus

k(&)

=

transmitted force.

Substituting values gives

k(0.2 x

0.01 x 1502) = loo.

k - (2 x 150')

Hence k = 81.8 kN/m.

338

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

22. Decay factor

15 so

[w = 15 and

o, = wJ(1

-

[’)

Hence [ = 0.103 and w = 145.6 rad/s.

Since w = J(k/m),

 

k

= (145.6)2x 365 = 7740 kN/m,

and

 

c, = 2J(km)

= 106 310 N s/m.

Thus

c = [c,

= 10950 N s/m.

At 1450 rev/min,

27c

v = 1450.-

60

= 152 rad/s.

where w, = 23.2~rad/s.

Now

X=

J[(k

F

- mv’)’ +(cv)’]

--

J[(7740

F

x lo3 - 365 x 1522)2+ (10950 x 152)2]’

Since X = 0.76 x 10-3m,

Without damping

F = 1370 N.

= 2.85 mm.

23. X, = 0.02 m; X, lags X, by tan-’ (i).

24. If n units are required, then

k = 359.103.n N/m,

c = 2410n N s/m

w2 = 359.103n/520 = 691n sK2

so

Hence

c, = 2J(km),

cf

= 4 x

v = 25

x

359 x 520 x 103n= 747 x 10%.

2n rad/s,

so

v’ = 2.46 x 104/s2.

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

339

FT

- = 0.4,

FO

and

V2

- o2 = 35.61~

Substitute values in

(2Y=[( L2(Yo:Y:( c vy]

1--

1+

2--

+

2--

co

0

To give

n2 + 6.42n - 114.6 = 0,

so

n =

+ 8

or

-14.5

Thus 8 units in parallel will give specified attenuation; more units would give less static deflection but more transmitted force.

25. (k - mv2)2+ c2v2= 100 (k2 + c2v2),

so

99k2 + 99c2v2+ 2kmv2 - (mv2)2 = 0.

Now

 

c = 0.2~~= 0.4J(km),

 

v = 154.8 rad/s,

and

 

m = 40 kg.

Hence

 

k2 + 17.3 x

104k - 93 x

10'

= 0,

and thus

k = 43 kN/m.

If

c=o,

F-r

-

Fo

= 0.0469.

-

340 Answers and solutions to selected problems

26.

[Ch. 7

Equation of

motion is mx = k( y - x) + c( j - i).If

z=y-xx,

i=j-i,

and

z=y-x,

then

mz + ci + kz = my = -mv2yo sin vt.

Assume

then

If

z = zo sin(vt + 4),

-mv2zo sin(vt + 4) + czov cos(vr + 4) + kz, -- -mv2yo sin vt.

-=/: and

[=-=%c

c,

2k'

then

sin(vt + 4)

Now if o % v, (v/o)~ < 1 and

zo-(t)

2

Yo,

that is, the acceleration vzyois measured.

As (v/o)

increases [l - (v/o)~]~decreases, but the damping term in the

denominator increases to compensate. If v/w = 0.2 and no error is required,

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

341

1

[1 - (%)‘I2+[2,;]

so that

=

1,

when

[l - 0.0412 + 4c2[0.04] = 1,

and hence J = 0.7.

Here FT = 100 N,

F, = 320 N,

o = /& = 25.6 rad/s

Hence

so that

Now

Also

100

1 + 20.212

(m)= 16.4 + 20.2c2’

= 0.184.

k=

940 x 9.81

0.015 = 615 kN/m,

m = 940 kg,

and

(:y

c, = 2J(km) = 24615 x lo3 x 940

so that

c

= 48 kN s/m,

= cc, = 8850 N s/m.

v = 25.6J(1 - 0.184’) = 25.1 rad/s.

or 241 rev/min.

Substituting

= 0.2 gives

(ir- 17.84)(:

so that

2

-

99 = 0,

V

- = 0.2,

o

v = 57.6 rad/s,

57.6

= (E)= 5.05.

342 Answers and solutions to selected problems

(y)= 4.72.

Limit at 15 Hz, so v = 30n rad/s and

30.

Hence

and

Hence

Since

so that

30n

w =-=

4.72

19.95 =

kT = 15.92 kN/m

kT

k = - = 5.3 kN/m.

3

- V = 3.32.

0

v = 80n rad/s,

w = - = &,

80n

3.32

x 9.81 = 1.7 mm.

0.01158

2.10-9

= 2400 rad/s,

c, = 2,/(kZ) = 9.84 x lop6N m +ad.

Thus

and

w, = 2400,/(1 - 0.29) = 2020 rad/s

so

frequency = 322 Hz. For torsional system,

IB' + cb + k6 = TCOSOr,

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

343

so that

Expect

e=

J{[l

T

e= ,;

T/k cos(Qt + 4)

- Q’/w’]’

+ [2[ Q/o]’)’

so denominator gives amplitude error. Phase error is

tan-’[

2i(Q/o)

1.

1 -

(Q/o)2

Now

n

-=-

o

100

382’

so (:y

= 0.0686.

Hence

denominator = J[(1

- 0.0686)’ + 4 x 0.29 x 0.06863

= 0.975,

so that amplitude error = 2$%. Phase error,

4 = tan-’

= 17”.

-

2 x 0.539 x 100/382

0.9314

9

32.

F=

MK

([K - M(2nc/L)’

(M+m)g-

33. x = 0.056 m; 4 = 3.7”.

35. Equation of motion is

+ m

1

1

h(2no/L)’ sin(2nulL)t) .

mx + ci + kx = F sin vt,

thus

X=

F sin(vt - 4)

J[(k - mv’)’

+ (cv)’]

Force transmitted to support,

F,

Hence

= kx + ci

=

,/[k

2

+ (C#)]

x.

344

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

36.

5-

F--.

/ [ I

+ (21 $7

Now,

thus

1

--FT -

-

F

10

and

1

( =T,

[l-(;).].+[,,;~=loo+loo

[21-3,

and

y:( - 46y:( - 99 = 0.

Hence v = 6.93 /;

so

 

k=-

v2m

-

 

6.932-

Also

 

634.5

 

c

=-

3

where

rad/s,

(2n x 50)2 x

6.932

7

= 14.38 kN/m.

c, = 2J(km) = q(14.38 x lo3 x 7) = 634.5 N/m/s.

= 211.5 N s/m.

I,

= 12 kg m2,

I,

= 5 kg m2

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

345

and

 

k

= 600 x lo3 N m/rad.

Now

2n1 J:: ;n J:.Hz3

-=-

3

f=-

SO kAIB = kBIA.

Also

111

-

kA+G=k’

and

k=

so that

kA

x

kA

kA + kA

hence

(k)

(2)

k =

kAkB

kA + kB’

and

Also,

kA= (‘A;

‘B)

k,

f = L2n /[(e)k] Hz,

I,=

= &/(E x 600 x lo3

)

= 65.6 Hz.

(’

,?

’,>1 = 17 = 0.29 m,

5

346

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

37.

Frequency of oscillation = - /&= L. /%,

or

k,m,

= k,m,

9

k,

x 500 = k, x

1

2n

1O00,

Springs connected in series, so

---+-=-+- 11111-

so

and

Since

k

k,

k,

200

k = 40 kN/m,

50’

11

- +-=

k,

k,

k,

= 2k,,

1

40 X lo3‘

k,

= 120 x

m,

2n

so that

lo3 N/m.

mB

k,

so

= 2k,.

Thus

j= L2n J”O 103x lo3

= 1.74 Hz.

38. Equations of motion are, for free vibration,

and

(k, - mlo2)X, +(-kl)

X,

= 0,

(-kl) X, +(k, + k, - rn202) X, = 0.

Hence frequency equation is

(k, - m1o2Wk1+ k, - m2w2)- (-kl )’ = 0,

or

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

347

a4(mlm2) - o2(m,k, + m,k, +m,k, ) + k,k, = 0.

Now

Thus

1

m, = Tm,

and

k, =ik2,

2m:w4 - 5m1k,w2+ 2k: = 0,

or

(2m,02 - k, )(mlw2 - 2k1) = 0.

That is

so that

Now

Xl

--

X,

-

Hz

kl k, - m1a2’

.

and

that is, at frequency fl ,

Xl

-

x2

= +0.5.

and at frequency f,, X,

-

=

- 1.0.

x2

f, =Lt$Hz.

27T

With harmonic force F, sin vt applied,

(k, - mlu2)X, +(-kl) X

- F

2-

1,

and

 

(-k,

Hence

 

x,=

and

)

X,

+ (k, f

k, - m202)X, = 0.

(k, +k, - m202)

A F,

X

kl

--F,

,-A

348

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

where

A = mlm2w4- w2(mlk,+ mlk2+m2kl) +k1k2.

39. FBD:

Equations of motion are

- k(z - 3a0) - 2k(z - af3) - k(z + a0) = mz,

and

k (Z - 3a0)3~+ 2k(z - a0)a - k(z + a0)a = IGg.

Substitute

 

I = 2ma2,

z = A sin wt

to give

 

(mu’ - 4k)A +4kaB = 0,

and

and

0 = B sin wt,

4kaA +(2ma202- 12ka2)B= 0,

so that the frequency equation is

(mu2 - 4kX2ma2w2 - 12ka2) - 16k2a2 = 0.

Multiply out and factorize to give

fl

=% J;;;Hz and f2 =-

1

2k

2z1 Jkm

-Hz.

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

349

41. System is

and solutions to selected problems 349 41. System is where   m = 2000 kg; I

where

 

m = 2000 kg; I = 3 m; a =

1

m;b = 2 m; I,

= 500 kg m2;

k,

= 50 x

lo3 N/m; k, = 80 x

lo3 N/m.

FBDs:

Equations of motion are

and

mji = -k,(y

- be) - k,(y + ae),

ZJ

Substitute

= k,( y - b0)b -

k,( y

+ a@.

y

= Ysin cor

and rearrange:

and

8 = 0 sin cot

(k, + k, - mo2)Y+ (k,a - k,b)O = 0,

350

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

and

(k,a - k,b)Y+ (k,b2 + k,a2 - I,w2)0 = 0.

Hence the frequency equation is

(k, + k, - mw2)(k,b2+ k,a2 - i,02)- (k,a - k,b)2 = 0.

Substituting numerical values and dividing by lo3 gives

(130 - 20,

#370 - 0.50~) - (-

1lo), = 0,

or

Hence

w4 - 8050~+ 36ooO = 0.

,

o=

805

f 2 710 = 47.5 or 758 (rad/s),,

so that

f, = 1.09 Hz

and

f2 = 4.38 Hz.

The mode shape is obtained from

Y

_-

-

0

k,b- k, + k,

k,a

-

mo2’

so that at f, , o2= 47.5 and

Y

160 x

103 -

50 x

103

-

 

-

o -

130 x

io3 -

2 x

io3 x 47.5

and at f,, o2= 758 and

Y

-

o

--

110

-~

1386

= -0.079.

~

=3.14,

Speeds are V, = 78 km/h and V, = 19.8 km/h.

42. FBDs:

Equations of motion are

ilOl = 2kr,(r,B, - r,B, ),

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

351

and

120, = -2kr,(r,O,

Assume

0, = A, sin wt

- rlOl).

and

0,

= A,

sin wt.

Thus

 

A,[2kr: - 1,w2] +A2[-2kr,r,]

= 0,

and

A,[-2kr1r,]

+ A2[2kr: - I,w2] = 0.

Frequency equation is therefore

(2kr: - I,w2)(2kr: - I,w2) - (2kr,r,), = 0,

or

11Z,w4 - 2k(r:I, + riI,)w2 = 0,

so

 

w = 0

(rotation),

or

w2 = 2k(r:I, + r:Il )

1112

7

so that

f= L Sk(r:12+ r2, 1Hz.

2n

1112

43. FBDs are as below:

352

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

That is,

kxJ3

-+-

ky

ky

kx

--_

4422

Equations of motion are

and

(CF,)

(CF,)

m2 = - --

22

ky

kx

3

- kx - -

4

ky - J3

4'

J3

4

ky

kx

mj= -ky--+--kx--- 22

ky

4'

Assuming a solution of the form x = X sin wt, y = Y sin wt, these are

and

Hence

-mw2X+-X+5k

4

(J34-2)

kY= 0,

(q)kX - mw2Y+ - kY= 0.

7

4

(ik - mw2)(: k - ma2) -((?)cy

and

Hence

where

m2w4- 3mkw2 + - k2

16

(28 + 4J3) = 0.

w4

_-

R4

w2

3 - R2

+ 2.183 = 0,

= 0,

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

353

R = J;,

and

0

_-- 1.326

s2

or

1.114.

Thus frequencies of vibration are therefore

"/:&2n

and

*/;Hz.2n

45. FBDs are

The equations of motion are

and

-ka2tl,

- kabtl, - ka28, = I,gA,

- kabtl, - kb28, - kb28, = IBgB.

Substitute 8, = A sin ot and 8, = B sin at to give

(- I,02

+ 2ka')A + kab B = 0,

and

kab A +(-I,02

So the frequency equation is

+ 2kb')B = 0,

I,I,04

- 2k(I,a2 + I,b'

)02 + 3k 'a2b2 = 0.

Substitute numerical values to give

or At 19.9 rad/s, A/B = -1.65, and at 35.7 rad/s AIB = +3.68.

w = 19.9 rad/s

35.7 rad/s.

354

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

46. From section 3.1.5,

py + (y= 2 + p,

and R,R, = w’.

If R, = 250, R, = 3002/250 = 360, and

Therefore require R, = 250 and 12, = 360 to satisfy the frequency range criterion. (R,and R, are rev/min). Hence

if R, = 350, R, = 3002/350 = 257.

(gy + (gy= 2 +p

and p = 0.136. Hence

absorber mass = 367 kg.

and

stiffness = 144.6 x lo6 N/m.

47. Substitute numerical values into frequency equation to give m = 9.8 kg. If R, = 85, p = 0.5 so absorber mass = 4.9,and k = 773 N/m.

48.

y!( = 22+P * J(T).P2 + 4P

If R, = 0.9 W, this gives p = 0.0446, and if

0,= 1.1 W, p = 0.0365.

Limit therefore p = 0.0446and absorber mass is 134 kg with stiffness 30.1 kN/m.

49.

Sec. 7.11

Answers and solutions to selected problems

355

50.

Require

F(K - mv2)

[(K + k) - Mv2][k

- mo’]

-

- k2 -

Multiplying out and putting

gives

m

p = - = 0.2

M

2(-3

-

(34 + p) + 2 = O?

-

F . (Phase requires -ve sign)

K - Mv2

so

Thus

so

(5) = * f $,/(p’

2

4

(e)= 1.17

or

f, = 102 Hz

and

+ 8p) = 1.05

0.855,

i2= 140 Hz.

0.32.

Frequency range is therefore 102- 140 Hz.

(32+(3>’=2+p,

and R,R, = o: (from section 3.1.5). Now o = 152 Hz, R, = 140 Hz

so

(gy+(Ey= 2 + p,

and

p = 0.0266.

Require o = 152 Hz, R, = 120 Hz range criterion). Hence

(gy+(g>’= 2 +p 1

so

p1 = 0.219.

so

R, = 152’/140 = 165 Hz; hence

R, = 192 Hz (which meets frequency

Therefore require 0.219/0.0266 = 8.2, that is 9 absorbers.

356

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

51. Cantilever absorber:

to selected problems [Ch. 7 51. Cantilever absorber: Beam stiffness at free end = - 3EI

Beam stiffness at free end = - 3EI L3

= k.

Thus

k=

3 x

70 x

lo9 x (0.06)4

L3 x

12

Design based on 40 Hz frequency so

k = (271 x 40),

Hence

L= 0.524 m.

x 25.

When f= 50 Hz, calculation gives L = 0.452 m.

52. From section 3.1.5,

R,R, = w2

and ej2+ej2= 2 + p.

Thus if R, = 1.2 o,R, = 0.833 o,which is not within 20% of w (=v). So require R, = 0.8 w and then R, = 1.25 w. Hence

0.8, + 1.25, = 2 + p,

so that p = 0.2, and

mass of absorber = 0.2 M.

Sec. 7.11

53.

Answers and solutions to selected problems

Equations of motion are

and

k(8, - 8, ) = 21O,,

k(8, - 8, ) + k(8, - 8,

) = IO2,

k(8, - 8,) = IO,.

357

Substitute 8, = A sin wr, 8, = B sin wt and 8, = C sin or and eliminate A, B and C to give frequency equation as

Hence

Now

and

204

k

- 7 - w2 + 4

I

k

w2 = 0.72 - I

or

k2

7 I = 0.

k

2.78 -. I

GJ

k=--

-

83 x

lo9 x R x 0.054

1 0.65 x 32

= 7.83 x lo4 N m/rad,

I=

7t x 0’284 x 0.023 x 7000 = 97.1 x lO-3 kg m2.

32

Hence

f, = 121.6 Hz

where f = wf2a.

and

f2 = 239 Hz.

358

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

54. Consider half of aircraft:

Equations of motion are

 

3k(z, -

z, ) = 2000 2, ,

3k(z, -

z, )

+ k(2, -

z* ) = 500 i,,

and

Substitute

k(z, - z,)

= 200 2,.

z1 = A, sin ut,

z,

= A,

sin ot

and

z3 = A, sin ot,

and eliminate A, , A,, A, to give frequency equation as

2 x 10404- 290 02k + 0.81kZ = 0.

Hence

 

02=379

or

1074,

and

 

f, = 3.09 Hz

and

f, = 5.22 Hz.

Sec. 7.11

55. FBDs

Answers and solutions to selected problems

359

Equations of motion are mx, = k(x, - x1) + k(x, - x1) - k,x,, mx, = k(x, - x,) - k(x, - x1),

and

mx3 = -k(x3 - x,) - k(x3- xl).

Substitute xi = Xi sin wt, so that (3k - mw2)X, - kX, - kX, = 0,

+ (2k - mw2)X, - kX, = 0,

-kX,

and

-kX, - kX, + (2k - mu2)X, = 0. Hence frequency equation is (3k - mw2),(k - mu2)- 2k2(3k -mu?)

and either 3k - mw2 = 0 so that w = J3 J(k/m), or

= 0.

k 2 - 4mkw2 + m2w4 = 0.

Thus

360 Answers and solutions to

selected problems

w = 0.52,/(k/m),

1.73,/(k/m)

or

1.93J(k/m)

which are all well clear of J(k/m),

so system suitable.

56. Model system as follows:

rad/s

Equations of motion are

and

ZIOl = -k,(O,

- 02),

1202 = kl(4 - 0,)

- k2(O, - %I,

Z3g3= k2(02 - 03).

Substituting Oi = Oi sin wt gives

Ol[k,

O1C-h

- Z,O~]

1

+ O,[-k,]

= 0,

+ OJk1

+ k2 - 120’1

+ O,[-k,]

= 0,

and

@,[-k21

The frequency equation is therefore

+ 03[k2 - Z3w2] = 0.

[Ch. 7

(kl - Z,W’)[(~, + k2 - Z2w2)(k2 - Z3w2)- k:]

That is

+ k1[(k2 - Z3w2)(-k,)]

= 0.

o~[Z,Z~Z~O~- w2(k,Z2Z3 + klZlZ3 + k2ZlZ3 + k2ZlZ2)

+ k,k2(Zl +I, + Z3)]

= 0

so that either w = 0 (rigid body rotation) or Substituting numerical values gives

.] = 0.

0.48 w4

-

1100

x

103 o2

+ 149 x

109 = 0,

so that

w1 = 380 rad/s

and

w2 = 1460 rad/s.

That is

Sec. 7.11

fl = 60.5 Hz

At fl = 60.5 Hz,

and

01

_-

-

e,

kl

kl -

1,02

Answers and solutions to selected problems

and

f2

= +1.4,

= 232 Hz.

03

_-

e2

-

k2

= -0.697.

k2 -

1~~2

and at f2 = 232 Hz,

_- 01

e,

- -0.304,

361

 

and

 

e

-2 = -0.028.

02

57.

T= Lm211i2+ L22m i2+ Lrn2 (2y2+Lm2 c2y+'J2 (j 2+?J1 (X-dy

y-2

 

and

V = ikx: + i.4k (?Y + +k(x, - x~)~.

Apply the Lagrange equation

362

Answers and solutions to selected problems

[Ch. 7

(Z)+ aavx,= 0:

dt

dt

ai,

m (g)= ail m,?, + - 2 1,+

25

d

il,

and

av

_- - kx, +kx, +9k(2xl - x,) = 3kx, - kx,.

ax,

Hence equation of motion is

+ 3kx, -

kx,

= 0.

Similarly other equation of motion is

1, (m2 +