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Boiler : Boilers design tips for Wood,steam boilers,gas,oil,coal boiler heat

http://www.firecad.net/boiler/Boiler-Tips.aspx

Boiler Tips 1. On Bio-mass fuel firing, Allowable Grate release rate for Dumping grates is 2.05e06 W/m2, for Travelling Grate and Water Cooled grates it can be upto 3.1e06 W/m2. 2. Want to reduce Fire Tube Boiler length? Go for smaller tube diameter. 3. Maximum furnace thickness of a Fire Tube Boiler is 22mm. Furnace requires constant cooling and higher thickness means more metal resistance and less cooling. 4. Fire Tube Boiler furnace expansion is taken care by either bowling hoops or corrugated furnaces. 5. Wetback boilers are called so as there is water at the end of furnace reversal chamber. 6. Integral steam space boilers are those where there is single shell for both water and steam space. 7. It is rare to find fired Fire Tube Boilers operating beyond 30bar. 8. F and A 100 C is also known as Equivalent evaporation. 9. Gas firing gives higher furnace exit temperatures than oil/solid fuel firing. 10. Optimum Gas Mass velocities inside tubes in case of Fire Tube Boilers is 10-12 Kg/s/m2. 11. Solid fuel fired boilers require bigger furnaces. 12. SA515 and BS1501 are most widely used BQ plates in Boilers. 13. Reversal furnace boilers, as their name indicates, are those where gases reverse at the end of furnace and second pass is at furnace front. 14. Heating surface area of 25-30 m2/ton of steam is required for most oil/gas fired boilers. 15. Fire Tube Boilers are more suitable than Water tube boilers for high gas pressures. 16. Response to load changes is better in Water tube boilers than Fire Tube Boilers. 17. Water tube boilers require less heating surface area than Fire Tube Boilers. 18. Staggered tube arrangement increases heat transfer but also increases draft loss. 19. Staggered tube arrangement is not suitable for high fouling gases. 20. Natural circulation ratio in water tube boilers ranges from 5 to 35. 21. Baggase fired boilers give hardly 70% efficiency on GCV basis because of high moisture in fuel. 22. Dulongs formula is best suited for finding out GCV of solid fuels. 23. If the specified and calculating calorific values of a fuel disagree by more than 2%, use the calculated value for performance calculations but report fuel consumption on the basis of specified value. 24. Non-Luminous radiation is significant if moisture in gases is more. 25. Excess air for combustion for oils is 10-15%, for gases 5-10% and for solid fuels 20-40%. 26. FBC/CFBC boilers require less excess air than grate fired boilers. 27. Dumping Grate is most widely used Grate for bagasse fired boilers because of simplicity of operation and less cost. 28. Travelling Grate is more suitable for high ash content fuels like coal. 29. Furnace floor should be covered with refractory of 50-100 mm thick in case of Oil/Gas firing. 30. Modified Colburn's correlation is accurate for long flow conditions on gas side over tubes. 31. Cynder recovery reduces unburnt loss but increases fly ash content of gases. 32. Surface liberation rate is a more important parameter than volumetric heat release rates in furnace design. 33. Natural gas is the best known fuel for firing inside the boiler. 34. Balanced draft boilers are those where gas pressures inside furnace are slightly negative. 35. Rice husk causes high slagging in Furnaces. 36. Cast Iron gilled tubes are preferred for highly corrosive gases. 37. Radiant chambers are used for WHB where gas temperatures are high and gases contain alkali metals which may cause fouling. 38. Fire Tube waste heat Boilers are limited to a maximum steam pressure of 100 bar. 39. Auto Recirculation valves reduce power consumption of Boiler feed water pumps. 40. Furnace diameter and length of Fire Tube Boilers should be selected based on Burner flame dimensions. 41. A properly designed fired Fire Tube Boilers should have draft loss of 80 - 120 mm of WC. 42. Elevated drum Fire Tube Boilers should be opted for high steam pressures and for multiple furnace boilers. 43. Boiler shell/casing is painted white to reduce heat loss. 44. A white painted boiler casing is hotter than a black painted one. 45. There are more Fire Tube Boilers in operation than Water tube boilers. 46. Super heater in Fire Tube Boilers can be placed at the outlet of II pass. 47. Efficiency based on NCV = (Efficiency based on GCV) * (GCV/NCV). 48. Presence of Higher moisture and higher tri-atomic gases in exhaust gases result in higher radiation . 49. Best known heat transfer correlation for fluids inside tubes is that of Dittus-Boelter. 50. Reversal chamber area is about 35-45 % of furnace area in most cases. 51. It's rare to find more than 2 furnaces in a single shell. 52. GCV of of Fuel Oil(cracked) is GCV, BTU/Hr = 17660 + 69*(Deg. API gravity). GCV of Fuel Oil(Uncracked) is GCV = 17780 + 54*(Deg. API gravity). 53. GCV of Gaseous fuel is found by summing up proportionately the GCV of it's

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17-02-2014 18:43

Boiler : Boilers design tips for Wood,steam boilers,gas,oil,coal boiler heat

http://www.firecad.net/boiler/Boiler-Tips.aspx

52. GCV of of Fuel Oil(cracked) is GCV, BTU/Hr = 17660 + 69*(Deg. API gravity). GCV of Fuel Oil(Uncracked) is GCV = 17780 + 54*(Deg. API gravity). 53. GCV of Gaseous fuel is found by summing up proportionately the GCV of it's constituent gases. 54. High volatile coals have less heating values than low volatile coals. 55. Moisture(H2O) content in fuel can be split into H2 and O2 proportionately and can be added to H2 and O2 content of the fuel in Ultimate analysis. This will not change Heating value or Exh gas composition. 56. It is better to perform combustion and performance calculations by taking Fuel composition on AS RECEIVED basis. 57. Most of the Heat Transfer correlations are formulated by taking Gas properties at Film temperature,that is average of average gas temperature and Tube wall temperaure, rather than just average Gas temp. 58. The Reactivity Index of Coals,T15, is defined as the temperature at which the standard self heating rate is 15 degC per minute. 59. Blast Furnace gas is known to have one of the lowest heating values. 60. OD 63.5mm (2.5 Inch) tubes are most widely used tubes in Fire tube Package boilers. 61. Generally pipes are meant for fluid transmission and tubes are meant for heat transfer. However their usage can be interchanged if other factors permit. 62. Pulverized fuel boilers are loosing out to FBC/CFBC boilers.

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17-02-2014 18:43