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HTTP

Hypertext Transfer (or Transport) Protocol, the data transfer protocol used on the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should ta e in response to various commands. !or example, when you enter a "#$ in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the re%uested Web page.

HTTPS
Hypertext Transfer Protocol& a protocol to transfer hypertext re%uests and information between servers and browsers. 'f you(re going to run an online store or ecommerce Web site, you should be aware of HTTP) * or HyperText Transfer Protocol with )ecure )oc ets $ayer. HTTP) is a protocol to transfer encrypted data over the Web. There are two primary differences between an HTTP) and an HTTP connection wor & HTTP) connects on port ++,, while HTTP is on port -. HTTP) encrypts the data sent and received with ))$, while HTTP sends it all as plain text.

FTP
)hort for !ile Transfer Protocol, the protocol for exchanging files over the 'nternet. !TP wor s in the same way as HTTP for transferring Web pages from a server to a user(s browser and )/TP for transferring electronic mail across the 'nternet in that, li e these technologies, !TP uses the 'nternet(s T0P1'P protocols to enable data transfer. !TP is most commonly used to download a file from a server using the 'nternet or to upload a file to a server (e.g., uploading a Web page file to a server).

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SFTP
)!TP is secure !TP. )ecure !ile Transfer Protocol ()!TP) encrypts both commands and data. )!TP prevents passwords and sensitive information from being transmitted over the networ , and is thus much less vulnerable to third*party interception. )!TP functionally similar to !TP with a different protocol(with is secure than traditional !TP software).

SSH
))H, the term derived from )ecure )hell, provides users with a secure, encrypted mechanism to for accessing systems that are supporting remote connections through the ssh services and do the various 2obs from maintenance of "nix1$inux systems to the plain files transfers as it can be used as a secure replacement for !TP as well.

BOOTP
)hort for 3ootstrap Protocol, an 'nternet protocol that enables a dis less wor station to discover its own 'P address, the 'P address of a 344TP server on the networ , and a file to be loaded into memory to boot the machine. This enables the wor station to boot without re%uiring a hard or floppy dis drive. The protocol is defined by #!0 567.

Routable Protocols
8ata being sent from one $9: to another along any of several available paths is routed. The protocols that support multipath $9:*to*$9: communications are nown as (#outable Protocols(. 3ecause routable protocols can be used to tie several $9:s together and create new wide*area environments, they are becoming increasingly important. T0P1'P is the (routable protocol(. 3ecause #outable Protocols are relatively large protocols than the non*routable ones, they are slow in everything. They involve many types of error*chec ing and other functions, which increase the si;e of data*pac ets.

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Routed Protocols
#outed protocols can be sent over a routed networ . Today, with 'P (thin of T0P1'P) being the predominate protocol in use on the 'nternet and in most networ s, we don(t often thin about routed versus unrouted protocols. That is because 'P is a routed protocol. /eaning, 'P is designed such that it can be routed over and through different networ s. This is because the 'P address is bro en up into networ and node (host) by the subnet mas . 9n example of a protocol that is not routed (unroutable) would be :et3'4). 't wor s great on a small local networ (in your house) but wouldn(t wor well over a large networ connected by dedicated networ circuits or the 'nternet. UNC )hort for "niversal :aming 0onvention or "niform :aming 0onvention, a P0 format for specifying the location of resources on a local*area networ ($9:). ":0 uses the following format& <<server*name<shared*resource*pathname )o, for example, to access the file test.txt in the directory examples on the shared server silo, you would write& <<silo<examples<test.txt =ou can also use ":0 to identify shared peripheral devices, such as printers. The idea behind ":0 is to provide a format so that each shared resource can be identified with a uni%ue address. ":0 is supported by Windows and many networ operating systems (:4)(s).

RDP
#emote 8es top Protocol (#8P) is a secure networ communications protocol for Windows*based applications running on a server. #8P allows networ administrators to remotely diagnose and resolve problems encountered by individual subscribers. #8P is available for most versions of the Windows operating system as well as /ac 4) >. 9n open source version is also available.

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:oteworthy properties of #8P include encryption, smart card authentication, bandwidth reduction, resource sharing, the ability to use multiple displays and the ability to disconnect temporarily without logging off. #8P also allows redirection of functions such as audio and printing. #8P can support up to ?+,... independent channels for data transmission. 8ata can be encrypted using 7@-*bit eys and the bandwidth reduction feature optimi;es the data transfer rate in low*speed connections. The protocol has presented some security issues, however. !or instance, if an administrator opens a thin*client connection between computers, an attac er who is able to brea into the #8P connection would have administrator privileges on both computers. 't is generally recommended that #8P only be used when it is absolutely necessary and that both the administrator and end user run with the lowest level of privileges possible.

Client Server Model for Networkin


The term A0lient*)erver modelA has several uses but all are based around the same concept of using a client system to access a centrali;ed server in order to use a service. When a networ protocol is described as being (client*server(, we mean that the application runs as a service on a server, and a client version of the application is used to access the service. There are some very specific characteristics of a client server implementation&

The server provides services and data The server abstracts communication and information access, allowing clients to ma e simplified re%uests for services and data. The client handles all aspects of data presentation and the user(s interface.

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!P "ddress
Bvery machine on a networ has a uni%ue identifier. Cust as you would address a letter to send in the mail, computers use the uni%ue identifier to send data to specific computers on a networ . /ost networ s today, including all computers on the 'nternet, use the T0P1'P protocol as the standard for how to communicate on the networ . 'n the T0P1'P protocol, the uni%ue identifier for a computer is called its 'P address. There are two standards for 'P addresses& 'P Dersion + ('Pv+) and 'P Dersion ? ('Pv?). 9ll computers with 'P addresses have an 'Pv+ address, and many are starting to use the new 'Pv? address system as well. Here(s what these two address types mean&

'Pv+ uses ,@ binary bits to create a single uni%ue address on the networ . 9n 'Pv+ address is expressed by four numbers separated by dots. Bach number is the decimal (base*7.) representation for an eight*digit binary (base*@) number, also called an octet. !or example& @7?.@E.?7.7,E

'Pv? uses 7@- binary bits to create a single uni%ue address on the networ . 9n 'Pv? address is expressed by eight groups of hexadecimal (base*7?) numbers separated by colons, as in @..7&cdba&....&....&....&....&,@6E&5?6@. Froups of numbers that contain all ;eros are often omitted to save space, leaving a colon separator to mar the gap (as in @..7&cdba&&,@6E&5?6@).

M"C "ddress
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)hort for /edia 9ccess 0ontrol address, a hardware address that uni%uely identifies each node of a networ . 'n 'BBB -.@ networ s, the 8ata $in 0ontrol (8$0) layer of the 4)' #eference /odel is divided into two sub*layers& the $ogical $in 0ontrol ($$0) layer and the /edia 9ccess 0ontrol (/90) layer. The /90 layer interfaces directly with the networ medium. 0onse%uently, each different type of networ medium re%uires a different /90 layer. 4n networ s that do not conform to the 'BBB -.@ standards but do conform to the 4)' #eference /odel, the node address is called the 8ata $in 0ontrol (8$0) address. How to Find a M"C "ddress To display your /90 address on a Windows :T1@...1@..,1>P1Disa computer&

0lic )T9#T Fo to 900B))4#'B) )elect 0ommand Prompt Type& (no %uotes) Aipconfig 1allA

'n the Aipconfig 1allA results loo for the adapter you want to find the /90 address of. The /90 address is the number located next to APhysical 9ddressA in the list.

Subnet Maskin
T0P1'P communication between computers is divided into pac ets with headers (electronic address labels) that identify the 'P address of the computer a pac et is coming from, and the 'P address of the computer it is going to (the destination). Bvery 'P address is divided into a networ '8 portion and a client '8 portion. 4n the internet, routers loo at the , binary digits on the left of the destination 'P address to determine an 'P address(s Aclass.A (9n 'P address is ,@ binary digits.) The router then uses the class to determine how many binary digits ma e up the networ portion of the 'P address& - for class 9(s, 7? for class 3(s, and @+ for class 0(s. 't uses a database in the router (called the routing table) to decide where to send it next.

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4nce a pac et is passed by an 'nternet router to its destination networ , it is either on the $9: segment of the destination computer, or the $9: has been subdivided by the $9: administrators. 'f its on the destination computer(s $9: segment, the destination computer uses it and it goes no further. 'f a networ administrator has divided the $9:, and the destination computer is not on the current $9: segment, the corporate routers (not 'nternet routers) must now determine how to forward the pac et to the correct $9: segment. These corporate routers are what sub*divide the $9:. The Anetwor A portion of the 'P address doesn(t help the corporate router, because every 'P address in the subdivided $9: has the same networ '8. This is what the subnet mas is for. Here(s a ey point& 9 subnet mas is used both when a $9: is subdivided, and when it is not subdivided (a single $9: segment). 'f the $9: is not subdivided, the subnet mas shows that the $9: is a single segment. !or example, with a class 0 'P address, the first , octets (w.x.y in the w.x.y.; format, or the left*most @+ binary digits) are the networ '8 portion, and a subnet mas of @66.@66.@66.. would be used to indicate that there was only one undivided $9: segment. 'n this case, the client '8 portion of the 'P address (the ; in the w.x.y.; format) is not divided, and all - binary digits are used to identify a specific computer on the $9: segment. ('n binary, a mas of @66.@66.@66.. is 77777777.77777777.77777777..........) When a $9: is subdivided, the client '8 portion of the 'P address is splitG The part on the left is used to identify the corporate $9: segment, and the part on the right is used to identify a specific computer on that $9: segment. With a class 0 'P address, and a subnet mas of @66.@66.@66.75@, the 75@ tells the corporate routers that of the eight binary digits ma ing up the client '8 in a class 0 'P address, the @ on the left are to identify the $9: segment, and the remaining ? identify the specific computer on that $9: segment. ('n binary, a mas of @66.@66.@66.75@ is 77777777.77777777.77777777.##......, and the digits in red show which digits of the client '8 portion are mas ed, and therefore used to identify a corporate subnet.)

$atewa%
9 node on a networ that serves as an entrance to another networ . 'n enterprises, the gateway is the computer that routes the traffic from a wor station to the

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outside networ that is serving the Web pages. 'n homes, the gateway is the ')P that connects the user to the internet. 'n enterprises, the gateway node often acts as a proxy server and a firewall. The gateway is also associated with both a router, which use headers and forwarding tables to determine where pac ets are sent, and a switch, which provides the actual path for the pac et in and out of the gateway.

Brid e
9 bridge device filters data traffic at a networ boundary. 3ridges reduce the amount of traffic on a $9: by dividing it into two segments. 3ridges operate at the data lin layer ($ayer @) of the 4)' model. 3ridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. 9n Bthernet bridge, for example, inspects each incoming Bthernet frame * including the source and destination /90 addresses, and sometimes the frame si;e * in ma ing individual forwarding decisions. 3ridges serve a similar function as switches, that also operate at $ayer @. Traditional bridges, though, support one networ boundary, whereas switches usually offer four or more hardware ports. )witches are sometimes called Amulti* port bridgesA for this reason.

Router
9 router is a device in computer networ ing that forwards data pac ets to their destinations, based on their addresses. The wor a router does it called routing, which is somewhat li e switching, but a router is different from a switch. The latter is simply a device to connect machines to form a $9:. #outers are physical devices that 2oin multiple wired or wireless networ s together. Technically, a wired or wireless router is a $ayer , gateway, meaning that the wired1wireless router connects networ s (as gateways do), and that the router operates at the networ layer of the 4)' model.

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Home networ ers often use an 'nternet Protocol ('P) wired or wireless router, 'P being the most common 4)' networ layer protocol. 9n 'P router such as a 8)$ or cable modem broadband router 2oins the home(s local area networ ($9:) to the wide*area networ (W9:) of the 'nternet.

&t'ernet
Bthernet is a protocol that controls the way data is transmitted over a local area networ ($9:). 't uses wires (meaning it is not a wireless technology). The wires used for a $9: are mostly those headed by an #C*+6 2ac , which is similar to the 2ac plugged into your telephone set, but twice as big. )ome Bthernet networ s use coaxial cables, but thatHs rarer, and present in rather large $9:s, which span over areas between buildings. 'f you want to see what a coaxial cable is li e, loo at the thic cable that lin s your TD antenna to your TD set. Bthernet is by far the most popular $9: protocol used today. 't is so popular that if you buy a networ card to install on your machine, you will get an Bthernet card, unless you as for something different, if of course that different protocol is available. Bthernet has evolved over the years. Today, you can get cheap Bthernet $9: cards with speeds up to 7.. /bpsI while the fastest Bthernet reaches Fbps (7 Fbps J 7... /bps) in speed.

!nternal Mode( vs) &*ternal Mode( There are @ basic physical types of modems& 'nternal K Bxternal modems. Bxternal modems sit next to the computer and connect to the serial port using a straight*through serial cable.

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9n internal modems is a plug*in circuit board that sits inside the computer. 't incorporates the serial port on*board. They are less expensive than external modems because they do not re%uire a case, power supply and serial cable. They appear to the communication programs as if they were an external modem for all practical purposes.

Radio and Microwave Si nal A#adioA or A#adio WavesA are energy expended in the form of electro magnetic radiation. /ore specifically the term A#adioA refers to a specific fre%uency pattern of that radiation. This is how #adio broadcasting wor s. A/icrowavesA are a said to be all radio fre%uency between ,../h; and ,. Fh;. Thus microwave is a specific class of A#adio WaveA. !or more in depth explanations research the theroys of Heinrich Hert;.

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NTFS
)hort for :T !ile )ystem, one of the file system for the Windows :T operating system (Windows :T also supports the !9T file system). :T!) has features to improve reliability, such as transaction logs to help recover from dis failures. To control access to files, you can set permissions for directories and1or individual files. :T!) files are not accessible from other operating systems such as 84). !or large applications, :T!) supports spanning volumes, which means files and directories can be spread out across several physical dis s.

F"T
9 table that the operating system uses to locate files on a dis . 8ue to fragmentation, a file may be divided into many sections that are scattered around the dis . The !9T eeps trac of all these pieces. 'n 84) systems, !9Ts are stored 2ust after the boot sector. The !9T system for older versions of Windows 56 is called !9T7?, and the one for new versions of Windows 56 and Windows 5- is called FAT32.

&*tended File S%ste(


The extended file system, or ext, was implemented in 9pril 755@ as the first file system created specifically for the $inux ernel. 't has metadata structure inspired by the traditional "nix !ile )ystem ("!)) and was designed by #Lmy 0ard to overcome certain limitations of the /inix file system.M7N 't was the first implementation that used the virtual file system (D!)), for which support was added in the $inux ernel in version ..5?c, and it could handle file systems up to @ gigabytes (F3) in si;e.

&+F"T
Bx!9T is the Bxtended !ile 9llocation Table file system and is part of Windows 0B ?.. and Windows Dista )P71Windows )erver @..- and beyond (i.e., included in Windows E). Bx!9T is designed to be used when :T!) is not suitable or there(s too much overhead (e.g., on removable devices). Bx!9T supports drives much larger than +F3, the previous limit, and actually supports drives up to 7?

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exbibytes theoretically ('(ve not seen thumb drives that large yet). Bx!9T is the default file system for removable devices as shown below.

TCP,!P
)hort for Transmission 0ontrol Protocol/'nternet Protocol, the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the 'nternet. T0P1'P uses several protocols, the two main ones being T0P and 'P. T0P1'P is built into the ":'> operating system and is used by the 'nternet, ma ing it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networ s. Bven networ operating systems that have their own protocols, such as :etware, also support T0P1'P.

!P+,SP+
)hort for 'nternetwor Pac et Bxchange, a networ ing protocol used by the :ovell :etWare operating systems. $i e "8P1'P, 'P> is a datagram protocol used
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for connectionless communications. ()P>)& )hort for )e%uenced Pac et Bxchange, a transport layer protocol (layer + of the 4)' /odel) used in :ovell :etware networ s. The )P> layer sits on top of the 'P> layer (layer ,) and provides connection*oriented services between two nodes on the networ . )P> is used primarily by client1server applications.

OS!
4)' stands for open system interconnection is a standard description or Areference modelA for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication networ .

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-. "//lication 0a%er 1 The application layer provider different services to the application. Bxample of services provided by this layer are file transfer, electronic messaging e*mail, virtual terminal access and networ management. 2. Presentation 0a%er 1 The Presentation layer is responsible for protocol conversion, date encryption1decryption, Bxpanding graphics command and the date compression. This layer ma es the communications between two host possible. 3. Session 0a%er 1 This layer is responsible for establishing the process*to* process communication between the host in the networ . This layer is responsible for establishing and ending the sessions across the networ . The interactive login is an example of services provided by this layer in which the connective are re* connected in care of any interruption. 4. Trans/ort 0a%er 1 This layer is responsible for end*to*end delivers of messages between the networ ed hosts. 't first divides the streams of data into chun s or pac ets before transmission and then the receiving computer re* assembles the pac ets. 't also guarantee error free data delivery without loss or duplications. 5. Network 0a%er 1 This layer is responsible for translating the logical networ address and names into their physical address ( /90 address). This layer is also responsible for addressing, determining routes for sending and managing networ problems such as pac et switching, data congestion and routines. 6. Data 0ink 0a%er 1 8ata lin layer is responsible for controlling the error between ad2acent nodes and transfer the frames to other computer via physical layer. 8ata lin layer is used by hubs and switches for their operation. #. P'%sical 0a%er 1 Physical $ayer is responsible for transmitting row bit stream over the physical cable. The physical layer defines the hardware items such as cables, cards, voltages etc.

S70

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)O$ (pronounced Aess*%ue*elA) stands for )tructured Ouery $anguage. )O$ is used to communicate with a database. 9ccording to 9:)' (9merican :ational )tandards 'nstitute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems. )O$ statements are used to perform tas s such as update data on a database, or retrieve data from a database. )ome common relational database management systems that use )O$ are& 4racle, )ybase, /icrosoft )O$ )erver, 9ccess, 'ngres, etc. 9lthough most database systems use )O$, most of them also have their own additional proprietary extensions that are usually only used on their system. However, the standard )O$ commands such as A)electA, A'nsertA, A"pdateA, A8eleteA, A0reateA, and A8ropA can be used to accomplish almost everything that one needs to do with a database. This tutorial will provide you with the instruction on the basics of each of these commands as well as allow you to put them to practice using the )O$ 'nterpreter.

S/oofin
9 techni%ue used to gain unauthori;ed access to computers, whereby the intruder sends messages to a computer with an 'P address indicating that the message is coming from a trusted host. To engage in 'P spoofing, a hac er must first use a variety of techni%ues to find an 'P address of a trusted host and then modify the pac et headers so that it appears that the pac ets are coming from that host. Bmail spoofing is when the sender changes the name in an outgoing email so that it loo s li e the email came from somewhere or someone else. This practice is often used by spammers to stop people finding out who they are. 't also means that when the spam mail is re2ected by the addressee(s mail server, the bounce bac message goes to whoever was specified in the outgoing mail rather than to the spammer themselves.

0"N and 8"N


0"N 9 0ocal "rea Network 9 $9: connects networ devices over a relatively short distance. 9 networ ed office building, school, or home usually contains a single $9:, though sometimes one building will contain a few small $9:s (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a $9: will span a group of nearby buildings. 'n T0P1'P networ ing, a $9: is often but not always implemented as a single 'P subnet.
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'n addition to operating in a limited space, $9:s are also typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organi;ation. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Bthernet and To en #ing. 8"N 9 8ide "rea Network 9s the term implies, a W9: spans a large physical distance. The 'nternet is the largest W9:, spanning the Barth. 9 W9: is a geographically*dispersed collection of $9:s. 9 networ device called a router connects $9:s to a W9:. 'n 'P networ ing, the router maintains both a $9: address and a W9: address. 9 W9: differs from a $9: in several important ways. /ost W9:s (li e the 'nternet) are not owned by any one organi;ation but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. W9:s tend to use technology li e 9T/, !rame #elay and >.@6 for connectivity over the longer distances.

"DS0 Mode(
)hort for asymmetric digital subscriber line, 98)$ is a type of 8)$ broadband communications technology used for connecting to the 'nternet. 98)$ allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines (P4T)), when compared to traditional modem lines. 9 special filter, called a microfilter, is installed on a subscriber(s telephone line to allow both 98)$ and regular voice (telephone) services to be used at the same time. 98)$ re%uires a special 98)$ modem and subscribers must be in close geographical locations to the provider(s central office to receive 98)$ service. Typically this distance is within a radius of @ to @.6 miles. 98)$ supports data rates of from 7.6 to 5 /bps when receiving data ( nown as the downstream rate) and from 7? to ?+. Pbps when sending data ( nown as the upstream rate).

Boot Partition and S%ste( Partition

The boot /artition is a dis partition that contains the boot sector and files such as :T$8# that are needed for booting Windows >P and earlier.

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(Windows Dista and Windows )erver @..- use a newer boot loader called bootmgr that replaces :T$8# and is configured using 308Bdit.exe).

The s%ste( /artition is the dis partition that contains the Windows operating system files and its support files, but not any files responsible for booting.

8rite an% #: tec'nical differences between 8indows ;ista and 8indows -.


#) Peri/'erals are inte rated in a s(oot'er (anner1 :ow, every time you plug in a plug and play device, you will be having a different experience each time. 3ecause this time, Windows E has turned its peripheral detection and support, more device central rather than shooting 2ust an auto*run option as it used to do in Windows E and windows Dista. This will be more helpful, when you will be using different ind of peripheral devices. 3y far, almost all inds of devices will be supported with the necessary drivers. 9nd as if its not enough, Windows E will help you find the website of your peripheral device(s manufacturer, and allow you do more than what you could have done with the auto*run interface only. Cust for an example, say you plug in a camera, Windows E might ta e you to that manufacturer(s website, where you might be having an option of uploading your photos to an online album. 3est thing is, you won(t be running out of drivers for your peripheral devices, as Windows E has been included an ocean of such drivers, and if by chance the driver is not existent there, Windows E will find it over the net for you. 6) ;er% (uc' i(/roved U"C1 The only problem, that was always discussed in most of the forums, and many %uestions which remained unanswered, and so many users who left the with an unsatisfied soulI will all be changed. !inally, we will be getting rid of annoying overprotective dialogue box that used to appear almost all the time, even when
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you changed the cursor speed or installed a softwareI as Windows E has shed overprotective dialogue boxes but still maintaining the %uality protection against malicious attac s. Windows E will only display messages when ma2or settings are changed.

5) Brand new taskbar1 What do you have at your bottom right corner of the screenQ a set of icons which eeps popping up balloons one after another, giving an illusion of fancy lighting in a weddingQ Well, don(t worry anymoreI as in Windows E /icrosoft has made sure that you have the complete authority to change the settings re%uired and allow or disallow only the re%uired icons and also change the settings for notifications that might appear on screen and probably annoy you. Bven the small little triangle that used to expand into the tas bar revealing all programs that are runningI is gotten rid of. :ow at the same place, if you move your cursor, you(ll be getting a list of processes that are running. 4) Su/er fast /erfor(ance1 Probably this is the ma2or improvement upon Dista, which will heighten the sales of Windows E. /icrosoft had promised that it would deliver an 4perating )ystem that would be much faster than Dista. 9nd yes it did, when the beta version of E was released and was tested. Windows E has very few startups process, and hence unspo en of, loads very fast. 9nd in fact there are very few processes that run in the bac ground and eat up memory cycles. 3ut, anyways, performance of final release is yet to be tested. 3ut till then, E have been roc ing. 3) Multi9touc' in 8in With touch technology becoming the latest trend after 9ppleHs revolutionary multi*touch iPhone, Windows E has multi*touch for all the supported hardware. HP Touchsmart series is one of them. 2) "ero Peek

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9ero Pee allows Win E users to instantly ma e all the opened windows transparent. )o let say, you want to see the weather on Windows E sidebar Fadget, this will be very useful.

-) New Taskbar Windows E des top will loo different now because of the new tas bar. =ou can now reorder the opened Window buttons. 't has Cump $ists feature which will allow you to access common programs very easily. 9nd you can see the full screen preview before switching to a window.

9s you can see above, Ouic $aunch bar and tas bar are merged together in Windows E. <) $a(es 9long with old Windows Dista games, Win E will have online version of 0hec ers, )pades and 3ac gammon. 'f you remember, recently there was a new robot game Tin er on Dista. This was a part of Dista "ltimate. =) Media Center Win E comes with enhanced /edia 0enter experience. 't will have 'nternet TD which will telecast /): channels by default and will have a des top sidebar gadget for the same too. #:) Net Book &dition

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:etboo s are the light weight portable laptops used for browsing, email etc. 't seems that by this year end weHll see :etboo s by every ma2or 3rand li e HP, 8ell, )ony etc. Windows E, apart from "ltimate Bdition and 3usiness edition will also have :etboo Bdition. Though, of course itHll be a stripped down version. ##) Perfor(ance and User Friendliness Windows E will tremendously reduce the time to install an app. 9lso, now Windows will be less annoying with very less "90 prompt. !or developers also, WinE will reduce the time ta en for developing Windows app.

8rite t'e co(/arison between 8in NT Server and 8indows 6::5 Server>
Feature area Features t'at were added since 8indows NT 4): and are u/dated in t'is release

Features t'at are new to t'e 8indows Server 6::5 fa(il%

)erver reliability

'mproved memory management #obust system architecture 8iagnostic tools )afe /ode start #ecovery 0onsole Windows !ile Protection Bnhanced 3ac up utility

9utomated )ystem #ecovery (9)#) 0ompatibility /ode

)erver availability

)erver clusters :etwor $oad

"ser )tate /igration Tool

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3alancing clusters

!ewer server restarts Plug and Play )tart from mirrored volumes

Bmergency /anagement )ervices

)erver scalability

Hardware scalability '@4 support )ymmetric multiprocessing enhancements :etwor $oad 3alancing )erver clusters Bnterprise /emory 9rchitecture

'nternet 'nformation )ervices ('')) ?..

)erver manageability

'ntelli/irror Windows /anagement 'nstrumentation (W/') #emote 'nstallation )ervices (#')) /anage =our )erver

#emote 8es top for 9dministration #emotely administered server support "ser )tate /igration Tool Bmergency /anagement )ervices

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#esultant )et of Policy (#)4P) 9uthori;ation /anager

Performance and tuning features

Winsoc 8irect '@4 support 0P" throttling for Web applications or sites Process 9ccounting for Web applications or sites Predictable, end*to* end Ouality of )ervice (Oo)) :etwor $oad 3alancing :ew performance tools 8is 8efragmenter Bvent Tracing enhancements

Performance 4ptions :ew command*line utilities for )ystem /onitor

9uthentication and smart card support

!ull support for the Perberos D6 protocol Public ey infrastructure (PP'), 0ertificate

)tored "ser :ames and Passwords )mart card access through Terminal )erver

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)ervices, and smart cards

Dirtual private networ ing !lexible, secure authentication and authori;ation 'nternet 9uthentication )ervice ('9)) #outing and #emote 9ccess

9dditional security features

Bncrypting !ile )ystem (B!)) 'nternet Protocol )ecurity ('P)ec)

T0P1"8P port ownership )oftware restriction policies

#emote management

/icrosoft /anagement 0onsole (//0) )cripting with Windows )cript Host #emote 'nstallation )ervices (#'))

#emote 8es top for 9dministration #emote assistance Web 'nterface for #emote 9dministration (Windows )erver @..,, Web Bdition only)

/aintenance and product updates

Windows "pdate

8oes not apply

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'nternationali;ation features

/ultilingual support /ultiregional support

:ew Phonetic 'nput /ethod Bditor ('/B) for Traditional 0hinese

9ctive 8irectory

)implified user and networ *resource management !lexible, secure authentication and authori;ation 8irectory consolidation 8irectory*enabled applications and infrastructure )calability without complexity "se of 'nternet standards 9 powerful development environment #eplication and trust monitoring /essage Oueuing distribution lists

!or a list of the 9ctive 8irectory features that are new in this release, see :ew features for 9ctive 8irectory.

8is and file management features

8is /anagement

#emote document sharing

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8is %uota support 8istributed !ile )ystem 8istributed $in Trac ing 8istributed 9uthoring and Dersioning (89D) High*performance content indexing Bncrypting !ile )ystem (B!)) #emovable )torage and #emote )torage

0ommand*line support for dis management F"'8 partition table (FPT). 9vailable on all versions of Windows )erver @.., with )ervice Pac 7 ()P7) and on all versions of Windows )erver @..,, x?+ Bdition. )hadow copies of shared folders

'nternet and e*mail services and features

9ctive )erver Pages (9)P) Windows /edia )ervices Web 8istributed 9uthoring and Dersioning (Web89D) 9pplication recycling

/icrosoft .:BT !ramewor components 'nternet 'nformation )ervices ('')) ?.. "niversal 8escription, 8iscovery, and 'ntegration ("88') )ervices B*mail services (P4P,, )/TP) Windows /anagement

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'nstrumentation (W/') Provider

!eatures for collaboration

Windows /edia )ervices Predictable, end*to* end Ouality of )ervice (Oo)) 9synchronous transfer mode (9T/)

/icrosoft .:BT !ramewor 9udio 9cceleration on the remote access server

9pplication support

Widest range of turn ey applications 0omprehensive 'nternet application services /icrosoft 9ctive 9ccessibility T9P' ,.7 Transaction services /essage Oueuing 0omponent )ervices Cob ob2ects Host data integration

0ompatibility /ode Web gardens in 'nternet 'nformation )ervices (''))

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/anagement and deployment

0hange and configuration management with Froup Policy 8irectory consolidation in 9ctive 8irectory 'ntelli/irror #emote 'nstallation )ervices (#')) Windows /anagement 'nstrumentation (W/') )ide*by*side component sharing 9dd or #emove Programs Windows 'nstaller 9pplication management

#emotely administered server support #esultant )et of Policy (#)4P)

Terminal )erver features

0entrali;ed deployment of programs #emote access to applications )ingle application

9udio redirection

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access

Terminal )ervices /anager #emote control

8evelopment support

Disual )tudio .:BT /ultilingual technology

9utomatic generation of lin '8s 3ac ground 'ntelligent Transfer )ervice (3'T))

:etwor protocols and technologies

Winsoc 8irect 8H0P with 8:) and 9ctive 8irectory 'nternet 0onnection )haring ('0)) :etwor 9ddress Translation (:9T) Dirtual private networ ing #outing and #emote 9ccess 9synchronous transfer mode (9T/)

)imple 4b2ect 9ccess Protocol ()49P) !ibre 0hannel support 9utomatic configuration for multiple networ s Web 8igital 9uthoring and Dersioning (Web89D) redirector 'nternet 9uthentication )ervice ('9)) as #98'") proxy Wireless networ ing

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'P version ? ('Pv?)

8rite t'e ste/s to install Novel Netware alon wit' dia ra(>
Mini(u( S%ste( Re?uire(ents 9 server*class P0 with a PentiumR '' or 9/8R PE processor @6? /3 of #9/ (67@ /3 if running :P)) 9 )uper DF9 display adapter 9 84) partition of at least @.. /3 and @.. /3 available space @ F3 of available dis space outside the 84) partition for volume )=)& 4ne networ board 9 08 drive 9 ")3, P)1@R, or serial mouse (recommended but not re%uired) Reco((ended S%ste( Re?uire(ents 9 multiprocessor P0 with a least two Pentium ''' E.. /H; or higher processors 67@ /3 of #9/ 9 )uper DF9 or higher resolution display adapter 9 84) partition with 7 F3 of available space + F3 of available dis space outside the 84) partition 4ne or more networ boards 9 bootable 08 drive that supports the Bl Torito specification 9 ")3, P)1@, or serial mouse U/ rade S%ste( Re?uire(ents The server to be upgraded must be running one of the following& :etWare 6.7 with )upport Pac @ or later :etWare 6 with )upport Pac ? or later :etWare +.@ with )upport Pac - or later :etWare +.. with )upport Pac - or later

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9 server*class P0 with a Pentium '' or 9/8 PE processor @6? /3 of #9/ 9 )uper DF9 display adapter 9 84) partition with ,6 /3 of available space @ F3 of available dis space on volume )=)& 4ne networ board 9 08 drive 9 ")3, P)1@, or serial mouse (recommended but not re%uired) Software and Ot'er Re?uire(ents NetWare 6 Operating System 08 NetWare 6 icense/!ryptograp"y dis ette )upervisor right at the M#ootN of the e8irectoryT/ tree )upervisor right to the container where the server will be installed #ead right to the )ecurity container ob2ect for the e8irectory tree 84) and 08 drivers (re%uired if the computer does not boot from 08) =ou can ma e a bootable floppy dis ette using the /P!$4PP=.39T program located in the ':)T9$$ directory of the NetWare 6 Operating System 08. 0lient connection utilities (optional, for installing from a networ )& :ovellQ 0lientT/ for 84) and WindowsR ,.7x (optional, for installing from a :etWare server running 'P>T/). 'P )erver 0onnection "tility (optional, for installing from a :etWare server running 'P only). !or instructions, see P#48"0T)<)B#DB#':)T<'P04::.T>T on the No#ell !lient 08. 'P address and domain names (re%uired for connecting to the 'nternet)& 9n 'P address 9n 'P address of a domain name server The name of your domain :etwor board and storage device properties, such as the interrupt and port address (re%uired if not included in :etWare) Pre/are t'e Network

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#un :etWare 8eployment /anager (:W8BP$4=.B>B), located on the NetWare 6 Operating System 08. 0omplete all relevant tas s in the Prepare the :etwor section.

)TBP) (7)0hoose 900BPT $'0B:)B 9F#BB/B:T and hit MB:TB#N to continue.

(@) 'n this instance we want to create everything fresh with this :etWare ? installation. Therefore, choose the option to 0#B9TB 9 :BW 344T P9#T'T'4: and hit MB:TB#N to continue.

(,) The si;e of the boot partition can be modified if desired. ' have heard it suggested that you have twice the dis space as you do #9/ on your server. However, ' have found that if you need to ta e a core dump of your server your dis space can be as little as half the amount of #9/ on your system so long as you ta e the core dump without file cache. )elect 04:T':"B and hit MB:TB#N to move on.

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(+) 0hoose 04:T':"B and hit MB:TB#N.

(6) 9fter the new boot partition has been created, press any ey to reboot the server.

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(?) :ow we are ready to start the installation. Hit M!7.N to accept the license agreement.

(E) We want to modify this screen. B>P#B)) is the type of install that comes up by default. We want to change this option to 0")T4/ so we can select the basic web services to be installed. We will leave the other option at :BW )B#DB#. 0hoose 04:T':"B and hit MB:TB#N.

(-) 9ccept the defaults, select 04:T':"B, and hit MB:TB#N.

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(5) 9lthough it is not going to be covered in this training, it is important to note that if a language other than Bnglish is used, other products (such as :P)) will have a separate language configuration. !or our purposes select 04:T':"B and hit MB:TB#N.

(7.) 9ccept the defaults, select 04:T':"B, and hit MB:TB#N.

(77) 9ccept the defaults and hit MB:TB#N to continue.


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(7@) )elect the proper :etwor board and hit MB:TB#N to continue.

(7,) 0reate the desired si;e of the )=) volume and then hit MB:TB#N to continue.

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(7+) :ow enter in the name that you want for your server. The name of the server can either match the host name that you will be using or it can be different. !or example, let(s say that our server and host name are WB3 and our domain is :4DB$$.04/ ** then our full 8:) name would be WB3.:4DB$$.04/ and our server name would be WB3. The only advantage to this is that it ma es it easier to remember which full 8:) name belongs to which server. 't is not re%uired and will not be done with this install, but is mentioned as a common practice.

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(76) 'nsert the license and select M:B>TN to continue.

(7?) There are several services that can grow in si;e which may fill up your )=) volume. =ou may want to create another volume that will allow for this growth. )ome of these services may include i!older (file storage and log files), 9pache (web site and log files), :B) (web site and log files), :et)torage (file storage), etc. 'f you desire to create another volume, select the !#BB )P90B section and select 0#B9TB. 4nce the volume has been created, select M:B>TN to continue.

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(7E) ' want you to pay close attention to the 'P address that ' am binding to my :'0. This will have significant impact later on during the install. Cust remember that it ends with a EE.

(7-) #emember in step 7, that we discussed the option of having the server name and the host name the same. Well to show the point that they don(t have to be the same (and because my 'P address is already registered with a 8:) name that doesn(t match the server), my server name will be :W?ST#9':':F, my host name will be CH9#/4:TB)T+, my domain will be P#4D4.:4DB$$.04/, and my full 8:) name will be CH9#/4:TB)T+. P#4D4.:4DB$$.04/.

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(75) The most important thing to note here is that :et)torage can be adversely affected if time is not setup properly. ' had a server that was two hours behind on its time and a wor station that was unable to access :et)torage via 'B (but could through :etscape) because the time on the server was behind the time on the wor station. This was the only time that ' ever saw this issue, but ' did want to mention it for reference sa e.

(@.) !or this training we will select the option to create a :BW :8) T#BB. 3e aware that if you are installing :etWare ? into an existing tree, certain things will need to be prepared before that happens. We already spo e about the issues with ))$, but there are also issues with )0HB/9. 't is not the design of this training
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to go into these issues separately but rather to ma e you aware of potential downfalls during the install.

(@7) :ow we will need to put in the name of the tree and the top 4 as well as the admin(s password.

(@@) This next screen is 2ust verifying your information. )elect M:B>TN to continue.

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(@,) )elect the license and clic M:B>TN to continue.

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(@+) Here we are 2ust as ing where you want to install the license. !or this training, accept the default and clic M:B>TN to continue.

(@6) The only services which are selected but can(t be seen are iPrint and the :etWare Bnterprise Web )erver (:B)). ' want to stress selecting these products because of the impact they can have on Web 'nfrastructure. :ovell 9dvance 9udit )ervices was left selected by mista e in this screen shot. 9lthough it will have no affect on the products being installed, you don(t need to select it for this training. 3e sure the following products are selected then clic M:B>TN to continue. * :etWare Bnterprise )erver * iPrint * :etWare !TP )erver * :etWare Web )earch * :etWare Web9ccess * :ovell i!older )torage )ervices * :ovell :et)torage

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(@?) )ingle 'P 9ddress D). /ultiple 'P 9ddress.

(@?a) )ingle 'P address option

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(@?b) /ultiple 'P address option

(@E) This next screen 2ust shows the components that will be installed. 0lic M:B>TN to continue.

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(@-) 'n this situation you will notice that we are creating a 09. The reason for this is because this is the first server into the tree. 'f the 09 is properly installed then you won(t have many of the issues that can occur with ))$. 'f the 09 portion of the screen is grayed out then you already have a 09. 'f you already have one then ma e sure that it is functioning properly before you continue. !or our training installation, this will be the only server in the tree so the 09 should be fine.

(@5) This section has caused much confusion. The warning on this screen explains that if you select this option it will create a security ris . Well, that is true to a point and we will discuss this in much more detail under the deployment section, but let(s %uic ly discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and when we should and should not deploy this option. To do this we will loo at an example of a product that uses $89P for its communication.

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(,.) !irst thing to note is that this in :4T FroupWise Web9ccess. :etWare Web9ccess was built off of :ovell Portal )ervices. 't ships with a few basic gadgets that provide services such as file access, email, printing, address boo , etc. To create the ob2ects needed to configure and run this service, we will need to decide where the Web9ccess container will reside. =ou cannot change the name of the container. 't will remain Web9ccess.

(,7) When you choose the option of multiple 'P address vs. single 'P address, ma e sure you now which service (9pache or Bnterprise) will be running the :etWare ? home page. :etWare Web9ccess will reference several files that are contained within that same location. 'f the default configuration is ept and the :etWare ? home page information is hosted by :B), :etWare Web9ccess will

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re%uire configuration after the installation is complete. The reason for this is that the :etWare Web9ccess configuration will point to 9pache by default.

(,@) 9 very common issue is related to the screen shown above. What this is basically saying is that there are some template files that are re%uired in order for :etWare Web9ccess to be able to pull in the information from FroupWise Web9ccess. 'f the files are not copied out to the proper location, or if they are not copied at all, then the users will receive the error that webaccess is unreachable.

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(,,) i!older )erver 4ptions (,,a) $et(s start with the "ser 8ata location in this screen. This is where the files are going to be stored for each user(s i!older account. 'f you leave this on the )=) volume, you have the potential of filling up your )=) volume.

(,+) 'f ' can stress anything here it would be rights. 'n order for you to create this ob2ect and to properly assign roles you will need to be installing the server with rights to the root of the tree.

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(,6) :et)torage is a new type of configuration. /ost of its configuration is done in the registry. 'n order to be able to edit that information after that installation is complete you will need to put on )P7.

(,?) This screen is 2ust giving you one last chance to bac up and change anything if needed. 0lic M:B>TN to continue.

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(,E) 9fter the installation has completed, be sure that you remove any dis ette and 08 from the server and then clic =B) to restart the server.

8rite t'e ste/s to create a user and rou/ in 8indows NT server>


=ou must have system administrator permissions on the server to create user and group accounts on a Windows :T )erver. 3efore you can create )O$ )erver logins and database roles, you should create the appropriate Windows :T accounts for users and groups that will be wor ing with the team solutions. To ma e managing solution users easier, it is recommended you create Windows :T group accounts corresponding to the database roles in your team solution. 't is easier to manage only the Windows :T group account rather than managing )O$ )erver logins and database role membership for many users. 0reating a :ew Windows :T "ser 9ccount 3ecause )O$ )erver uses Windows :T user authentication, your )O$ )erver users must have valid Windows :T accounts. 3efore creating )O$ )erver logins, use the following steps to create Windows :T user accounts. 'n addition, before you can add users to Windows :T groups, each user must have a valid Windows :T domain account. To create a new user account
1.

!rom the )tart menu, select Programs, then 9dministrative Tools (0ommon)@ and then "ser /anager for 8omains. !rom the "ser menu, select :ew "ser.

2.

,. Type appropriate information in the dialog box&


o o o o

'n "sername, type a user name. 'n !ull :ame, type the user(s complete name. 'n 8escription, type a description of the user or the user account. 'n both Password and 0onfirm Password, type a password of up to 7+ characters.

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0lic to select or clear the chec boxes for "ser /ust 0hange Password at :ext $ogon, "ser 0annot 0hange Password, Password :ever Bxpires, and 9ccount 8isabled)

4.

To administer a Froup, Profile, or 8ialin associated with the :ew "ser box, clic the button, and complete the dialog box that appears. Then clic 4P.

6. 0lic 9dd. To add another user account, repeat steps @ through 6. Note The buttons available in the :ew "ser dialog box depend on whether you are administering domains or wor stations.

The Froups@ Profile@ and 8ialin buttons always appear. The Hours@ $ogon !rom@ and 9ccount buttons appear only when you administer domains.

0reating a :ew $ocal Froup 9ccount 9 local group name cannot be identical to any other group or user name on the domain or computer being administered. 't can contain up to @6? uppercase or lowercase characters except for the bac slash character (<). =ou can add user accounts and global groups from this domain and from trusted domains. To create a new local rou/
1.

!rom the )tart menu, select Programs, then 9dministrative Tools (0ommon)@ and then "ser /anager for 8omains. 'n the "ser /anager for 8omains window, do one of the following&
o

2.

)elect the user accounts you want as the initial members of the new group. )elect any group to ensure no user accounts are initially selected.

3. 4.

!rom the "ser menu, clic :ew $ocal Froup. 'n the Froup :ame field, type a name for the new group.
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6. 'f necessary, clic )how !ull :ames. Note This can be a lengthy operation if the group is large.
6. 7.

'n the 8escription field, type a description of the new group. To add members, clic 9dd, and then complete the 9dd "sers and Froups dialog box.

-. To remove members from the new group, select one or more names in /embers, and then clic #emove. 0reating a :ew Flobal Froup 9ccount The :ew Flobal Froup option is unavailable when $ow )peed 0onnection is selected or when you administer a computer running Windows :T Wor station or a Windows :T )erver that is not a domain controller. To create a new lobal rou/
1.

!rom the )tart menu, select Programs, then 9dministrative Tools (0ommon)@ and then "ser /anager for 8omains. 'n the "ser /anager for 8omains window, do one of the following&
o

2.

)elect the user accounts you want as the initial members of the new group. )elect any group to ensure no user accounts are initially selected.

3. 4. 5. 6.

!rom the "ser menu, select :ew Flobal Froup) 'n the Froup :ame field, type a group name. 'n the 8escription field, type a description for the group. To add members, select one or more user accounts in :ot /embers, and then clic 9dd.

E. To remove members from the new group, select one or more user accounts in /embers, and then clic #emove.

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!nstallation ste/s of window NT 4):


7. 'nsert your Windows :T +.. 08 and 8is 7 of your , :T Wor station setup dis s @. 4nce this is done boot up system.

The following AHardware 0onfigurationA will appear and Windows :T will detect your hardware configuration. )oon you will be prompted to 'nsert :T setup dis @, does this and hit enter. :ow the AWelcome to )etupA menu will appear, press AB:TB#A to start 'nstall. =ou will be now prompted to search for mass storage devices (08*#om in most cases), press enter to continue or A)A if you have a )0)' device. :ow insert dis , of your Win :T Wor station setup. Windows has found a 08*#om. Press enter to continue. 'f you have )0)' devices you will have to hit A)A to specify. :ow the :T $icense agreement, 0lic on page down until you get to the bottom :ow the A0omponentsA menu. The standard setting that :T now pic s should be o , ma e changes if needed else hit AB:TB#A to continue. Win :T has now detected your hard drive. This, if it has been setup before will have to be deleted if you are loo ing to install a !resh operating system. Press A8A to delete the partition that is highlighted.

RRRR/9PB )"#B =4" H9DB 390PB8 "P 3B!4#B 8B$BT':F 9:=TH':FRRRR

=ou are now given your last chance to not delete a partition. To continue Press AB:TB#A

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9ctually there is another last chance, which appears in the next menu. Press A$A and the contents of that drive1partition are gone. :ow the partition menu appears, Press 0 to create a partition.. =ou will now be as ed si;e of Hard drive, default is /ax space on your hard drive. 9s we are going to use !9T7? you will set up the drive to any si;e below @.+-mb. 0lic enter when happy with si;e. The partition is setup. We recommend that you leave any remaining space until later, when in windows, otherwise you can setup the remaining space by following the steps we 2ust did for the main drive. =ou will now be as ed how you wish the drive to be formated, we recommend !9T for most users, for more security use :T!). )etup will now format your Hard drive partition =ou will now be as ed where you wish :T to be installed, unless doing a parallel install leave the default and hit AB:TB#A The next page will now appear, we advise that you let setup run the tests, hit AB:TB#A to continue. 3e patient while it examines your system. )etup will then copy files Part of setup is now complete. =ou will now remove any floppy dis s or 08(s in the drives and hit AB:TB#A to reboot your system Hit enter to continue from the startup menu. =ou will now be prompted for the :T 08 again, please insert and when drive is ready clic A4PA :T will copy more files.... Then when the AWindows :T )etupA screen appears clic A:B>TA to continue.... :ow your setup options, for normal users select typical and for laptop users select portable, then clic next

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:ow fill in your name and organi;ation, clic on next to continue... :ow enter your certificate of 9uthenticity, clic enter to continue :ow your 4B/ number which is your 0B#T'!'09TB of 9"THB:T'0'T= which located on your Windows :T manual. 9nd now enter the name by which you wish the computer to be nown, clic on enter to continue... 9nd now the all important 9dmin password, enter it and then enter it again to confirm it, ma e sure you don(t forget it or you(ll not get into windows. 4r you could leave it blan , then you will not need it for entering windows. 0lic next to continue. Windows :T will now prompt you to ma e Bmergency #epair 8is . 't is up to you if you wish to create these, ma e your selection and clic next. $eave the A:T 0omponentsA at default, clic next to continue. :ow :T :etwor , clic next to continue... The A:T :etwor A menu shall appear, we recommend you select Ado not connectA option and hit next, you are best setting up networ s when :T is installed. :ow 0lic on finish to continue :ow select your time ;one, clic apply and close when finished. :ow your display adapter, don(t install until you get into windows, so clic on A4PA and then A4PA again. :T will then continue to copy files and finally completed, clic on A#B)T9#T 04/P"TB#A to continue, remove any 08 and floppy dis s first. 9fter rebooting you will arrive at the login screen, press A0T#$A and A9$TA and A8B$BTBA to enter password section :ow enter your password and press AB:TB#A, if you didn(t set one 2ust press AB:TB#A

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9t last the des top.... :T 'nstalled, you can now start configuring and installing drivers for personal use in the control panel

Draw neat and clean dia ra(s for all t'e levels of R"!D>
#9'8 is a technology that is used to increase the performance and1or reliability of data storage. The abbreviation stands for #edundant 9rray of 'nexpensive 8is s. 9 #9'8 system consists of two or more dis s wor ing in parallel. These dis s can be hard discs but there is a trend to also use the technology for solid state drives. There are different #9'8 levels, each optimi;ed for a specific situation. These are not standardi;ed by an industry group or standardisation committee. This explains why companies sometimes come up with their own uni%ue numbers and implementations. R"!D level : A Stri/in 'n a #9'8 . system data are split up in bloc s that get written across all the drives in the array. 3y using multiple dis s (at least @) at the same time, this offers superior '14 performance. This performance can be enhanced further by using multiple controllers, ideally one controller per dis .

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9dvantages #9'8 . offers great performance, both in read and writes operations. There is no overhead caused by parity controls. 9ll storage capacity is used, there is no dis overhead.

The technology is easy to implement.

8isadvantages #9'8 . is not fault*tolerant. 'f one dis fails, all data in the #9'8 . array are lost. 't should not be used on mission*critical systems. 'deal use #9'8 . is ideal for non*critical storage of data that have to be read1written at a high speed, such as on a Photoshop image retouching station. R"!D level # A Mirrorin 8ata are stored twice by writing them to both the data dis (or set of data dis s) and a mirror dis (or set of dis s) . 'f a dis fails, the controller uses either the data drive or the mirror drive for data recovery and continues operation. =ou need at least @ dis s for a #9'8 7 array.

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#9'8 7 systems are often combined with #9'8 . to improve performance. )uch a system is sometimes referred to by the combined number& a #9'8 7. system. 9dvantages #9'8 7 offers excellent read speed and a write*speed that is comparable to that of a single dis . 'n case a dis fails, data do not have to be rebuild, they 2ust have to be copied to the replacement dis .

#9'8 7 is a very simple technology.

8isadvantages The main disadvantage is that the effective storage capacity is only half of the total dis capacity because all data get written twice. )oftware #9'8 7 solutions do not always allow a hot swap of a failed dis (meaning it cannot be replaced while the server eeps running). 'deally a hardware controller is used. 'deal use #9'8*7 is ideal for mission critical storage, for instance for accounting systems. 't is also suitable for small servers in which only two dis s will be used. R"!D level 5 4n #9'8 , systems, data bloc s are subdivided (striped) and written in parallel on two or more drives. 9n additional drive stores parity information. =ou need at least , dis s for a #9'8 , array.

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)ince parity is used, a #9'8 , stripe set can withstand a single dis failure without losing data or access to data. 9dvantages #9'8*, provides high throughput (both read and write) for large data transfers. 8is failures do not significantly slow down throughput. 8isadvantages This technology is fairly complex and too resource intensive to be done in software. Performance is slower for random, small '14 operations. 'deal use #9'8 , is not that common in prepress. R"!D level 3 #9'8 6 is the most common secure #9'8 level. 't is similar to #9'8*, except that data are transferred to dis s by independent read and write operations (not in parallel). The data chun s that are written are also larger. 'nstead of a dedicated parity dis , parity information is spread across all the drives. =ou need at least , dis s for a #9'8 6 array. 9 #9'8 6 array can withstand a single dis failure without losing data or access to data. 9lthough #9'8 6 can be achieved in software, a hardware controller is

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recommended. 4ften extra cache memory is used on these controllers to improve the write performance.

9dvantages #ead data transactions are very fast while write data transaction are somewhat slower (due to the parity that has to be calculated).

8isadvantages 8is failures have an effect on throughput, although this is still acceptable. $i e #9'8 ,, this is complex technology. 'deal use #9'8 6 is a good all*round system that combines efficient storage with excellent security and decent performance. 't is ideal for file and application servers. #9'8 level 7. T 0ombining #9'8 . K #9'8 7 #9'8 7. combines the advantages (and disadvantages) of #9'8 . and #9'8 7 in one single system. 't provides security by mirroring all data on a secondary set of dis s (dis , and + in the drawing below) while using striping across each set of dis s to speed up data transfers.

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