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Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) Group Name Elleiancly Yuli Liew Ming Ju Liew Shin Tieng Lim Way Hang Nor farshah Binti Hj. A. Rahman Nurul Edyanie Binti Jasneh Mohd Farhan Bin Hadis Mohd Shukri Bin Omar Ali CODE COURSE LECTURER : HS22 : PHYSICS WITH ELECTRONICS : Dr. HAIDER F.ABD.AMIR Matric Number BS11110148 BS11110314 BS11110315 BS11110324 BS11110431 BS11110508 BS11160736 BS11160738

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 27th May 2013

Introduction: DAC is stand for digital-to-analog converter signals that can be amplified and sent to the speakers or headphones. To understand about this converter, we must clearly know the meaning of analog and digital. Analog is a smooth, continuous signal like a sound wave. Tapes and record players stored data as an analog signal. The grooves on the record or magnetic signals on the tape would continuously increase and decrease to show the shape of the sound wave. Digital is a more modern way of storing information. A digital system takes snapshots of a continuous process and gives each snapshot a numerical value. For example, a compact disc takes about 22,000 snapshots of an electric signal describing a sound wave every second and records the voltage of that signal. That is called the sampling rate. A digital-to-analog converter turns those snapshots back into a continuous sound wave. The digital analog converter is controlled by a clock cycle, a computer timing circuit that controls its speed. The clock cycle depends on the sampling rate. For example, a CD player's DAC would have a clock that activated it 22,000 times every second. When it is activated, the DAC takes the next digital signal and creates an analog voltage that matches it. By doing this at just the right speed, the signal creates a continuous wave that looks like the original signal. Sometimes, converting digital to analog this way does not create a true analog wave, but something called a stair step wave. Because there is a small jump between each digital reading, the analog wave jumps instead of making a smooth, continuous movement. To remedy this problem, they use a technique called interpolation. They look at two adjacent points on the wave, and guess what values are in between. This greatly reduces the jumps, and makes for a better, less distorted sound.

Objective: To design a digital-to-analog converter circuit. To understand the theory of Digital-to-analog converter. Theory: Digital-to-analog conversion can be achieved using a number of different methods. One popular scheme uses a network of resistors called a ladder network. A ladder network accepts inputs of binary value at, typically, 0V or Vref and provides an output voltage proportional to the binary input value. The output voltage is proportional to the digital input value as given by the relation

The function of the ladder network is to convert the 16 possible binary values from 0000 to 1111 into one of 16 voltage levels in steps of V ref/16. Using more sections of the ladder allows us to have more binary inputs and a greater quantization for each step. For example, a 10-stage ladder network could extend the number of voltage steps or the voltage resolution to Vref/2 , or Vref/1024. A reference voltage of Vref =10V would then provide output voltage steps of 10V /1024, or approximately 10mV. More ladder stages provide greater voltage resolution. In general, the voltage resolution for n ladder stages is

Figure 1: Basic circuit of ladder network with four inputs Material: Equipment and Software 1. NI multisim (Software testing and design) 2. Lighter (as a wire stripper) 3. Nail clipper (as a wire cutter) Component 1. 9v battery 2. Toggle switch 3. Resistor 10ohm 4. IC LM386 5. Potential resistor =1 =4 = 17 =1 =1

Methodology: In this project, there is 2 step must take consider. First step is design and testing. And the second step is soldering the circuit in strip board. Software design and testing By using software to design and testing the circuit has advantage to make sure the design is run correctly without make the circuit and decrease the probability of damage component. By drawing our circuit in software without error and easy to us to calculate the circuit and relate it with theory.

Figure 2: Designed circuit using software Breadboard testing After confirm the circuit designed is suitable with no error, the circuit must be tested using a breadboard to confirm whether it is really functional and to avoid damaging the components.

Soldering in stripboard The last step of making this circuit is soldering in stripboard. Before soldering, we must have a little bit knowledge about stripboard. All stripboard hole is connecting parallel. So if want to solder the IC, the connection of hole must be disconnect by cutting the copper with cutter or anything skill. We used a drill bit to make the holes in our stripboard for a tidy work. Beware when soldering IC LM386 as this IC is sensitive at high temperature and may damage if overheated.Use a socket to soldering on stripboard to prevent the IC from spoiling. After soldering the socket, make sure that all pin of IC socket must be disconnected in the stripboard.

Figure 3: Designed circuit on Stripboard.

Result: Digital input 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Analog output 0v 0.981v 2.934v 3.606v 3.944v 4.147v 4.282v 4.379v 4.451v 4.507v 4.553v 4.590v 4.621v 4.646v 4.669v 4.688v

Discussion: 1. There are some precautious steps we have taken during the experiment: We ensured that all the components were firmly connected to the correct polarity. We connected the components according to the circuit diagram which we have chosen. We handled the components with care to avoid the components from being spoiled or malfunctioned. We disconnected the battery when the circuit is not in used so it can prolong the components lifetime. In the beginning, we used breadboard to set up the circuit so that we could adjust the positions of components easily. After confirmed the position, we soldered each components to the strip board. 2. LM386 is used in this circuit because it is an integrated circuit consisting of a low voltage audio power amplifier and it suites for battery-powered device which is the circuit we have done. Conclusion: From our result, the analog output is controlled by the digital input. The different combination of digital bits input has different analog output. We used 4 bits input that lead us to a 16 different analog output.

References: D.Seitzer,G.Pretzl, N.A. Hamdy,1983, Electronic Analog-to-Digital Conversion, Wiley Interscience, New York. R.van de Plassche, 1994, Integrated Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog

Converteres,Kluwer Academic Publisherm Dordrecht. B. Razavi, 1994, Principles of Data Conversion System Design, Wiley-IEEE Press, New York. P.Jespers, 2001, Integrated Converters D-to-A and A-to-D Architectures, Analysis and Simulation, Oxford Press, London.