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Transport in Porous Media 4: 281-293, 1989. 9 1989 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

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A General Theory of Thermoporoelastoplasticity for Saturated Porous Materials


O. COUSSY
Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chauss~es, La Courtine, 93167 Noisy le Grand cedex, France

(Received: 8 March 1988)

Abstract. A general theory of thermoporoelastoplasticityfor saturated porous materials is presented. The theory is derived from the thermodynamics of open systems and irreversible processes. The thermal effects, due to the saturating fluid, are taken into account through a latent heat associated with the increase of fluid mass content. The theory does not assume incompressibilitynor infinitesimal displacements for the saturating fluid. To take into account the plastic compressibilityof the skeleton, the notion of plastic porosity is introduced. This plastic porosity is different from the overall plastic dilatation. The usual isothermal phenomenological theories appear to be particular cases of the proposed general theory. Key words. Thermoporoelastoplasticity,latent heat, plastic porosity.

1. Introduction
Many papers concerning poroelastoplasticity have been published (Rice (1975), Vardoulakis (1985, 1986) for example). H o w e v e r the constitutive equations are in general based on phenomenological considerations and thermal effects are ignored. Biot (1977) has presented a thermodynamics theory for elastic saturated porous solids. His theory depended on a new principle of 'virtual dissipation' and new potentials were needed. Coussy (1988) recently gave more general results and, in particular, showed that thermomechanics of saturated porous materials could be developed from only standard principles and potentials of continuum mechanics. Our purpose here is to apply these general results to thermoporoelasticity in finite deformation and to infinitesimal thermoporoelastoplasticity. After recalling the general results stated in Coussy (1988), we propose a general theory of thermoporoelastoplasticity for porous saturated materials. T h e thermal effects due to the saturating fluid are taken into account through a latent heat associated with the increase of fluid mass content. T h e very restrictive character of Terzaghi's effective stress 'principle' is shown. This principle holds for granular materials constituted by elastic a n d plastic incompressible grains, the pore space being entirely connected. It is not the case for more general materials (rock masses for example) on account of the occluded porosity in addition to the connected one. T o take into account this general aspect, the notion of plastic porosity is introduced. This plastic porosity is different from the overall plastic dilatation. T h e usual isothermal theories assuming the validity of Terzaghi's stress

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principle, appear then to be special cases of the proposed theory. This theory does not assume incompressibility nor infinitesimal displacements for the saturating fluid.

2. Thermomechanics of Saturated Porous Materials


2.1. MASS C O N S E R V A T I O N

At time t, the deformation of the skeleton is described by the transformation x, = x,(X~, 0 (])

from the initial Cartesian coordinates X~ to the current coordinates xi. The skeleton is constituted by solid particles and by an occluded pore space as opposed to the connected pore space which is filled by the saturating fluid. The deformation gradient P and the related quantities are defined by
P = (P~,) = (Ox,/OX,,), ,p = (p,,,), p-1 = ( O X J O x , ) ,

J = det P.

(2)

Hence, the initial infinitesimal volume df~o = dX1 dX2 dX3 (in the following a subscript zero will refer to the initial reference configuration) becomes, after deformation, d O = dxl dx2dx3 = J d~o. The volume dl) contains the same skeleton particles but, during the deformation, fluid flow may have occurred. H e n c G after deformation, dO contains a mass equal to fro + m ( X , t)] dflo, ro dI/o being the initial mass of df~o and re(X, t)dido the fluid mass supply during the deformation. The mass conservation implies (Biot (1972)) rh = - Div M, (3)

where the divergence operator Div (capital letter) is defined with respect to the initial coordinate system X~. Later on, an operator with a small letter, like in div, will refer to an operator defined with respect to the current coordinate system x~. In (3), the overdot denotes a partial derivative with respect to time. The components of the vector M are denoted Ms, M~ being the fluid mass flow across an area which before the deformation is a unit square perpendicular to the X,, axis.
2.2. M O M E N T U M B A L A N C E A N D K I N E T I C E N E R G Y T H E O R E M

The momentum balance yields (Coussy, 1988) Div(P - ~) + (ro + m)F - (O/Ot)[(ro + m ) i + P- M] - Div[(x + P- M/Ypck) @ M] = 0, or alternatively
(e,,,Tr,,~).p + (ro + m ) F , - (a/Ot)[(ro + m)~, + P,,M~] -

(4)

-[(~, + P,,,M~/Jp~b)Mt3].a = O,

(5)

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283

where ,t3 stands for a partial derivative with respect to Xt3. In (4), r is the Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor, p is the current fluid mass density, and 4) the current connected porosity, the fluid mass enclosed in dO at time t being 04) d ~ ( m = JPd) - 0o~bo). F denotes unit body mass force such that the body force per current infinitesimal volume dO is rF, r being the overall current mass density. Equation (4) is the momentum equation. ,rr must satisfy the boundary conditions
f da = P. r

no dao,

(6)

where f is a surface force per unit of current area d a of the border A of a fluid and skeleton material domain [l. The outer normal n to II is no prior to the deformation, 1"~ocontaining the same skeleton particles as II. From (4), one can derive a kinetic energy theorem (Coussy, 1988) ff{+fn ~ : A d O ~
O

fari'Fd~+fAi'|da+ya
O

F-P'Mdl)o.

(7)

In (7), 5~ denotes the time derivative of the kinetic energy of the fluid and skeleton particles enclosed at time t in the volume O, the border of which being constituted by the same skeleton particles of the border of the volume Oo prior to the deformation. In (7) A is the time rate of the Green strain tensor defined from the displacement of the skeleton. The last term Sao F . P - M dl)o represents the power of the inertial forces in the relative motion of the fluid with respect to the skeleton particles. When the tortuosity effects can be neglected, F reduces to the absolute acceleration of the fluid which can be expressed in function of M, p, q5 and P. The general expression of F is given in Coussy (1988) when the tortuosity effects cannot be neglected.

2.3. FIRST AND SECOND THERMODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES

From the first thermodynamics principle and the kinetic energy theorem, the local energy conservation equation can be written (Coussy, 1988) ti + Div(h,,M) + (F - F)- P- M = ,rr:A - Div Q, (8)

where u dD,o is the internal energy of the fluid and skeleton particles enclosed at time t in dO and where hs = us + p/p is the free enthalpy per mass unit of the fluid particles enclosed in dl~ at time t, p being the connected pore fluid pressure. Q is the vector such that Q~ represents the heat flow across an area which, before deformation, is a unit square perpendicular to the X~ axis. From the second thermodynamics principle, one derives (Coussy, 1988) D = r - s~/"+ gmrh - ~ 1> 0, (9a) (9b)

Dmo = - ( Q / T ) . Grad T - M . (tp. (F - F) + Grad gm+ sm Grad T) I> 0.

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In (9), s d12o is the entropy of the fluid and skeleton particles enclosed at time t in the domain dl), while T is the absolute temperature. Moreover, g,, = h,,, - Ts= is the free enthalpy per mass unit of the connected fluid, s,, being the corresponding entropy. ~Od~o = ( u - Ts)dflo is the free energy of the fluid and skeleton particles enclosed at time t in dO. D represents the intrinsic dissipation per initial volume while DMo represents the dissipation due to heat and fluid mass flows. From (8) and (9) the local energy equation yields the heat equation T~ + Div Q + T Div(smM) = D + DMo + ( Q / T ) . Grad T.

(lO)

2.4. FOURIER'S AND DARCY'S LAWS If ~ (Q/T, M[p) denotes the dissipation function, Onsager's principle expresses that the thermodynamical forces associated with Q / T and M/p in the dissipation DMQ, are given by - Grad T = o ~ / o ( Q / T )
-

p('P. (F - F) + Grad g,, + s,, Grad T) = ,9~/O(M[p)

(ii)

can be chosen as a quadratic form 2 9 = M " Ko x ' M / p 2+2M" Co' Q/pT + Q . Ko x 9 Q/T, (12)

where Ko, Co, Ko are symmetric tensors. Assuming for simplicity the isotropy of the medium (Ko = 5(ol,Ko=~'ol) and disregarding eventual coupling effects between heat and mass flows (Co = 0), from (11) and (12) one obtains
Q = - , ( o Grad T,

(13a) (13b)

M/p = - P~o((tP" (F - F) + Grad gm+ s~ Grad T).

Let us assume that the fluid bulk viscosity is negligible. As gm = gin(p, T), this assumption yields Og=/Op = 1/p, Og=/OT= - sin. (14)

Equations (14) and (13b) yield M/O = - pXo(('P 9 (F - F) + (Grad p)/p). (13c)

Equations (13a) and (13c) are, respectively, Fourier's and Darcy's laws,,(o and 5(o being, respectively, the conductivity and permeability. Let us note that Darcy's law (13c) involves an inertial term tp. F is ignored in quasistatic approaches. Note also that the fluid displacements are not restricted to infinitesimal ones. The equations given here corresponds to a Lagrangian formulation. For the corresponding Eulerian formulation the reader is referred to Coussy (1988).

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285

3. Thermoporoelasticity
We define thermoporoelasticity by D = 0. If a complete set of independant state variables is A~o, m and T , from ~b= ~b (A,~, m, T ) and (9), D = 0 yields
#,~ = a ~ I o A , ~ , g,,, = atPlOm, s = - a~laT.

(15)

Equations (15) are the constitutive equations of thermoporoelasticity adjoining the equations recalled in the previous section. Once specified, the expressions of tp and gm and the boundary conditions, the set of equations governing the problem are complete. The expression of gO can be
g,, = g O _ ( T - T o ) s ~ ( p - Po)/Po- Cp( T To)a/2 To +

+ a ( T - To)(p - Po)/Po - (P - Po)2/epoKr.

(16)

Clearly, (16) corresponds to a linearization with respect to the initial state defined by po, To, s ~ and po. From (14) and (15) one obtains
1/p = 1/poll + a ( T sm = sO+ C p ( T T o ) - ( p - p o ) / K r]

(17a) (17b)

To)/To- a(p-po)/Po.

Hence, a is the cubic dilatation coefficient, Cp is the specific heat at constant pressure, while K I is the bulk modulus. Equation (16) corresponding to a linearization, (17) will be valid for a sufficiently restricted domain of temperature and fluid pressure. The expression of ~ is chosen such that tp = tPo + "n~ :A + ( ~ o + po/po)m - so(T - To) + z~:A: Ai/2 -(m/po)B:gi-(TTo)A:Ai-s~ - To)+ L m ( r To)/To

(18)

+ M m a / 2 p g - C a r o ( T - T0)2/2 To,

where ~b~ = g O _ po/po is the fluid free energy per mass unit in the reference state. Equation (18) corresponds to a linearization with respect to the initial state, but the displacement can be finite. Though (18) corresponds to the most general case, for simplicity we will assume the isotropy of the reference state
B = bat1, A = 3aK1

A = [A~t3~a] = [ ( K - 2 Gl3)a=~a,o + G(a.,a~a + a~aa~,)],

(19)

where I is the unit tensor and 6,,~ the K r 6 n e c k e r symbol. From (14) to (19), disregarding the second-order terms, one obtains
7r,~ = 7r~ + ( K - 2 G/3)Avv,5,~t3 + 2 GA,,t3 - bAt(m/po) ~,~ - 3 a K ( T - To) ~,~, P - Po = A t ( - b A ~ + m/po) + p o L ( T - To)/To,

(20a) (20b)

286
s = So + 3 a K A w + C a r o ( T - T o ) / T o + ms,,, - L m [ To.

o. c o u s s Y (21)

Now the different coefficients can be interpreted. ~ is the overall stress tensor, 9r~ corresponds to the overall eventual initial stresses prevailing in the reference state, K and G can be interpreted, respectively, as the overall bulk and shear moduli for an isothermal (T = To) undrained (m = 0) deformation, while a is the linear dilatation coefficient for undrained (m = 0) deformations. From (20b) ~ / p o appears to be the excess of pressure with respect to po to be exerted on the fluid to increase the fluid mass content of an unit value per unit of initial volume in an isotrace (Aw = 0 or isovolumic under the assumption of infinitesimal deformations) and isothermal ( T = To) deformations. From (21), CA is the specific heat for undrained isotrace deformations, while L is the specific latent heat per unit value of fluid mass supply. From the linearization (16) and (17), (3), (13c) and (20), one obtains the diffusion equation governing the pressure p Div Ygo(p0'P" (F - F) + Grad p) = (/~ - p o L T " / T o ) / . ~ + ba./v (22)

In the case of infinitesimal displacements both for the skeleton and the fluid particles, (22) agrees with previous results given in the literature (Rice and Cleary (1976), Bourbie et al. (1987)) for isothermal (T = To) deformations and when inertial effects can be neglected. Similarly, substitution of (17) and (21) into (10) and use of (13) would yield the diffusion equation governing the temperature T. Note that the pressure and temperature diffusion equations are coupled. Finally, from (20a) and (20b) one obtains
~r,,o = r176 + ( K o - 2 G / 3 )A~,3,~ o + 2 GA,~t3 - b ( p - P o ) ~ o - 3 aoKo(T - To)8~t3,

(23)

where Ko = K - b2~, 3aoKo = 3 a K - p o b L / T o . (24)

Ko appears to be the drained (p = po) isothermal (T = To) overall bulk modulus, while ao is the drained (p = Po) linear dilatation coefficient. Let us now consider an isothermal ( T = To) drained (p = Po) deformation. From (23) one obtains ( ~ r ~ - zr~ = KoA~ (25)

From (20b), it can be inferred that the actual strain A ~ of the skeleton satisfies A~v = (1 - b)A w (26)

on account of the fact that the term bA w corresponds to the apparent volumic strain due to the volumic change m/Oo owing to the fluid mass supply m. Let us note that this gives the meaning of b. Introducing (26) into (25) and noting that, for .this particular experiment, the term on the left-hand side of (25) corresponds to the stresses prevailing in the skeleton and, hence, equal to K , A ~ where Ks is

THERMOPOROELASTOPLASTICITYFOR SATURATED MEDIA the skeleton bulk modulus, one obtains


b = 1 - Ko/Ks

287

(27)

As K o , K , K s , a, ao, CA, can be measured through unjacketed, jacketed and skeleton experiments, b, d~ and L by (24) and (27) can be easily measured, Finally, assuming infinitesimal displacements for the skeleton and disregarding the second-order terms, we can replace the Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor r by the Cauchy stress tensor o- and the Green strain tensor A by the linearized strain tensor t given by
2~ = (2E, j) = (o~,/~x~ + o ~ / o x , ) , (28)

where ~ is the skeleton displacement vector. This approximation yields


iris = tr ~ + ( K o - 2 G / 3 )ekk~3ij + 2 Geij

- b ( p - po),~ij - 3 a o K o ( T

- To),S~j,

(29a)
(29b) (29c)
Lm/To.

P - Po = d d ( - bekk + m/Oo) + p o L ( T - T o ) / T o , s = So + 3aKEkk + C a r o ( T -- T o ) / T o + m s ~

Note that in the limit case of an incompressible elastic skeleton (Ks ---) + o0) (29a) and (27) yield o-+p = o-~+ po + K o r - 3 a o K o ( T
- To),

(30)

where o- = t r k J 3 and E = Ekk/3. Hence, for Ks ---) + oo the elastic formulation of the effective stress 'principle' is retrieved: the mean pressure acting on the skeleton is or+ p. Let us note that this principle is independent of an often assumed incompressibility of the fluid. If, in addition to the assumptions sustaining the effective stress 'principle' (e.g., Ks---)+~ and, thus, b = 1), the fluid is incompressible, then p = Oo, ~---)~ and (29b) yields an equation of volume conservation --i~kk + rh/po = 0, which is independent of the mass conservation Equation (3). It is clear that the effective stress 'principle' holds for granular materials constituted by elastic incompressible grains, the pore space being entirely connected (no occluded porosity) and the skeleton being constituted only by the grains. For more general materials (rock masses for example) it is not true on account of the existence of the occluded porosity. The skeleton is then constituted by solid particles and this occluded porosity. In this case, Ks remains finite, even if the grains constituting the solid part of the skeleton can be regarded as elastically incompressible.

4. Infinitesimal Thermoporoelastoplasticity
In this section, we will assume infinitesimal displacements for the skeleton. Hence, (9a) yields

288 D = ~r : ~ - s~r + gmth- ~ >~0.

o. coussY

(31)

In thermoporoelastoplasticity, a complete set of thermodynamical variables is e0, m, T, ~ , 4,P and X- The tensor eP is the current plastic strain tensor corresponding to the irreversible strain obtained after a complete unloading process for the current state (e.g., in removing the external forces and restoring the initial temperature and fluid pressure To and/90). 4,P is the plastic porosity such that the connected pore volume filled by the saturating fluid, after a complete unloading process, will be (4,P + 4,0)dl~0, where 4,0 is the initial connected porosity before any loading process. It must be pointed out that the total connected current porosity 4, is not a state variable, though it is often implicitly assumed in phenomenological approaches of the constitutive equations. The state variables related to the saturating fluid are m ( m = Jp4,-004,0) and 4,P, and not 4, and 4,P, even under the assumption of fluid incompressibility and infinitesimal displacements for the skeleton. The current porosity 4' cannot take into account simultaneously the geometrical effect, the fluid compressibility and the open character of the porous saturated materials. Contrary to 4', m through the product Jp4' simultaneously takes into account the three effects. ~P and 4'P (or, equivalently, the irreversible fluid mass supply m p = po4" p) take into account the irreversible character of the deformation. Furthermore, X represents a set of variables describing eventual hardening phenomena. From (31) and ~b= ~b(eij, m, T, e~, 4'P, X), one obtains
D = ( o r - a ~ l a ~ ) : i~ + (gin - a ~ l a m ) - (a ~ l a 4 , ~ ' ) ~ P - ( a ~ l a x ) 9xrh - ( a ~ l a ~ ' ) : i~p

(s + a ~ l a T ) T i> 0

(32)

Assuming that Eli, m and T are independent variables and that actual deformations can be performed with D = 0 and ~P = 4~ p = X = 0 (in effect unloading processes), one obtains
o-ij = a,/,laeij,

gm= a f f l a m ,

s = - a~laT, 9 x i> 0.

(33a) (33b)

D = - ( a ~ , l a c " ) : i~P - (a,/,la4,P),/, p - ( a ~ l a x )

As (9b) remains valid, (13) remain valid too, and also (16), (33a) and (33b) constitute the restrictions imposed by the thermodynamics principles in thermoporoelastoplasticity. Now to go further, the expression of ~ must be specified.

4.1. IDEAL PLASTICITY Ideal plasticity can be defined by the absence of hardening effects. Hence, no variables are X involved in the expression of ~b. From (18) a suitable expression

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289

for ~b can be
~//~.~ ~/e .~. i]/0 At_0.0 : (IE __ E p )
so(T To) + (r cP)

.at_ ~bO m + po( m / po - qbp)


: A: ((E -

- (m/go

4,P)B: (c - c p) (34)

( T - To)A: (~ - r
-

- s~

T - To) + L ( m

- po 490( T - T o ) / T o +

+ ~(m/po

~bp)2/2 - C A r o ( T - T0)2/2 To.

Assuming again the isotropy of the reference state (19), (33a) and (34) yield
o + ( K o - 2 G / 3 ) ( e k k -- e ~ k ) ~ j + O'ij=O'ij + 2 G(EIj - r - b ( p - po) ~,j - 3 a o K o ( T - To) ~ij, - To)/To,

(35a) (35b)

P - Po = d,~(--b(ekk --

ePk) + ( m / p o -- r

+ poL(T

s = So + 3 a K ( E k k -- ePkk) + C, x r o ( T - T o ) / T o + + ms ~ L(m - po~bP)/To

(35c)

while (33b) and (34) yield


D = cr: ~P + p~b p

> 0

(36)

Hence, with respect to (29a) and (29b), (35a) and (35b) are obtained by replacing ~ij by the reversible elastic strain ET/= e i j - e ~ and m / p o by m / p o - 4 ? , the reversible increase in fluid mass content per unit of initial volume. Equation (36) shows that the thermodynamical forces associated with the plastic strain rate cP and the plastic porosity rate q~P are, respectively, o- and p. Now standard principles of ideal plasticity can be applied, namely the maximal plastic work principle introduced by Hill (1950). More precisely, let us note by f(o', p) ~<0 (37)

the equation delimiting in the stress-pressure space the elastic domain which is assumed to be independent of the temperature. Let (~r, p) be the current stress-pressure state satisfying (37) and Or*, p*) another couple satisfying (37). Then the maximal plastic work principle implies (er - (r*) : $p + ( p - p*)qb p >! O. (38)

From (38), assuming for simplicity the smoothness of the yield locus for, p) = 0 (no vertex effects), it can be standardly shown (Salen~on and Halphen (1987)) that f o r , p) must be a convex function and that if f(o', p) = 0 and f = (Of/Oct):~r + (Of/Op)[~ = O,
qbp = ,( Of/Op, ,( >1 O,

then: ~ = A Of/Oo-~i ,

(39)

while in the other cases, f < 0 or f - - 0 and f < 0 (respectively, elastic state or local unloading state) ~P = 0 and 4;p = 0. Equation (39) implies that f can be considered as an associated plastic potential, the flow rule given by (39) being associated with the plastic yield locus f.

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Let us note that the overall plastic volume change rate ~ k is due to the plastic volume change rate of the skeleton and to the irreversible change in the connected pore network volume. If the skeleton is plastically incompressible, we have ~ k = q~P and, in this particular case, (35d) reduces to D = (~r + pl):~P. Under (40a), [(~r, p) ~<0 becomes (40a)

f(o" + pl) ~<0

(40b)

and (39) must be changed in the appropriate way. Equation (40a) corresponds to the plastic formulation of the effective stress 'principle': the plastic thermodynamical forces associated with ~P and acting on the skeleton, are Gr+ pl. However, it must be stressed that the effective stress principle can hold on an elastic point of view and not, simultaneously, on a plastic point of view, and reciprocally. More precisely, if E= Ekk/3 is replaced by ~[k/3 in (30), the corresponding Equations (30) and (40) may not hold simultaneously. However, let us note that the criterion (40b) f(o" + pl)~< 0 refers to a plastic behaviour. If the criterion f refers to a brittle elastic behaviour, the criterion will be given by f(o" + bpl) <<O, ~r+ bpl being the elastic effective stress tensor. For brittle elastic porous materials, when f(~r+ bpl)= 0, the solid skeleton loses its cohesion and the total stress tensor tr reduces to the hydrostatic tensor - p l , while K0 and G reduce to 0. Again, it is clear that the effective stress 'principle' holds for granular materials constituted by elastic and plastic incompressible grains, the pore space being entirely connected. For more general materials having an occluded porosity, this principle does not hold.
4.2. H A R D E N I N G PLASTICITY

The hardening parameters X are now present in the expression of ~. Let us assume that ~t = ~ed- W(x), (41)

where ~b e is still given by (34). From (33a) and (41) it is clear that the expressions (35) giving ~r, p - p o and s remain valid, while (33b) yields D = Gr:~P + pq~P- (0-~-xW)9~ (42)

To introduce hardening plasticity, we will follow the presentation of Halphen and Nguyen (1974) which generalizes the maximal plastic work principle. We assume that W is a strictly (smooth hardening) convex (positive hardening) function and we note

~=-aW/Ox,

(D=tr:~P+p~bP+~'x~O).

(43)

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291

Furthermore, let us introduce a strictly (smooth plasticity) convex function f(,r, p, ~), the current elastic domain being given by f(o-, p, ~) ~<0. The generalization of the results stated for ideal plasticity yields
;~e, i = ~. Of/,9o-o, (bv = / Of/Op, X = ft Of/O~,

,~ >/0

if f = 0 and ] = 0 and )t = 0 if f < 0 or ] < 0.

(44)

Now, following Halphen and Nguyen (1975) one can retrieve the standard theory of hardening plasticity. From (41) and (42) one obtains
S t' = (l/Yg)]~Of/Op

if f = 0 and s

,~e=q~v=X=0, where

if f = 0 and s < 0,

(45)

[~ = (OflOO. \ ox

1. (o/Io0,
(46)

h = (Of/bet):6" + (af/Op)[9.

Yg is the hardening modulus of the phenomenological theory of hardening plasticity. If the effective stress principle holds on a plastic point of view (e.g., ePk = ~bv), similarly to the case of ideal plasticity we will have f(w, p, ~)= f ( a + pl, ~) and the formulation have to be correspondingly changed.
4.3. PLASTICITY WITH NONASSOCIATED POTENTIALS

For many natural materials, it is well known that the experimental results do not confirm the validity of the maximal work principle. In this case normality does not hold: the plastic strain rate is not normal to the yield locus and f cannot be considered as a plastic potential. Nevertheless, one can standardly introduce a nonassociated plastic potential h, such that the flow rule to substitute to (39) for ideal plasticity is if f(~r, p) = 0 and f = (Of/Oft):6" + (Of/Op)D = O,
(bv = ft Oh/Op, ~ >! O.

(47)

then ~,~ = ,~ Ohhgo'q,

For hardening plasticity, the flow rule for a nonassociated plastic potential is iff(a,p,~)=0 and ]~>0, then ~e = (l/Yg)]~ Oh/Oo'q, q~P = (l/Y()/~ Oh/Op, :~ = (l/Yg)t~ 0h/at, where ~ is still the hardening modulus but is not given by (44).

(48)

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4.4. COMPLETE SET OF FIELD EQUATIONS IN QUASISTATIC INFINITESIMAL THERMOPOROELASTOPLASTICITY In order to summarize the results, we will give here the complete set of field equations to be satisfied in infinitesimal thermoporoelastoplasticity for a homogeneous isotropic saturated porous material and quasistatic deformations. Moreover, we will assume that the body forces derive from a potential 1, (e.g., F = - grad i,). From the above equations one obtains the linearized quasistatic equations

Equilibrium equation
divcr - ro grad v = 0. (49a)

Pressure diffusion equation


y{V2(p + poU) = / 5 / ~ / - (poL/MTo) 7" + b~-~k+ ~P (49b)

Heat equation
k/V2 r = -(poL/~t)p + ( CAro + p2L2/~To) 7" + 3 aogo To?:~,k, (49C)

where Y{= YCo and d ~ d o on account of the assumption of infinitesimal displacements for the skeleton. Field equations (49), the constitutive equations (35a) and (48), definition (28) of the linearized strain tensor e in the function of the skeleton displacement vector ~ and the boundary conditions constitute the complete set of equations of infinitesimal quasistatic thermoporoelastoplasticity of porous saturated materials. The usual infinitesimal quasistatic theories can be derived from (49): hydrothermal decoupling (L = 0), effective stress 'principle' (b = 1, 4,p = e~k). If, in addition to the effective stress principle, the fluid is assumed to be incompressible ~t ~ ~. Equation (47c) corresponds to a linearization for the fluid with respect to both temperature and pressure. If the fluid is incompressible, the fluid dilatation coefficient a = 0 and the fluid bulk modulus Kr--->~ (p =Oo in (17a)). For a = 0 and Kt--~% the expression (16) of g,, and the corresponding fluid constitutive equations (17) will be valid for the whole range of pressure. In this case (a = 0, Kt---~co) the linearization can be performed only with respect to the temperature for the fluid. Then (49a) and (49c) remain valid, but on the right-hand side of (49c) a nonlinear convective term must be added. This term is Tw" grad sm --~ Cpw- grad T = - YgCppograd p . grad T and (49c) must be changed accordingly to (48) (50)

k V 2 T = - (poL/Jl) D + ( C,xro + p~L2/A~To) 7" + 3aoKoTo~k


-- f f f C p p o

grad p . grad T

(51)

Equations (49a), (49b) and (51) constitute then the set of field equations for a porous medium saturated by an incompressible fluid for infinitesimal skeleton

THERMOPOROELASTOPLASTICITY FOR SATURATED MEDIA

293

deformations and when the linearization is performed for the fluid only with respect to the temperature and not with respect to the pressure.

5. Conclusion A general theory of thermoporoelastoplasticity has been proposed. The only assumption is the relevancy of the geometrical description of the porous saturated material as a continuum. The fluid is not restricted to infinitesimal displacements and all the thermomechanical convective effects are taken into account. The thermal effects due to the fluid are taken into account in introducing a latent heat L associated with fluid mass supply. Departure from Terzaghi's effective stress principle is taken into account through the elastic coefficient b and the notion of plastic porosity tbp. The usual isothermal theories assuming the validity of Terzaghi's effective stress principle and infinitesimal displacements for the fluid (and eventually its incompressibility), appear to be special cases of the theory here proposed. Finally, it can be noted that the constitutive equations given here do not refer to particular drained or undrained experimental conditions. Particular conditions need only to be specified (drained p = p0, undrained m = 0) in the general constitutive equations of the porous saturated material considered as an open thermomechanical continuum.

References
Biot, M. A., 1977, Variational Lagrangian-thermodynamics of nonisothermal finite strain mechanics of porous solids and thermomolecular diffusion, Int. Solids Structures 13, 579-597. Bourbi6, T., Coussy, O., and Zinszner, B., 1987, Acoustics of Porous Media, Gulf Publishing Company. Coussy, O., 1988, Thermomechanics of saturated porous solids in finite deformation. Accepted for publication in the European Journal of Mechanics - A - Solids. Halphen, B and Nguyen, Q. S., 1974, Plastic and visco-plastic materials with generalized potential, Mech. Res. Commun. 1, 43-48. Hill, R., 1950, The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Rice, J. R., 1975, On the stability of dilatant hardening for saturated rock masses, J. Geophys Res. 80, 1531-1535. Rice, J. R. and Cieary, P. P., 1976, Some basic stress diffusion solutions for fluid saturated elastic porous media with compressible constituents, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 227-241. Salen~on, J. and Halphen B., 1987, Elastoplasticit~, Presses de I'E.N.P.C., Paris. Vardoulakis, I., 1985, Stability and bifurcation of undrained, plane rectilinear deformations on water-saturated granular soils, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 9, 399-414. Vardoulakis, I., 1986, Dynamic stability analysis of undrained simple shear on water-saturated granular soils, Int. J. Numer. Anal. Meth. Geomech. 10, 177-179.