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Whenever the bulk material requires continuous transportation belt conveyors supply a reliable means. If the handling rate and total quantity warrant, they usually are the most economical. All lifting and conveying machines can be divided by their operating principles into two large groups: 1. Intermittent motion 2. Continuous motion Intermittent motion includes all types of cranes, lifts; surface transport means (trucks, loaders, prime move rs), aerial tramways and cable ways, scrappers and the like. Continuous motion includes conveyors, pneumatic and hydraulic transport means etc. which may generally called continuous transport machines or conveying machines. Continuous machines are characterized by non-stop motion of bulk or unit loads along a given path, without hallts for loading and unloading. The principle purpose of continuous conveying machine is to transport loads along a particular path. At the same time they can distribute loads among a number of destination points, deliver them to stores, transfer products from one technological operation to another and ensure the desired pace of a production process. Belt conveyors are employed for conveying various bulk and unit loads along horizontal or slightly inclined paths and for transporting articles between various operations in production flow lines. Belt conveyors are used as the principle components of some complex machines such as wheel excavator, conveyor bridges and many other type of hoisting and conveying machines. Belt conveyors are used for various applications such as material transportation in foundry shop (supply and distribution of moulding sand, moulds and removal of wastes) coal and mining industry, sugar industry, automobile industry, Bagasse industry, fuel supply system of electric power stations etc.

Conveyors are again classified into different categories those are as follows: a. chute conveyor b. wheel conveyor c. roller conveyor d. chain conveyor e. slat conveyor f. flat belt conveyor g. magnetic belt conveyor h. troughed belt conveyor i. bucket conveyor j. vibrating conveyor k. screw conveyor l. pneumatic conveyor m. cart on track conveyor n. tow conveyor o. trolley conveyor p. power and free conveyor q. monorail r. Sortation conveyor. From this classification the flat belt conveyor system is used throughout the whole paper.

Belt Conveyor Systems

Belt Conveyors can be used for different applications of conveying Raw materials to finished goods; and at Dynamic Industrials these are specifically designed according to your specific needs.

Trough Belt Conveyors for Bulk Material Handling Through Belt conveyors are widely applicable in bulk material conveying over long distances, and the main users include cement, steel, coal, Lignite, various ores, mining, STP's and other industries. These are available in custom made designs can be developed up to 45 troughs and 18 elevations Offered with / without hoods, walkways etc. as per the project demand, most of the bulk conveying requirements are fulfilled. Flat Bed Belt Conveyors Flat Belt conveyors are generally used where the belts are supported with a metallic bed with a fewer rollers in between. In these horizontal conveyors, the point of loading and point of discharge generally have the same height. Special Provision of height adjustments are done on customers' demand. Elevator Belt Conveyors Elevator Belt conveyors also known as Inclined Belt Conveyors can be of different types and different angle of elevations. These are also a category of flat bed belt conveyors or trough belt conveyors. Here the Point of Loading & point of discharge are at different heights. Material can travel from low to highs or vice-versa.

Here various options like Cleated belts, Sidewall + cleated belts, rough top conveyor belts are offered to clients according to the exact applications. Food Grade Belt Conveyors These conveyors are vastly used in Food Processing, food packaging, Pharmaceutical Industry, Meat & Poultry, where the food products are or might come in direct contact with one or more parts of the Conveyor System. The Hygiene type Conveyor Systems are manufactured in SS-304 Grade and food grade belts are used for conveying. Packing Belt Conveyors As the name suggests, these conveyors are used for packing or sorting of manufactured goods. These conveyors are equipped with working table on both sides of conveyors, enabling the packing / sorting process. Generally the individual packed goods are put into the designated cartons which are conveyed aside or on the same conveyor for collection at the discharge end. These kinds of conveyors have high application in pharma, food packing, automobile ancillaries, electronic & electric components etc. Variable Speed belt Conveyors To be put in a common man's language; it s a belt conveyor with alterable speeds. The speed is kept variable & adjustable through a VFD controller / change in Drive ratios as per the clients' requirements. Double Deck belt Conveyors Here the Conveyor is made with two tiers / belts moving in same or reverse directions. These types of conveyor systems have wide use in sorting /packing process.


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Variable Speed Belt Conveyors:

Dynamic Industrials offers a full range of Variable Speed belts for various industries such as textiles, engineering, automobiles, printing, packaging, pharmaceuticals, etc.

1. Out side Circumferance (OC) of the belt. 2. Total Belt thickness (T). 3. Belt top width (W). 4. Belt Angle (if available) (A)

Sidewall & Cleated Belt Conveyors

We manufacture sidewall & cleated conveyor belts that can be custom designed, developed and fabricated as per the specific application demands of our customers. We have the expertise to use all kinds of materials to support our end users requirements. We manufacture sidewall or cleated conveyor belts that can be custom designed, developed and fabricated as per the specific application demands of our customers. We have the expertise to use all kinds of materials to support our end users requirements. Our premium quality product has earned us reputation as the leading sidewall or cleated conveyor belts manufacturer. Gravity Roller Conveyor Systems Roller Conveyors are an integral part of the material handling industry due to its high load carrying capacities and sturdiness. It's a series of rollers supported in a frame over which objects are advanced manually, by gravity or by power.

DYNAMIC RANGE OF ROLLER CONVEYORS Powerised Roller Conveyors Here all the rollers are power driven with help of a motor connecting all the rollers through small interlinking power transmission mechanisms. Generally applicable where the distances to be conveyed are a little longer and the roller systems is a flat one. Gravity Roller Conveyors The Gravity roller conveyor system is a declining sort of conveyor system, whereby the weight of the product drives the product to the point of discharge with help of Gravity.

Manual Push Roller Conveyor System A flat roller conveyor systems where the point of loading and point of discharge are at a same height. These are generally small length conveyor systems with idle rollers and material is pushed manually or through push mechanism to reach the point of discharge. Height adjustments are also provided by Dynamic Industrials on Customers' request


We manufacture a precision engineered range of roller conveyors which are also termed as mono rail conveyors. Available in two models namely Motorized Roller Conveyor and Gravity force roller Conveyors; these are economical solutions for carrying heavy weight material. Bend Roller Conveyor Systems

We are engaged in offering Roller Bend Conveyor to our clients.Roller conveyor items either on a level push line or gravity pitched line. The latter being common as the pitch of the conveyor is adjusted so no manual assistance is required for conveying. Non powered conveyors are less expensive than others. It is useful in most of the applications in warehouse, assembly lines, packing lines and same is very economical. The system is very flexible and layout can be attach very easily.

Telescopic Roller Conveyors :

Telescopic roller conveyors are highly flexible conveyors, popularily known as expandable conveyors. These conveyors are built in more than one sections which stow in when not in use to occupy little floor space. When extended these expandable conveyor are highly useful in loading / unloading small dock level vans to large trailer containers. Our friendly engineers are more than happy to discuss your requirements, offer advice and work with you to help deliver your bespoke telescopic roller conveyor. You can contact us for more information or to discuss your requirements on these versatile expandable conveyors.

Chain Conveyors As the name suggest, chain conveyors are equipped with interlinked chains, selected /manufactured according to the customer specific needs. These run on custom made sprockets on each end.

Ball Tables: Ball tables or Ball transfer units are also sometimes known as Ball transfer conveyors. Here the material is pushed manually / through gravity over a series of free balls fixed over metal tables. This is also very effective where the material size is big & needs to be pushed manually over short / long distance. Overhead Conveyors : The conveyors installed in a hanging position with minimal use of the ground area are denominated as Overhead conveyors The use of overhead conveyor systems in factory settings is a great way to conserve space and man power.

These type of conveyors are helpful in moving items between stations, especially in very large facilities and are custom made and assembled as per the customers' requirements. Overhead conveyors are vastly used in automobile industry, auto ancillaries and accessories, consumer durables, food industry and more. The chief applications of overhead conveyors include assembly lines, delivery of empty cartons to order pickers, warehousing and distribution, paint finishing, creative displays for retail, manufacturing and assembly. Man power is saved, by allowing for large quantities of products to move quickly through an area, instead of needing to be carried by employees. With them being suspended in the air, these systems also make for excellent optimization of a facility's entire space. It has been found that the noise reduction achieved with these systems allows for a much safer work place

Slat Conveyors :

The Slat Chain systems are highly used in bottling, packing, Aluminum Cans, PET & HDPE Bottles in Dairy Food, Food processing & packing, Beverages, Pharmaceuticals, Consumer Durables and more. Modular Conveyors : Though belt conveyors and roller conveyors have an important role to play in the automation and process, modular conveyors have their own role to play. Modular conveyors largely work on the concept of belt conveyors except for the drive mechanisms and the belt.

Modular Plastic belt Conveyors: There are a lot of industrial and food applications, which the belt conveyors and other types of conveyors are unable to cater to. Our Modular conveyors have an answer

to a lot of those. Plastic Modular Belts offer highly rugged yet flexible design choices. These are used is Food Processing & packing, Bakery and snack food application, freezers, Engineering industry, Packing lines, Dip tank applications and a lot more.

Slat chain conveyors: The Slat Chain systems are highly used in bottling, packing, Aluminum Cans, PET & HDPE Bottles in Dairy Food, Food processing & packing, Beverages, Pharmaceuticals, Consumer Durables and more

Packing Belt Conveyors:

As the name suggests, these conveyors are used for packing or sorting of manufactured goods. These conveyors are equipped with working table on both sides of conveyors, enabling the packing / sorting process. Loaders / Unloaders :

These are portable conveyors used to load / unload material / cartons from trucks into warehouses. These are based on wheels / castors and can be put aside when not in use

Special Purpose Conveyors :

Gripper Conveyors: Used for empty product / filled product conveying to the filling machine / vice versa. Special attachments are provided to the belts to hold different types of products for conveying. Single Deck / Double Deck / Triple Deck These are a combination of belt / roller / chain conveyors in 2 deck / 3 deck assemblies which are used for sorting / cleaning operations The system is versatile and rugged capable of taking heavy loads and wide range of applications. Features Custom designed systems based on the requirements. Modular construction and assemblage

Applications / Solutions for Retail Industry Food Processing Meat Processing etc. Sushi Conveyors

Dynamic Industrials is manufacturer and designer of Sushi Conveyors and Restaurant Conveyors in India. The Systems can be designed as per restaurants layouts. Our conveyors are also being used in catering, display of food products and display of other products.


It is necessary to have design related basic information about various components of belt conveyor before attempting to design belt conveyor. The design of belt conveyor is depends upon design/construction of individual component. INTRODUCTION:
The Belts or Ropes are used to transmit power from one shaft to another by means of pulleys which rotate at thesame speed or at different speeds. The amount of power transmitted depends upon the following factors : 1. The velocity of the belt. 2. The tension under which the belt is placed on the pulleys. 3. The arc of contact between the belt and the smaller pulley. 4. The conditions under which the belt is used. It may be noted that (a) The shafts should be properly in line to insure uniform tension across the belt section. (b) The pulleys should not be too close together, in order that the arc of contact on the smaller ulley may beas large as possible. (c) The pulleys should not be so far apart as to cause the belt to weigh heavily on the shafts, thus increasing the friction load on the bearings. (d) A long belt tends to swing from side to side, causing the belt to run out of the pulleys, which in turn develops crooked spots in the belt. (e) The tight side of the belt should be at the bottom, so that whatever sag is present on the loose side will increase the arc of contact at the pulleys. (f ) In order to obtain good results with flat belts, the maximum distance between the shafts should not exceed 10 metres and the minimum should not be less than 3.5 times the diameter of the larger pulley.


Following are the various important factors upon which the selection of a belt drive depends: 1. Speed of the driving and driven shafts, 2. Speed reduction ratio, 3. Power to be transmitted, 4. Centre distance between the shafts, 5. Positive drive requirements, 6. Shafts layout, 7. Space available, and 8. Service conditions.
Types Of Belt Drives: The belt drives are usually classified into the following three groups: 1. Light drives. These are used to transmit small powers at belt speeds upto about 10 m/s as in agricultural machines and small machine tools. 2. Medium drives. These are used to transmit medium powers at belt speeds over 10 m/s but up to 22 m/s, as in machine tools. 3. Heavy drives. These are used to transmit large powers at belt speeds above 22 m/s as in compressors and generators. Types of Belts Though there are many types of belts used these days, yet the following are important from the subject point of view: 1. Flat belt. The flat belt as shown in Fig. (a), is mostly used in the factories and workshops, here a moderate amount of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another when the two pulleys are not more than 8 metres apart.

2. V-belt. The V-belt as shown in Fig. (b), is mostly used in the factories and workshops, where a great amount of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another, when the two pulleys are very near to each other.

3. Circular belt or rope. The circular belt or rope as shown in Fig. (c) is mostly used in the factories and workshops, where a great amount of power is to be transmitted, from one pulley to another, when the two pulleys are more than 8 metres apart.

MATERIAL USED FOR BELTS: The material used for belts and ropes must be strong, flexible, and durable. It must have a high coefficient of friction. The belts, according to the material used, are classified as follows: 1. Leather belts. The most important material for flat belt is leather. The best leather belts are made from 1.2 metres to 1.5 metres long strips cut from either side of the back bone of the top grade steer hides. The hair side of the leather is smoother and harder than the flesh side, but the flesh side is stronger. The fibres on the hair side are perpendicular to the surface, while those on the flesh side are interwoven and parallel to the surface. Therefore for these reasons the hair side of a belt should be in contact with the pulley surface as shown in Fig. 1. This gives a more intimate contact between belt and pulley and places the greatest tensile strength of the belt section on the outside, where the tension is maximum as the belt passes over the pulley. The leather may be either oak-tanned or mineral salt-tanned e.g. chrome-tanned. In order to increase the thickness of belt, the strips are cemented together. The belts are specified according to the number of layers e.g. single, double or triple ply and according to the thickness of hides used e.g. light, medium or heavy.

Fig. Leather belts. The leather belts must be periodically cleaned and dressed or treated with a compound or dressing containing neats foot or other suitable oils so that the belt will remain soft and flexible. 2. Cotton Or Fabric Belts. Most of the fabric belts are made by folding convass or cotton duck to three or more layers (depending upon the thickness desired) and stitching together. These belts are woven also into a strip of the desired width and thickness. They are impregnated with some filler like linseed oil in order to make the belt water-proof and to prevent injury to the fibres. The cotton belts are cheaper and suitable in warm climates, in damp atmospheres and in exposed positions. Since the cotton belts require little attention, therefore these belts are mostly used in farm machinery, belt conveyor etc.

3. Rubber belt. The rubber belts are made of layers of fabric impregnated with rubber composition and have a thin layer of rubber on the faces. These belts are very flexible but are quickly destroyed if allowed to come into contact with heat, oil or grease. One of the principle advantage of these belts is that they may be easily made endless. These belts are found suitable for saw mills, paper mills where they are exposed to moisture. 4. Balata belts. These belts are similar to rubber belts except that balata gum is used in place of rubber. These belts are acid proof and water proof and it is not effected by animal oils or alkalies. The balata belts should not be at temperatures above 40C because at this temperature the balata begins to soften and becomes sticky. The strength of balata belts is 25 per cent higher than rubber belts.

WORKING STRESSES IN BELTS: The ultimate strength of leather belt varies from 21 to 35 MPa and a factor of safety may be taken as 8 to 10. However, the wear life of a belt is more important than actual strength. It has been shown by experience that under average conditions an allowable stress of 2.8 MPa or less will give a reasonable belt life. An allowable stress of 1.75 MPa may be expected to give a belt life of about 15 years.

Density of Belt Materials: The density of various belt materials are given in the following table.
Table. Density of Belt Materials

Belt Speed : A little consideration will show that when the speed of belt increases, the centrifugal force also increases which tries to pull the belt away from the pulley. This will result in the decrease of power transmitted by the belt. It has been found that for the efficient transmission of power, the belt speed 20 m/s to 22.5 m/s may be used

Coefficient of Friction Between Belt and Pulley: The coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley depends upon the following factors: 1. The material of belt; 2. The material of pulley; 3. The slip of belt; and 4. The speed of belt. According to C.G. Barth, the coefficient of friction () for oak tanned leather belts on cast iron pulley, at the point of slipping, is given by the following relation, i.e. = 0.54 ( 42.6/(152.6 + v)) where v= Speed of the belt in metres per minute. The following table shows the values of coefficient of friction for various materials of belt and pulley.

Standard Belt Thicknesses And Widths: The standard flat belt thicknesses are 5, 6.5, 8, 10 and 12 mm. The preferred values of thicknesses are as follows: (a) 5 mm for nominal belt widths of 35 to 63 mm, (b) 6.5 mm for nominal belt widths of 50 to 140 mm, (c) 8 mm for nominal belt widths of 90 to 224 mm, (d) 10 mm for nominal belt widths of 125 to 400 mm, and (e) 12 mm for nominal belt widths of 250 to 600 mm. The standard values of nominal belt widths are in R10 series, starting from 25 mm upto 63 mm and in R 20 series starting from 71 mm up to 600 mm. Thus, the standard widths will be 25, 32, 40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250, 280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560 and 600 mm.

Belt Joints: When the endless belts are not available, then the belts are cut from big rolls and the ends are joined together by fasteners. The various types of joints are 1. Cemented joint, 2. Laced joint, and 3. Hinged joint.

1. Cemented Joint

The cemented joint,as shown in Fig (a), made by the manufacturer to form an endless belt, is preferred than other joints.

2. Laced joint The laced jointis formed by punching holes in line across the belt, leaving a margin between the edge and the holes. A raw hide strip is used for lacing the two ends together to form a joint. This type of joint is known as straight-stitch raw hide laced joint, as shown in Fig.(b).

Metal laced joint as shown in Fig. (c), is made like a staple connection. The points are driven through the flesh side of the belt and clinched on the inside.

3. Hinged joint
Sometimes, metal hingesmay be fastened to the belt ends and connected by a steel or fibre pin as shown in Fig. (d).

The following table shows the efficiencies of these joints.

Data available for belt conveyor system: Input data used for designing the belt conveyor system are: Material density=1600 kg/m3, Belt speed v = 0.02m/s, Length of conveyor L = 8.5 meter, Height of conveyor, H = 5.5 meter, Inclination angle = 10.36, matireal Size =850 x 395 x 268 mm, Design procedure for belt conveyor system The following procedure is followed to design present belt conveyor system BELT CAPACITY: Belt Capacity c = 3.66 x load cross section area perpendicular to belt x belt speed x material density ................................................................................(1) C = 3.66 x 850 x 395 x 0.02 x 0.044 C = 1081 kg/hr BELT WIDTH: Belt width = ( T1(kg) / Belt strength (kg/inch) )................(2) Live load = C /( 3.6 x v)= 1081/( 3.6 x v0.02)= 15.013 kg/m Total live load (A)=live load x conveyor length=120 kg Dead Load (B): This load consists of weight of roller, belting and drive pulley, therefore B=58 kg

Belt Pull = (A+B)xcoefficient of friction For roller bed belt conveyor coefficient of friction= 0.05 Belt pull (c) = 135.42kg Inclines/declines (D): Tangent of angle =33 x product lenth / product height =930 Additional belt pull =total live load x sine of angle =119 kg Additional belt pull =average live load rise in elevation = 15.03 x 1.825 = 27 kg The maximum of above two is consider, D=119kg Deflectors (E): There are no deflectors in our system, E=0 Transition point (F): Additional belt pull = total live load x 0.05 F=6 kg

Effective belt pull

= total belt pull (C+D+E+F) x 1.25 =325kg

T1=effective belt pull x T1factor From table T1factor = 1.42, therefore T1= 461.5kg

Therefore, Belt Strength= 1.02 kg/mm3 Substitute the value of belt strength and T1in equation (2) Belt Width = ( T1(kg) / Belt strength ) = 461/1.02 Belt Width =452.45 mm

BELT TENSION: Effective tension (Te) = total empty friction + load friction + load slope tension .. (3) Return side tension= Fe x W x L x 0.4 x 9.81 x10-3 For horizontal and elevating conveyors, Fe = 0.020 W=weight of material + weight of belt, kg/m Weight of material, Wm=(C x 2000)/(60xv) Wm=(1081x 2000)/(60x0.02) Wm=500 Weight of belt, Wb=16.6 lbs/ft, W=weight of material + weight of belt, kg/m W= 516.33 kg/meter Return side tension = Fe x W x L x 0.4 x 9.81 x10-3 =0.020 x 516.13 x8x 0.4 x 9.81 x 10-3 = 0.32KN Total empty friction = Fe (L+ tf)x W x 9.81x10-3 Standard edge distance =0.055b+0.9 inch =0.0899meter For standard edge distance 0.0899 tf=60 meters Total empty friction= 5.06 KN Carrying side empty friction = Total empty friction -Return side tension = 5.06 - 0.32

= 4.75 KN Load friction = Fl x (L+ tf) x c/(3.6 x v) x 9.81x10-3 For horizontal and elevating conveyor, Fl = 0.025 Load friction =2.5 KN Load slope tension = (C x H) /(3.6 x v) x 9.81x10-3 =2.459 KN Effective Tension Te = Total empty friction +load friction+ load slope tension Te = 5.06 + 2.5 + 2.459 Te = 10.019

POWER CALCULATION: Power HP=(Te x v ) / 33000 Power =(250190 x 0.02 ) / 33000 Power =1.52 x 1.4 Power = 2 HP IDLER SPACING: Idler SpacingSi = (8 x Te x Sag) /(W x 9.81 x 10-3) Where, Sag = 0.02 (2%), Si = (8 x 10.017 x 0.02) /(516.13 x 9.81 x 10-3) Si=0.32 Meters

MOTOR RPM CALCULATION: Motor RPM, N = ( 9550 x 1000 x 1.42 KW) / Mt Here torque is not known and hence it can be calculated by following method. For belt onveyor application, Mt =1/2 x D x (F+ Wg) To find out the diameter of roll Material weight density=1600 kg/m3. From table of bulk material handling handbook, for weight density of material Wmand belt width, the diameter of pulley D =0.630 meters. According to CEMA (Conveyor Equipment and Manufacturers Association) the coefficient of friction =0.35 Substitute the values of F, ,W, and g Torque Mt = 1/2 x 0.63x (0.02+ 0.35 x 1600) Mt= 176 Nm Mt = 176000 Substitute the value of Mt in N N = ( 9550 x 1000 x 1.42 KW) / 176000 Motor RPM, = 808.4 RPM

THE SPECIFICATIONS GOT AFTER DESIGN ARE AS FOLLOWS: Belt width=452.4mm, Effective belt tension Te=10KN, Power=2.1hp, Idler spacing, Si=0.31meter, Motor rpm=808, Shaft diameter d=138.24mm, Pulley diameter=636.19mm

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