Sie sind auf Seite 1von 253

1

Check point (1) 1. What is the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms? cell 2. Explain cell theor . !"
1. The cell is the basic unit of life.

#$
2. All living organisms are made up of cells and their products.

%&#'()* +%,-$
3. Growth and reproduction are due to the division of cells.

./0'123" !. "tate the general structure of a cell. 45678"

1. It consists of a mass of protoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane,

96:;<%=>?@A$
2. can e ist singly or in group,

BC)D,EFGH$
3. contains various organelles.

I&JKL" #. "tate the definition of organelle MLNO" !pecialised part of a cell for performing a specific function. eg. "hloroplast, mitochondrion. LPQR2STUPNSVWXYZ[\]^[_" $. %escribe the structure and properties of cell membrane. 45<8A/`"
1. Thin and fle ible.

ab&c8$
2. #ifferentially permeable

defg8$
3. $ade up of protein %&'() and phospholipid %*'() molecules.

<(hiA(60%)jk2l(40%)%,-" &. %escribe the propert of phospholipid 'ith related to 'ater affinit .
45jkmnopP8" +hospholipids contain a hydrophilic %water,loving) head and a hydrophobic %water,repelling) tail.

jkI&6qonr6qsnt" (. )o' is phospholipid arranged in the cell membrane?

jkWuH< vw The phospholipid molecules formed a bimolecular layer.

xyjk2lvw-6qjkz2ly(kzy)"
The hydrophobic tails associated with each other at the center of the membrane with the hydrophilic heads e tending towards the surface.

kzysntvwH<{SbonrvHx|}" *. What substance is attached to the surface of phospholipid bila er? kzy|}~& ?
-ach side of these phospholipids was a layer of protein molecules, rather li.e the bread on either side of a sandwich.

Hxyjk|}~&6yhiA2lS1|}xy=" +. Wh does cell membrane model is called ,fluid mosaic model- ?


<[ ? /iewed from the surface, the proteins are dotted throughout the phospholipid layer in a mosaic arrangement. The phospholipid layer is capable of movement, i.e. is fluid. It was these facts which gave rise to its name, the fluid,mosaic model.

|}ShiA()HqjkySjkBS[S qF[" 1.. What is the function of the surface protein? <|}hiA& ?

They give structural support. They are very specific which allows cells to be recogni0ed by other agents in the body %act as recognition mar.ers), eg. en0ymes, hormones and antibodies.

*B8S*CPSB-S[\ [_A BmD" 11. "tate some functions of cell membrane. M<6"

1. 1ith the help of cell membrane, compartmentali0ation of the cell and organelles is possible which aids in protection of the cell and maintenance of the cell shape.

&<SB2-JKR2SBE-LS/E"
2. It is differentially permeable, hence it can control the entrance and e it of molecules and ions.

*efg8S

B2llTM"

3. It provides surface for the accommodation of en0ymes. eg. the electron transfer system in respiration.

*B |}SVWl|}"
*. It can recogni0e stimulus. eg. rod cells can recogni0e different wavelength.

*BSVWB"
2. It provides identity to the cell. eg. antigens on red blood cell in relation to blood group.

*B2SVW|}@&"
&. It aids in food ingestion %endocytosis) by forming food vacuole.

*BE-()

3. It forms vesicle that functions in secretion. eg. synaptic vesicle releases neurotransmitter.

*BE-2SVWMA"
4. It forms the myelin sheath of nerve fibres which facilitates the transmission of nerve impulse and insulates against cross,tal.s.

*BE-jkS/ ["
5. #ue to the fluid nature of the phospholipid bilayer, it is fle ible so that the cell can grow and divide. It can change shape and seal bac. on itself during growth and cell division.

kzy8AS*dc8S<BESUSm. 232" 12. Explain the selective permeabilit of the plasma membrane. <g8p" /he molecules of the lipid bila er have a h drophilic 0'ater1loving0 end 'hich is soluble in 'ater and a h drophobic 0'ater1repelling0 end 'hich is soluble in fat. The hydrophobic ends are repelled by water but are attracted to each other, and therefore they tend to line up in the centre of the membrane, leaving the hydrophilic ends pro6ecting from the two outer surfaces. 7ecause of the hydrophobic core, the lipid bila er is almost entirel impermeable to 'ater and all 'ater1 soluble substances. 8owever, fat1soluble substances, such as o ygen, carbon dio ide, alcohols and steroids, can penetrate the lipid bila er. Water and dissolved ions cannot pass through the cell membrane by simple diffusion, they diffuse through channel protein molecules which span the membrane to form pores. jkz2ly&6qonS*1nS*&6qsnS*1k " sn6;nvS*S *1vwH<{Son6 M<x}" &6qsn{Sjkz2lygn%&n8ASk8 ASVWX \ Q \ _'B *" nB8l4<S*Bg<hi2l% !"<" 1!. "tate the factors that can affect the cell membrane permeabilit . M # $% <g8" The cell membrane is composed of phospholipids and proteins, an chemicals that can dissolve the lipids or alter the arrangement of the lipoprotein molecules ma affect the permeabilit of cell membrane. )eat can denature the protein so it can also affect the membrane permeability. The common chemicals that can affect the permeability are organic solvents such as chloroform, acetone and alcohol. 7esides, ionic concentration, membrane
structure, present or absent of inhibitors will also affect its permeability.

<(jkhiA%,-S&uBDk)jkhivwFQ'+S' B$%<g8"

(pB)hiAAS%D*B$%<g8" *B$%<g8Q&+,SVWX -%./0)S1 " `2$%<g8&X3\l4\<\5GH67_" 1# .Explain 'hat happens 'hen beetroot (89: ) tissues are immersed in (1) acetone and (2) paraffin oil. ;89:< D = & >? X (1)1 \ (2)@AB %1) The acetone solution turns red. Acetone can dissolve the lipid components in the cell membranes of beetroot cells, therefore, the red pigment is able to diffuse out through the destroyed cell membrane %1). %2) The paraffin oil sta colourless. +araffin oil will not affect the cell membrane of the beetroot cells, cells remain intact. %1) 1 C D S 1 B<k -2S 89: D B M EF<" %2) @ABGHIDS@AB$%89:<S GHIE" Check point (2) 1$. %escribe the structure of endoplasmic reticulum. 45 A J <" 1. This is a complex s stem of membrane throughout the whole cytoplasm. 2. It is continuous 'ith the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane at some places. 3. !ome of them ma be attached b ribosomes and they are called rough -9, while those without the ribosomes are called smooth -9. 1. 6qKLqAMNJ" 2. *<OPSHQRS<T" 3. &;U[ %hi[)V?SWAJ<SX&U[V?YAJ<" 1&. "tate the functions of endoplasmic reticulum. M A J " 1. +roviding a large surface area for chemical reactions. 2. +roviding a pathway for the transport of materials through the cell, 3. +roducing proteins, especially en0ymes %rough -9). *. +roducing lipids and steroids. %smooth -9). 2. "ollecting and storing synthesi0ed material. &. +roviding a structural s.eleton to maintain cellular shape.

1. Q'|}Z" 2. [\]" 3. hiAS ^ ` %WAJ<)"

*. k/ %YAJ<)" 2. _`aG-A" &. b,cDE" 1(. %escribe the structure of mitochondria and its occurrence. d 5]^[*2" 1. They can be spherical or rod1shaped. 2. It is bound b t'o unit membranes, 3. the inner membrane folds in'ards to form pro2ections called cristae which greatly increase the surface area for respiratory reactions. *. They are abundant in cells 'hich re3uire a lot of energ to do 'orks, e.g. in muscle cells and in cells with active transport. 1. *BDefE)gESPh]6ij" 2. *;xyka<%<)%=>" 3. <lmb- n oMSBp|}Z" *. Hqrrs&K]^[SVWXtuv6w[" 1*. "tate the functions of mitochondria and its occurrence. M ]^[" The mitochondrial cristae contain respirator en4 mes involved in the 5rebs c cle and electron transfer, i.e. their functions is s nthesis of 6/7. ]^[nI&JKv6xyz{|}l S* AT+" Check point (!) 21. %escribe the structure or cell 'all. d 5 ~ "
Thic. and rigid. :reely permeable. It is a non,living structure composed of mainly of cellulose and with pores %pits) which allow protoplasmic connections between ad6acent cells.

bS(g" X&#S(,-S~&BJD@A" 22. "tate the functions of the cell 'all. M ~ "
1. It provides mechanical support and protection to the plant. %-specially in sclerenchyma and ylem which possess very thic. cell wall and thus serve as the main supporting tissues in the plant.)

+8/" (H~PS_I& ~SBw,c")

&

2. "ell walls are resistant to e pansion and allow development of turgidity when water enters the cell by osmosis. This contributes to the support of all plants and is the main source of support in herbaceous plants and organs such as leaves which do not undergo secondary growth.

~BgnSbS%&S m1X&.Y_L^`"
3. The rigid and yet permeable nature of the cell wall ma.es it an ideal protective layer without interfering with the movement of materials in and out of the cell.

~dg88A*B

ySATM"

2!. /abulate the differences bet'een the cell membrane and the cell 'all. | < ~ "
Cell membrane Cell 'all

<
"hemical composition ;ipoprotein "ellulose

~
Thic.

Q'-
Thic.ness

khi
Thin

+ermeability

a
#ifferentially permeable

"ompletely permeable

g8
9igidity

efg8
<ot rigid

(g
9igid and strong

elasticity

$ore elastic

;ess elastic

c8
$ethods of movement of substances across the membrane=wall

&c8
#iffusion, osmosis and active transport

X&c8
#iffusion

A<)~S
9eceptor sites [R

\g\w[
1ith specific receptor sites 1ithout specific receptor sites

&P[R

X&P[R

2#. %escribe the structure of chloroplast. d 5YZ["


1. ;arge and green, containing chlorophyll.

ZD[SI&YZ"
2. -ach chloroplast consists of a double membrane enclosing a homogenous matri , the stroma, in which a number of grana are embedded.

(zya<=>SIASA&JK]" 2$. "tate the function of chloroplasts. MYZ[ "


It is the site of photosynthesis during which carbohydrate is manufactured.

TU nQ RS "

2&. %escribe the structure of vacuole. d 5"


1. It is bounded by a single membrane called the tonoplast.

(6y<ya<%=>?$
2. ;arge and located at the centre of the cell.

;>S1$
3. It contains cell sap, a concentrated solution of various substances, such as mineral salts, sugars, pigments, organic acids and en0ymes.

[SI&ASVWX\U2\D\&+" 2(. "tate the functions of vacuole. M "


1. It collects wastes and food.

*aG-"
2. It facilitates water upta.e by osmosis.

*g_n2"
3. It provides support to the herbaceous plant.

*" Check point (#) 2*. What is meant b prokar otic? @ 1. 8ereditary material, #<A, is not enclosed within a nuclear membrane. A DNA ;<%=>" 2. <o true nucleus or chromosomes. X&)D[" 3. "ircular #<A lying na.ed in the cytoplasm. } DNA R1A" *. <o membrane,bounded organelles. X&;<%=>?L" 2. Infolding of cell membrane %mesosome) for respiration. <lE-[D" &. <o mitosis. eg. bacteria and blue,green bacteria %blue,green algae) X&&23"VWXZ(Z)" 2+. What is meant b eukar otic? 1. #evelopment of membrane,bounded organelles, such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. &;<=>?LSVWX^][/YZ[" 2. #istinct, membrane bounded nucleus. ;<=>?" 3. "hromosomes present. &D["

*. <uclear division is by mitosis or meiosis. eg. plant and animal cells 23BD&23)23"VWX" !.. What are the advantages of eukar otic organi4ation over prokar otic organi4ation? @ & -u.aryotic organi0ation enables a cell to function in a more organi0ed and systematic way compared to pro.aryotic organi0ation. -u.aryotic cells possess > @SB&,c/&RS&X
1. 8onger %96 stores more genetic information.

. DNABaK"
2. 9ucleus#<A is confined to and replicates in it? cell division follows nuclear division which ensures each daughter cell receives the same amount of genetic information.

DNA 1TUMS23A23SB ql'&2rA"


3. :embrane bounded organelles, eg. -9, r-9, mitochondriaincreases the efficiency of protein synthesis.

;a<=>?LSVWXAJ<S^][SBphi-"
*. :itochondriabetter distribution of en0ymes enables the cells to carry out aerobic respiration efficiently.

^][ 2B&RTU& "


2. Chloroplasts , present in certain eu.aryotic cells, arrange the photosynthetic pigments in such a way so as to ma imi0e the rate of photosynthesis.

YZ[ GH1QSB)DRvwDT" !1. What are the advantages of having membrane1bounded organells? &;a<=>?L&

1. $any metabolic processes involve en0ymes being embedded in a membrane. As cells become larger, the proportion of membrane area to cell volume is reduced. This proportion is increased by the presence of organelle membranes.

JK'/V1a<|}S;Sa<}Zm[ZVmRS La<MSBVp"
2. 9egulating the rate of the first reactant enters can control the biochemical reaction rate inside an organelle.

La<TSBLQ"
3. +otentially harmful reactants or en0ymes can be isolated inside an organelle so they won@t damage the rest of the cell.

H&)BHLS;D`2R2" !2. 9ame all the cellular organelles 'hich are surrounded b t'o la ers of membrane. M%&;xya<=>?L" $itochondrion, chloroplast, nucleus ^][\YZ[\ !!. What is the importance of double membrane in organelles? &xya<L&
#ouble membranes help compartmentali0ation and increase surface area for en0ymatic reactions.

zy<B)L2-RSp|}ZS& TU"

!#. What are the benefits of multicellularit over acellularit (unicellularit ). K8 8)8 &
:ulticellularit confers greater independence of the environment by >

K8 H}&C8"
1. ;reedom of movement<

(UX
Arganisms are heavy enough to overcome surface tension of water and turbulence in air, thus the organisms can avoid being swept aimlessly about li.e unicellular animals. Arganisms can move at their own will due to development of locomotory organs. This increases the chance of finding food and mating partners, escaping from enemies and e ploiting new habitats.

B.Dmn|}pS_B7; n)RS&ULS B " SB p \\/?}+"


2. =etter chances of overcoming desiccation<

& pX
$ulticellularity reduces the body surface area to volume ratio which in turn reduces water loss by evaporation, thus the organisms would be dry up at a slower rate when compared to unicellular organisms.

K8B[|}Zm[ZVSB?bnSK Q"
!. >ncreased heat conserving abilit <

p 3 pX
A smaller surface area to volume ratio reduces heat loss in cold environments, thus the organisms can withstand fluctuations in atmospheric temperatures much better than unicellular organisms.

[|}Zm[ZVH}(SK H3e}G"
#. %ivision of labour<

2 s X #ivision of labour allow some cells to speciali0e for a specific function. Bsually the cells are differentiated into tissues which will lead to a higher level of organ organi0ation. K8B2sSJQPQ"QPS P;2Q-,cSLy}2Q" !$. What are the similarities bet'een plant cells and animal cells.. & " !imilarity
1. They have similar chemical constituents including water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrate, mineral salts, vitamins, nucleic acids, etc.

*&Q'S= n\hiA\k \ nQ\ A\ _"


2. They are structurally similar to each other, consisting of the cytoplasm in which organelles and the nucleus are embedded, and enclosed by the cell membrane.

*9Sx'&;<=>?ASL/"

1'

3. 7oth of them have cell membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus.

x'&<\A\^][\AJ" !&. What are the differences bet'een plant cells and animal cells. & " %ifferences 7lant cells
1. Cell 'all ~ 2. ?acuole !. Chloroplasts YZ[ #. ;ood storage a $. 8ocation of nucleus 1ith a rigid cell wall. &~" /acuole is present &" 8ave chloroplasts containing chlorophyll. &?YZYZ[" :ood storage is starch. aA" Bsually at the edge of the cell 1"

6nimal cells
<o cell wall. X&~" <o vacuole or very small X&)" <o chloroplasts. X&YZ[" :ood storage is glycogen. aU@" Bsually at the center of the cell. 1{"

!(. 6rrange the different level of organi4ation of an organism in order. ) y MN 8 vw" "ells tissues organs systems organism !*. @ive the definition of tissue. M, c NO" 6b

A group of similar cells bounded together by middle lamella in plant or intercellular matri in animal, that perform the same function. eg. epidermis.

6sS*&6SVWX|"

!+. @ive the definition of organ. M L NO"

Grouping of a variety of tissues to perform a specific function for an organism. eg. leaf, heart.

(,c%,-skSVWXY\{" #.. @ive the definition of s stem. M NO"

A system is made up of several organs that perform related functions. eg. digestive system.

(q6sL%,-SVWXQ"

11

Check point ($) 1. =riefl describe some biological significance of 'ater. 456nm8"
1. 1ater is a good solvent for many substances. !ubstances must be in aCueous form before they can enter the cells. Its aids in transportation of nutrients, hormones and e cretory wastes.

nKA , SAqHEFTS*[\\/v -"


2. 1ater provides a medium for chemical reactions to ta.e place.

nQ ' % q A"
3. 1ater can act as a reactant in metabolic reactions. :or e ample, water provides hydrogen ions in photosynthesis. 8ydrolysis of many organic compounds in digestion also reCuires water.

nB SVWn lS Q& + n' q n"


*. 1ater can be used as cooling agent. 8eat can be lost through evaporation of water. eg. in sweating of man and panting of dogs.

nB 3, Sn?=B(SVWM/

(!"

2. 1ater has a high specific heat capacit , so the temperature of an organism does not fluctuate too much despite of the rapid change in the temperature of the environment.

n& ( S"}3B#$CS[3G&"
&. The cohesive and adhesive force of water aids in capillarity in soil and in plants. The cohesive force between water molecules leads to the upward movement of water molecules in ylem during transpiration.

n& % p/ V ?p SB&_'(n2SH)=Sn 2l%pnB*+AR9,"


3. 1ater is incompressible so that it provides hydros.eleton in earthworm and turgor potential in plants.

n - 8 *B./n01/" 4. 1ater provides buo anc for plants and animals in water.
eg. pond s.ater can be supported on the water surface.

nn2 p"VWn3B21n}9" 2. 9ame some inorganic ions 'hich are important in keeping organisms health . M1 45 I+ l"
<itrate, magnesium, calcium and iron. 6\ \ / 7 "

!. Explain the importance of nitrate in maintaining heath. 6 1 45 8"


1. A source of nitrogen in plants for ma.ing proteins.

"8Sq*"hiA"
2. Animals obtain nitrogen by feeding on plants and other animals.

BgT`29: "

#. Explain the importance of magnesium in maintaining heath. 1 45 8"

12

1. :orming chlorophylls in plants.

YZ"
2. A activator for some en0ymes.

Q" $. Explain the importance of calcium in maintaining heath. 1 45 8"


1. Deeping bones and teeth hard and strong.

016;<"
2. 9eCuired in muscle contraction and blood clotting.

1tu_=/>?" &. Explain the importance of iron in maintaining heath. 7 1 45 8"


1. <eeded for forming hemoglobin %a pigment in red blood cell for carrying o ygen).

(@ D )"
2. A activator for some en0ymes.

Q" (. %escribe the structure and properties of monosaccharides. M U 8A"

:ormula > "&812A&. They are soluble in water, crystalli0able, sweet, able to pass through a selective, permeable membrane and all have reducing property. S?F> "&812A&S*1nSBAS8S B g<S ' & C @8A"

*. %escribe the structure and properties of disaccharides. Mz U 8A"


:ormula > "12822A11

S?F: "12822A11
They are soluble in water, crystalli0able and sweet.

*'1nSBA8" +. What is mean b condensation? =

"ondensation > the combination of two simple molecules to form a comple one with the release of water.

=> xq42lgvD6qn2lb-6qMNQ" 1.. %escribe the structure and properties of pol saccharides. MK U 8A"
They are insoluble, tasteless non,crystalli0able.

*1nSIEA"
:ormula > %"&81'A2)n where n may be 3'' to *'' in starch and 1'''' in cellulose.

S?F: %"&81'A2)nSn H 300 400SH" 10000" 11. What happened to pol saccharides in h drol sis? n = K U -

polysaccharides can be converted to their constituent monosaccharides.

13

n=SKUBC,-*U" 12. Wh are starch and gl cogen suitable for storage? / U @ F a

1. !tarch and glycogen are insoluble in water. They does not affect the water potential of cytoplasm and hence, the metabolic processes in cells.

/U@1nS$%AnS%D$%"
2. Their molecules can be packed closel in cells so that they do not occupy a lot of space.

*2lB G ~H6 S

HIKSSa"

3. They can be easil h drol 4ed to simple sugar which can be o idi0ed to release energy in respiration.

* J n4KLUS1ADMr" 1!. What are the functions of carbob drates? M nQ"


1. As the main respirator substrates %he ose sugar)

w A %MU)"
2. As food storage materials %starch, glycogen, sucrose)

a %\U@\NU)
3. As structural materials %cellulose)

wA %) 1#. %escribe the structure and properties of lipids. Mk 8A"


They are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and o ygen, and the ratio of hydrogen to o ygen is greater than two. ;ipid is formed from 3 molecules of fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol,

6oined together by the removal of 3 molecules of water. They are insoluble in water, but soluble in
organic solvents.

I& @l\@l @lQSb @lm @l V P " k (qk 2l6qOB2lgvDqn2lbOb-" *1nS1&+," 1$. What are the functions of lipids? k &
1. As energ source, greater energy yield than carbohydrates.

8 S*r nQ C "
2. "hief storage materials waA" 3. +rovide protection.

"
*. As structural component of the body.

[A" Check point (&) 1&. What is protein made up of? hiA(A,-

1*

+roteins are made up of amino acids hiA( %,-" 1(. Which t'o groups does an amino acid contain? ( P xR2,- ? Amino acid contains an amino group %,<82) and a carbo yl group %,"AA8). d&6q 6q 1*. What bond helps to bind amino acids together? Q TO H6 ? +eptide bond. Q" 1+. What determine the proteinAs individualit ? hiA8A :R 1 ? 1. !eCuence of amino acid. vwS" 2. +attern of branching, folding and cross,lin.ages. KT2\lmUUOF" 2.. Explain 'hat denaturation of protein is. u V hiAA" Three dimensional structure of a protein is due to fairly wea. ionic and hydrogen bonds. Any agent which brea.s these bonds will cause the three dimensional shape to be changed. In many cases the globular proteins revert to a more fibrous form. This is called denaturation. hiAWXlQ Q %S & u Y F Q'BDSPhiCSA" 21. "tate all the factors 'hich cause protein denaturation M $% hiAA%&" %1) 8eat (
%2) Acids %3) Al.alis Z %*) Inorganic chemicals I+Q'+ %2) Arganic chemicals &+Q'+ %&) $echanical force +pr

22. "tate the functions of proteins. MhiA" 1. They are the structural component of the body and thus the raw materials for growth. *[/.@[S*,-@A<"
2. As energ source. 8 " 2. As functional molecules. The three dimensional conformation of proteins and their binding sites are essential in various body functions.

2lShiA/*RH[9"
%a) They form en4 mes which regulate cellular chemical reactions.

*E-BQ"

12

%b) They form hormones which regulates physiological process.

*E-B\

"

%c) They form haemoglobin which transport o ygen.

*E-B[ "
%d) They form actin and m osin which provide movement through muscle contraction.

*E-Btu_=t hi t hi"
%e) They form antibodies which are essential in body defence.

*E-Bm]["
%f) They act as carrier molecules in active transport and transport across membrane.

*w[/<[ ["
%g) They act as receptor molecules in the membrane surface.

*<|} ["
%h) They act as the electron carriers in respiration.

*l [" 2!. What is nucleotide made up of? ^ (A,-


-ach nucleotide consists of a ribose sugar which lin.s to a phosphoric acid and to an organic base.

q ^ '(6qU \6qj /6qZ %,-" 2#. %escribe the functions of nucleotides in living organisms. M ^ H9"

1. <ucleotides are the basic unit of nucleic acids #<A and 9<A. #<A is the genetic materials which code for the synthesis of proteins. As some proteins become en0ymes, nucleic acids play a part in controlling cellular activit .

^ DNA RNA S#<A I&_hi-[SQ hiA-Sv6 "


2. <ucleotide involved in heredit . #<A and 9<A can self,replicate. The genetic materials can pass from one generation to the ne t.

^v6 S#<A 9<A BMS

AB"

3. <ucleotide forms energ rich compounds such as adenosine triphosphate (6/7). AT+ is the immediate energy source.

^BE-Q `^ j (ATP)SATP =r"8"


*. <ucleotides also form co1en4 mes.

^E-JK a "

Check point (() 1. Explain the term diffusion. b

<et movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. 2l(6q4Rcd6q4Rc"

1&

2. Explain the old meaning of the term osmosis. b g e O"

Asmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated solution through a differentially permeable %selective permeable) membrane.

n2lgefg8<(g<)(In2l(f)dIn2l(4)" !. Explain the ne' meaning of the term osmosis. b g O"

The net movement of water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential.

n2lPefg8<Sngcngch" #. Explain the meaning of the term 'ater potential. b n g "

1ater potential describes the tendency of water molecules to move from one place to another.

ngEn2l(6qci 6q ci " $. "tate the direction of 'ater movement in different 'ater potential. MHn g Sn S "
1ater moves from a higher water potential solution to a lower one.

n2lngdng" &. )o' does the presence of solute affect 'ater potential? AGHWu $% n g ? AGHngSM "

+resence of solutes reduces the water potential, becomes negative.

(. What happens to the plant cell 'hen 'ater flo's into it? ; n S ? Q
"ell e pands and becomes turgid. /"

*. What change occurs on the 'ater potential as 'ater keeps flo'ing into the cell? ; n j n ? Q
1ater potential rises. ng9,"

+. What is the state and 'ater potential of the cell 'hen 'ater stops flo'ing in the cell. ; n k S M l /`n "

:ull turgor is reached? the cell can e pand no more? the water potential reaches 0ero and the osmotic potential of the cell sap is e actly counterbalanced by the wall pressure %pressure potential).

SkSngmSbnAg;~-(-pg)%o 1.. What is the state of the plant cell 'hen 'ater potential is e3ual to the solute potential? ; n g _WA g = S H l
+lasmolysis A~2

13

11. Explain the meaning of the term plasmol sis. b A ~ 2"

water is drawn out and the cytoplasm shrin.s, cell membrane pulls away from the cell wall

n2l;pMSAb_=S<q~" 12. What happened to a red blood cell 'hen it is placed in a h potonic solution? ; ;T 8 = &Q g?nTSp[ZrY"
8aemoglobin is released and water turns pin.. %haemolysis)

Asmosis occurs so that water enters the cells which increase in volume and finally burst.

;MSn-D"() 1!. Explain the term active transport. b w [ "

Active transport is a process in which en0ymes and carrier molecules carry substances across membranes. This process reCuires energy, and substances may be transported against concentration gradient.

wC6qs[2l)A<Sq ATP rS A@Bm4t"

1#. %escribe the characteristics of cells and tissues 'hich have active transport. M P TU w [ , c &uP u "
1. The presence of numerous mitochondria.

&K^]["
2. A high concentration of AT+.

&4 ATP"
3. A high respiratory rate.

&" 1$. "tate the different 'a s b 'hich material pass through cell membranes. MA B < S " 1. #iffusion 2. Asmosis g 3. Active transport wC *. -ndocytosis %phagocytosis v)

1&. Explain the term phagoc tosis. b v "

;arge particles %eg. 7acteria or dead tissues) are engulfed by pseudopodia of speciali0ed cells ]l%VWwx,c);Pyz{=>bE-"

1(. Explain the importance of phagoc tosis. v 8"

1. The feeding method of some single,celled organisms. eg. Amoeba engulf food particles.

6TSSVWE|v]"
2. The defense mechanism of most animals. eg. 1hite blood cells engulf harmful microorganisms

JK}+SVWi&i"

14

Check point (*) 1. What is en4 me?


-n0ymes can be defined as biological catal st that speed up reactions.

TQ~Q," !. Explain ho' do en4 mes speed up reactions 'ithout altering the temperature. B TQ ' b Iq 3 "
-n0ymes act as catalyst, can reduce the activation energy reCuired for a chemical reaction to ta.e place.

~Q,SB)QQ'%qQ" !. %escribe the properties of en4 me 'ith respect to natureB 'orking rateB durabilit and direction. d 5 6 w& 8A < A\ s $ \ 8/ ~ Q S " a) All en0ymes are globular proteins %& 'hi"
b) -n0ymes generally wor. very rapidly.

s$P" c) -n0ymes are not destroyed by the reactions they catalyse and so can be used again S;Q'YFS*BM" d) An en0yme can wor. in either direction BDHxqS9s" #. %escribe the properties of en4 mes 'ith respect to inactivationB p) and specificit . d 5 6 w& 8A < Q\ Z (p))\ P8" a) -n0ymes are denatured by e cess heat H3;QbH3";8b" b) -n0ymes are sensitive to p8 mZ%p8)" c) -n0ymes are specific in the reactions they catalyse m1*Q'&P8SI+~Q,^" $ Explain the mechanism of en4 matic reaction. + @ "
-ach en0yme has a special site called the active site where reaction occurs. The substrate molecule would bind to the active site and then reaction can undergo. The active site has a specific configuration. Anly substrate with complementary shape to the active site can bind to the active site.

'&6qP 8RS P B TQ ' ? SA2l 8RSHA?Q'" A2l E SA Q ' ) * q H6 b $ " & What is meant b active site?

15

u V 8R
-ach en0yme has a special site called the active site where reaction occurs. The substrate molecule would bind to the active site and then reaction can undergo. The active site has a specific configuration. Anly substrate with complementary shape to the active site can bind to the active site.

'&6qP 8RS P B TQ ' ? SA2l8RSHA?Q'S8RdPElS& PEFA*S`2E" (. )o' can the back'ard reaction be avoided? Wu
The product is immediately removed and therefore the bac.ward reaction is avoided

HHS +; SB " *. Explain the specificit of en4 mes. P8"


The en0yme has no reaction on other substrate because their shapes may not fit each other.

m`2AX&S*E"

Check point (+) +. Explain 'h heat can destro en4 mes. ( pB Y F "
8eat disrupts the structure of the en0ymes, denaturing the en0ymes. The en0yme lost its catalytic ability.

(pYF S 2lE bS 8S ~ Qp" 1.. Wh the reaction rate is speeded up at a higher temperature? H 3 $ p
1. 8igher temperature enables en0yme and substrate molecules to collide more freCuently and therefore facilitates the substrate molecule bind to the active site of the en0yme.

;3,=S 2lA p S* $ S 2lBS*+BKSb$B"


2. 8eat provides activation energy and increases molecular motion.

3A2l9:*QSbp$" 11. Wh is the change of p) ma lead to a loss of catal tic po'er of an en4 me? Z B ~ Qp
The precise shape of en0yme is due to the hydrogen bonding between positive and negative charges on the en0yme molecule. "hanges in p8 may brea. these bonds, wea.ens the forces holding the en0yme molecules together. Thus leads to an alteration in en0yme shape, particularly at its active site. 8ence the substrate no longer fits easily into the active site and catalytic activity is diminished.

2'

2lEm*" ES&R2 2l9 Q Sb l%8E)4QBYQS8RESb&R 8" 12. Explain competitive inhibition. 8 5 "
In competitive inhibition, a compound, structurally similar to that of the usual substrate, associates with en0yme@s active site, but is unable to react with it. 1hile it remains there, it prevents access of any molecules of true substrate. The substrate and inhibitor compete for position in the active site. As the substrate can still use the unaffected en0ymes, so the amount of product is the same, however the reCuired time is longer. This is because the substrate is competing with the inhibitor directly, the more the substrate, the higher is the chance of finding the active site and the less free active sites left for the inhibitor. It is possible to be reversed, if the substrate concentration increased, the rate of reaction will be increased.

85d&6q68RES%D*6A 2l 8R S;*GH68RT=SA2l68RSb$" A51hO=SA2lBKS8R+BKS5 &8RBS%DA4pS5" 1!. Explain non1competitive inhibition. 8 5 "


This type of inhibitor has no real structural similarity to the substrate and forms an en0yme,inhibitor comple at a point other than its active site. It has the effect of altering the globular structure of the en0yme, so that even though the real substrate may be able to bind with the en0yme, catalysis is unable to ta.e place. As the inhibitor binds to the other sites of the en0yme, they won@t compete for the active site. !o, increase in substrate concentration will not decrease the inhibition.

85 8R9Sb 2l` 2 RS b ) 2l ES8RkA" 5H ` 2 Sx q RSSpA45$"

21

1#. Compare competitiv and non1competitive inhibitions. 8 6 8 5 "


Competitive 8 :olecular structure !imilar to substrates 9on1competitive 8 #ifferent from substrates

2l
sites that bind 'ith en4 me molecules

6A
Active sites

6A
+arts other than active sites

8R
Accupying active sites loosely

8RDR
Altering shape of active sites temporarily

6 2lR
Effect on en4 me

m $%
Examples

RH8R
$alonic acid

=8RE"
"yanide

Vl
;actors affecting degree of inhibition

1
and inhibitor

Q
affinity for en0yme

9elative concentrations of substrate Inhibitor concentration and binding

$%5 ?

A65m4

54/`mop

1$. Explain 'h does the reaction rate slo' do'n as the reaction proceed. ; Q ' TU = ` $
At the beginning, the substrate concentration is high so the chance of fruitful collision between the substrate molecules and en0yme molecules is higher. ;ater, the substrate concentration becomes lower because some substrates have been converted into products. Thus the chance of collision between the substrate molecules and en0yme molecules becomes lower. :urthermore, the product produced may inhibit the reaction.

;Q'TU=`$SSA4;S%DA2l b & + S` SA 4 S &A;C- +S A2l 2l ? & + ; SkS + 5 Q ' % + 5 )" 1&. /he reaction curve 'ill finall level off and 'ill not reach 1.. C. Explain this phenomenon. ~ Q ^ C 1 b 1..C?
The reaction is a reversible reaction. The end product produced would favour the bac.ward reaction until an eCuilibrium is reached. !o the product concentration would never reach 1''(.

~Q6qBCQ'S +-& 1 S h S +n 1''(" 1(. Cite t'o applications of en4 mes. M xq Vl" 1. 8 X (hiA Wh / _ -D S 8 I& hi SB ) hiA2B1n2lS& D 9 "& E ,I&hi " =iological 'ashing po'ders

22

The most difficult stains to remove are from protein foods li.e eggs or blood stains. The biological washing powder contains proteases %sometimes also lipase) can brea. down proteins into smaller molecules which dissolve in water, leaving the clothes stain free. !ome cleaning solutions of contact lens also contain proteases.

2. u X &uSPuSS-SuX&PSB H=uSuI&6+2M" + S + B QhiAS)uR22S*X&P" :eat tenderi4ers


$eats, particularly beef, are sometimes too tough to eat after coo.ing. To ma.e meats more tender, meat tenderi0er contains a protease called papain, which is isolated from papaya, is added to them several hours before coo.ing. The protease will loosen the meat fibres by partially brea.ing down the proteins inside.

1* What are the advantages of using en4 mes in industrial process? H s &u ?
1. It can speed up chemical reactions in industrial process for mass production of proteins.

*B$s?Q'DrWhiA "
2. -n0ymes are specific in action, therefore, it can cataly0e specific processes and is less li.ely to generate undesirable products.

d68S*B~QPN?S

+ "

3. It enable artificial manipulation of rate of industrial process by controlling reaction temperature or p8.

= SBg 3 ) p8Sss?$" Check point (1.) 1. What is meant b holo4oic nutrition? u V F ? "onsumption of comple food which is bro.en down inside the organism into simple molecules which are then absorbed. &+SH[Q-42lSHgT[" 2. Wh is food important to us? m & 8 ? 1. It provides energy for activities and .eeps us warm. %qr[3" 2. It provides us with raw materials for growth and repair. @[S.YE,c" 3. It contains substances that are important for maintaining health. S[45" !. What substances does food contain?

23

I& P A ? 3 types> carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and water. 3 > nQ\k\hiA\\A\n"

2*

#. What is meant b balanced diet? u V ? A balanced diet should contain enough carbohydrates, protein ands fats %&>3>1) and enough vitamins, minerals and water so as to maintain health, growth and repair, with enough roughage %dietary fibre) to stimulate the peristalsis of guts. _I&{ nQ\hiAk %&>3>1)/{ n2 D45/.S&{ " $. Wh do 'e need a balanced diet? ? A balanced diet maintains good health and supplies the right amount of energy for body activity. [4S#%qr" &. "tate the function of vitamin 6 and the result of deficienc . M 6 / * " :or the building of visual purple in the rod cells of the eye. E-J<9D%A) <ight,blindness (. "tate the function of vitamin C and the result of deficienc . M C / * " $aintenance of healthy epithelium and wall of blood vessels, healing of wounds. 459,c/i~S" !curvy F] *. "tate the function of vitamin % and the result of deficienc . M % / * " Increase absorption of calcium and phosphorus at the intestine. +roper formation of bone and teeth. p A/jA _ SE 01 / ;< " 9ic.ets ] +. Wh is it not advised to take too much fat1soluble vitamins? T r k8 ? - cessive inta.e of fat,soluble vitamins is undesirable because they are not readily e creted in urine. They may accumulate in the body to reach to ic levels which are harmful to the body. Trk8Sk8JvS*Z%H[ 8nS[E"

22

1.. "tate the function of calcium and the result of deficienc . M / * " 7uilding of bones and teeth. 7lood clotting. 01/;<\> 9ic.ets, 7leeding ]\M 11. "tate the function of iron and the result of deficienc . M 7 / * " :orms haemoglobin. E- Anaemia 12. What is roughage? W ? 1. The indigestible material in food. H;QA" 2. "ontain mainly cellulose. wI&" 1!. What is the function of roughage and the result of deficienc ? W &S *& ? 1. !timulated muscular movement along the gut. " 2. #eficiency leads to constipation. " Check point (11) 1#. What food stuff should be increased in children diet? q Ku ?
"hildren need more proteins, calcium and iron for building new tissues.

qKhiA\ A/ 7 A E-, c " 1$. Wh is the energ re3uirement per unit bod mass decreases from age # to 2.? [% q r ?
9easons > In a younger person

(XHX
1. the metabolic rate is faster ?

"

2&

2. the growth rate is faster? and

."
3. the body si0e is smaller and so the relative surface area is larger. The relative heat loss is also greater so that more energy is reCuired to maintain a high body temperature.

[ZS[|}ZmS [3"

S(rmRKSqKrD

1&. Wh does a male expend more energ than a female? 8 8 K r ?


%1) The male may have a higher metabolic rate.

8&"
%2) The male is more muscular.

8&Ktu" 1(. Explain 'h does a labour need more food than a clerk? s q K ?
;abour doing more muscular activities reCuires more energy. A construction wor.er reCuires more energy than an office wor.er. The former needs a diet rich in carbohydrates to supply energy, and proteins for muscle development.

sqKrS6q\sqKr" 2KI nQhi ASD{ r tu? " 1*. Explain the dietar re3uirement of a pregnant 'oman. q ?
1. more calcium in her diet for the growth of the bones of the foetus.

K AD 01 ."
2. more food %energy) for the body growth and respiration of the foetus.

K(r)D./" 1+. "tate and explain a test for protein. M # 6qhiA"


Albusti paper test> #ip the yellow end of Albusti paper into the sample. +ositive result> A greeen colour appears

hi: )D6<" 8: ZD 2.. "tate and explain a test for fats. M # 6qk "
!pot test> +ut a drop of food on a filter paper +ositive result> A permanent translucent spot appears

B: 6H9" 8: &6gM

23

21. "tate and explain a test for reducing sugars. M # 6q C @ U "


7enedictFs test> Add 1 ml of 7enedictFs solution to the food and boil +ositive result> An orange precipitate

: 6,,TH 8: &D 22. "tate and explain a test for starch. M # 6q "
Iodine solution test> Add 1 drop of iodine solution to the food. +ositive result> A blue blac. colour

: 6 T 8: D 2!. "tate and explain a test for vitamin C. M # 6q C "


#"+I+ test> Add food solution drop by drop to the #"+I+ solution to see if it is decolouri0ed. +ositive result> #"+I+ solution becomes colourless.

: ) #"+I+ SB7) #"+I+ D" 8: DCPIP -ID Check point (12) 1. "tate the five processes of human nutrition? M %= q ? " Ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion. \Q\_\Qv" 2. "tate all the digestive glands? M%& Q ` " #igestive glands > salivary gland, gastric gland, liver, intestinal gland, pancreatic gland. Q` : `\`\\`\ ` !. Explain the need of digestion. Q q " The food we eat are usually starch, proteins and fat whose molecules are too large to pass through the cell membranes. \hiAkS*lS<"

24

#. What is digestion? Q" The process of brea.ing down the solid food into smaller, simpler and diffusible molecules such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol by the digestive en0ymes. Qs)[2\ 4BlSVWKLU\ \ k OB" $. %escribe the shape and function of incisor. 45 < E" "hisel shape. :or cutting. ESj" &. %escribe the shape and function of canine. 45 < E" !harply pointed, for .illing the prey. Sx" (. Explain the importance of che'ing food. 8" The importance of chewing food is to brea. food into small pieces so that the surface area can be greatly increase for en0yme action. :urthermore small piece of food can be easily swallowed. S|}Zpbs"*J" *. "tate the function of enamelB dentineB pulp cavit B cementB nerve and blood vessel? M A\ < A\ < \i A\ The hardest material in the body, to prevent the wearing of the tooth. [9AS;<E" The bony material of the tooth, very hard. -;w[S" It contains blood vessels and nerves. I&" To attach the tooth to the 6aw bone. );<N10" :or the sensitivity of the tooth. ;<" To supply o ygen and nutrients to the tooth. ;< " +. What t pe of teeth is absent in milk teeth? < u ;< $olar <

25

1.. Explain the causes of tooth deca . ; -" 1. 7y the action of acids produced by the bacteria. (% % - 2. 7acteria turns the food into wea. organic acids. )-X&+" 3. The acids corrode the enamel of the teeth. ;<A" 11. "tate the cause of periodontal disease and its effect. 45 ; ] -/` $% ? If plaCue gets between th gum and teeth, then a condition called periodontal disease may result. This affects the gum and bone structure, and may result in bad breath, bleeding gums and loose teeth. W;@MH;u;SB;]";]$%;u0S \;uM;<" 12. "uggest some 'a s to reduce tooth deca . 6 ; S " 1. Bse tooth paste when brushing. ;;" 2. 7rush the teeth after eating so as to remove food debris and plaCue . T';" 3. Add fluoride to the tap water n Q" 1!. %escribe the functions of saliva. 45 " 1. !aliva stic.s food particles together and act as a lubricant when swallowing. B)]H6;=Y," 2. It contains an en0yme amylase which digest starch into maltose. *I&6sSB)Q-U" 1#. What is meant b peristalsis? Involuntary rhythmic waves of muscular contraction stimulated by roughage. (W%w8Ftu_="

3'

1$. "tate the function of stomach? & 1. !tores food a" 2. Absorption of simple molecules. _4l" 3. +artial digestion of protein RQhiA" 1&. 9ame the components of gastric 2uice and state their functions. M -2*" 1. 8"l %p8G2) 8"l .ill bacteria %sterili0ing) and activate en0ymes. B %) Qs" 2. +rotein digestive en0ymes hiQs Anly partial digestion of protein, no digestion of carbohydrates. RQhiASX& nQ Q" 1(. Wh does bab can digest milk but most adult cannot? Q S - ? 7aby has casein which can coagulate liCuid protein, enhance the digestion of protein by increasing the time of it to stay in the stomach I&>sS " BhiA>S.hiAH!=ShiQss

1*. Wh is the stomach is not digested b its o'n en4 mes? ; M s % Q 1. +rotected by mucus. (" 2. #igestive en0ymes are produced in inactive forms "Qs" Check point (1!) 1+. 9ame the sources that small intestine receives digestive 2uice. M % O_ Q " 8 " 9eceives digestive 6uices from three sources > gall bladder %bile 6uice), pancreas %pancreatic 6uice) and wall of small intestine %intestinal 6uice). O_Qs : #(#$)\ ()~()"

31

2.. 9ame the components of small intestine. M - " It is composed of duodenum and ileum. (_%,-" 21. Which ducts are connected to duodenum? & P O d _ 7ile duct and pancreatic duct are connected to duodenum. # TO ? _ " 22. 9ame the finger like pro2ections in ileum and state its importance. M % & _ M*8" /illi, to increase surface area for absorption of digested food. '&Sp|}ZD_" 2!. Where is the bile 2uice produced and stored? #$ Hu a Hu produced by liver. (" stored at gall bladder. aGH#" 2#. What is bile pigment? # D brea. down products of haemoglobin. 2 +" 2$. What is the function of sodium bicarbonate? & al.aline, neutrali0e the acid chyme. Z8SB8(" 2&. What is the function of bile 2uice (salts)? #$ ( )& -mulsify the fats %converts the oil into microscopic droplets), increase surface area for the latter en0ymes to act on, speed up the digestion of fat. Qk()B-iB)Spk6k O |} Z S $ k 2"

32

2(. Will the bile salts be affected b heatB 'h ? # 7 ; ( p% $% S <o, it is not an en0yme thus not affected by heat. *s%D($%" 2*. Will the secretion of bile stop after the removal of gall bladderB 'h ? D # 7X & #$ 2SSm Q& $% ? In the absence of the gall bladder, bile is still continuously secreted by the liver although it cannot be stored in the gall bladder. This will affect fat digestion because only a small amount of bile would be released into the duodenum when food enters this region. X&#S#$G()2SH*aH#"$%kQS; T!=&r#$2T_" 2+. Can bile digest fat into fatt acids and gl cerol? #$ 7) k Q-k O B ? 7ile does not digest fat. It emulsifies fat into fine droplets. #$QkS*)kQ-B" !.. What is the function of pancreatic 2uice? & ? (1) al.aline, neutrali0es the acid from stomach and provides an al.aline medium for en0yme action. Z8SB6Z8}s" (2) contain en0ymes which digest carbohydrates, proteins and fats I&BQ nQ\hiAkk s SB Q" !1. 9ame the different parts of large intestine. M R2" "omposed of caecum, colon and rectum. (\h,-" !2. "tate the function of colon. M " absorb water ,minerals and salts _n\A" !!. "tate the function of rectum. M h " Temporary storage of faeces =a*"

33

!#. "tate the components of faeces. M * IA" Indigestible material %cellulose), intestinal cells, bacteria, bile pigment. Q() \\\#D" !$. 6t 'hich part of the gut is 'ater absorption mainl take place? P 6R2n w RS !mall intestine !&. 9ame the site of food absorption in small intestine. M _ , c " villus '& !(. "tate and explain the features of absorptive surface. _ }P u " 1. 2. !"#$%&'()*+, 3. -./0&1'(/)-23 1. Thin one layer of cells, for rapid diffusion of digested food. 2. 1ell supplied with blood so that absorbed food can be transported away easily. 3. 1ith large surface area so that the absorptive area can be greatly increased. !*. Which part of the villus absorbs glucose and amino acids? ' & P 6R2 _ KL U "apillaries i !+. Which part of the villus absorbs fats? ' & P 6R2 _ k lacteals ( #.. Explain 'h does the lacteal become milk afer a meal of fatt food. 6q +, S 2 [ ( i" :atty food contains a lot of fats. After digestion, fats become fatty acids and glycerol. They are absorbed into the lacteal of the villi. In the lacteal they recombine to form fat again. Therefore, the lymph of the lacteal contains lot oil droplets. The agglutination of these oil droplets appears mil.y. +,I&rkSbkQDkiEF_(S( -.T-.S%D(-.&rB"bBH`=i D"

3*

#1. Explain the absorption of vitamins and minerals. Wu _ A" water soluble enter capillaries, fat soluble %A#-D) enter lacteals. n8TiSk8(ADEK)T(" #2. = 'hat mechanism is the food absorbed into the villi? _ + ? The absorption is due to diffusion because the concentration of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and glycerol are higher in the lumen of the intestine than in the blood and in the lymph. There are also active transport of the substances into the blood and lymph. _81S \ KL U \k O B 4 1-."D&w[AT-." #!. %escribe the fate of the absorbed glucose and amino acids. 45; _ KL U ) d u " Glucose and amino acids are absorbed into the blood capillaries. They are carried along the hepatic portal vein to the liver. Then they are transported to every part of the body by blood. KLU ; i _ S* / [ d S 0 ?( d [ R " ##. %escribe the fate of the absorbed fatt acids and gl cerol. 45; _ k O B)) d u " :atty acids and glycerol are absorbed into the lacteal of the villi. In the lacteal they recombine to form fat again. :at carried by the lymphatic system would be emptied into the blood stream at the base of the nec.. Therefore, blood will contain fat. kOB;'&(_SH(*kkSk;-. d12S%DI&k" #$. )o' do different nutrients assimilate in the bod ? 3 H ;Q ? nutrients KLU glucose amino acids k fats Q assimilation r provide energy -hiA ma.e protein E-< form cell membrane nQ = S 6 r " 8 as secondary engry source. KkaGHk,c e cess fats store at adipose tissue

32

Check point (1#) 1. What is the function of hair in nasal cavit ? 4 & & To filter dust particles. 5]" 2. What is the function of mucus in nasal cavit ? 4 & Trap dust particles and germs. 65]]" !. What is the function of blood capillaries in nasal cavit ? 4 i & 1arm the air. )(" #. What is the function of cilia in nasal cavit ? 4 & & To push the mucus out of the nasal cavity 7M4 $. What changes have occurred in the inhaled air? & C The inhaled air is filtered, moistened and warmed by the nasal cavity. ;4\8Q9" &. %escribe and explain the function of epiglottis during s'allo'ing. : H = #uring swallowing, epiglottis moves downwards to cover the trachea, thus preventing food from entering the lung. If food drops into the trachea, coughing will occur to e pel the food out of the trachea. ;=S:;<!ST=RSW>TS !?@)vM" (. "ome ring like structures are found in the tracheaB name it and give its function. & } S M*" Incomplete rings of cartilage, to prevent the trachea from collapsing. }A0SDB"

3&

*. What are the functions of the mucus and cilia found in respirator tract? ! 9 ( \ ) & & The lining %inner surface) contains mucus,secreting cells and cilia which traps dust and germs. The cilia move the mucus upward to the throat. The trapped dust particles are swallowed or cough out and prevented from entering the lung. ~'I&2&DC5]]S&jDS;?5 ];)?MD*T=R" +. What are the characteristics of a respirator surface?. = n (} ) &P u Thin , one layer of flattened cells to decrease the diffusion distance. a - &6yEDF" $oist , covered with a film of water to dissolve the respiratory gases so that diffusion can occur. 9 - |};6yn<%G<S[HI1[BP=n~" It must be richly supplied with blood capillaries to transport the gases away. HKLiD@[" <umerous, to provide large surface area for diffusion. K - }Z" 1.. 9ame the cavit that lung is situated inside. M = R%H " thoracic cavity J 11. 9ame and explain the function of the fluid that is secreted b pleural membrane. M J <%2[*" +leural fluid reduces friction during breathing. J<S=Kp" 12. %escribe the path'a of air in breathing. d 5 \ L " <asal cavity pharyn trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli %air sacs) 4 MN =n 1!. Which substance is used to transport ox gen? (A haemoglobin

33

1#. Which substance is used to transport CD2? Q (A %i) $ost of it dissolves in the plasma as bicarbonate ion %8"A3) RD lEF1 O " %ii) !mall portion is transported as carbaminohaemoglobin in the red blood cell R;D EF @ " 1$. Explain ho' does the ox gen in the alveoli enter blood? = n (P ) Wu " A ygen in the alveoli first dissolves in the film of water. !ince the o ygen concentration in the alveolar air is higher than that in blood, o ygen diffuses across the alveolar wall and then capillary wall to the blood. =n(P) I 4 1an<S 1S = D n =n~/i~ST" 1&. >f the lung (pleural membrane) is punctured b accidentB 'hat 'ill happen to the shape of his lung? Explain. W J <; S = RE- 3 ?D" The lung will collapse. The lea.ing of air into pleural cavity increases the pressue between pleura, the elasticity of the lung@s tissue causes the lung to collapse. =RQ=(RB)SS=&c8S =B""

1(. >f the pleural membrane of a manAs left lung is punctured but right lung notB 'hat 'ill happen to his (1) respirtor activities? (2) air flo' of his left and right lung? S 6 l TJJ <; S UJ I V S W d 5D Q : (1) 2 S (2)2 T= U= " %1) 9espiratory rate increase. " %2) Air flow decrease in left lung but increase in righ lung. HT=S? HU=Sp" 1*. %escribe and explain the poisonous effect of CD? E 6 Q 8" "arbon mono ide is highly poisonous because it combines strongly with haemoglobin to form carbo yhaemoglobin. Thus there would be less haemoglobin for carrying o ygen and the body cells may die because of lac.ing o ygen. 6 Q S*B X " B S [ b x Y "

34

1+. %escribe and explain the breathing mechanism. E + @


45678(9 :;456 <=>? @6A02- BCDEFG HDI'JKB LM7(9 LNOPQORS

"

45678T 456UV:;
@6A BCDE KCWXY HDIZ[KP 0\] 23 ^_`(9

LM7T LNOBQOaS

Inhalation >
#iaphragm muscles the dome,shaped diaphragm contract is flattened pleural volume pressure inside air is drawn is increased is reduced into the lung Intercostals ribs move outwards and muscles contract upwards

#iaphragm muscles the diaphragm returns rela to its dome,shape pleural cavity pressure inside the lung contracts air is decreases in increases due to its own forced Intercostals the ribs move inwards volume elasticity out muscle rela and downwards

- halation >

2.. Which part of the brain control breathing? Z P 6R2 "ontrolled by respiratory center on the medulla of the brain. (1[Z{%" 21. What is the stimulus to affect the rate and depth of breathing? u $% $ \ The rate and depth is directly affected by the carbon dio ide concentration in blood. Q 4 22. What 'ill be the change to the rate and depth of breathingB composition of exhaled air after Exercise? = S $ \ \M - &Q ? #uring e ercise , both the rate and depth of breathing will increase, but the composition of the e haled air will not change. =S$\x'pSM-"

35

2!. What is the importance of increasing the rate and depth of breathing during exercise? = \ p &8 ? The rate and depth of breathing is increased to supply more o ygen to the muscle, so that more energy can be released to meet the need. \pp SD K r ]^X tu " Check point (1$) 1. Explain the need for a transport s stem. q |} " 1. To supply nutrients to body cells and remove metabolic wastes from them. $bcdYQef*ghij 2. To distribute hormones, antibodies and heat. klmnopQq) 2. What is contained in plasma? O & rkstuvw 5'( water, 1'( dissolved materials including > foods, salts, hormones, metabolic wastes %"A2 , urea), fibrinogen. rksuxyz{| > o}ohij%~on)o" !. %escribe the shape and state the importance of this shape in red blood cell d 5E # M E8 biconcave, disc,shaped, provide greater surface area to facilitate gaseous e change. z_`ESp|}ZD[Ua" #. 9ame the pigment in red blood cell and state its importance. M D *8" 8aemoglobin, it can carry o ygen. SB " $. Where is the red blood cell formed? H P b formed in the red bone marrow. H0" &. Where is the red blood cell destro ed? H P bcd destroyed in the liver Hcd"

*'

(. What is the shape of 'hite blood cell? iE amoeboid shape %no definite shape). BE %XNE)" *. Where is the 'hite blood cell produced? iH P b produced by the lymphatic tissues and bone marrow. (-.,c0" +. "tate the functions of 'hite blood cells. Mi" 1. To remove dead tissues. Dx,c" 2. To ingest bacteria. " 3. To produce antibodies to act against the bacteria %clump the germs together). [m ()]@[H6)" 1.. What is the shape of blood platelets? e E Irregular, very small. f"S" 11. )o' is the blood platelet produced? e H P b $inute fragments from cells of bone marrow. 0j3ig" 12. "tate the function of blood platelets. M e " To initiate blood clotting at wounds. H?>" 1!. What should 'e add to the blood to prevent blood clotting in doing experiment. H h S H ij +revent blood clotting >" 1#. What is the colour of ox genated and deox genated blood? _ Q k D ? A ygenated blood is bright red, when ta.ing up "A2 change to dull red colour. D S _ Q %l)D"

*1

1$. "tate the functions of blood M" 1. Transport o ygen and nutrients, metabolic wastes, hormones and antibodies. @ \ \[" 2. +rotection > : a) ingest bacteria by white blood cells. i" b) prevent entering of bacteria and loss of blood by blood clotting at the wound. &=>m" 3. 9egulation of body temperature > #istribute heat evenly throughout the body. [3 : )(pnR21[" Check point (1&) 1&. What kind of blood does the right atrium receive? U { o O_ The right atrium receives deo ygenated blood from vena cava. /" " 1(. What kind of blood does the left atrium receive? T { o O_ The left atrium receives o ygenated blood from lungs. =R" " 1*. /o 'here does the right ventricle pump blood? U { p d u The right ventricle pumps deo ygenated blood to the lung. ) d = R" 1+. /o 'here does the left ventricle pump blood? T { p d u The left ventricle pumps o ygenated blood to all parts of the body %e cept the lungs). ) d [ R %D=R)" 2.. Wh is the 'all of right ventricle thicker than right atrium? U { p ~ U { o ~ The wall of right ventricle is thic.er than right atrium because right ventricle pumps blood out of the heart to the lungs but right atrium pumps blood to the ad6acent right ventricle only, therefore more muscle is developed in right ventricle to produce greater force U{p~U{o~U{pq) d F q = Rb U { o q) d U {pS U{pqtu" p r "

*2

21. Wh does the left ventricle have the thickest 'all? T { p tu The wall of right ventricle is thic.er than right atrium because right ventricle pumps blood out of the heart to the lungs but right atrium pumps blood to the ad6acent right ventricle only, therefore more muscle is developed in right ventricle to produce greater force. T{ptuU{pq){ d = Rb T { p q) d [ R %D =R)S qKtu" p r " 22. What is the function of valves? r & To prevent the bac.flow of the blood. s" 2!. What is the function of heart tendon? { tu & To prevent the valves from overturning. rC" 2#. /o 'here is the blood transported? (1) aorta (2) vena cava w [ d u (1) (2) / %1) all parts of the body e cept the lungs.[RD=R" %2) right atrium.U{o" 2$. /o 'here is the blood transported? (1) pulmonar arter w [ d u (1)= (2)=/ %1) ;ungs.=R" %2) ;eft atrium.T{o" (2) pulmonar vein

2&. Compare arter and vein 'ith respect to 1. directionB 2. smoothnessB of blood flo'. 1. S 2. vw S / / " 6rter 1. The blood is carried away from the heart. ({M" 2. 7lood flows in spurts. DxEF"-" / ?ein 1. The blood is carried to the heart. {" 2. 7lood flows smoothly. w"-"

*3

2(. Compare arter and vein 'ith respect to 1. 'allB 2. valveB !. lumen. 1. ~ 2. r !. S / / " 6rter 1. The wall is thic.er, more muscular and more elastic to resist high blood pressure. ~\Ktu&c8D ]-" 2. There is no valve. X&r" 3. The lumen is smaller. " / ?ein 1. The wall is thinner, less muscular and less elastic. ~a\tuc8" 2. valves are present at intervals. 6yF&r" 3. The lumen is larger. "

2*. Compare arter and vein 'ith respect to 1. situationB 2. driving force of blood flo'. 1. 2. 7 pS / / " 6rter 1. It is more deep,seated in the body. \1tu" 2. The flow is maintained by the pumping action of the heart. z{ - " " / ?ein 1. It is generally more superficial. P1[|}" 2. The flow is maintained by the rhythmic contraction of s.eletal muscles. z01t8_=" "

2+. What is the function of blood capillaries? i & To allow e change of materials between blood and tissue fluid. ,cTUAUa" !.. Capillaries form a net and have man branchesB 'hat is the importance of having these features? i J /&JK2S&8 ? The net li.e appearance of capillaries provides a large cross,sectional area, which reduce the flow rate of blood. This can increase the time for e change of materials. The numerous branches can provide a large surface area, which facilitate the rapid e change of materials between tissue cells and blood. K2{J|6q}~}}ZS*BD$SD&K =TUAUa"I26q|}ZS,c$TU AUa"

**

!1. 9ame the blood vessel that has highest ox gen concentration. MI r " pulmonary vein =/" !2. 9ame the blood vessel that has lo'est ox gen concentration. MI r " pulmonary artery =" !!. 9ame the blood vessel that has highest blood pressure. M - " Aorta " !#. 9ame the blood vessel that has lo'est blood pressure. M - " vena cava /" !$. 9ame the blood vessel that has lo'est urea concentration. MI " renal vein /" !&. 9ame the blood vessel that has highest urea concentration. MI " hepatic vein /" !(. 9ame the blood vessel that has highest glucose concentration after a meal. M I KL Ur " hepatic portal vein /" !*. 9ame the blood vessel that has highest glucose concentration during starvation. M = I KL Ur " hepatic vein /"

*2

!+. %ra' a flo' chart to sho' the route of a red blood cell from renal vein to renal arter through kidne . 6 ? D 6 / M ? S b \ L " 9enal vein inferior vena cava heart pulmonary artery lungs pulmonary vein heart aorta renal artery //{==R=/{ #.. What is meant b double circulation? z |} 7lood passes through the heart twice for one complete circulation. 6|}'{x" Check point (1() #1. %ra' the flo' chart of pulmonar circulation. M = |} ? " right atrium right ventricle pulmonary artery lung pulmonary vein left atrium U{oU{p==R=/T{o #2. %ra' the flo' chart of s stemic circulation. M[ |} ? " left atrium left ventricle aorta capillaries of body tissues vena cava right atrium T{oT{p[,ci/U{o #!. What is the importance of double circulation? z |} &8 "omplete separation of o ygenated and deo ygenated blood permits more o ygen supply to tissue cells for respiration. 7lood pressure is higher, blood flow is faster so that a higher metabolism can be maintained. Therefore the mammal will be more active. B 2 S B J K , c S=-BSBSBSb" ##. What is l mph? -. It is plasma lea.ed out from the capillaries. MiO" #$. What substances contained in l mph? -. I It contains all the substances in blood e cept red blood cells, blood platelets and blood proteins. I&%&ASD\ehi

*&

#&. %escribe ho' tissue fluid is formed from plasma. d 5, c Wu( O E-" The blood pressure at the end near the arteriole is greater than that near the venous end. +arts of the plasma, e cept the larger blood proteins, red blood cells and blood proteins, will lea. out from the capillaries to form the tissue fluid. H6S-p,c" DhiA\ eSR2 Ob;MiSE-,c" #(. )o' does the l mph return to the blood? -. Wu { ? The lymph vessels collect the lymph and 6oin the vena cava . Thus the lymph will return to the blood again. -._`-.H)*v/S%D-." #*. >s there an pump in l mphatic s stem? -. & X & 7 <o.X& #+. )o' can the flo' of l mph be maintained? Wu -. " The flow is maintained by the contraction of the ad6acent s.eletal muscles which compress the lymph vessels. -.z01t_==--." $.. )o' to prevent the back flo' of l mph? Wu -. s /alves are present so that the lymph can flow towards the heart only. &rGH -.{" $1. @ive the function of l mph related to exchange or materials. M -. U a A S }" It forms a lin. between the blood stream and the cells, providing a medium for the e change of materials between blood and cells. E-6qTSUaA" $2. @ive the function of l mph related to protection. M -. S }" To protect the body against bacteria by the lymphocyte. -.B["

*3

$!. @ive the function of l mph related to transportation. M -. [S }" To transport fatty acids and glycerol in lacteals. H([kOB" $#. @ive the t'o functions of l mph nodes. M -. xq" 1. To produce lymphocytes. -." 2. To filter foreign materials, .ill bacteria. "AS" $$. When a patient suffers from sore throatB his l mph nodes enlargeB explain. ; ] N S -. S W D" #ue to the stimulation of the pathogens which cause the sore throat, the lymph nodes enlarge to produce more white blood cells to act against these pathogens. -.(1N]@[-.ip"]?" $&. %ra' a flo' chart to sho' the route of a red blood cell from small intestine to lung. 6 ? D 6 M ? S = R \ L " small intestine hepatic portal vein liver hepatic vein inferior vena cava heart pulmonary artery lungs / //{==R Check point (1*) 1. What are the ra' materials of photos nthesis? @ [ carbon dio ide and water Q n 2. "tate the products of 7hotos nthesis. M +" glucose=glucose and o ygen KLU=KLU !. What is the b 1product of photos nthesis? + o ygen

*4

#. What happens to the product after its formation? +E- - Glucose converted to starch for storage. KLUCQBa $. What is the source of ox gen? M " 8 " water n &. What is the function of light in light reaction? H & 1ater is split by light energy to give hydrogen atom and o ygen gas. YZ_ n- @l S [ " (. What happens in dark reaction? l & >? "arbon dio ide is reduced by hydrogen to form carbohydrates. Q ; @l C @ nQ" *. Can dark reaction take place in light? l B 7 HTU BD yes +. Write the 'ord e3uation of photos nthesis. M S ? F" Q E n YZ KLU E

carbon dio ide E water chlorophyll

light

glucose E o ygen

1.. What is the fate of carboh drate produced in the plant? % nQ #u for energy release, for storage and conversion into other products for growth. rSa)CQ-.A"

*5

11. "tate the t'o importance of photos nthesis? Mxq8" 1. Bltimate food source for all living organisms "8 2. +roduce o ygen and remove carbon dio ide. # v D Q 12. "tate the factors that affect the rate of photos nthesis? M $% " light, carbon dio ide, water supply, temperature \ Q \n \ 3 1!. )o' does light intensit affect the rate of photos nthesis? Wu $% +hotosynthetic rate increase with light intensity. $pbp 1#. What happens to chloroph ll 'hen the light intensit is too high? mYZ&u $% destruction of chlorophyll YZ;YF 1$. Which light colours are most effective in photos nthesis? u D & red and blue light & 1&. Which light colour is ineffective in photos nthesis? u D I green light Z 1( What happens to the chloroph ll in the absence of light? mYZ&u $% chlorophyll degenerate and the leaves turn yellow YZQY-D 1*. )o' does CD2 concentration affect the rate of photos nthesis? Q 4 Wu $% $ +hotosynthetic rate increase with concentration of carbon dio ide up to 1( $ Q 4 p b p h 1(

2'

1+. )o' to increase CD2 concentration in 'ater? WuHn p Q 4 It can be increased by adding sodium hydrogen carbonate into water. %aCuatic plants only) Q 4 BDg Hn "p 2.. )o' does 'ater suppl affect photos nthetic rate? n Wu $% $ In short of water, stomata close, carbon dio ide supply reduces, and the photosynthetic rate drops. n8SS Q $ 21. )o' does temperature affect photos nthesis? 3 Wu $% $ +hotosynthetic rate increase with temperature up to *'o". $3pbph *'o" 22. Explain 'h does the photos nthetic rate drop 'hen temperature is over #.oC. #.oC = $ Aver *'o", en0ymes is denatured *'o" sA 2!. %escribe the process of photos nthesis in detail 3 TU ? +hotosynthesis occurs inside chloroplasts. There are 2 stages namely light and dar. reaction.;ight reaction > chlorophyll absorb light, water is split by light energy to give hydrogen atom and o ygen gas. A ygen gas is released. #ar. reaction > "arbon dio ide is reduced by hydrogen atom to form carbohydrates. HYZ[TUS2lxqy"HSYZ_ n - @l S [ "H l S @l 6 Q nQ" 2#. 9ame a chemical that is used to absorb carbon dioxide. M6 B _ Q " +otassium %or sodium ) hydro ide Q %)) 2$. 9ame a chemical that is used to suppl carbon dioxide to 'ater plants. M6 B n Q " !odium hydrogen carbonate %sodium bicarbonate)

21

2&. What happen to lime 'ater 'hen CD2 is added to it? ; Q T @ n = &u C "arbon dio ide turns lime water mil.y Q B )@ n i D 2(. What is the purpose of using lime 'ater in the experiment? H h @ n u It is used to chec. whether all carbon dio ide has been removed). " Q 7 MD 2*. "tate the colour changes of bicarbonate indicator 'hen (1) a little of CD2 (2) CD2 is ...!C (!) a lot of CD2 M _ , k D 9 C ; %1) "A2 %2) "A2 '.'3( %3) K "A2 %1) purple DS %2) red DS %3) yellow D 2+. "tate the function of epidermis and cuticle. M| Ay" -pidermis> protect the inner layers of leaf cells. "uticle> prevents water loss and bacterial %or fungal) infection on leaf surface. |>YyS Ay> HY|}n%)) !.. "tate the function of stoma and guard cell. M } " stoma >for gases e change and water loss by transpiration. >[Ua)=n guard cell > control the si0e of stomatal opening. }> !1. "tate the features of palisade mesoph ll. M Y u P u " It is on the upper side of leaf, closely pac.ed, contains many chloroplasts. HY9ySGvwSI&JKYZ[ !2. "tate the features of spong mesoph ll. M Y u P u " It is loosely pac.ed with large air spaces, allow rapid diffusion of gases to promote photosynthesis, contains less chloroplasts. vw&pSJ[$DTSI&YZ[

22

!!. What 'ill be the advantages of having closel packed palisade mesoph ll at the upper side and a lot of chloroplasts 'ithin it? Y u H9y G vw # I&JKYZ[& ? This arrangement can speed up the rate of photosynthesis. :or the chlorplast are much more concentrated in the paliside mesophyll and it is on the upper side of the leaf. 7oth features can help it to obtain more light when compare with spongy mesophyll. 2FYg$RTU"(YuYZ[Sk9 Yu1Yg9yS%DBDYu_K" !#. "tate the function of x lem and phloem. M + AR R" ylem > It contains vessels for carrying water and mineral salts, provide mechanical support. +AR> I&"[nS+8 phloem > It contains sieve tubes for carrying food away from the leaf. R> I&[qY !$. =efore the photos nthesis experimentB 'hat 'ill be the treatment on the plant? explain. H h S Wu ? D" #estarch the plant by .eeping it in dar. for two days. )1oD !&. Explain 'h do the plants can destarch after putting a dark environment for 2 da s. 1 l SBD " In dar.ness, the starch in leaf will be converted to sugar and transported to other part of the plant. lSYg;CQUS#`2R" !(. What is the general effect of deficienc of different elements? k 678 ] ? The general effect of deficiency of different elements are !tunted growth and chlorosis. k678]./Q]%QZY])" !*. Where does gases exchange occur in terrestrial plant? [ U a H RS? ? +lants e change gases by diffusion. :or terrestrial plants, gas e change ta.es place through leaves, stems and roots. TU[UaSHS[Ua?1Y\:" !+. Explain the meaning of compensation point. - I " At low light intensity, photosynthetic rate eCuals to respiration rate. <o net e change of gases occurs HS$_W$SX&h[Ua"

23

Check point (1+) 1. = 'hich structure does root absorb 'ater? : g " _ n ? 9oot hair. :& 2. )o' can the root absorb minerals? : Wu _ A ? $inerals is absorbed through root hairs by active transport. AgwC;:&_ !. "tate and explain the features of root hair for 'ater absorption. : & & _ n P D " 1. -longated, can penetrate the space between soil particles. .SBT'(]" 2. !mall and numerous, great surface area for absorption. rKS}Z_" 3. It is not covered by cuticle. X&AyG<" #. )o' does 'ater move across the cortex? nWu y After water has entered the root hairs, their protoplasm is diluted so that the protoplasm of the inner cells has a higher concentration than that of the root hairs. 1ater then moves inwards due to osmosis. ;nT:&S*@A;fSy@A41:&Sy& nSngb" $. )o' does 'ater move across the leaf? nWuH Y b 1ater moves from cell to cell by osmosis starting from ylem to palisade mesophyll. ngg(6qd 6qS( + AR Y u , c " &. @ive the three forces that responsible for the up'ard movement of 'ater in stem. Mn2H R 9 , p r " 1. 9oot pressure :2. "apillarity & 3. Transpiration pull )pr

2*

(. Explain the term transpiration. ) " Transpiration is the giving off of water vapour %mainly evaporation from the mesophyll cells) from the surface of a plant into the atmosphere. )_nDnEl|}y?" *. )o' does transpiration occur? ) 3 ? ? !ince water vapour concentration is lower in the air spaces inside leaves than in the leaf cell walls or cytoplasm, water on the walls of mesophyll cells surrounding the air spaces evaporates into the air spaces. The air spaces become saturated with water vapour and the vapour diffuses through the stomata into the atmosphere. (1pn4~ASp>Yu|}n2? p"pKLnSn" +. "tate the three conditions for transpiration to occur. M ) D ? q H " 1. The cohesion force between water molecules must be great enough to prevent the water column in ylem from brea.ing. nl%pn D j +" A 2. The ylem must be continuous from the leaves to the root. +ARH(:RYT)j" 3. <o air bubbles in the ylem. H+ARX&n" 1.. 8ist the factors that affect rate of transpiration. wM $ ) $ " ;ight, temperature, humidity, wind, water supply \3\9\p\n 11. Explain the effect of light on transpiration rate. m ) $% " rate of transpiration increase with light intensity. )$pbp" 1. !tomata open in the presence of light %main reason) & (w@) 2. ;ight increases the temperature of the leaves. pY3"

22

12. Explain the effect of temperature on transpiration rate. 3 m ) $% " rate of transpiration increase with temperature. )$3pbp" 1. 9ate of evaporation from the mesophyll cell is faster. 2. nYu?$" 9ate of outward diffusion of water vapour is faster. n$" 1!. /he rate of transpiration in da time is higher than at nightB explain. ) $ H SD In day time, stomata open due to the presence of light. In addition, ;ight increases the air temperature. 7oth favour the outward diffusion of water vapour through stomata. H&GHSbSb 3Snp"

1#. Explain the effect of humidit on transpiration rate. 9 m ) ) $% " rate of transpiration decrease with increasing humidity. )$9pb" 1. 9ate of evaporation of water from the cells is slower. 2. n(?$" 9ate of outward diffusion of water vapour is slower. n$" 1$. Explain the effect of 'ind on transpiration rate. pm ) $% " wind increase the rate of transpiration because water vapour is prevented to accumulate around the stomata. p)$)Vn" 1&. Explain the effect of 'ater suppl on transpiration rate. n m ) $% " As soil dries out, plants wilt and stomata close. This will cut down the rate of transpiration. ;(SSS)$" 1(. @ive the importance of transpiration. M ) 8" 1. 9esponsible for the distribution of mineral salts throughout the plant. )A2" 2. "ools the plant.

2&

3" 1*. )o' to measure the transpiration rate b using the bubble potometer? Wu n ) r Y { ) $ " The distance travelled by the bubble in the capillary tube within a fi ed time is measured. This is the rate of transpiration. r&nH6N=%UFS)$" 1+. "tate and explain the precautions in setting up bubble potometer. M n ) = > " a) "ut the shoot under water to prevent air,loc.. %prevent the entry of air bubbles into the ylem vessels) Hn{DnT+ARn!" b) :it the apparatus under water and ma.e sure there is no air bubble inside. HnLDX&nT" c) The whole apparatus must be air tight. qL" 2.. Explain 'h the air bubble moved during the experiment. H h TU = n u " The plant lost water by transpiration, so it absorbs water from the apparatus. This would ma.e the air bubble moves to the left of the capillary tube. )bnS%D*_n2Sn&T" 21. )o' 'ould ou ad2ust the position of the bubbles before taking a ne' set of readings? H r 6, SWu n Apen the tap of the reservoir. nLN" 22. "tate the limitations of the bubble potometer. M n ) 8" 1. The potometer can be used for a shoot but not the entire plant. )Br{b" 2. It only measure the rate of water upta.e of plants. The rate of water upta.e is not eCual to the rate of transpiration because some water %1,2() is used as raw material in photosynthesis. *Brn$Sn$_1)$S&n%1,2() @[;"

23

2!. )o' to measure the transpiration rate b using the 'eight potometer? Wu r ) r Y { ) $ " 1. At the beginning of the e periment, weight the whole set,up. h=SIrqr" 2. After a certain time interval, weight the set,up again. 6y=Skrr" 3. The difference in weight is calculated. ref"
*. The loss in weight divided by the time interval is eCual to the rate of water loss by the leafy shoot.

rDD=Y{n$" 2#. What is the purpose of adding a la er of oil on top of the 'ater? Hn}6y B ? To prevent the evaporation of water from the water surface. nn}?" 2$. %escribe the distribution of stomata. d 5 2" $ainly in the lower epidermis of the leaves. wHY|" 2&. Wh are stomata usuall absent in the epidermis of submerged leaves? n P ? It is because there is no problem of evaporation, the epidermis of submerged leaves usually has thin cell wall and no cuticle. It would be freely permeable to dissolved gases in water, and there is no need to have stomata for gaseous e change as in the aerial leaves. X&?Sn|~aX&AS1n[B (TMS Iq97&D[Ua" 2(. 9ame some methods that plant used to reduce transpiration. M6 D ) S " 1. The leaf roll up into a cylinder with the stomata on the inside. Y-6q'H}f" 2. !un.en stomata > stomata are in depressions. B : HB" 3. #evelopment of thic. cuticle. &" *. 9eduction of leaf surface area. eg. needle,shaped leaves. Y}}ZSV : Y"

24

Check point (2.) 2*. )o' do oung plants support themselves? Wu 9: ? $ainly by the turgidity of the cells and partly by ylem. wSR+AR" 2+. )o' do older plants support themselves? . Wu 9: ? 7y the rigid lignified wall of sclerenchyma and ylem vessels ~+ARS&+Ap~" !.. )o' do leaves gain support? YWu 9: ? 7y mid rib, veins and the turgidity of parenchyma. Ya~" !1. What is the importance of support in plants? &u8 ? 1. To display the leaves in the best position so as to absorb the ma imum amount of sunlight for photosynthesis. B){Y1&S_" 2. To resist powerful winds from brea.ing or uprooting the plants. BoS{j/)T:" 3. To .eep shape of an organ so as to facilitate its functioning. eg. by providing turgidity to guard cell so that stoma opens to allow transpiration to ta.e place. BLESD\?*SVW}S S)DTU" *. :lowers are put in a favourable position for pollination. 1=S) 1 " 2. !eeds and fruits can be dispersed efficiently. lhJ" !2. %escribe and explain the distribution of supporting tissues in root. d 5, c H : R2" "entrali0ed, the stress is mainly uprooting effect by wind H:RS-pw"qp" !!. %escribe and explain the distribution of supporting tissues in stem. d 5, c H R2" Around the periphery, the stress is mainly bending stress by wind. H:RH>S-pw-p"

25

Check point (21) 1. 6rrange the stages of the cell c cle in correct order. ) yv S vw" Interphase H prophase H metaphase H anaphase H telophase
H H H H

2. What is mitosis? & 23 ? The cell carries out cell division to produce two daughter cells which are genetically indentically to the parent cell . &23_TU23S xq A 6 o l ? " !. >n 'hat circumstances does mitosis occur? & 23Hu ? This .ind of cell division occurs in the production of somatic cells. H [ =? " #. Compare the chromosome bet'een the daughter cell and the parent cell in mitosis. H& 23 l D [" The daughter cells have the same .ind and same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. l&66D[" $. When do the chromosomes replicate? D [u = TU M ? "hromosomes will replicate before cell division ta.e place. &23(l)SD[M" &. %escribe the events occur in interphase. d 5H % ? > " #<A is duplicated. #<A TUM" :ormation of new organelles. E-L"
The cell builds up a store of energy.

ZGr" (. %escribe the events occur in prophase. d 5H % ? > " %a) The chromosomes shorten and thic.en

&'

D[W" %b) The nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear. </" %c) The chromosomes duplicate so that each is made up of two chromatids attaching at the centromere. D[TUMSE-x(?T?D[" %d) !pindles e tend from the centrioles attach each chromosome at the centromere. {]M H? TO ? D [" *. %escribe the events occur in metaphase. d 5H % ? > " The chromosomes are arranged in the eCuatorial plane. D[vwH!e9" -ach chromosome is attached at the centromere by spindles from both sides. D[?';x} T ?" +. )o' 'ould ou recognise the metaphase stage of mitotic division in a plant cell? Wu2 & 23 = There would be no nuclear membrane. !pindle fibres would be present. The chromosomes are duplicated into sister chromatids. :inally, the chromosomes are arranged in the eCuatorial plane. =X&<S& S D [; M - D [S/ D [vwH ! e 9" 1.. %escribe the events occur in anaphase. d 5H % ? > " The spindle fibre contracts, reCuires energy, pulling the chromatids apart %now the chromatid is called a chromosome). _ = S ? q r S )D [ q %HD[D[) ;D[x S-" 11. %escribe the events occur in earl telophase. d 5H % ? > "
%a) The two sets of chromosomes have reached the two poles of the cell.

xD[x"
%b) :urrows are formed at the center of the cell.

{E-B"
%c) <ew nucleoli are produced and a new nuclear membrane forms around the chromosomes.

E-/=>?D[<"
%d) The spindles disappear.

"
%e) "yto.inesis ta.es place.

ATU23"

&1

12. What is the significance of mitosis. & 23&u8


1. The essence of mitosis is that the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and genetic constituents as the parent cells. In this way, the constanc of the species can be maintained.

l&6D[/-2SWS+ N8D"
2. It ta.es place in the production of somatic cells, eg. during the gro'th of an individual? and ta.es place in asexual reproduction, eg. binary fission in 6moeba and budding in 8ydra.

*H [=TUSq[.SHTUI 8 0 =TUSVWE | 2 [23/n M 0S *& 0"


3. It gives new cells for gro'th and to replace the dead cells and thus repairs the damaged body parts.

* D./ xS

YER2"

1!. %ra' a flo' chart to sho' the various stage of mitosis. 6 ? D & 23 q y " At resting stage, chromosomes e ist as chromatin chromosomes appear as long threads each chromosome duplicates to two chromatids, nuclear membrane disappear "hromosomes lie up individually at eCuator, spindles form the spindles pull the chromatids apart and they move to the poles the furrows deepen to separate the two daughter cells, nuclear membranes reform. HlSD[DDAEFM DA>%-D[ D[MS -xD[S< D[CRvwH!e9SHE- _=)D[qSD[-D[#|Sx D[xS A*?!e_=SE-xqlS<kE-" 1#. %istinguish bet'een haploid and diploid. 2 [ 6 z [" 8aploid means that the cell contains only half the full number of chromosomes. i.e. only one of each homologous pair. 8aploid means that the cell contains the full complement of chromosomes. i.e. two of each homologous pair. <ormal body cells %somatic cells) are diploid, only se cells %gametes) are haploid. [_I&RD[6S&m8D[6q" z[_I&RD[Sm8D['&xq" 67%[)z[S8[" 1$. What is meiosis? 23 ? The cell carries out cell division to produce four daughter cells which contain half the numbr of chromosomes of the parent cell. 23_TU23S q &o6 D [l ? "

&2

1&. >n 'hat circumstances does meiosis occur? 23Hu ? This .ind of cell division occurs in the production of gametes. H l =? " 1(. %escribe the number of set of chromosome in daughter cells after meiosis. 45 23 l D [ " The daughter cells have only one set of chromosomes %haploid) instead of two sets as in the parent cell. l&6D[%[)b7&x" 1*. "ate the peculiar event occurs in prophase >. M > % ? P > " 8omologous chromosomes pair together. 8D[m" 1+. "tate the peculiar event occurs in metaphase >. M > % ? P > " -ach pair of chromosomes lies on the eCuatorial plane. -ach chromosome is attached by a spindle from one side only so that when the spindles contract, the homologous chromosomes are pulled apart. D[mvwH!e9" D[?';6} T ?S ; _ = S 8 D [; q " 2.. "tate the peculiar event occurs in anaphase >. M > % ? P > " 8omologous chromosomes separate 8D[;q" 21. What is the significance of meiosis? 23&8
1. After meiosis, the gametes contain only half of the hereditary materials as the parent cell. Thus when the two gametes unite, the resulting 0ygote will have the normal complement of hereditary substances. That is the chromosome number 'ill not be doubled after fertili4ation.

23)lD[SlSz[D[D@S l D [ b "
2. The independent assortment of chromosomes as well as crossing over occurs during prophase I can produce gametes with different genetic ma.e up. This leads to variations in the offspring and thus helps them to adapt the changing environment.

8D[C2/H I ?aB d& , lSG&efS&FC}"

&3

22. What are the main observable difference bet'een mitosis and meiosis? 1 i S& 23 6 23&uef ? mitosisX"hromosomes lie up individually at the eCuator meiosisX8omologous chromosomes paired up at the eCuator &23XD[CRvw!e9 23X8D[-mRvw!e9 Check point (22) 1. Wh is there a need of reproduction? q 0
To produces new individuals to replace the deaths, is necessary for the perpetuation of the species

q[D : x Sm [) H q " 2. What are the features of asexual reproduction? I 8 0&uP D Anly one parent is involved. <o speciali0ed se organs and therefore no gametes are involved. The offspring has the same gene with the parent. q6qo" X&PQ8LS%DX&lv6" 6o" !. @ive ! 'a s of asexual reproduction in primitive organisms. M H _ I 8 0 S " 7inary fission > eg. Amoeba 2[23 : V: E| 7udding > eg. Ieast M0 : V: s !pore formation > eg. $ucor l0 : V: i #. Explain binar fission. u V 2[23 " A cell divides into two eCual parts %eCual share of cytoplasm). 23-xR" $. Explain rhi4ome 'ith an example. Vl : " 9hi0ome > underground stem grow hori0ontally, eg. ginger.

&*

&.

: > n.RSV> " Explain corm 'ith an example. Vl " "orm > underground stem grows vertically, eg. taro. : h.RSV: "

(.

With an exampleB explain ho' the vegetative organ developes to a ne' shoot. Vl 0L Wu ? -6 " The buds develop into aerial shoot by ta.ing food from the corm, eg. taro. Then the aerial shoots ma.e food by photosynthesis and the food made is stored in the base of the stem to form new daughter corms. These new corms may propagate vegetatively in the ne t growing season. 0SV: " :?b-R9SR9SaHR 2SE-S6BTU0"

*.

Explain tuber 'ith an example. Vl " Tuber < swollen end of an underground stem, eg. potato. : RSV: "

+.

Explain bulb 'ith an example. Vl " 7ulb > a reduced stem with swollen scale leaves, eg. Anion : &+YSV: "

1.. @ive ! functions of underground stems. M R " 1. :or food storage. a" 2. :or vegetative propagation. 0" 3. :or perennation %over wintering). " 11. What is the disadvantage of reproducing b underground stems? R 0& Avercrowding may occur because many shoots may develop at the same time from the same rhi0ome. B?1SJK{=6?."

&2

12. What are the advantage and disadvantage of asexual reproduction? I 8 0& Advantage > 9apid , produces a large number of offspring within a short period of time. #oes not involve another parent. #esirable characters can be transmitted and retained in the offspring. : 4SGSP8I" : &fS*-FC}S%&]J " 1!. What are the advantage and disadvantage of sexual reproduction? &8 0& Advantage > more genetic variation in the offspring. 7etter Cuality may be obtained. #isadvantage > slower and more comple . X&KfS&+9:[A" XM" 1#. @ive 2 'a s of asexual reproduction in higher plants. M H_ TU I 8 0 S " /egetative propagation 0 Artificial propagation s0 Check point (2!) 1$. What are the features of sexual reproduction? &8 0&uP D 1. The uniting of two se cells %gametes) to form a fertili0ed egg called 0ygote. 2. 3. xql-6ql()" It usually involves two parents, a male and a female. Pqx8v6" The genes of the offspring are different from the parent. 6o" 1&. 6re t'o parents must be involved in sexual reproduction? &8 0 7 H x8 v6 ? It usually involves two parents, a male and a female, but may involve one parent only. !ome bise ual organisms such as flowering plants and tapeworm can carry out se ual reproduction by itself alone. Pqx8v6S&=6qoBS&z8VW&/|SBD MTU&80"

&&

1(. %escribe the structure and function of cal x. d 5 " "aly > This consists of sepals, usually green in colour. :unction > To protect the flower at the bud stage. X(g,-SPZD" XHC= " 1*. %escribe the structure and function of corolla. d 5 " = This consists of petals, which are usually brightly coloured in insect pollinated flowers. :unction > %1) To protect the internal structure of flower. %2) In insect pollinated flowers, it is used to attract insects and provide landing place for them. : (1) R" (2) H|S"|/ " 1+. %escribe the structure and function of nectar . d 5 ` " <ectary > This secretes nectar %a sugary fluid) to attract insects to crawl into the flowers. The insects help in pollination. `X2|S|B" 2.. "tate the function of anther. M " To produce pollen grains, which contain the male nucleus. I]" 21. "tate the function of ovule. M " This contains the female nucleus. *I" 22. "tate the function of stigma. M r" To receive the pollen grains and serve as a place for their germination. O]/]?RS" 2!. >s self pollination possible in plant? H & X &B ? $ost flowers are bise ual, so self pollination is possible. K'x8S B"

&3

2#. What is the disadvantage of self pollination? & The offspring are usually wea.er. ;esser genetic variation. PXSf" 2$. What is the advantage of self pollination? & Greater chance of fertili0ation. +" 2&. What is the advantage of cross pollination? f & 1. !tronger offspring. 2. Greater variations among offspring. 1. " 2. Kf" 2(. "uggest some methods to avoid self pollination. 6 S " 1. Bnise uality > have either the stamens or the ovaries 2. 3. 68 :lo&`6" !elf,sterility > pollen grains would not germinate on the same plant. : "6 ] ? " !tigma is placed above the anther. " 2*. %istinguish bet'een insect pollination and 'ind pollination. 2 | " Insect pollination > pollen are carried to stigma by insects. 1ind pollination > pollens are carried to stigma by wind. | : |)dr" : )dr"

&4

2+. Compare insect pollinated flo'ers 'ith 'ind pollinated flo'ers 'ith respect to (1) si4eB (2) petalsB (!) nectar . H w S } | 6 " (1) [ Z B (2) r B (!) ` | >nsect pollinated flo'ers Wind pollinated flo'ers 1. 2. 3. !i0e [Z +etals r <ectary ` large and conspicuous b brightly coloured kD often present H small and inconspicuous b green or dull coloured ZD)l no nectary GH

!.. Compare insect pollinated flo'ers 'ith 'ind pollinated flo'ers 'ith respect to (1) scentB (2) anthers. H w S } | 6 " (1) E B (2) | >nsect pollinated flo'ers Wind pollinated flo'ers 1. 2. !cent E Anthers often strongly scented PE4X inside the flower, insects have to brush pass anthers to reach the nectaries. 1S|qK B` no scent X&E hanging out of the flower, catching the wind. MS"

!1. Compare insect pollinated flo'ers 'ith 'ind pollinated flo'ers 'ith respect to (1) pollenB (2) stigma. H w S } | 6 " (1) ] B (2) r | >nsect pollinated flo'ers Wind pollinated flo'ers 1. 2. +ollen ] !tigma r heavier with spi.es |} inside flower, !tic.y HS&8SB| 9]" lighter with smooth surfaces /|}Y" feathery %greater surface area) MS&Dp |}Z"

!2. Explain the term fertii4ation. b "

&5

:ertili0ation means the fusion of the male and female gametes. _l" !!. %escribe the process fertili4ation 'ith respect to the germination of pollen tube. D ? ? " Ance a pollen has landed on a stigma, it sends out a pollen tube which grows down the style and the ovary, towards the micropyle of the ovule. :ertili0ation occurs when the male nucleus %male gamete) fuses with the female nucleus %female gamete) in the egg cell. The ovary will then develop into a fruit and the ovules become the seeds. ;HrS*.M6SB?lo.Sh ";(l)(l)=S?Slo ~?-hS-l" !#. >s pollen grain the male gamete of flo'ering plantB explain. ] 7 lS W " <o, the pollen grains are carriers of male gametes. 7S]l[" !$. 7ollen grain being light and produced in large numberB 'ill this aid in the dispersal of the offspring? ] r KSP u 7 ? These features will help the pollen grains to reach the stigma of another flower so as to achieve cross fertili0ation, but is not related to the dispersal of the offspring at all. PuB]`2rD-f[SIT" !&. What is the function of pollen grain? ]& ? It carries the male gamete to the female gamete for fertili0ation to ta.e place. llTU"

!(. What is the function of fruit? h & ? It protects the seed and aids in dispersal. #l" !*. Whatis the function of seed? l& ? It protects the embryo, provides food to the embryo, aids in dispersal. \\"

3'

!+. What are the advantages of seed dispersal? l & 1. It prevents the spread of diseases. ]" 2. It reduces competition " #.. "tate the four methods of seed dispersal. M l S " 1. p 1ind dispersal 2. np 1ater dispersal 3. $echanical dispersal 4. Animal dispersal #1. "tate some structural modification of 'ind dispersal. M6D p 9 F " ;arge surface area > 1. 8airs in parachute form 2. 1ings |}Z : &&" #2. "tate some structural modification of animal dispersal. M6D 9 F " 1. Attaching devices , carried by animalsF hoo.s, spines and stic.y hairs. 2. !ucculent fruits , eaten by animals. :ruits brightly coloured, sweet and fleshy. 1. h|}&SVH&\ &9" 2. +K$h-ShkDS8Ku" #!. "tate some structural modification of 'ater dispersal. M6Dnp 9 F " :loating devices > 1. +rotected by a water proof surface. 2. :ibrous layer traps air. &2S&n" ##. "tate some structural modification of mechanical dispersal. M6D 9 F " - plosive pericarp %fruit wall). Tension set up in pericarp springs the segments apart to 6er. the seeds out. !H-=nSHr3 lcq"

#$. >s genetic variation caused b seed dispersal? f 7 ( l % " - ? Genetic variation is not caused by seed dispersal. f(l%"-"

31

#&. What is the embr o consists of? l (,- The embryo consists of the plumuleB radicle and two cot ledons. (\:/xglY,-" #(. "tate the fate of plumule and radicle. M : #" +lumule shoot <= 9adicle root <= #*. What is the function of cot ledons? lY& "otyledons contains food for embryo development. lYI&." #+. What are the differences bet'een seeds and fruits? l h &2 ? A fruit on the other hand, has two scars, one from the remains of the style and one from the attachment to the receptacle. A seed has a scar left from brea.ing the placenta which attaches the ovule to the ovary wall. l&lo~% # $(&6q #)" h&xq # S6q ' %&S 6q (()=%" Check point (2#) 1. "tate the function of scrotal sac. M ) " To contain and protect the testis. *" 2. "tate the function of testis. M * " To produce sperms and se hormones l8" !. "tate the function of penis. M ) " To introduce sperms into the vagina of the female. )l@8)!"

32

#.

"tate the function of urethra. M ! " A common passage for both urine and semen +P!"

$.

"tate the function of seminal vesicleB 7rostate gland and Co'perAs gland. M \ w ` \ ! ` " To produce fluids to nourish and activate the sperms. [Ql"

&.

)o' does sperm move? lWu The sperm moves by movement of its tail. lt.,"

(.

Explain the details of the transfer. [ @ " #uring copulation, the penis of the man becomes erect and is inserted into the vagina of a woman where semen is then e6aculated. 8U=S8dBK-SH.8)!S/" Wh is the testes are outside the abdominal cavit ? * 1 0 The testes are outside the abdominal cavity to avoid the high body temperature which is not favourable for the development of sperms. *(12)103DlS[3l?"

*.

+.

"tate the function of ovar . M * " To produce ova and se hormones. l8"

1.. "tate the function of oviduct. M [ " The inner wall has ciliated cells to move the ova down the oviduct. ~&&S)l*S@dl3" 11. "tate the function of uterus. Ml 3 " It serves as the place where the embryo develops ? it contracts to push the baby out during birth. ?RS ? = * _ = ) 7 M[ "

33

12. "tate the function of vagina M ) ! " :or receiving sperms from the male? as a passage for the birth of the baby. 8Ol ; P! " 1!. )o' does the egg move along the oviduct? lWuH [ The egg moves along the oviduct by the beating of the cilia and muscular contraction of the oviduct. &[tu_=7" 1#. Where is fertili4ation occurs? H P b ? :ertili0ation occurs at oviduct. H[?" 1$. Where is the development of the fertili4ed egg occurs? HPb? The development of the fertili0ed egg is at uterus. "Hl3?" 1&. Explain the ovulation c cle and the relevant changes in the uterus. 45v l 3 %MQ" In human, ovulation occurs regularly for every 24 days. The maturation of the ovum is accompanied by the thic.ening and vasculari0ation of the uterine lining so that the ovum, if fertili0ed, can develop immediately on the thic.en uterine wall. HS 28 v6S?l-Sl3<(~)KS 4lpl3<?" 1(. What happens to the uterine lining if fertili4ation does not occur? W X & Sl 3 ~ 3 If fertili0ation does not occur, the uterine lining will brea. down. The discharge of the debris and a little blood is called menstruation. This repeats for every 24 days and the cycle is called menstrual cycle. lS5lSxYSl3~9,cS6r )!M[SE-7" 1*. "tate the da of ovulation 'ith reference to the menstruation c cle. _ MH 7 v l" Avulation occurs at the 1*th day when menstruation starts. vH78" P

3*

1+. %escribe the process of implantation. 45 l 3 < ? ? " The embryo implants into the uterine wall. The placenta and the umbilical cord are formed. The 0ygote divides forming a ball of cells as it passes down the oviduct to uterus where an embryo is formed. ;l([dl3=S23-SHl3E-" 1l3<9SE-`$" 2.. Wh is embr onic blood and the maternal blood are separated b thin membranes? [;a<2 This is necessary because the embryo and the mother may have different blood groups. 7esides, this can prevent the greater blood pressure of the mother from brea.ing down the delicate blood vessels of the embryo. oBD&" S2B-[Y " 21. )o' can the foetus obtains nutrients from the mother. Wu [ 9: ? They carry out their nutrition through the placenta. :ood and o ygen have a higher concentration in the maternal blood so that they diffuse from the maternal blood to the embryonic blood. g`9:S S 4H * [ [ " 22. "tate the adaptations of the placenta? M ` % F " 1. The folding %villi) increase the surface area for diffusion. &JKl9'&Dp}Z" 2. The umbilical artery brea.s up into capillaries at the villi and therefore there is greater surface area for the e change of materials with the maternal blood. $H'&2{-JKiS1[UaA|}ZB p" 3. The membranes separating the embryonic blood and maternal blood are relatively thin so as to allow materials to diffuse through easily. 2[<aSAJP" 2!. What are the functions of the placenta? M ` " 1. :or the attachment of the embryo. V?RS" 2. :or the nutrition, respiration and e cretion of the embryo. \v"

32

2#. What is the fate of placenta? M ` #" !hortly after the birth, the placenta will be e pelled out of the uterus by contraction of the muscular wall of uterus. 2:S`l3Sl3tu_=)`vM[" 2$. What is the function of the amniotic fluid? ; n& 1. To act as a shoc. absorbent for the embryo. [b<=" 2. To help to maintain a uniform temperature for the embryo. 3C" 3. To act as a lubricant during birth. 2:=Y," 2&. What are the advantages of breast feeding? & ?
7reast mil. is the best food for babies. It contains antibodies which protect the babies from pathogens.

S*CI&[S" 2(. 9ame some birth control methods. M6 S " 1. The natural method 2. "ontraceptive pills 2 3. 7arriers > condom, diaphragm, intra,uterine device Cl>? : \l3@\l3} *. !urgical methods > !terili0ation in male and female A&B() : C[\C[ 2*. Explain the natural method in birth control. " Avoid se ual intercourse during ovulation period. <ot reliable. Hv8USH%&S" 2+. Wh is the natural method not reliable? H%& S ? It is difficult to .nown the e act time of ovulation, the duration of the menstruation period varies with person. -4v=S7.bf"

3&

!.. )o' to increase the accurac of natural method? Wu p 4 8 ? 7y measuring the wa.e up body temperature, in the ovulation period, body temperature will drop slightly and then rise up again. D9r[3SvS[3ik9," !1. Explain the use of contraceptive pills. 2 " emn "ontain se hormones which prevent ovulation. $ost reliable. !2. Explain the use of condom. " Thin rubber sheath worn on the erect penis. /ery effective if used carefully and undamaged. AaEFSH-d9TU8U" WFX&YEF;"&" !!. Explain the use of diaphragm. l 3@ " Thin dome shaped rubber put in the vagina of a woman over the cervi . !perm cells are then prevented from entering the uterus. Juite effective if used with spermicidal cream. GEaEF<H)!Rl31SD l" W6H6"&" !#. Explain the use of intra1uterine device. l 3 } " !mall plastic loop put in the uterus. The uterus reacts by re6ecting the implantation of the fertili0ed egg. -ffective but may be displaced. IF-}SDHl3bSl3"&" !$. Explain sterili4ation in male. 8 & B " The vas deferens is cut and the ends are tied off. Totally effective, normally irreversible. C[ : j[HC" m&S67BC"

33

!&. Explain sterili4ation in female. 8 & B " "utting of the oviducts and tying off the cut ends. This prevents the sperms from meeting the eggs, thus fertili0ation cannot occur. Totally effective but irreversible. C[ : j[HCSBl5lS ?" m& B C " !(. Will sterili4ations have an effect on secondar sexual characteristicsB explain? m 8 8 u & X & $% S W ? There is no effect on secondary se ual characteristics, female still have menstruation, male can e6ect semen, because se hormones can still be produced by ovaries %testes). These hormones are transported by blood to the target organs to e ert their effects. m88uI$%S8G&7S8GB/(X&l)S*(*) G)8S(dL"?*" Check point (2$) 1. What is gro'th? u V . Growth is an almost irreversible increase in si4eB 'eight and complexit due to the incorporation of new protoplasm in the tissues. .BC[Z\rMN8pSH,c@A" 2. )o' to measure gro'th? Wu r . 1. 7y height or length r). 2. 7y area or volume r}Z)[Z 3. 7y fresh weight or dry weight r)r !. What are the dra'backs of measuring height and volume? r \} Z /[ Z & 1. 7y height or length r). #rawbac.> these may be misleading. e.g. a bush while not increasing in height, may continue to grow in si0e by spreading sideways. : B?>SJ+BHp=S~." 2. 7y area or volume r}Z)[Z #rawbac.> impractical to measure. : -1r"

34

#. What is meant b (1) fresh 'eightB (2) dr 'eight? u V / r " %1) The fresh weight of an organism is the weight including the water it contains. _T[n2}r" %2) The dry weight of an organism is the weight e cluding the water it contains. % the organism is dried and then weighted.) this represents the actual amount of solid materials in the body of the organism. _[Dn2r %I k r )S|[AK" $. "tate the advantage of using (1) fresh 'eightB (2) dr 'eight. M / r . " (1) < 1. more convenient S" 2. the organisms need not be killed xP" 3. continuous readings can be obtained with the same organism B9:6T)j.H" (2) dr 'eight < :ore accurate because it is not affected by the fluctuations of water content in the organisms. 4S[Inr$%" &. "tate the disadvantages of using (1) fresh 'eightB (2) dr 'eight. M / r . " (1) fresh 'eight < 8ess accurate because of the fluctuation of water content in the organisms. I4S[Inr$%" (2) dr 'eight < 1. more troublesome K=SLM" 2. the organisms have to be killed qxP" 3. onl one reading is obtained from one organism %different organisms have to be used to give continuous readings of growth) 96qHSqr"9:T)j.H" (. What is the first step in seed germination? l ? 8 6 N The first step in seed germination is uptake of 'ater b absorption through the microp le and testa. l?86Ng$_n2" *. What happens to the testa after imbibition of 'ater?

35

_ n2 &Q The testa will be softened and ruptured by the emerging radicle. ;AQS:BY3.M" +. "tate ! importances of 'ater in seed germination? Mn2H l ?= q8" 1. 1ater is the medium of metabolism nQ'?" 2. It is a important reactant in h drol sis of food reserves, na" 3. 1ater also activates the en4 mes needed for germination. nQl?=%q " 1.. )o' does the embr o gro'? 3 . -mbryo gro's rapidl b cell divisionB enlargement and differentiation at the e pense of the food reserve. %aaSg&23\p2Q$." 11. >n seed germination 'hich organ emerge first? Explain its importance. l ?= Su L O I M *8" Eadicle is the first organ to emerge. It can anchor the embr o firml and seek 'ater source. ?=S:OIMS*R8S *:1R9_n2" 12. >n seed germination 'hich organ emerge second? Explain its importance. l ?= Su L 8 qM *8" The plumule is the second organ to emerge. It can receive maximum amount of sunlight for photos nthesis. 8qMS*R8SB_r" 1!. "tate the region of gro'th of the roots. M : R. ci " The region of growth of the root is limited to about several millimeters at the tip. :.c1:j" 1#. %escribe the structure and function of root cap. 45 : " It consists of layers of loose cells to protect the delicate meristematic cells. (y,-SDP2"

4'

1$. What is meristematic cell? 2 They are actively dividing cells. H23" 1&. Where does cell division occur in plant? 23H Q TU ? In meristematic tissue li.e bud tip and root tip H&2,cciTUSW\:" 1(. %escribe the feature of the region of cell division. 4523 c P D " produce new cells by mitosis. P&23 1*. %escribe the feature of the region of elongation. 45 [ . c P D " They are newly produced cells, absorb water and enlarge to increase the length of the root. Sn B #$ D p : ."

Check point (2&) 1+. %escribe the feature of the region of differentiation and maturation. 452Q- c P D " The cells mature, will not elongate but differentiate into different tissues. -S2Q-,cSk[." 2.. @ive the importance of root hairs. M : & 8" It provides large surface area to facilitate water and mineral absorption }ZDnA_" 21. )o' does gro'th of the stem occur? 3 p R h] "ambium has active cell division during secondary growth of the stem. This produces secondary ylem and secondary phloem, thus increase the thic.ness of the plant. ;RTU.=SE-yTU23S + AR RS pRh]"

41

22. Wh does the dr 'eight decrease during the first fe' da s of seed germination? ? The decrease of dry weight is due to the respiration of the cells of the seed, in which food is o idi0ed. ?S(1l%HS" 2!. Wh does the fresh 'eight increase rapidl during the beginning of seed germination? ? $ Rp The rapid increase in fresh weight is due to the absorption of 'ater. pl_n2" 2#. Explain the increase of fresh and dr 'eight of the seeds after leaves have emerged? Yl.M ' p The increase of dry weight and fresh weight are due to photos nthesis. ;Yl.M#S'p" 2$. What is the purpose of marking the radicle of the seedling 'ith lines at e3ual intervals? H : 9 _ F ^& ? The purpose is to compare the growth rate of different parts of the radicle. H:99_F^":R.$"
2&. Wh does a large sample si4e of seeds is used in the experiment?

H h r l ? To minimi0e the error due to individual variation. qefb>e" Check point (2() 1. %ra' a flo' chart to sho' the regulator process. 6 ? D \ ? " !timulus receptor regulator effector response L \L L U Fse a real example to sho' the regulator process. 6 h VlD \ ? " angry dog%!timulus) eye(receptor) nervous system(regulator) leg muscle(effector) run away(response) R() S(L) (\L) Tt(L) U(U)

2.

42

!.

%escribe the structure and function of sclerotic coat. 45 V <"


Tough and fibrous. To give shape to the eye. To protect the eye.

Ic8,c"NES,c" #. %escribe the structure and function of cornea. 45 <"


The front part of the sclerotic coat. Transparent. To allow light to pass through. To protect the front part of the eye.

V<}Sg"^PSS}" $. %escribe the structure and function of choroid. 45 W <"


+igmented.. To prevent the reflection of light inside the eye. This ma.es the pupil always dar. in colour 1ith rich blood supply. To supply o ygen and nutrients to the eye.

IDDS_^S^H/S%DX}D" &K{S " &. %escribe the structure and function of retina. 45 J <"
"ontains two types of light sensitive cells > rods and cones. 9ods for vision in dim light? cones for vision in bright light and for colour vision.

I&x : Y" HlS2kD" YHZSB2kD" (. %escribe the structure and function of lens. 45 A ["
"onve , transparent and elastic. To focus the image on the retina.

zoSg&c8")$%[HJ<" *. %escribe the structure and function of suspensor ligament. 45 \ "


:ibrous structure. To hold the lens in position.

,c"NA[" +. %escribe the function of ciliar bodies. 45 ] ["


:or accomodation.

A[%[p"

43

1.. %escribe the function of iris. 45 ^ <"


To control the si0e of the pupil and hence the amount of light entering the eye. In bright light, to cut down the amount of light that enters the eye so as to prevent the eye from over stimulation by light.

^<}tB_=SgX"T^K_S;^=S TS^SJ<" 11. %escribe the function of pupil. 45 X "


An aperture for light to pass through.

^P!" 12. %escribe the function of a3ueous and vitreous humour. 45n `a "
To maintain the shape of the eye. To help to refract light on the retina. To transport o ygen and nutrients to the lens and cornea.

ES)/HJ<SA[<@ " 1!. %escribe the function of e e muscle. 45 t "


To move the eyeball in the orbit.

Hb" 1#. %escribe the function of con2unctiva. 45<"


To protect the front part of the eye.

S}" 1$. %escribe the function of ello' spot. 45 "


This region contains the highest density of cones. This is the region which gives the clearest vision.

I&YSHc" 1&. %escribe the function of blind spot. 45 "


This is the region where nerve from the rods and cones leave the eye.

Y^"

4*

1(. Explain the formation of colour vision. k D E-"


There are 3 types of photoreceptors %cones) for red, green and blue colours. The various colours are detected by different combinations of the 3 types of photoreceptors.

J<&dS2m\ZSd,B2kD" 1*. %escribe the accommodation of distant ob2ect. 45 q " T7(9 The radial ciliary muscle contracts

!uspensory ligament is stretched

_`< The lens is pulled and becomes less conve

23 :ocal length of the lens increases

6 Image of distant ob6ect falls on the retina 1+. Explain 'h the e e becomes fatigue 'hen looking a t a nearb ob2ect for a long time. 6 y . = S S e ? The eye becomes fatigue when loo.ing at a nearby ob6ect for a long time because ciliary muscle needs to contract to maintain conve ity of the lens. 6y.=SSeS]}q._=DA[" 2.. %escribe the defect in short sight. 45 B " #istant ob6ects focus at a point in front of the retina. It cannot be clearly seen. qHJ<%[S$f" 21. @ive the reasons of short sight. M -" The lens is too thic. or the eyeball is too long. A[)." 22. "uggest the correction of short sight. g S "

42

7y wearing a concave lens. h_g" 2!. %escribe the defect in long sight. 45 q B " "lose ob6ects focus at a point behind the retina. It cannot be clearly seen. HJ<%[S$f" 2#. @ive is the reasons of long sight. M q -" The lens is too thin or the eyeball is too short. In old,aged people, the lens has lost its elasticity. A[a)"HiSA[cp" 2$. "uggest the correction of long sight. g q S " 7y wearing a conve lens. hog 2&. 6 student sits at the backB he cannot see the 'ords on the blackboard clearl . %ra' the path of ra s in his e es 'hen he tr s to focus on the 'ords. 6 ' j H }S f * e 9 S 6^ D ; S % [ 1 [ = ^ L ] "

2(. ;or the above 3uestionB suggest 'hat glasses shoud he 'earB and dra' the path of ra s in his e es after this correction. : H D9 S h S # M g ^ " 7y a concave lens. h_g"

4&

2*. 6 student cannot see the 'ords on his 'atch clearl . %ra' the path of ra s in his e es 'hen he tr s to focus on the 'atch. 6 ' f * & 9 S 6^ D ; S % [ 1 [ = ^ L ] "

2+. ;or the above 3uestionB suggest 'hat glasses shoud he 'earB and dra' the path of ra s in his e es after this correction. : H D9 S h S # M g ^ " 7y a conve lens. hog

!.. %escribe ho' the formation of image on the retina can bring about the vision in the brain. d 5 J <9 $ Wu Z R " 1hen the light sensitive cells on the retina are stimulated by light, nervous impulses are generated. Through the optic nerve, the impulses will be sent to the optic center of the cerebrum where they will be interpretted as vision. J<9S S * Z y" Z y)O_k-$" !1. %istinguish bet'een rods and cones. 2 d " The rods are stimulated by dim light while the cones are stimulated by bright light. "ones can detect colours while rods cannot. "ones have high visual acuity while rods have not. >Sbd>"dB2kDSb"

43

Check point (2*) !2. "tate the function of pinna. M l " To collect more sound waves. _`Km" !!. "tate the function of external auditor canal. M l ! " To transmit sound wave to the tympanum. @mx<" !#. "tate the function of ear drum. M x <" To convert the sound wave into the vibration of the ossicles. )mQn0o" !$. "tate the function of middle ear ossicles. M n 0 " To amplify the vibration. To conduct sound wave to the inner ear. x<oS@l" !&. "tate the function of Eustachian tube. M l M " "onnect to pharyn . To eCuali0e the pressure in the middle ear with that of the atmosphere. TOMNSl6-pSDx<E" !(. "tate the function of oval 'indo'. M p f q " To transmit the vibration from the ossicles to the cochlea. )l0o@lr" !*. "tate the function of round 'indo'. M f q " To damp the vibration of the perilymph in the cochlea. oM)_Solr[-p"

44

!+. "tate the function of cochlea. M lr " :or the detection of sound virbration, %low freCuency at the end) converting sound waves to nerve impulses. Through the auditory nerve, the impulses will be sent to the auditory center of the cerebrum where they will be interpretted as sound. msoS?MSn@Z2tSuvms" #.. "tate the function of auditor nerve. M n " "arry impulses from the cochlea to the cerebrum. )(lrZ" #1. Explain ho' does the cochlea make hearing possible. lr Wu \ nm " The vibration of the perilymph is detected by the sensory cells in the cochlea. Through the auditory nerve, the impulses will be sent to the auditory center of the cerebrum where they will be interpretted as sound. lr&Bw-.oS?MSn@Z2tS uvms"
#2. Explain 'h there is a temporar deafness 'hen there is a sudden change of atmospheric pressure. )o' to restore the normal hearing?

; - H = S& lx SWuB n #eafness sometimes occurs when there is a sudden change of atmospheric pressure because the pressure on the two sides of the ear drum becomes unbalanced, thus affecting the normal functioning of the ear drum. 8earing can be restored to normal by opening of mouth to allow air to enter the middle ear through -ustachian tube so that the air pressure on the two sides of the ear drum can be balanced. ;-H=SB& lxSx<x}-pS$%x< "ynSBRlMTlSx<x}-D" #!. 6 girl had an infection in the middle ear shortl after suffering from a sore throat. "uggest ho' her middle ear might have become infected. 6 z 9 N S l "D" It was because the bacteria can enter the middle ear through the -ustachian tube and infect it. NblMT#l"

45

Check point (2+) 1. 9ame the stimulus and response in phototropism. M 8 " !timulus > unilateral light. 9esponse > The shoot grows towards light %positive phototropism) : " : {. (8)"

2.

What is the importance of phototropism? 8&8 !hoot can obtain more light for photosynthesis. 9oot can grow into the soil to obtain more water and to get better anchorage. {9:K" :B'(9:n2S#N"

!.

What is the function of the clinostat? { C L& The clinostat rotates the plant to nullify the unilateral stimulus %the unilateral light). This is used in the control to show that the response in the KtestK is due to the unilateral light and not to other factors. { C L {CDoS1m|hD;8 bSb`2" Which region of the plant can sho' bending? P 6 ci ? The region of curvature is at the region of ma imum growth. }ci1.c" What is auxin? . 6uxins are plant hormones produced from the tips of the root and shoot. . (:% " What is the action of auxin on the gro'th of the plant? .m .& They diffuse downward in the shoot and upward in the root. They stimulate growth of the growing tissues at optimum concentrations. *HbH:"9SH4.,c."

#.

$.

&.

5'

(.

%escribe and explain the re3uirement of auxin in root. d 5 : Rm. q " The roots reCuire relatively low au in concentration for ma imum growth. Thus further increase of au in concentration in the roots would retard their growth. m1S:qJ.B.S4.:R ." %escribe and explain the re3uirement of auxin in shoot. d 5 Rm. q " The shoots reCuire relatively high au in concentration for ma imum growth. Thus further increase of au in concentration in the shoots would stimulate their growth. qm.4D.Sp.4*." What is the effect of light on auxin? m.& $% %1) Au in is partially inactivated by light. .~R8" %2) Au in migrates away from light. .,8"

*.

+.

1.. Explain positive phototropism of stem b auxin distribution. .2 R 8 ;ight affects the au in distribution, more au in on the shaded side, because au in migrates away from light. In the shoot, more au in on the shaded side stimulates growth on this side. The shoot grows towards the unilateral light. $%.2S.;5/,8SK.H)l}S HRSK.H)l}}.S." 11. Explain negative phototropism of root b auxin distribution. .2 : R 8 ;ight affects the au in distribution, more au in on the shaded side, because au in migrates away from light. In the root, more au in on the shaded side inhibits growth on this side. The root grows away from the unilateral light. $%.2S.,8SK.H)l}S H:RSK.H)l}5}.S:." 12. )o' is tropism brought about? 8 Wu - ? The response is a growth movement, brought about by %1) enlargement of cell, %2) uneven distribution of au in in plant tissues. 86.S(1%1)[Zp\%2) .2%"-"

51

Check point (!.) 1. 9ame the components of nervous s stem. M,-xq" central nervous system and peripheral nervous system > "tate the components and functions of central nervous s stem M,- - /`" This includes the brain and spinal cord. It serves as an integration center that interprets incoming signals and then commands proper responses. =Zn" uv"/?MF;_\{" "tate the components and functions of peripheral nervous s stem. M,- >- /`" This includes the cranial nerves and spinal nerves. These connect the central nervous system with the receptors and effectors. =Zn" )L/LTO"" What is the structural unit of nervous s stem? ( k ,- The nervous system consists of billions of neurons. (Dk,-" 9ame the three kinds of neurons. M k q " 1. k sensory neuron 2. k motor neuron 3. k interon "tate the function of sensor neuron. M k " It carry impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system. )(L@"

2.

!.

#.

$.

&.

52

(.

"tate the function of motor neuron. M k " It carry impulses from the central nervous system to the effectors. )(@L" "tate the function of interon. M k " It lin. up the sensory neuron with the motor neurons. )k6kTO"" "tate the function of dendron. M " This is the branch carrying impulses from the receptors to the cell body. O_(L%?MS@["

*.

+.

1.. "tate the function of axon. M " This is the branch carrying impulses a'a from the cell body. )[S@ 6 ) tu " Check point (!1) 11. "tate the function of m elin sheath. M" This is a fatty tissue acting as an insulating layer to prevent the nervous impulses from lea.ing out. It increase the speed of impulse transmission. k,cS [S& @ $ " 12. "tate the function of the s napse. M" They control the one way movement of the impulses, from the sensory neuron to the motor neuron, and not in the bac.ward direction. They also transmit the impulses to many neurons. ;(S2QS 6q k S ? #@SJ@S(kkSJ @" 6 Kq k " 1!. What are the inner la er and outer la er of the spinal cord consists of? n y y(A,- It consists of an inner layer, the grey matter %cell bodies) and an outer layer, the white matter %nerve fibers). (yA([)yiA(),-"

53

1#. What fluid is found in the central canal? &[ The central canal is filled with a cerebrospinal fluid. KLZn" 1$. What is the function of the cerebrospinal fluid? Z n & It nourishes the nerve cells and serve as a shoc. absorber. Zn/_<=" 1&. >n 'hat form do the fibers of sensor neurons enter the spinal cord? k DEFT n ? It enter the spinal cord as the dorsal root. kD:EFTnS 1(. What is the function of the gre matter in spinal cord? n A& The grey matter is the centers of many refle actions. AJK/{" 1*. What is the function of the 'hite matter? iA& The white matter is made of fibers that transmit impulses to and from the brain. iA(,-S@"ZR" 1+. "tate the characteristics of reflex action. / &P8 This is a simple form of behaviour in which a certain stimulus always results in the same response. 64UFS6?6" 2.. What is the advantage of having reflex action? / & The response is inborn and thus need no prior thought, and does not reCuire the action of the cerebrum. The response is involuntary and relatively fast. It provides rapid protection and avoids danger of our body. SqI)SqZv6SS S*$S[" 21. What is a reflex arc? u V / ? !tructurally the refle action involves a sensory neuron, an interon and a motor neuron. This arrangement is called a refle arc.

5*

//\^S9*=I6qkS6qk 6qk" 22. %escribe the path'a of the 'ithdra'al reflex of the arm. 45 & = / \] "
A pin pric.ing the hand pain receptor stimulated and sends out impulses sensory neuron association neuron motor neuron the biceps %effector) contracts the hand is withdrawn

& fLb?M k k k rt%L)_= &= 2!. Will the cerebrum kno' about the reflex? Z R 7 TU / ?
In the spinal cord, the interon involved in the refle forms connection with another interon which informs the cerebrum about the refle .

H/@=STOnZRS TU/"

ZRS

ZR

2#. Write out the nervous path'a of feeling the touch and to speak out. M O M \ ^ "
1hen a pin pric.s the hand, the touch receptor is stimulated to produce a nerve impulse. This impulse passes along the sensory neuron to the interons in the brain. The brain interprets the nerve impulse as sensation of touch. Through a motor neuron, the nerve impulse is sent from the brain to the muscles responsible for speech.

;&=S-LS *kZ kSZ)uvSgkSZR@tu" 2$. Which ! parts is the brain divided to? Z RB2 P R2 cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla. Z\Z[Z" 2&. What is the outer la er of the cerebrum? Z y(,- The outer layer of the cerebrum is the grey matter %cerebral corte ). ZyA%Zy) " 2(. What is the inner la er of the cerebrum? Z y(,- The inner layer is the white matter. yiA"

52

2*. Wh is the cerebral cortex highl folded? Z y 9 l The cerebral corte is folded. This increases its surface area for containing more neurons to increase its efficiency. Zy9lSBp|}ZSKZSp*" 2+. "tate the functions of the cerebrum. M Z " 1. "ontrol the voluntary muscular movements %at the motor area). t" 2. :or receiving and interpreting sensory impulses from various parts of the body %at the sensory area). O_uv[Rb"" 3. :or higher mental activities such as memory, learning, imagination and reasoning %at the association areas). _SVW : -\'\ " !.. "tate the functions of the cerebellum. M Z " %1) To maintain the body posture and balance. \tu" %2) To ad6ust and coordinate muscular movements. [Sg" !1. "tate the functions of the medulla oblongata. M [Z " %1) It is the centers of some vital activities of the body, eg. control rate of breathing and heart beat. JKSVW : {" %2) It is the centers of some refle actions, eg. snee0ing, coughing. JK/{SVW : ?@" %3) It is the pathways for the nerve fibers between the brain and the spinal cord. TOZnP!" !2. Explain the roles of different parts of the brain 'hen riding a bic cle M = Z R < 1hen a man is riding a bicycle, cerebrum sends nerve impulses to the leg muscles to control the movement. "erebellum coordinates the action of the s.eletal muscle and to maintain balance of the body. $edulla oblongata controls the rate and depth of breathing so as to supply more o ygen to the leg muscles.

5&

=SZ?MPdTRtuDTRSZ\,tu/ [S[Z$\STRtu&K{ " !!. Compare simple reflex actions 'ith voluntar actions 'ith respect to < w S } / / w X (1) parts of brain involveB (2) modes of response. (1) Z R v6 \ (2) FX !imple refle actions 4 / 1. #o not involve the cerebrum. -- 2. The same stimulus always evo.e the same response. m$ --
The same stimulus may evo.e different responses.

?oluntar actions w
Involve the cerebrum

m$

3*. "ompare simple refle actions with voluntary actions with respect to > w S } / / w X (1) voluntar or notB (2) speed of responseB (!) coordination center. (1) 67 \ (2) $ \ (!) \ { !imple refle actions 4 / 1. Involuntary, inborn and do not reCuire
learning or e perience.

?oluntar actions w
Bnder the control of the will, reCuire learning or e perience. <ot inborn.

2. The response is faster and immediate. $ 3. The centers are usually on the spinal cord or medulla. -


The response is slower and may be delayed.

$
The centers are on the cerebrum.

--

!$. /he pupil response is a kind of reflex. = using a flo' chartB sho' the related nervous path'a . X m 6 / S 6 ? S & L ] " light sensitive cells sensory neuron optic nerve interon at brain motor neuron iris muscle. k ZRk k ^<tu

53

Check point (!2) 1. What are hormones? 8ormones are organic substances produced from endocrine glands into the blood steam. They are transported by the blood all over the body and produce great effects on the target organs. It regulates a number of physiological process. (2`1&+AS*;@SHL? S ?" "tate the ma2or endocrine glands. M w 2 ` " +ituitary gland, Thyroid gland, Islets of ;angerhans, Adrenal gland, Avaries %in female), Testes %in male) Z[\`\ \ 9 ` \ *(8)\12(8) "tate the functions of th roxin. M ` "
1. It controls the basal metabolic rate, especially the rate of respiration.

2.

!.

*S^`"
2. It promotes growth in young mammals.

*T."

#.

Explain the five basic components of the coordinating s stem b th roxin secretion. W D ` 2 " \ q k " "timulus < Eeceptor < L Eegulator< L Effector < L Eesponse < prolonged period of cold. ." thermo,receptors of the s.in and brain. 3O_LZ" brain will detect the drop in blood temperature and inform the effector thyroid gland with thyroid,stimulating hormone. ZBw3SH`PL`" thyroid gland. `" increased secretion of thyro in will increase basal metabolic rate. p`2Sp["

54

$.

Compare nervous coordination 'ith hormonal coordination. \ \ "


9ervous coordination )ormonal coordination

\
1. The message is nervous impulse which travels along nerve fibre.

\
The message is hormones which travel by blood.

D @ "
The hormone is chemical in nature.

D^ @ "
2. The nervous impulse is electrical in nature.

8A"
3. The effect is locali4ed.

8AQ"
The effect is more generali4ed.

R"
*. ;aster in action, the nervous impulses are transmitted along nerve fibers at a very high speed.

S / "
"lo'er in action. It ta.es time for the transportation of hormones to the target cells through the blood circulation.

$ SH^D$@"
2. The effect is comparatively short1termed.

S@q="
The effect is comparatively long1termed.

(]H)"

(]6)"

Check point (!!) 1. What is endoskeleton made up of? 01 (,- ? $ade up of bones and cartilages. (0A0,-" What is bone? 0 ? ;iving cells surrounded by dead mineral materials %calcium phosphate and carbonate). (A(j )=>?" >s bone a living tissue? @ive reasons. 0 7 , c S W (" It is living because it can grow and produce red blood cells. The ability of healing in bone proves that bone is a living tissues. *&#S*B."0kS0,c" %escribe the structure and function of cartilage. d 5 A 0 " <o calcium, for fle ible support, act as shoc. absorber and reduce friction between bones.

2.

!.

#.

55

I ASd = 8SBc8\ _ <= 0 r K " $. Dutline the functions of the skeleton. 45 01 " 1. L"+rotect the important organs 2. [E"To maintain the body shape. 3. [S[R}"To support the body, raise it off the ground. *. E- " :orm a lever system by which animal moves. 2. tu6V?}"+rovide a surface for the attachment of muscles. &. 0i"9ed bone marrows produce red blood cells and white blood cells. 3. aj "!torage of calcium phosphate. &. )o' is support provided in mammals? 3 [ " ? 7y muscles contracting across the 6oints of the bony s.eleton. PTO01tu_=" [" What supports the skeleton? 01 3 [ h ? $uscles are attached to the s.eleton. 7alanced contractions of muscles, usually in pairs, on each side of a 6oint will give support to the whole s.eleton. ;VH0xtu_==S01B9S[h" 9ame t'o t pes of movable 2oints. M B " 7all and soc.et 6oint, 8inge 6oint. b\T" @ive example of ball and socket 2oint and state its possible movement. M b Vl* >" 8ip 6oint ? shoulder 6oint, Allow movement in all planes. \S0Hq}%{"

(.

*.

+.

1.. @ive example of hinge 2oint and state its possible movement. M Vl* >" -lbow 6oint ? .nee 6oint, Allow movement in one planes only \S016}9" 11. "tate the function of capsular ligament. M " To enclose the 6oint ? holding the bones together.

1''

=>$)0rTH6" 12. "tate the function of s novial membrane. M Y <" To secrete the synovial fluid. 2Y" 1!. "tate the function of s novial fluid. M Y " Act as a lubricant to reduce the friction between the articular cartilage. Y,A0K" 1#. "tate the function of articular cartilage. M A 0 " To prevent the friction between the bones 0K" 1$. 9ame all t pes of muscles. M tu " 1. /oluntary muscle t 2. Involuntary muscle t 3. "ardiac muscle {t 1&. %escribe the characteristics of voluntar muscle. M t P u " :ast in action, but easily become fatiCue. $Je" 1(. )o' do muscles attach to the bones? 01 Wu TO H 0 r9 ? Attach to the s.eleton by tendons. tTO101" 1*. What is meant b fati3ue? e ? $uscles refuse to contract. %anaerobic respiration produce lactic acid, accumulation of lactic acid cause fatiCue) tu _ = S Z % % "

1'1

1+. Wh does mammal can move 'ith its limbs? U ? The movement is performed by the antagonistic muscle. The limb bones are connected by movable 6oints. Apposing muscles=antagonistic muscles are attached to the limb bones and they wor. in pairs. Aften, the opposing muscles are called a fle or and an e tensor. 1hen the fle or contracts, it bends the 6oint. 1hen the e tensor contracts, it straightens the 6oint. [t"TUS0TOSVH09t-mRS ;6,_==S 6, Sm tu 2 } t t " } t_ = } ; t _="h" 2.. Explain the formation of lever s stem b bones and muscles. 0 r tu Wu,- ? The bones act as the lever and the 6oint act as the pivot %fulcrum). These two, together with the muscle %act as effort), constitute a lever system during movement. 0rSSx9tu(p)S,-6qBD" 21. %istinguish bet'een tendon and ligament. 2 t " /endon > A structure that attaches a muscle to a bone. t : TOtu0" 8igament > A structure that attaches a bone to another bone. : TO00"
22. @ive t'o structural features of the backbone 'hich allo' it to bend to a smooth and curved shape.

M n x P u S* - v Y E" 7ac.bone is formed from many pieces of vertebras. Loints connect the vertebras. 7esides, in between the vertebras are compressible cartilage disc. n(KY0,-SbY0(TO"SY0&B-=A0`" 2!. What is the function of a 2oint? & 1hen a bone meets another bone, a 6oint is formed. $ovement is possible only if there is a 6oint between them. Loint act as a fulcrum which the ad6oining bones can wor. as levers for muscles to contract and bring about movement. ;0r5SE-S&&BJ0r" 6qS6 0r,-Stu_==["

1'2

2#. Explain 'h ligaments and tendons are necessar for locomotion in mammals. =q t
;ocomotion in mammals involves lever system consisting of bones whose relative position must be fi ed and maintained to prevent dislocation. This is the function of the ligaments which hold bones together. In addition, ligament is elastic to allow movements of bones. :or every lever system, there must be an effort applied to move the lever. It is provided by muscle contraction in the lever system of the mammals. :orce produced by the muscle can be transmitted to the bones through tendons as they are tough and relatively ine tensible.

qS(0,-SHN_0mS DSRS*)0TOH6" DS&c8SBJ0 i" 6qS'q6qp"SHSp(tu_="St u% p r SB t @ 0 S* B " 2$. Explain the initiation of muscle contraction. tu_ = ? "
1hen an impulse reaches the neuromuscular 6unction %motor end plate), neurotransmitter is released from the synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the cleft to the muscle fibre and stimulate it to generate an electrical impulse. The electrical impulse spreads along the muscle fibre and the muscle contracts.

;tuO(e)=SMAST" APStS* S t S ?tu_=" Check point (!#) 1. What is the advantage of homeostasis? [ & The body cells have a relatively constant environment and can function properly irrespective of the changes in the e ternal environment. Thus the whole organism can tolerate wider range of habitats and seasonal changes. [6N}SB$%bSq[BF C" Which t'o hormones regulate blood glucose level? P x U n ? Insulin and glucagon. 6U"

2.

1'3

!.

"tate the action of insulin. M " 1. !timulates the conversion of glucose to glycogen at the liver. KLUCQU@" 2. !timulates the absorption and o idation of glucose by the body cells. #ecreases the blood glucose concentration. [_# Q KL U S U4 " "tate the action of glucagons. M U " The function of glucagons is opposite to those of insulin. U 1. It decreases glucose o idation. *KLU Q . 2. It stimulates glycogenolysis %brea.down of glycogen ) in the liver *U@H2KLU" As a result, it elevates the blood glucose level. U,U4" "tate the cause of diabetes. M 9 U ] " The cause of diabetes is both genetic and environmental factors such as obesity and lac. of e ercise are involved. U]6/}&SVW+/" "tate the s mptoms of diabetes. M U ] ]u "
This include freCuent urination, unusual thirst, changes in appetite, weight loss, e treme fatigue

#.

$.

&.

-\\o\\Je
(. )o' to test diabetes? Wu U ] The presence of glucose can be tested by adding eCual amount of 7enedictFs solution in a boiling tube and then heat it in water bath. The appearance of a red precipitate indicates the presence of glucose. BS6_,Hn()SS&D "&KLUGH" Explain the rise of blood glucose level after a meal. U4 9 , @"

*.

1'*

It is because the carbohydrates in the meal was digested to glucose, which was then absorbed into the blood of the intestine. ;Q-KLUSk;_" +. Explain 'h does the blood glucose level drop some times after the rise of blood glucose level. U4 9 , @" :or a normal man, the rise of blood glucose level stimulates the secretion of more insulin from the islets of ;angerhans. $ore glucose is converted to glycogen at the liver. The blood glucose level thus drops. HSU49, 2 K S K KL U H CQU@SU4b

1.. Explain 'h does the diabetic patient have a prolonged high level of blood glucose level 'hen compare 'ith the normal person. U ] U4 ) @" In the diabetic patient, there is insufficient insulin. The e cess glucose in blood cannot be converted to glycogen at the liver. Therefore the glucose level is higher than a normal man. HU]S K KL {S UH C Q U @S U4 . 1" 11. Explain 'h does the blood glucose level of the diabetic patient drop after reaching a ver high level of it. U ] U4 6n @" The glucose concentration is so hight that e ceeds the reabsorption ability of the .idney and thus .idney e crete glucose in urine. U4)Sk_pSvKLUSKLU4" 12. /he control of insulin secretion is a negative feedback controlB explain. 2 " Insulin causes a drop of blood glucose level. A drop of blood glucose level would inhibit the secretion of insulin. !uch mechanism illustrates the principle of negative feedbac. control. ( U n S U n S U n 5 2S +" 1!. Explain the importance of feedback mechanism. 8" The importance of feedbac. mechanism is to maintain a constant internal environment for the functioning of the life processes. +8H16qNH}S D"

1'2

Check point (!$) 1. "tate the ( characteristics of living organisms. M qP u " 1. U locomotion 2. nutrition 3. irritability *. . growth 2. respiration &. v e cretion 3. 0 reproduction What are the criteria of classif ing living organisms? ) 2 % : H ? The closely related organisms should have similar structures. ;iving organisms are classified by their characteristics. (6)&SBPu2" 6rrange the levels of classification in correct order beginning 'ith the largest group. ) 2 y 6, v S vw" Dingdom, +hylum%division), "lass, Arder, :amily, Genus, !pecies \ \ \ \ A \ \ %efine the term species. + 6NO" The same species can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. 6+BDU &0p " "tate the kingdoms included in the "ix kingdom classification method. M 2 " -ubacteria Archaebacteria +rotista @ :ungi +lantae Animalia "tate the three domains of the classification s stem . M2 i " 7acteria, Archaea and -u.arya. i\ii"

2.

!.

#.

$.

&.

1'&

Check point (!&) (. Explain eubacteria 'ith an example Vl The single,celled pro.aryotic organisms such as bacteria. @SW" "ell wall made of peptidoglycan. ~( % U ,-" Explain the features of archaebacteria P u " !ingle,celled pro.aryotic organisms, smaller than bacteria. @SC" "ell walls contain no peptidoglycan. ~X& % U " Explain protoctist 'ith an example Vl@ !ingle,celled eu.aryotic organisms, eg. amoeba. dSWE|"

*.

+.

1.. Explain fungi 'ith an example Vl They have a nucleus but with non,cellulose cell wall, eg. mucor, yeast X&~SWi\s 11. Explain plant 'ith an example Vl +hotosynthetic organisms with nucleus, eg. algae, bryophyte, fern, conifers, flowering plants dS2\\;<\Y/&" 12. Explain animal 'ith an example Vl <on,photosynthetic multicellular organisms, they can be grouped into vertebrate and invertebrate. dKS2nY/InYx" 1!. "tate t'o ph siological process carried out b animal but not b plant. M Hb TUx " ;ocomotion and e cretion. U\v"

1'3

1#. "tate one process 'hich occurs in green plant but not in animal. M H bTU6 " photosynthesis 1$. 9ame the non1green organisms that are either saproph tic or parasitic. M6 D ) Z D " fungi 1&. )o' does mucor absorb nutrients? = Wu _ $ucor is saprophytic, its rhi0oid secrete en0ymes to carry out digestion. The soluble food is then absorbed. = S* : 2 s QS ; _ " 1(. "tate the characteristics of algae.. MZ P u " !imple plants without root, stems, or leaves. 61nS[X&2:\\YZD" 1*. "tate the characteristics of br oph tes M P u " The small green plants with simple leaves and stems, but no vascular tissues. 6ZDS[24YSX&ZD" 1+. 9ame all groups of plants that have vascular tissues. M%&I& " ferns, conifers, flowering plants ;<\Y\& 2.. "tate the characteristics of ferns M ; < P u " . 8ave proper roots, stems and leaves and vascular tissues. 9eproduce by spores. 8ave sori at the lower epidermis. &;:\\Y,cS l 0SY 2 & l 21. 9ame the t'o groups of plants that produce seeds. MD l 0x " "onifers, flowering plants Y\&

1'4

22. %istinguish bet'een conifers and flo'ering plants. 2 Y & " "onifers Y !eeds not enclosed in a fruit. l#1h" :lowering plants & 1ith flowers? the seeds are enclosed in a fruit. & ; l1h"

2!. 9ame the group of animal that is microscopicB unicellular and live in 'ater. M P 6 i \ 1n" +roto0oans= protista @ 2#. 9ame the group of animals that have backbones. M P 6 & n Y 0 " vertebrates nY 2$. 9ame the groups of animals that are 'arm blooded. M P ( " bird and mammal \ 2&. 9ame the groups of animals that have lungs for breathing. M P = " amphibian, reptile, bird and mammal x\|\\ 2(. 9ame the group of animals that have gill for breathing. M P 6 " fish 2*. 9ame the group of animals that have moist soft skin. M P 6 & 9A " amphibian x 2+. 9ame the group of animals that have scales on their bod surface. M P [& g " fish, reptile and bird%legs have scales) \|\%&g)

1'5

!.. 9ame the group of animals that have feathers. M P 6 & & " bird !1. 9ame the group of animals that have mammar glands. M P 6 & o " mammal !2. 9ame the group of animals that have hair and s'eat gland. M P 6 & & ` " mammal Check point (!() 1. 9ame the biotic components of an ecos stem. M l } " 1. 7roducer X They use light energy to synthesi0e comple organic compounds from simple inorganic raw materials. This energy is the source of energy for all the organisms in the ecosystem. *BTUS)N1% S r l %& r"8" 2. Consumers K X They are organisms that feed on others. All animals fall into this category and they can be further separated into primary, secondary and tertiary consumers according to their positions in the food chain. T`2S%&'B:H*HTSk\ K" !. %ecomposers 2 X They are saprophytic organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, which brea. down the dead bodies of producers, or consumers to simpler substances and release them bac. into the environment. *SVWS*) K x 24A" 2. Explain 'hat a decomposer is and state its role in ecos stem. u V 2 /`H l " #ecomposers are saproph tic organisms, such as bacteria and fungi, which break do'n the dead bodies of producers or consumers to simpler substances and release them bac. into

11'

environment. Through their metabolic activities, vital organic materials are prevented from being locked up in the bodies of dead organisms. They facilitate the re1c cling of nutrients in the ecos stem. *SVWS*) K x 24AS H )*}Sg*SB&+Z%Sk;x 1x[S S*&Hl|}" !. With the aid of a diagramB explain the relationship bet'een GbiosphereB biomeB ecos stemB
communit B population and speciesG

\ \ l \ \ + "
7iosphere 7iome -cosystem l
"ommunity

+opulation of species A + A

+opulation of species 7 + 7

#. Explain the meaning of detritus1feeder and its role in ecos stem. u V A /`H l " They are small animals feeding on fragments of tissues or dead organic matter detached from dead bodies or e creta. eg small insects, earthworms. They speed up decomposition of dead bodies and e cretory remains by brea.ing up detritus into small pieces thus increasing the surface area available for microbial action. They add proteins and microorganisms onto the soil by their faeces. *TxiSVW|./%*K)S*=x,c Yg\x&+v_" *)A2gSpi|}ZS *$x/v 2Sg*vSBp(hiAi" $. "tate the beginning and the end of a food chain. M T 6 " Any food chain must always have photosynthesis at the beginning and decay at the end. &uT'1S1" &. Explain gra4ing food chain 'ith an example Vl 8 T " !tarts from a green plant and goes to gra0ing herbivores and then onto carnivores. +rompt transfer

111

of energy and nutrient along food chain. green plants aphids ladybirds sparrows rZDSI@8S0?@u8SrH T=@" ZD L (. Explain detritus food chain 'ith an example Vl 8 T " !tarts from dead organic matter to microorganisms %bacteria and fungi) and then goes to detritivores and their predators. There is a great delay in the transfer of energy and nutrient. dead body of plants and animals microorganisms detritivores =rwx&+@i%VW)S0@A *SrH@?&[" i A *. Explain parasitic food chain 'ith an example Vl 8 T " !tarts from large host and goes to parasites and then proto0oan. dog flea proto0oan virus =rw@S0?@@" @]

+. Wh are there seldom more than four trophic levels in a food chain? T ) q8y 7ecause of the loss of energ from one trophic level to the next, there is less energy left to support the higher trophic levels. Therefore, it is not energetically feasible to try to harvest the small amount of energy available in the highest trophic level. /he longer the food chainB the greater 'ill be the loss of energ and hence the smaller will be the number of top consumers that can be supported in an ecosystem. Thus, in an ecosystem, the number of trophic levels seldom e ceed * or 2. rH8y@L&S 6q8yrS%D Hry}9"SH8y"9:r" 6qlH M 9S1T%RSTB.S"BKrS rP KS%DHlS8y)" 1.. Explain 'h the efficienc of energ transfer during photos nthesis is less than 1.C. ;% N r S P 1 1.C" 1. $uch of sunlight is being reflected from the surface of the leaf. R;Y}/" 2. !ome being passed straight through the leaf.

112

&hOYb;" 3. Anly part of wavelength of light from red to blue can be absorbed by chlorophyll &RSW_S;YZ_" 11. Explain 'h does a great deal of the grass eaten b a co' does not contribute to the nourishment of the co'. ; % S R - '- ["
1. !ome energy is used in the respiration of the organism and is dissipated to the environment as heat

&rHSHD(EF1}"
2. !ome part of the food is not ingested or absorbed and is returned to the environment in the faeces

&R[;);;_"
3. -nergy is used in various activities of the organisms.

rH" 12. What are the disadvantages of using p ramid of number? & 1. !ince the producers vary greatly in si0e and a single grass plant or algae, for e ample, is given the same status as single tree, a true p ramid shape is not often obtained. Also, parasitic food chains may give inverted pyramids. [ Z &efS6 \6qZ 6 & R S -9 6qESb8TM6qsC" 2. The range of number is so great that it is often difficult to draw the pyramids to scale, although logarithmic scales may be used. >S -VMSHBDmSF"|" 1!. What are the advantages of using p ramids of number? & X 1. -asy to count J" 2. <o need to .ill the organisms. qxP" 1#. Wh does the standing crop give no indication of the rate of production? G r# M p) r 1. >f the rate of consumption more or less e3ual the rate of production, the standing crop does not necessarily give any indication of productivity. :or e ample, a fertile, intensively gra0ed pasture may have a smaller standing crop of grass, but a higher productivity, than a less fertile and ungra0ed pasture. W _S G6N M pS VW6q;+RSB&GS* p 6q X&P+R"

113

2. If the producers are small, such as algae, they have a higher turnover rate, that is high rate of growth and reproduction balanced by a high rate of consumption or death. Thus, although the standing crop may be small compare with large producers such as trees, the productivity may be the same. W SVWZ S*&6q C a S H*.0'S;xY%oS SH W S G r B S * pB 6 " 1$. What are the advantages of using p ramids of biomass? r & <o need to consider the effect of the si0e of organisms. $ore accurate than pyramids of number. qq[[ZS4" 1&. What are the disadvantages of using p ramids of biomass? r & 1. !ome organisms grow at a much faster rate than the others, eg. Grass does not have a large biomass but it carries on growing at a very fast rate. &`*.SVWX&6qrS*BDj$ ." 2. The biomass of an individual can vary with the seasons. eg. In winter a tree will have lost the leaves, flowers and fruits that grow in the summer q[r&8CSVWHS6 Y\ h S =" 3. Inverted pyramid of biomass may be obtained if the producers are small but have a higher turnover rate. S S &6q C a SBM6q s C r " 1(. Wh is the p ramids of biomass ma sometimes be inverted? r & = s C If the producers are small, such as algae, they have a higher turnover rate, that is a high rate of growth and reproduction balanced by a high rate of consumption or death. Thus, although the standing crop may be small compare with large producers such as trees, the productivity may be the same. An inverted pyramid of biomass is found in plan.ton community. The 0ooplan.ton has a higher biomass than the phytoplan.ton on which it feeds. W SVWZ S*&6q C a S H*.0'S;xY%oS SH WSGrBS* pB 6 " H 2 , b } sCrSHS82,r 82, " 1*. What are the advantages of using p ramid of energ ?

11*

r & 1. >t takes into account the rate of production. -ach bar of pyramid of energy represents the amount of energy that flows through tropic level in a given time period, i.e. the unit is energy flow. *w SH 8y r r 6 S g'|H6N= rr" 2. Weight for 'eightB t'o species do not necessaril have the same energ content. "omparison based on biomass may therefore be misleading. DrbSr6Sxq+#6N&r S S1 r S&=>" 3. >nverted p ramids are not obtained. :or e ample, the great importance of decomposers in terms of energy flow is not obvious from their small biomass. sCSVW2ArS*8HDrEF| =S" *. /he p ramid of energ is al'a s upright. As energy flows along a food chain, there is energy loss due to respiration, heat loss or e cretory waste etc. so the energy along a food chain decreases gradually. rEq'9S;r6T=S\ ()v _S SrHN*T" 1+. What are the disadvantages of using p ramid of energ ? r &
Although pyramids of energy are the most useful of the three types of ecological pyramids, they are the most difficult to obtain data because they reCuire even more measurements than pyramid of biomass. Ane e tra piece of information needed is the energy values for the given masses of organisms. This reCuires combustion of representative samples. In practice, pyramids of biomass can sometimes be converted to pyramids of energy with reasonable accuracy, based on previous e periment.

HrHl&S*-9:HS9:H=S* rM-S*q[SP6qArr S qd|8Sh9S1%hSrBDCarS &6N?48" 2.. Explain the role of producer in energ flo'. H r D "
They carry out photosynthesis, in which they fi the energy in sunlight and store the energy in the food they produce. This energy is the source of energy for all the organisms in the ecosystem.

*BTUS)N1% S r l %& r "8" 21. Explain the role of producer in c cling of materials. HA |} D "

112

%1) Ta.e in carbon and nitrogen in the form of inorganic compounds from the environment and turn them into organic compounds.

}I+ C Q& + Q"


%2) 9elease carbon into the environment in the form of carbon dio ide through respiration.

gS

D Q EFT } "

22. Explain the role of producer in energ flo'. K H r D "


They transfer the chemical energy along the food chain in the form of food.

)Q'DEFS*T" 2!. Explain the role of producer in c cling of materials. K HA |} D "


%1) They produce carbon dio ide and nitrogenous compounds to the producers.

Q Q"
%2) They speed up the cycling of materials in the ecosystem.

$lA|}" 2#. Explain the role of producer in energ flo'. 2 H r D "


They enable energy flow by returning the inorganic compounds into the environment.

I+Q}Sr)?"

2$. Explain the role of producer in c cling of materials. 2 HA |} D "


Through their metabolic activities, vital organic materials are prevented from being loc.ed up in the bodies of dead organisms. They facilitate the re,cycling of nutrients in the ecosystem.

g*SB&+Z%Sk;x1x[S &Hl|}" Check point (!*)

S*

2&. 6s energ passes through an ecos stemB it becomes less and less available. Explain the statement 'ith the aid of a diagram. ; r l SB r B " B " ? " +roducers, the green plants, accumulate energy by means of photosynthesis and lose it in three ways> WZ D D Z % r Sg D q L ] r %i) !ome energy is used in the respiration of the organism and is dissipated to the environment as heat &rHSHD(EF1}$

11&

%ii) being eaten b consumers ;K%$ %iii) being decomposed b microorganisms ;i%2"

113

In turn, the herbivores and carnivores lose energy by the similar pathways. In the energy flow, onl a small percentage of energ reserve is transferred ( through predation) from one trophic level to the subse3uent oneB e.g. plants eaten by herbivores, most of the energ reserve is lost into the ecos stem through respiration as heat. 0?S8/u8DSrSHrS&6R2r 6q8y%g)C6q8ySVWS;8S R2r'H8D(EF}"

8eat loss ( -nergy utili0ed for various activities r

decomposers 2 top carnivores PK small carnivores K herbivores 8 green plants ZD death xY death xY death xY

decomposers

consumers K

producers nutrients flow of materials flow of energy r

energy from sun I"r

2(. %escribe the 'a s nitrate is removed from soil. 5(D6S" 1. <itrate is removed from soil through absorption b plants ;%_" 2. %enitrif ing bacteria convert nitrate to nitrogen. 6CQl%S6Q)" 2*. What is denitrification? u V #enitrification is part of the nitrogen c cle in which nitrate (9D!) is converted to nitrous oxides and to atmospheric nitrogen. The process is carried out b a group of free living heterotrophic bacteria under anaerobic or lo' ox gen conditions such as in a water,logged soil. |} 6 } SH 6 %<A3,);CQ Q S yS (6,1Zn(H % " -"

114

2+. %escribe the 'a s nitrate is added to soil. 5H ( p 6 S " 1. Atmospheric nitrogen can be converted to nitrate during lightning. H=S BD hOC Q 6 " 2. <itrogen can be converted to nitrate b nitrogen1fixing bacteria which live in the nodules at the root of the leguminous plants B; C Q 6 S = ( EFS 1 A : " 3. After the death of organisms, the nitrogen in their body can be returned to the soil by the action of microorganisms. The dead bodies are first converted by putrefying bacteria to ammonia or
ammonium compounds. These are then acted upon by nitrifying bacteria to nitrite and then nitrate.

xYS*[ Bg i S '( " O I S x ; CQ ) QS Q 6 Q SB; 6 Q T6 N C Q 6 S 6Q" !.. %istinguish bet'een nitrogen fixation and nitrification. 2 6 Q" <itrogen fi ation is the conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia. ) C Q " <itrification is the conversion of ammonia to nitrate 6Q) C Q 6 " !1. Explain the effect of denitrification on a natural ecos stem m H l $% X This results in a loss of inorganic nitrogen from the soil. In crop production, nitrogen is usually the limiting nutrient. (EI+ SH 9 I rP . " !2. With an exampleB explain ho' denitrification could be utili4ed to the benefit of mankind. Vl Wu D " " In a body of water rich in organic materials, the removal of nitrate effectivel limits the overgro'th of microscopic algae and in turn proto0oa. This reduce the pollution level. HI&+ nS D6 B& R .Sb @.S BR n " #enitrification is also one of the advanced 'aste'ater treatment processes to reduce the nitrogen level in sewage plant effluent ; n % S* n n " !!. Explain the term predation. b

115

Ane organism %predator) obtains food by catching and eating other organism. 6%)g 6 S H) D 9: " !#. What 'ill be the relationship bet'een predator and pre population gro'th pattern? 6 .F& The predator,prey relationship regulate the abundance of the predator and prey. The number of the prey and predator increases and decreases in the same pattern but with a time lag. 6SBD6rS6rp& FSG&=e" !$. Explain 'h the predator and pre relationship is beneficial to the population of the pre . 6 SH[ " m & " The predation relationship help to chec. the population si0e of the prey preventing them from competing for food and space. B5 A p.S*rKbR" !&. Explain the term competition. b " $ore than one species or individuals of the same species attempt to ma.e use of the same resources in the environment because there are not enough resources to satisfy the needs of all the organisms ;K6q+)616}S?S2'r}8S X&{ 8 D L { %&" !(. Explain commensalism 'ith an named example. Vl b g + " Ane obtains benefit while the other is neither harmed nor benefited. e.g. 7arnacles living on the shell of the crab. 6q9b 6q IE I "VX 1 9" 7arnacles living on the bac. of the crabs and gains the benefit of locomotion, food remains and dispersal. XB$ " The crab is not harmed nor benefited XIEI" !*. Explain mutualism 'ith an named example. Vl b + X 7oth organisms obtain benefits. x9" e.g. <itrogen,fi ing bacteria living in the nodules at the roots of the leguminous plants. VX 1 A : b S B ) C Q 6 "

12'

<itrogen,fi ing bacteria obtain water, nutrients and shelter from the plant. XB 9: n2\ / 6 RS " ;eguminous plants obtain nitrogenous compounds from the bacteria. AXB9: Q" !+. Explain parasitism 'ith an named example. Vl b Ane of them %the parasite) obtains benefit at the e pense of the other %the host) 6S%)b 6 S%w)E" e.g. Tapeworm living in the intestine of man VX|1" Tapeworm obtains water, nutrients and shelter |X9n2\/6RS" $an is harmed X" #.. 8ist all the biotic interactions 'hich regulate the si4e of natural populations. wM%& r 8 " +redation, competition, commensalism, mutualism, parasitism. \\g+\+\" Check point (!+) #1. Explain ho' to use a line transect to measure the relative abundance and distribution of species. Wu ^ r + r 2"
A string with mar.ings at 1m intervals is stretched out along the ground in a straight line. The organisms touching or covering the line all along its length are recorded. This is particularly useful where there is a transition of flora or fauna across an area or down seashore. It is usually use with a Cuadrat.

P66jd-)FSHR}9Sh^qS*^ O)G<? ^%&'-"SBPF1&QRSSP S" #2. Explain ho' to use a 3uadrat to measure the relative abundance and distribution of species. Wu Sr + r 2"
A metal frame, often designed can be folded to ma.e it more compact for storage and transport. The internal dimension is 1m, but for sa.e of transport, it is better being '.2m. It is placed on the ground and the species present within the frame are identified and their abundance recorded.

6qSPBlmFDS_[S] 1 jSSS -] 0.5 j"= S1R9S;S>+;NS* r-""

121

#!. Explain ho' to use a belt transect to measure the relative abundance and distribution of species. Wu r + r 2"
A transect line is laid along the area to be studied, and Cuadrats are placed at fi ed intervals %eg. 2m) on one side of the transect line. The organisms enclosed by the Cuadrat are recorded.

HwR6^SH*^NF(VWxj)6qSSS r" ##. What are the limitations of using line transect and 3uadrat? ^/ S & 8
It can only measured plants, stationary animals and slow moving animals. The fast moving ones will escape when disturbed.

*Br\/)S$H;=S U" #$. "uggest some methods to determine the feeding relationships bet'een the organisms. 6 M T S " 1. #irect field observations. HhO" 2. Test with different types of preys found in the habitat in the laboratory %see whether it eat). HhpSHS( )" 3. Analysis of their stomach contents. 2t " #&. Explain the term succession. b "
!uccession is a progressive change in composition of a community of organisms towards a large stable ecosystem at the same place over a period of time. It is the result of gradual change in the abiotic factors imposed by the living organisms.

H6R6y=CS6qbNlS *(%bC" #(. %escribe the events that occur in succession. 45H@ % ? > " 7ioneer plants %lichens, mosses, grasses) brings about changes in the environment such as addition of humus to soil, changes in p8, and increased water retention of soil. -ventually, the environment is altered to a point that another community can replace the pioneer community from the area. As a result, the ground will soon be covered by herbaceous plants. ;ater, the slo'er1gro'ing shrubs and trees will ma.e their appearance and as they grow taller, they will shade the ground floraB which will die out for the lac. of adeCuate light. ;ater still, the trees are close together. This means that at each stage of this course, there is al'a s at least one dominant species which is then replaced by some other of a higher class until

122

finall the forest structure is achieved. OIM1@9R Z6+[S+R H b+(R9GS SR;I ( )" R%2S*}"CSVWp(A\ Z\ p( np_" 6 mRciS*&S* - R R " @j;mS6jQSB_rT6NpS 'yZ%"" }S;Qq?SF .S*M) 6cvM"" S.J + MS*.S;<`*_S_ bxY" S + MS*.J+CSS*6.S&J+^b xYS+)jR.ShE-6qSHS;`*% :SwP " #*. What are differences bet'een primar and secondar succession? @ 6 &2 +rimary succession is the succession occurring at an area which has not been previously occupied by a community, eg, newly e posed roc. surface. !econdary succession is the succession occurring at a place which has a community removed. !econdary succession results when there are severe changes in climate or fire and cultivation. !econdary succession progresses more rapidly than primary succession because soils and physical conditions has been altered to a certain e tent by previous communities and have not been completely removed. !pores, seeds and organs of vegetative propagation may remain viable in the soil, and there will be an influ of animals and plants through dispersal and migration from the surrounding area. In these circumstances the succession will not begin with pioneer species but with organisms from subseCuent successional stages. @?1QRSbcD&&u6SVW?@}" ?H&6Sw;DRS" *K?1#\\)R-" TU$@S( 8'w;F_ 6Sb l\ l 0L BG 1 ( Sb R c & DEFSHS)IrSb1" y" #+. %ra' the flo' diagram of primar succession. M@ ? "
7are land lichen algae and moss herb and fern shrub tree

123

@ R J+ + $.. Explain the harmful effects of air pollution and its control method. /` " - haust fumes contain many pollutants that are harmful to our health and the environment. -I&K Sm [ } & " - haust fumes may pass over purifiers %electrostatic precipitator) to clear the harmful components. -IL(/L)SD&ABv" 7etter fuels %eg. containing fewer sulphur, lead free) should be used. [(I\IB)" $1. Explain the harmful effects of noise pollution and its control method. ms /` " Too much noise may result in mental stress or even deafness. sGS)" The sounds from vehicles and machines can be reduced by mufflers. /+L9sL" +eople wor.ing under noisy conditions should use ear plugs. Hssh9l" $2. Explain the harmful effects of 'ater pollution and its control method. nA /` " !ewage from factories may contain to ic chemicals that .ill aCuatic organisms. sv-nI&Q'Sn" "ontrol by legislation. " -ffluents from factories should be controlled and treated. sv nS n " $!. Explain the harmful effects of land pollution and its control method. (R /` " #ecomposition of solid waste in landfills may release to ic chemicals. c[-2M&Q'" 9educe wastage. -mploy the 3 9 policy> 9educe, 9euse and 9ecycle the resources. KS R Sm8hUX\k/|}k"

12*

$!. "tate impacts of human activities on the ecos stem other than pollution. M D m l $% " 1. #estruction of tropical rain forests YF( 2. !oil erosion (m 3. Aver fishing *. 9eclamation destroys marine and costal habitats YF*/ 2. ;and clearance destroys natural habitats RYFH &. Green house effect leads to global warming 3p8Q 3. A0one depletion y E 4. :ormation of endangered species E-!" $#. Explain the need for conservation. 8 8" "onservation is the wise management of our environment so as to maintain a balance between harvest and renewal so that there will be a continual yielding of natural resources. 8RH8D*ESH_96:S8B8 8 " $$. =riefl explain the program of conservation. 4 R 8 d[ # " 1. 1ildlife management 2. +revention of forest fire $ 3. "ontrol of pollution *. "orrect use of land (R
2. 9educe the loss of non,renewable resources Bk8 &. 9egeneration of renewable resources Bk8 3. 8uman population control p.

122

Check point (#.) 1. @ive the evidence of the presence of light reaction. W M " 7hotol sis of 'ater< 1hen isolated chloroplasts are suspended in 'ater with some ferric salts as h drogen acceptor and illuminated 'ith light, bubbles of ox gen 'ill be released. This result indicates that 'ater is split into ox gen and h drogen b the chloroplast with the aid of light energy. n" ;2M"YZ[67\21n=S7 [S; |/ = & nMSMn2l;YZ[/2 S ;MSb @l; [% O _" 2. Where does the light reaction take place? H P TU ;ight reactions take place at the grana of the chloroplast where chlorophyll can be found on their surface. HYZ[YZyTUSbYZLYZy|}" !. What happens to the chloroph ll after absorption of light? YZH _ & >?
Absorption of light by chlorophyll results in an electron 6umping from its ground state to a higher, e cited state. The e cited electron will be emitted from the chlorophyll molecule and pass down an electron transport chain. #uring the transport energy is released which has two functions>

YZH_Syl;6rySl1;MS **lT@S@L&rMSMr&DxqL: 1. 7roduction of 6/7 %photophosphorylation) 6/7 - (jQ) 2. +hotolysis of water and production of 96%7) n6 96%7) #. What are the significance of light reaction? &8 1. /o generate 6/7 and 96%7)2 %reduced coen0yme) for use in the dar. reactions for carbon fi ation. AT+ <A#+8 Dl " 2. Eelease of ox gen from the cell as by,product of photosynthesis. HSD +EFM "

12&

$. Where does the dark reaction take place? l H P TU #ar. reactions ta.e place at the stroma of the chloroplast. lHYZ[ATU" &. What happens to CD2B 'here is the re3uired energ and h drogen come from in dark reaction? H l S Q -S% q r / @l " u Through dar. reaction, carbon dio ide is reduced to form carbohydrates. The reCuired energy comes from AT+, and the hydrogen reCuired for the reduction comes from <A#+8 . 7oth of these are derived from the light reactions. glS Q ; C @ nQS% q r" AT+S%q @l " " <A#+8S*'(b"" (. %escribe the events occur in Calvin c cle. 5H %& |} % ? > "
1. Carbon dioxide %diffuses from outside through the stomata or from the respiration of its own cells) combines with a 2,carbon compound to form a &,carbon compound which will split immediately to give two molecules of a !1carbon compound.

Q()M%M)6q Q-6 q QS 23-xq Q"


2. The 3,carbon compound is then reduced to a 3,carbon sugar, triose phosphate. The hydrogen reCuired in this reduction comes from the 96%7)B and energy reCuired from 6/7. 7oth formed during the light reactions.

Q; C @ U1UjS%q @l " 96%7)S %qr" 6/7S xb"


3. The triose phosphate then goes through a series of steps to form a hexose sugar %glucose).

1Uj0?T6T'Q'SE- U(KLU)"
*. !ome of the &,carbon sugar produced is converted to starch for storage while some triose phosphate enter a series of reactions leading to the regeneration of CD2 acceptor that will enter the "alvin cycle again. This .ind of conversion needs more AT+ that comes from light reaction.

& U 0 ? CQ-aSb&1UjT6T'Q'S Q [S kT%&|}SCQqK" AT+" *. What is the importance of regeneration of CD2 acceptor? Q [ k &8 The regeneration of CD2 acceptor is very important because only by ensuring a continuous suppl of ribulose biphosphate can the continued fi ation of carbon dio ide ta.e place. S Q [kS*B&K{j ) TU"

123

+. @ive the chemical e3uation for photos nthesis. ;rom the e3uationB 'hat changes in the substances taken up and produced might be used to measure the rate of photos nthesis? MQ 'S ? F" S ? FSA C (; _ / )B r $
light &"A2 E 1282A YZ chlorophyll "&812A& E &A2 E &82A

Fptake of carbon dioxide, liberation of ox gen and increase dr 'eight= carbohydrate content can be measured to indicate the rate of photosynthesis. Q _ \ M\ nQ ) p _S'B r $ _ " 1.. Explain the role of 6/7 in photos nthesis. 6/7 H% ( D "

6/7 is synthesi0ed in light reaction. It is used in the dar. reaction to suppl energ for reducing 3,carbon
compound to triose phosphate.

Q 6/7 H-SHlS*r) C@-1Uj" 11. Explain the role of 96%7 in photos nthesis? 96%7 H% ( D "

96%7 is an acceptor molecule which accepts h drogen from the photol sis of 'ater to form 96%7).
96%7) reduces 3,carbon compound to triose phosphate in the dar. reaction.

@lS <A#+ 6 @lE <A#+8S` 96%7 [SO_n%


<A#+8 Hl) Q C @ 1U j "

12. Which t'o products of the light1dependent stage are used in the light1independent (dark) stage of photos nthesis? P x - +;1 l AT+ <A#+8" 1!. Explain the formation of starch from the products of Calvin c cle. Wu %& |} -+- A" Tow molecules of triose phosphate %3,") combine to form one molecule of glucose phosphate %&, "). Glucose can then be converted to starch. 2l1Uj62lKLUjSKLUBqCa"

124

1#. Explain the formation of lipids from the products of Calvin c cle. Wu %& |} -+-k "
The 3,carbon compound enters into the glycolytic pathway and is converted to pyruvate. +yruvate is converted to acet l coen4 me 6, then to fatty acids in both cytoplasm and chloroplast. Glycerol is made from triose phosphate. Glycerol and fatty acids combine to form lipids.

QT U\] ; C Q 1 S 1 ; C Q)a*S)a*HA YZ[CQkS1UjCQOBSOB6k-k"

1$. Explain the formation of proteins from the products of Calvin c cle. Wu %& |} -+-hiA
The 3,carbon compound enters into the glycolytic pathway and is converted to pyruvate. +yruvate is then converted to acetyl coen0yme A. Acetyl coen0yme A enters the Drebs cycle of respiration. It is then converted to carbo ylic acids. !ubseCuently amino acids are formed by amination. Amination is en0ymatic transfer of <83 to an acid to form an amino acid. +roteins are formed by condensation of amino acids.

a *S) a *T QT U\] ; C Q 1 S 1 ; C Q) xyz{|}S;CQ S` g QE (QD ) <83 DE )SbhiA( K % = b-" 1&. %escribe the concept of limiting factors. 5 +, " The rate of a biochemical process will theoretically be limited by the slowest reaction in the series. 6qQ?W_S&K6T'Q'S !9S*$1 6q" 1(. Fsing carbon dioxideB illustrate the concept of limiting factor. Q - +, " Bnder normal field conditions, carbon dioxide is the ma2or limiting factor in photos nthesis. Its concentration in the atmosphere is about '.'3(, and an increase in photos nthetic rate can be achieved b increasing its concentration to about ..1C. lq Q S*; N1& + QSH S Q w S $ hO :R 1 Q H 4 % #6q)S*4Hy '.'3(S )*4p '.1(=BRp$"

125

Check point (#1) 1. %istinguish bet'een gaseous exchange and respiration. 2 [ U a " @aseous exchange refers to the processes by which o ygen from the atmosphere reaches the cells and carbon dio ide produced from the cells moves in the opposite direction. [ U a _ SbM Q |S vM ? " Eespiration refers to the cellular chemical reactions by which o ygen o idi0es glucose to release the energy stored inside it. _.Q'SI )KL r" U QSM 2. What is the first stage of cellular respirationB 'here does it occurG? O y *H P TU @l col sis is the first stage ofcellular respiration. It takes place in the c toplasm of a cell. UsOyS*H.ATU" !. %oes gl col sis depend on ox gen? U s q q The process is independent of ox gen, i.e. it can ta.e place in the presence or absence of o ygen. / S*BH& ) I TU" #. %escribe the first step of gl col sis. d 5 O y U s " The first step is the activation of a glucose molecule by phosphate group. /'o 6/7 are re3uired. The activated glucose then split into two molecules of triose phosphate %3," compound). 86NKLU2l;j,QSNqxq ATPSQKLU23xq 1Uj2l" $. What happens to triose phosphate? 1U j 0 ?- The triose phosphate then changes to two molecules of pyruvate with the liberation of four AT+, ie. There is a net gain of two AT+ in glycolysis. 1Uj-xq1 2lS/M q ATPSHUs&xq ATP h9" &. What is the fate of the t'o pairs of h drogen atoms produced? H ? xm @l& The two pairs of hydrogen atoms produced may yield a further si AT+ giving an overall total of eight AT+ in the presence of o ygen. H& Sxm @lBH` k q ATPSUs ATP } r 0 q"

13'

(. What happens to p ruvate in the presence of ox genB and 'hat thing is produced H& S 1 C Q & In the presence of o ygen, the pyruvate are changed to acet l coen4 me 6 which enters the 5rebs c cle. In this process, a molecule of CD2 and a pair of h drogen atoms are produced. H& S 1 C Q )1 a AS0?Txyz{|}"Hq?S&6 2l Q 6m @l " *. Where does 5rebs c cle occur? xyz{|} H P TU It occurs at the matrix of the mitochondria 'hich contain all the necessar en4 mes. H]^[ATU" +. What happens to acet l coen4 me 6 in and the subse3uence products in 5rebs c cle? H xyz{|} S )1 a A /` + Acetyl coen0yme A enters Drebs cycle %tricarbo ylic cycle) and combines with *," compound to give the &," compound. ) a A q 2lT xyz{|} ( |} )6 QSE-6q Q" The &1C compound is degraded to the 2," compound and then a number of different #1C compounds,
by the progressive loss of two carbon dio ide molecules. :inally, regeneration of the *," compound that can combine with another acetyl coen0yme A, thus completes the cycle.

Q Q 2lS } + xqS I QS k - QS B1 6q ) a A QSb - q|}" 1.. What are produced in each turn of the 5rebs c cleG? |} & :or each turn of the cycle, a total of four pairs of hydrogen atoms are formed. In addition, each turn of the cycle produces a single molecule of AT+ |}&m @l-S D D S C 6q AT 2l" 11. Where does h drogen transfer occur? lH P TU -lectron transfer occurs at the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. lH]^[<9TU" 12. %escribe the process of h drogen transfer. 5l ? " The hydrogen atoms of <A#8 and :A#8 %actually proton) pass through a series of h drogen acceptors and is finally accepted by o ygen to form water. In this way, <A# and :A# are regenerated to accept hydrogen in glycolysis and the Drebs cycle again. !A" #A" % @l (`hAl)16T' [ @ S 6 SE-n" ?S!A" #A" kS#BOUs/xyz{|}% "

131

7y passing through the hydrogen transfer chain, energy in <A#8 and :A#8 is released to form AT+. glSa1 !A"$ #A"$ r1- AT " 1!. %escribe the effect of c anide on the inhibition of respiration. 5 Q1 5 " The transfer of hydrogen atoms to o ygen is cataly0ed by the en0yme cytochrome o idase. This en0yme is inhibited by cyanide, so preventing the removal of hydrogen atoms at the endof the respiratory chain. In this case, the hydrogen atoms accumulate and aerobic respiration ceases, ma.ing cyanide a most effective respiratory inhibitor. @l S( D Q ~ QS Q 5 S @l TDSHES @l Z % S q ! S%D Q& 5" Check point (#2) 1#. What is the main difference bet'een anaerobic and aerobic respiration? 6 & w 2 Anaerobic respiration differs from aerobic respiration only in that the former is an incomplete oxidation 'hich stops at the first stage of the reactions 'hile aerobic respiration proceeds to the end and is a complete oxidation. Anly 2 6/7s are formed in anaerobic respiration while !* 6/7s are formed in aerobic respiration. 6 & 2H1 6q QSH Oy!( 2 q AT+)Sb& 6qTU t Q (B 3 % q AT+)" 1$. %escribe the process of alcoholic fermentation. 5 ? s ? " The pyruvate loses a carbon dio ide molecule, then combines with the hydrogen ions, which are transported by the hydrogen carrier <A#, to form the alcohol, ethanol. Us 1 O I 6q Q 2lS H6 ( [ !A" %@ @l S-())" 1&. What is the importance of lactic acid fermentation? ? s & 8 Bnli.e alcoholic fermentation, the lactic acid can be further bro.en down in the presence of o ygen and releasing its remaining energy or it may be resynthesi0ed into carbohydrate. ;actic acid fermentation not only yields a little energy, but removes the pyruvate which would otherwise accumulate. Tissues have a relatively higher tolerance of lactic acid than p ruvate. 6?sSH& BT6 N 2Sb & r S B- nQS EF ? s H * S 2 I + mGdO"?s r r S C D Z % 1 S

132

Z%SH6N=.Sb5tuSt[,cm& 8" 1(. What is ox gen debt? 3 In the shortage of o ygen, muscles carry out anaerobic respiration. ;actic acid is a product of this process. ;actic acid causes muscle fatigue and prevents muscle from contracting. It has to be bro.en down by o ygen. As the lactic acid accumulates, the organism has an o ygen debt. H S[TU S +S tueStuT6N_=SH " *2 S ; Z % = S&6 q 3 " 1*. )o' to repaid the ox gen debt? Wu - C 3 This is repaid as soon as possible after the activity, by continued deep and rapid breathing. The o ygen is used to o idi0e the lactic acid to carbon dio ide and water, thereby removing it. 3 BH T ) j $ \ " - C S ") QS Q nSb)*D" 1+. What is the ph siological significance of ox gen debt? 3 H 9&8 It allows the animal to produce more 6/7 'hen extra energ is needed to get food or escape. ;qrD4/=SB K AT+" 2.. Compare aerobic 'ith anaerobic respiration. & "
6erobic respiration q A ygen reCuirement q A idation of sugar U Q Amount of energy %AT+) released from glucose rM -nd products + Ies. q" "omplete. Q" ;arge amount %34AT+). r%34AT+) 6naerobic respiration <o. q" Incomplete. Q" !mall amount %2AT+) r%2AT+)

carbon dio ide, water and more AT+ are lactic acid %in animals), ethanol and produced. carbon dio ide %in plants) and less AT+ are produced. Q \n K r " H\H Q Sr" <A#. Involved. +yruvate 1 <ot involved.

8ydrogen acceptor in glycolysis HUs [ Drebs cycle xyz{|}

133 -lectron transport system l Accurrence in cells H?R Involved. "ytoplasm %glycolysis) and mitochondria %Drebs cycle and electron transport system). AUs^][ xyz{|}l" $ost organisms R" <ot involved. "ytoplasm only. HA?"

Accurrence in organisms Hu?

In lower organisms, eg. yeast, plant and muscle cells when the o ygen supply cannot cope with the energy demand. H_SVWsS tuS; { D ]%q="

21. Wh the number of 6/7 molecules released from glucose in aerobic respiration is much more than from anaerobic respiration. 5 H& Q KL U= %M ATP 2l q K Ta.ing glucose as the respiratory substrate, both aerobic and anaerobic respiration produce a net amount of 2 AT+ in glycolysis with the formation of 2 pyruvate. DKLUAb!S& 'H U s = h xq ATP E-x q1 " In aerobic respiration the pyruvate combines with coen0yme A to form acetyl coen0yme A. This enters the Drebs cycle with the formation of more AT+ during decarbo ylation and hydrogen atoms are accepted by hydrogen acceptors. The hydrogen acceptors release electrons which pass through the electron transport chain on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. $ovement of electrons is coupled with the formation of AT+ in the process of o idative phosphorylation. H& S 1 a A -)a AS0?Txyz{|}SHE -K ATPSb @l; [([)%O_S [HlMlSH ]^[<TU6T'@S@L& AT+ S? Qj Q" In anaerobic respiration, the pyruvate formed is converted to energy rich lactic acid or alcohol, so less AT+ is formed. H S% 1 C Q- r ) S & AT+ " 22. Explain the role of 6/7 in energ transferB ATP H r 9" The importance of AT+ is that it is a means of transferring free energy from foods to cellular reactions reCuiring it. It is the immediate energy source for metabolic process. 1hen AT+ is hydroly0ed to A#+ and phosphate, energy is released. ATP 8H1*)(aS)r@q*S*J K=r"8S; ATP ;n ADP j=S&rM" AT+ may be used in biosynthesis eg. formation of nucleic acids from nucleotides. It may also be used in muscular contraction.

13*

ATP B1Q-SVWH^E-?S*Btu_=" 2!. Explain the role of 6%7 in respiration ADP H9" It is the precursor of 6/7, used for storing energ in a readily usable form. * AT SaGrSr-EF" 2#. Explain the role of 96% in respiration NAD H9" It is an immediate hydrogen acceptor, during o idation of glucose, accepting hydrogen atoms from glycolysis and Drebs cycle. <A#8 formed will then pass the hydrogen atoms to the electron transport system for o idative phosphorylation in aerobic respiration. *6q= @l [S ; KL U ; Q = S* O_ U s)xyz{|}%M @lSH& S%E- NADH ) @l @l Qj Q" 2$. Explain the role of ox gen in respiration H9" It is the final hydrogen or electron acceptor of the electron transport chain in the o idation process during aerobic respiration. 1hen electrons are passed down the chain, AT+ is formed by o idative phosphorylation. *& l @l)l [SlH @ L S& AT E-" 2&. Explain the role of mitochondria in cellular respiration. ]^[H9" $itochondria are double membrane rod shaped organelle that its matri contains en0ymes for Drebs cycle while membranes have en0ymes for hydrogen transfer system. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm surrounding the mitochondria. +yruvate formed then enters the mitochondria to be degraded to carbon dio ide and water The membrane system inside the mitochondria greatly increase the surface area for the en0ymatic reactions. ]^[6qz<gLS*IAI&xyz{|}%q Sba<9& l%q S U s H=>?]^[A . TUS%E- 1 T]^[D; Q n"]^[ . a< Rp % q |} Z" 2(. 8ist some industrial applications of anaerobic respiration. wM H s 96 " 1. 7rewing of beer 67 2. 7rewing of wine 6 3. 7a.ing of bread 8 = *. +roduction yoghurt 9 2. +roduction of cheese :;

132

&. +roduction of biofuel [

13&

2*. Compare respiration 'ith photos nthesis. " 7hotos nthesis


/ pe of reaction A reduction reaction.

Eespiration
An o idation reaction.

u
/ pe of metabolism

C@"
"atabolism? brea.s down organic food by o idation to release energy.

Q"
Anabolism? builds up organic food by reduction to store energy.

2; Q & + 2SMr"
9eCuires carbon dio ide and water.

-; C@ & + SaGr"
9eCuires o ygen.

Ea' materials

@[
7roducts

q Q n"
+roduces o ygen and food.

q "
+roduces "A2 and water.

-+
Energ change

"
-nergy is stored in high energy compounds.

Q n"
-nergy is released from high energy compounds.

rCa
Dccurrence

raGHQ"
Accurs in green cells only.

rQM"
Accurs in all cells.

?R
8ight re3uirement

HZD?"
9eCuires the presence of light.

H%&?"
Independent of light.

q Check point (#!)

q"

q"

1. 8ist the common factors that affect health. wM%& $% [ 45 " 1. #iet " 2. - ercise and rest " 3. Alcohol or drug abuse <6" *. Infection of pathogens ]@[" 2. The prevention and control of transmissible diseases ]" &. A health living habit 45=" 3. !tate of mind, being optimistic or pessimistic {S>N?" 2. )o' is our health affected b a deficienc in food substances?

133

Am 45 & $% ? %eficienc
+rotein

%isease ]
Dwashior.or

hiA
/itamin A

hi
<ight blindness

A
/itamin "

!curvy

"
/itamin #

F]
9ic.ets

#
"alcium

]
9ic.ets

Iron

]
Anaemia

!. )o' is our health affected b an excess of food substances? T r Am 45 & $% ?


/oo much K :at %isease ] 8eart attac. and stro.e {]) 8ypertension Abesity and diabetes @+/U] !ugar Abesity tooth decay and periodontal disease ;/;] 8ypertension #amage to brain and .idney EFZR/ Abesity 8eart disease, diabetes and arthritis {]\U]/A

U
!alts

-nergy

#. What are the benefits of regular exercise? & 1. 2. 3. *.


!trengthen the heart and lungs

p{=
9educes the ris. of dying from heart disease

x1{]+
+romote muscle growth

Ttu.
9educes the ris. of developing diabetes.

9U]+"

134

2. &. 3.

9educes the ris. of developing high blood pressure.

9-+"
9educes feelings of depression and an iety.

5B[C"
8elps control weight.

&[" 4. 5. 1'.
8elps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and 6oints.

&401\tu"
8elps older adults become stronger and better able to move about without falling.

.4DS#WbEs"
+romote mental and social well being

TFU45 $. >n 'hat circumstances that 'e should not do exercise to safeguard our health? ? 45 S " 1. 1hen the weather is hot and humid, e ercise should be avoided. 8eat is generated during e ercise. 1hen humidity is high, sweat is difficult to evaporate and remove heat from the body. As a result, heat loss from the bod is hampered and the body will be liable to suffer from heat stroke and even death. ;(P9=S"S9=S-1?SG[(S JH)xY" 2. 6t high altitude, e ercise should be avoided. #uring e ercise, more o ygen is reCuired for respiration to provide energy for muscle contraction. 8owever, the partial pressure of ox gen is lo' at high altitude. A ygen in blood is depleted due to the increased o ygen demand during e ercise. As a result, some vital organs, e.g. brain, may not be able to obtain sufficient o ygen. H$"SqK tu_ = S S $ 2-SqK J [ S SL W Z R { " 3. An the other hand, e ercise should be avoided when air 3ualit is poor. /entilation rate is increased during e ercise so as to obtain more o ygen for energy production during respiration. In poor air conditions, more pollutants, e.g. carbon mono ide %"A), sulphur dio ide %!A2) and nitrogen o ides would be inhaled into the body due to increased ventilation rate. These pollutants are harmful to health. SIRSS=apS[K W6 Q\ Q / Q _S " [ 45 " &. Wh do 'e need rest after exercise? q "ontinual activity %especially muscular activity) for a sustained period leads to accumulation of to ic wastes %eg. lactic acid) and depletion of food reserve %eg. glycogen). 9est allows cells to undergo a period of inactivity for removing toxic 'astes and replenishing the food reserve in the

135

cells. j(^`tu)6y.=-Z%(W)/(WU@)S B&6yD-/K" (. )o' does insufficient sleep affect health? JK { m 45 & $%

When 'e sleepB the secretion of gro'th hormone 'ill be at the peak. The growth hormone can stimulate growth in children. Insufficient sleep affects our alertness, 6udgment, reaction time and memory. JK=S.2PLS&.SJK{$%M8\ NjpS=-" It has been shown that high blood pressureB diabetesB obesit and depression are related to insufficienc sleep or poor sleep. O?-\U]\@+5B6JK{)&" *. "uggest some 'a s to improve sleep. 6 PJK S . 1. 2. 3. *. 2. Ta.e a brea. after long hour wor.ing. s6y=" Avoid heavy meals close to bedtime. J" Avoid over usage of brain before bedtime. JZ" #evelop regular bedtime and wa.ing time. N=JN=Q" Deep your bedroom dar. and Cuiet. JoRlS/" +. What are the adverse effect of smoking? T m 45 & $% ? Cigarette smoke may inhabit the beating of the cilia in the respiratory tract, more dust particles enter the lungs thereby reducing the surface area of the lung for gaseous e change. TB5!9&SK5]T=RbB[Ua=R}Z"
Component 9icotine

Effects on health "auses heart disease. #ependence. 9etards growth of foetus

m45$%

UV
/ar

{]S9WS."
Carcinogenic, may cause damage to bronchial tubes, mucous membrane

1*'

T[B

and cilia. The smo.er has a higher chance of infection by pathogens.

XSBYF\</&ST&+]@[ "
Carbon monoxide

6 Q
Dther irritants

"ombines with haemoglobin and prevents it from carrying o ygen, leading to decreased physical fitness and retarded growth of foetus.

* S [ / ."
"hronic bronchitis and emph sema. 8A=Y Gastric and duodenal ulcers. Z[/_Z[ Gingivitis. <\A #ecreased resistance to diseases. o]p

`*

1*1

1.. What are the adverse effect of alcohol abuse? < m 45 & $% ? 1. Alcohol affects the co,ordination of the bodyFs movement, impairs 6udgment and slows down our responses. As a result, we are more li.ely to have accidents. $%[\S$%Nj/SJ" 2. Alcohol has no nutritional value, therefore e cessive drin.ing causes malnutrition. :or e ample, alcoholism can lead to vitamin 71 deficiency, which will lead to damage of the nervous system, leading to numbness, wea.ness of limbs, hand tremor and mental confusion. X&] S r S. < [ 71SE SVW?^\_?\`a_]u" 3. It affects our digestive system, causing oesophagitis, chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and cancers. <p!A\A\Z[/6XWX!Xb" *. It damages our liver, causing hepatitis, cirrhosis, and even liver cancer. Alcohol raises blood pressure, causes enlargement of heart and eventually heart failure. rA\Q\X\-/{]+" 2. - cessive alcohol drin.ing in pregnancy will affect the foetus, leading to abnormal development, low birth weight, physical handicaps and mental retardation. cr/Sd\[\%-/?" 11. What is drug abuse? e ? %rug abuse is the ta.ing of drugs without following medical advice, or the use of dangerous drugs for non,
treatment purposes.

e_0f_S)"bfgL"
12. What are the effects of drug abuse on health? e m 45 & $% ?
1 . 2 . 3 . * . 2 . 8eroin causes drowsiness, respiratory depression and nausea.

hiRJ\-5 {"
"annabis affects thin.ing and leads to reduce concentration, poor motor control and slow response.

L$%pSpX\/"
#rugs are addictive. Tolerance to drugs freCuently develops so that higher doses are reCuired to satisfy the craving or suppress the withdrawal symptoms.

+9WSbq,r/-"
Ta.ing more than one drug all at a time can cause death.

=6+{D#"
As a user becomes drug,dependent, he needs a constant supply of cash, and may resort to serious crimes to support his habit. !ome may eventually die of overdose.

;/+=S2q88 j "L { ` W S ? k D SD'{\BS-D"&Br+bxY"

1*2

1*3

1!. 8ist the various aspect of personal health and explain ho' the can prevent spreading of diseases? wMq } q l /*Wu ] ?
1 . 2 . 3 . * . 2 . & . 3 . 4 . 9egular hair washing m #aily shower n Teeth brush after meal ; #isinfect or cover wounds )/G< #o not share towels, shoes and soc.s +&p/qr !afe se 8U 8ealthy life style 45SF Good sanitation }} Deep ectoparasites to a low level. B]/|]" 9emove sweat, dirt and sebum on the s.in, thus eliminate the breeding ground of pathogens. D9n\ o kSb D] @[ 0 R " Bse toothpaste that contains fluoride to brush teeth after each meal. T'I& Q ; ; " !eal entrance to endoparasites. B]@[T[" This can prevent the spread of diseases, especially the Athlete@s foot. B]S^` s (t ) +revention of se ual disease prevent or reduce transmission through body fluid. 8]g[" Aptimistic attitude, persistent e ercise, balanced diet etc >\ \ _SBpum] p" Deep environment clean, cover garbage, get rid of stagnant and dirty water help to eliminate breeding ground of parasite, vectors and secondary hosts. }S< v Sv D Z n_SB D | \ [/8wwR"

Check point (##) 1. What are the causes of infectious diseases? ] - ? >nfectious diseases %transmissible diseases) are caused by infection of pathogens. +athogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists and multicellular parasites. The activities of the pathogens harm the host. ](]@[S]@[=]\ S\ @K|" ]@ [m[-YF"

1**

2. "tate the different t pes of pathogens and cite example of the diseases. M ] @[ # x M6 ] V" 7athogens ]@[ 1. 2. ?iruses ] =acteria !. #. $. ;ungi 7rotists @ :ulticellular parasites K| Example ]V
Influen0a, !A9!, AI#!, measles and dengue fever

U8y\z=\{w]\L|}~("
"holera

a
Tuberculosis

= Athlete@s foot s(t )


$alaria

;iver flu.es

|]
Tape worm

|] !. "tate the different routes of infectious diseases transmission. M ] L ] " 9outes of transmission> Air, #roplets, 1ater, :ood, /ector, 7ody fluids, #irect contact \n\\ \[\ hOO L]: \

#. Explain the follo'ing routes of infectious diseases transmission 'ith suitable exampleB and state the
control measures.

Vl w ] L ] S # M F ; # " 1. 2. 3. *. 2. &. 3. Air #roplets 1ater n :ood /ector 7ody fluids [ #irect contact hOO

1*2

Eoutes of transmission L] 6ir

Examples Vl
!uspended particles in air carrying pathogens or fungal spores may be inhaled. &]@[\2]l) l" eg. $easles and tuberculosis. Vl: L|=

Control measures #
$aintain good ventilation. P"

%roplets

1hen we cough and snee0e, droplets are e pelled "over the mouth with tissue paper from our mouth and nose. These pathogens when coughing or snee0ing. If you containing droplets may be inhaled by others. have a respiratory disease, wear a surgical mas. and avoid going to ;?@/=S 4 crowded places. MSI]@[ B; 2 " ?@/=SpS eg. "ommon cold and !A9!. W&!]Sh/ Vl: z= KRS" 1ater may be contaminated when faeces from an !upply of clean drin.ing water. +roper disposal of faeces. infected person go into the water source. #rin.ing water should be boiled. n8;]* " nSP *S eg. ch !"#$ $%& '$()# "%)"#*)*(. )n2" Vl: aA" :ood may be contaminated when prepared by unwashed hands? crops fertili0ed with faeces from infected persons? meat, mil. and eggs from diseased animals or not proper treated. Bw@ :& ); " & , *( %*%'. ]*+Su\h"&] eg. Ch !"#$ $%& + 1ash hands before handling food. "oo. food thoroughly. Deep meat, mil. and egg products in refrigerator. &S2S u\ h+aH"

Water n

;ood

Vl: a"

1*&

?ector

A vector is an organism that carries pathogens to a 9emove the breeding ground of the new host. $osCuitoes, flies and coc.roaches are vectors. common vectors. ]@[w" \ Dill the vectors. * " +revent contact with vectors. eg. $alaria caused by plasmodium is infected by female anopheles mosCuito carrying the proto0oa DwRS$ when suc.ing blood of the host. x$ VW>(@|S*( 6O" ]@[H=" :lies carry cholera bacteria from faeces and transfer it to the food they touch.

O*S a`2" =od fluids 7lood or body fluid may enter other@s blood 1ear glove when handling wounds stream through wounds, sharing of needles or se . [ If these body fluids contain pathogens, diseases =&" (bloodB semenB may be transmitted. vaginal fluid) "over any wound with a dressing. )[Bg\+8UT (\\ 6 S S [ & ] @[S G<" ) ! 2 ) ]" eg. AI#! and hepatitis 7 is infected by blood or #o not share in6ection needles. body fluids during se ual contact. VW>{w])Ag)H8 U=g[" +" Ane se partner only. &68" Always use condoms correctly. "

%irect contact Transmission of diseases through touching the s.in, wounds or mucous membranes of an hOO
infected person or through .iss or se ual behaviour.

9educe physical contact with infected people.

6&[O" ]gO\)<S )O8Ob" $aintain good personal hygiene. eg. AthleteFs foot on s.in is a fungal disease infected by body contact or clothing contact. Vl>t ( ] Sg [ O/" q}"

1*3

$. What are antibiotics? ? They are chemicals produced b various fungi and bacteria, which suppress the gro'th of other microorganisms or even .ill it, thus reducing the competition for resources. eg. penicillin. (/% Q ' +S*B 5`2i.S)x* S89SMDGSVW" &. )o' do antibiotics kill or inhibit the gro'th of bacteria? Wu x ) 5 . ?
6ntibiotic like penicllin can inhibit the s nthesis of bacterial cell 'all . 7ecause bacterial cells are prokar otic, the adverse effects of antibiotics 'ill not happen on the eukar otic cells of the host and so antibiotics may be safely used throughout the body. Ather antibiotics ma interfere %96B E96B protein s nthesis and cellular metabolism of the microorganisms. They can be used as a drug inside our body to inhibit the bacterial growth.

W5~-S@S? 1wS B1[S`2Bi %96\ E96\ hi-/S*B15[." (. What are the conse3uences of indiscriminate use of antibiotics? e & ? 1. #evelopment of antibiotic resistance bacteria. o 2. +reviously treatable diseases may become untreatable. DB]-" 3. #evelopment of new antibiotics needs time and a lot of resources. Oq=/r8" *. Antibiotics .ill beneficial bacteria in our body as well and this may promote the growth of pathogens. =x[&SbT]@[." *. )o' do use antibiotics properl ? M S " %1) Bse antibiotics only when they are truly needed. &q="
%2) "omplete the course of antibiotics as advised by the doctors even though there is an apparent recover from the disease.

f_-qg?Sw@S)Sh%&"
%3) #evelops new drugs or alternative treatment.

O?)`2g"

1*4

+. What are "ulpha drugs? ?


!ulpha drugs can stop bacteria from reproduction and growth. It is an effective drug in the treatment of bacterial infections. This is because its structure is similar to some metabolite in the bacteria. 8ence, it competes with the normal metabolite for the active site of bacterial en0ymes. As a result, the bacterial en0ymatic reaction slows down and growth of bacteria is inhibited.

5 . 0S*& S* Q S*Q8R"SS .5" 1.. Explain the use of cocktail therap in treatment of 6>%"? t g Wu f {w ] "
It involves the ta.ing a number of drugs at the same time that target different points in the reproductive process of 8I/. These drugs are effective in suppressing the replication of viral proteins and the synthesis of viral #<A %also prevent the virus to develop drug resistance). It relieves the symptoms and let the patients live longer.

tg f{w]S=KSm HI- 0?}" &R5]hiAA-(=]?8)SS ]GK" Check point (#$) 1. What are non1infectious diseases? ] ?
<on,infectious diseases are diseases that cannot be transmitted from person to person. - ample>

]"VW: A. Allergies 7. "ancer X ". "ardiovascular diseases {] #. #iabetes mellitus U]

2. What is a risk factor? " ?


A ris. factor is anything that may increase the ris. of developing a disease. There are four types > biological, genetic, environmental and behavioural ris. factors.

"_&u p 9 Q ] b S& : 8\ 8\ }8U 8""

1*5

!. What is allerg ? ?
A ris. factor is anything that may increase the ris. of developing a disease. There are four types > biological, genetic, environmental and behavioural ris. factors.

"_&u p 9 Q ] b S& : 8\ 8\ }8U 8""


Allergies are related to over,reaction of immune response. It is an antigen,antibody reaction which occurs in certain individuals upon e posure to substances that are harmless to other individuals under similar conditions. eg. asthma.

[u%SOQA%@6[SH SQI>S&"bSVW!" #. "tate the risk factors of allerg ? M " ?


:amily history and esposure to allergens.

]O@" $. "tate the proper lifest le to prevent allerg ? M F S F ?


1. +revent contact with allergens

O?A
2. #rug treatment.

g
3. Deep house clean.

*. -arly treatment respiratory infection

/D Fr

2. 9egular e ercise.

&. What is cancer? X ? "ancer is caused by uncontrolled and disordered cell division. X(23"

12'

(. "tate the risk factors of cancer? M X " ?


1. >oni4ing radiation / They cause mutation in the somatic cells or activate genes that are not normally e pressed. The control of normal mitotic cell cycles is ruined and the affected cell becomes cancerous.

*)#<ATjS[?)QQ";5S1 23;dS$%-X"
2. Chemicals (cacinogens) Q'A(X) They damage #<A molecules.

*YF#<A2l"
3. ?iral infection ] /iruses that cause cancer usually carry oncogenes.

X]P&X"
*. )ereditar predisposition "ancer is more common in some families than others, indicating a genetic lin..

Q-J9XS6&"
2. Certain lifest les QSF -ating over,processed and refined foods which are low in fibre, or foods that are too much fat.

/\)k"

-ating too much salted fish during childhood.

4MX=TIK"
!mo.ing may lead to lung cancer and oral cancer whereas alcoholism can lead to liver cancer.

T=X/X$<X"

*. "tate the treatment of cancer? M f X S ? 1. !urgery M physical removal of the cancerous growth, depending on its type, nearby tissues and organs. A&B X\,cLSA&BDXY" 2. 9adiotherapy M treating the cancer cells with N,rays or other sources of radiation. It involves beaming radiation into the body or placing a small amount of radioactive material directly into the body. /8g .)`2/xX"/B[}/)hO)r /A1[" 3. "hemotherapy M use anti,cancer drugs to destroy cancer cells. Qg XYFX"

121

+. What is cardiovascular diseases? { ] ? It occurs when the transportation system is unable to .eep up with the demands of the rest of the body. There are many different types of cardiovascular disease> coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure and stro.e. S[L{[q=S9{]"{]&S= {]\-\{/" 1.. "tate the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases? M{ ] " ?
1. 6ge M ris. increases with age, 4'( of people who die of coronary heart disease are &2 or older.

S+$0-x1{]] 65 "
2. 8igh levels of cholesterol in the blood

#n 3. )igh blood pressure M ris. increases with increasing blood pressure, which is associated with high salt inta.e, e cessive caffeine or alcohol. - -S{ "6TIK2\)&" *. Cigarette smoking M smo.ers have twice the ris. for heart attac. than non,smo.ers. The nicotine in the cigarette smo.e causes constriction of the blood vessels, thus raising the blood pressure. T TM{]?+Tx" TUV_=\ -9,\#n9,\/{p" 2. 8ack of ph sical activit M people who are not physically active have twice the ris. for heart disease than those who are active. Aerobic activity helps to strengthen the heart and maintains a healthy blood flow in the vessels. 9{]+x" & {/"
&. Dbesit M people who are overweight have a higher ris. for cardiovascular disease.

+ [J9{]" 3. %iet M ris. increases with high inta.e of saturated fat and salt %over,processed foods). !aturated fat will raise blood cholesterol levels? high inta.e of fat will also cause obesity. TKk2(2 )p]+"k ,#nSTKk@+"
4. "tress M it raises blood pressure because hormones released causes constriction of blood vessels.

-p [M_=S-9," 5. 6lcohol drinking M ris. increases with high inta.e of alcohol as it causes high blood pressure. r-9,Sp]+"
1'. %iabetes M an increased ris. for people with diabetes.

U] U]&+9{]" 11. "tate the treatment of cardiovascular diseases?

122

M f { ] S ? This includes rest, drug treatment to reduce high blood pressure, valve replacement surgery, fitting an electronic pacema.er to control heart rhythm, heart transplants, balloon angioplasty, and bypass operations to re,route the blood and avoid diseased blood vessels. \ -\ r<a&B\ lLD{\ {\ &B(P )\{2&BD$%S6g{]&S" 12. What is diabetes? U ] ? #iabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to meet the bodyFs reCuirement or the body cannot properly react to the insulin. 7lood glucose level remains high and e ceeds the absorptive capacity of .idney tubule, hence glucose overflows into the urine and passes out of the body. U]68]S(1 { D L { [ q S)[ K 2 % " KL U4 b9 , S M _ pS KL U b " 1!. "tate the risk factors of diabetes? M U ] " ? Type I> 8ereditary factors I > Type II> Ageing, Bnhealthy lifestyles> obesity, insufficient e ercise II > i/45SF: +\{ 1#. "tate the treatment of diabetes? M f U ] S ? Type I> 9egular in6ections of insulin I > N/ Type II> ;ow carbohydrate diet and regular e ercise, drugs ta.en orally for lowering blood glucose level II > nQ \\ U ] (U) 1$. )o' can 'e prevent diseases? B 3 ] ? 1. 7y vaccination and immuni0aton program guHO/uO 2. Adopt a healthy lifestyle. :45SF 3. $aintain a healthy community Fc45 1&. What is immuni4ation? u O ?

123

Weakened %living, treated by heating) or killed microorganisms are inoculated to the client to produce immune response. eg. +olio %living), cholera %dead).

OX(S( a(wx)"

))wxi"??uSVWL()

1(. Explain ho' immuni4ation contributes to disease prevention. u O Wu& ] " If the ma6ority of people are immuni0ed, infectious diseases will not spread easily in the community. The health and lives of individuals and the community are protected. SR2'&OuH/S]-DHFcSbqFc4 ?" 1*. What is communit health? F c45 ? The protection and improvement of health of the whole community. ?PqFc45" 1+. What ma2or activities does communit health contain? F c45 = P ? 1. !creening for infections or diseases 2. #iseases surveillance ] 3. +romotion of health education 745 2.. "tate some examples of health lifest les. M6 45 S FVl" %oAs "
7alanced diets

%onAts "
#o not smo.e

- ercise regularly

T
#o not abuse alcohol

-nough sleep and rest

<
#o not abuse drugs

K{JK
Good personal hygiene

q}
9egular body chec. up

N[

12*

Check point (#&) 1. Explain non1specific defence mechanism. 68 } " <on,specific defence mechanisms involve skinB cilia and mucusB gastric 2uiceB tears and salivaB phagoc tes and inflammation. The s.in is a very effective barrier to prevent the entry of pathogens. #amaged s.in area is rapidly sealed off by blood clot. #usts and germ particles breathed in are trapped by mucus on the nasal surfaces and trachea lining. Then, they are carried by cilia to the pharyn and are swallowed. 7acteria in food are .illed by gastric 6uice and digestive en0ymes. The en0ymes in tear and saliva can brea. down the cell walls of certain bacteria on the con6unctiva and in the mouth cavity. 1hen bacteria enter the body, inflammation occurs. $any phagocytes come and ingest the germs. 68}+= \ & \ \ -\ >\ v/ A8 _" &>?S]@[mS);<" 5/];!96S0?;&dNrST" ;/Q x " -Q YF <9 ~" ;&JT[S&A8?SJKv")*x" 2. Explain inflammator response. A 8 " +hagocytosis causes inflammation at the site of infection. The four symptoms of inflammation are s'ellingB reddeningB 'armth and pain. !welling is due to the increase in permeability of blood vessels so that more plasma lea.s out from the blood vessels. 9edness is caused by the dilation of blood vessels so that more blood and thus red blood cells is carried to the inflamed region. 1armth is caused by more blood carrying more heat to the region. The pressure of the surplus tissue fluid on the nerve causes pain.
The hot and swollen region contains many dead bacteria and phagocytes which are .nown as pus. Inflammation results when histamine is released into the wound as a result of in6ury or infection. This causes dilation of blood capillaries from which plasma, containing antibodies, diffuse into the infected tissues. ;ymphocytes %phagocytes) may pass through the capillary walls to the infected area too.

vHRc?AS?Aq]uXYS\ ?(" Y g8pSKOMSRc$K /KRc$?(K"($(K[ -%" YRc&JKx/xvS%Z%["?A=SRc M,c S* S K &[ O R c S -. %v)

122

i~Rc"

12&

!. Explain the term immunit . b u p" The capacity to recogni0e the invasion of foreign materials and to activate cells and cell products to remove these foreign materials with great speed and effectiveness. m"/? +D $D " p" #. Explain the term antibod . b [" A I,shaped molecule synthesi0ed by an animal in response to antigen %foreign substances). Antibodies combine with their appropriate antigens and neutrali0e their action, preventing them form causing harm. ([D@%")6 I EhiS[Bm@S)* S*S*[" $. Explain the term antigen. b @" any chemical molecule present on the surface of pathogens which will stimulate the production of antibodies. &u1]@[|}Q'2lSB[ [f M A" &. Explain the term l mphoc tes b -. " A type of white blood cell, produced by bone marrow which are important in immunity of the body. 6(0 iS*1[ u p" (. 9ame the t'o t pes of specific defence mechanism. Mx 68 } + " 8umoral immune and cell mediated immune response. [uu *. Explain humoral (antibod 1mediated) immune response. [ u " 1. It targets pathogens free in body %e tracellular pathogens) eg. bacteria. *m]#,1[]@[SVW" 2. In response to antigens, the =1cells %have antigen receptors on their surfaces, only bind with specific antigen) will differentiate and proliferate to form a plasma cell clone. @ = (0 |}&@[S6PN@)S7 2QOS 23p6Ox" 3. The plasma cells can produce antibodies. O2[(uhi)"

123

*. The antibodies then attac. the antigen. They combine with them, drill holes, clump them together and neutrali0e to ins produced by microorganisms. [B@SH~9\)*H6\*)*" 2. Antibodies are highly specific for the antigens. [dP8Sm@" &. They also speed up phagocytosis. [BTv" 3. In addition, memor = cells are produced. &r 7 2QOb- = " +. Explain the action of antibodies produced b plasma cells. ( O [" Antibodies are highly specific for the antigens. They combine with them, drill holes, clump them together and neutrali0e to ins produced by microorganisms. They also speed up phagocytosis. [dP8Sm@" [B@SH~9\ )*H6\ **"[BTv" 1.. Explain cell1mediated immune response. u " 1. It targets intracellular pathogens %eg. viruses) and cancer cells. *m]]@[(W])X"
2. In response to infection, /1cells are stimulated to proliferate and produce t'o clones of T,cells. @ / ST 2Q/p0x, T x" 3. Ane is killer / cell and the other is helper / cell. 6,& / S 6, a / " *. Diller T cells kill bod cells that have been invaded by viruses thus preventing the multiplication of the viruses.

& T x;]Sb]0"
2. The other, helper T cell, releases l mphokines to activate phagoc tes to carry out phagocytosis.

6,a T 2-.Dvv]@["
&. $emory T cells are produced, too.

C&r T ;- / " 11. What are the difference bet'een cell1mediated and antibod 1mediated immune responses? [ u u &2
6ntibod 1mediated [u Cell1mediated u
T,cells

Cell recogni4ing antigen 7,cells

@
Drigin of the cell

7
;ymphoid tissue %bone marrow)

T
Thymus gland

"8
Cells formed from proliferation

-.,c (0)
Ane plasma cell clone

J`
Two clone of T,cells

6qOx

xq T x

p0=%E-

124

;unctions of the cells

The plasma cells can produce antibodies. Antibodies then attac. the antigen. They combine with them, drill holes, clump them together and neutrali0e to ins produced by microorganisms.

Diller T,cells .ill body cells which have been invaded by viruses thus preventing the multiplication of the viruses.

& T x;]S b]0"


8elper T,cells release lympho.ines to activate macrophages to .ill the antigens.

O2[(uh )*H6\* *"

i)S[B@S\

a T 2-.Dv x]@["

12. Explain the role of memor cells in immune response. - H u 9" These are lymphocytes produced during the activation of specific defence mechanisms. They greatl amplif the process of plasma cell formation and antibod secretion when the antigen invades the body the second time. *68}+;=% -. S ; k = S*B O / [ S[ $5 " 1!. What are the difference bet'een specific and non1specific immune responses? 68 } + 68 } + &2
"pecific immune responses 9on1specific immune responses

Pf8+
"pecificit P8
It confers immunity against the effect of particular pathogens, %eg. the disease caused by a particular virus).

Pf8+
It gives protection against many types of pathogens. They include mechanical barriers, en0ymes and phagocytosis.

*mQPN]@[up

*B[K]@[ S=>?\ Qv _"

Eecognitio n 8 :emor -8

It involves discrimination between self or non,self molecules

It does not involve discrimination between self or non,self molecules

*B2M/fM2l"
$emory cells are produced so that the second invasion of the same antigen will result in a more rapid, stronger and long,lasting response %secondary response).

*2M/fM2l"
$emory is absent.

X&- "

&- S ; k =SBO/[ S X/(?)"

1#. %istinguish bet'een primar immune respones and secondar immune response. 2 @ ? u / ? u

125

7rimar immune response< @?uX

1&'

It is the response that is evo.ed when an antigen entered into the body for the first time. A few days after the invasion of the antigens %eg. bacteria), the number of 7,cells %and T,cells) greatly increases to combat the antigen. The humoral immune response is being triggered, but it is slow. #uring this time, the person may develop disease symptoms as the antigen has enough time to cause damage to the body.

*]@[T[%?uS@()m[S0 ( T )pDm@S[u;?SSHy=S]M ]S@&=m[-YF" "econdar immune response< ?uX


The memory cells produced in the primary immune response will remain in the circulation for a long time. If the antigen invades again, the number of 7,cells and antibodies will increase rapidly. The response is faster, stronger and longer lasting, producing greater amounts of 7,cells %also T,cells) and antibodies. This is due to the presence of memory cells which can remember the pathogen. This response is called the secondary response.

H@?u&-G16y=S;@kmSB 0 ( T )/[ S u \ X/SK 0 ( T )/[S-B-6]@[S?" 1$. What are the importance of secondar immune response in diseases prevention? ? u &8X 7ecause of the production of memory cells, people can be immuni0ed against certain disease such as polio and measles. -B-6]@[SBHQ]9upSVWL / L | " 1&. "tate the functions of immune s stem. M u X The functions of the immune system are to recogni0e, respond to and eliminate foreign substances entering the body or arising in the body. uB\ mMD)*vDS*T[)H[M " 1(. Explain passive immunit . ; u " It is the passing of the antibodies into an individual in some 'a rather than being produced by the individual himself, eg. antibodies can pass across the placenta from a mother to her foetus, or are passed to the newborn body in the mother@s mil.. It may be acCuired artificially by in6ection of antibodies from other individual. eg. in the treatment of tetanus and diphtheria. +assive immunity is temporary. ;u[(q[M Sb QS[ [SVWg`)[[ S)g" [Bg/b9SVWHiN/Y=";u 8"

1&1

1*. Explain active immunit . w u " Active immunity occurs when an organism produces its o'n antibodies. It is the result of an infection. Ance the body has started to produce antibodies in response to a disease causing agent, it may continue to do so for a long time %memory effect in secondary immune response). It is why most people suffered from diseases such as mumps and measles once. It is possible to induce an individual to produce antibodies even without them suffering diseases. To achieve this, the appropriate antigen must be in6ected in some way. This is the principal of immuni0ation %vaccination). wu_q[M [" *S;[m]Q]@[b [ S* ) W "6y.=%?-)S`A/L|k @" :H SX&]SB?[ S F ; @BS uO%)A'@ " 1+. Explain passive immuni4ation. ; u / " Antibody from infected patients or organisms are inoculated to the client to against the disease agent. eg. tetanus and diphtheria. This will have a fast action. ])`2p:[ShOOSVWiNY" up_" 2.. Explain active immuni4ation. w u / " 1ea.ened %living, treated by heating) or .illed microorganisms are inoculated to the client to produce immune response. eg. +olio %living), cholera %dead). O X %S( ))wx i "??uSVWL%)
a%wx)"

21. Explain the need of a booster dosage in immuni4ation programs? TU u / = S , The first in6ection of vaccine brings about a primary immune response which provides low levels of antibodies and memory 7,cells only. 8owever the antibody level is not sufficient to protect the person from infection. The booster in6ection stimulates the proliferation of memory 7 cells and production of antibodies which stay in the body for a longer period of time. Therefore, further infection is prevented by the artificial acCuired immuni0ation. Ou/@?uS r [ 7,S[nI{D [S,B[ K 7,[Sb p S SB["

1&2

Check point (#() 1. )o' does the character of the living organisms controlled b ? P u (% -ach character is controlled by a pair of genes which occur on the corresponding position of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Pu(6m18D[%" Explain the function of chromosomes and its relation 'ith %96. D [/` 6 %96 " "hromosomes are made of genetic material found inside the nucleus at each cell. They are made of a chemical called #<A %deo yribose nucleic acid). #<A has two strands which are twisted together to form a double heli . D[1qSIAS*( U ("!A),-S b "!A "(xH6z{,-" Explain the function of gene and its relation 'ith %96.. /` 66 %96 " Genes are the basic units of heredity. They are short lengths of #<A on chromosomes. They determine the inherited characters of an organism. S*1D[96y "!A( U )SRN Pu"

2.

!.

#. "tate the name of the chains and its arrangement in %96. M,- %96 T /*vw S " #<A consists of 2 polynucleotide chains %strands) coiled as a double heli . #<A (xK^T-z{" $. %escribe the structure of nucleotideB d 5 ^ " -ach nucleotide consists of a 2," deo yribose sugar which lin.s to a phosphoric acid and to organic base. q^'(6q U6 j / Z TO b-" &. 9ame the four kinds of bases in %96. M %96 Z "
/ pe 7 rimidines thymine J` 9ame cytosine

an

1&3

7urines

adenine `

guanine

(. %escribe the structure of the pol nucleotide chain. d 5K ^ " In each polynucleotide chain, the phosphoric acid and deo yribose sugar alternate with each other forming a bac.bone while the pyrimidines and purines pro6ect to the side of the chain. HK^TS^TjTO U b-6q 0 Sb Z " M" *. )o' do the 2 pol nucleotide chains hold together? x K ^ T Wu TO H6 The 2 chains are held together b complementar pairs of bases %A,T, ",G) bounded by lose hydrogen bonds %2 8 bonds in A,T pairs? 3 in ",G.pair). xT(ZmSZ" Q T S ` H N 6 J ` mSb H N 6 m %` 6 J ` x Q S 6 Q)" +. 6re the t'o pol nucleotide chains identical? x K ^ T 7 The 2 polynucleotide chains are not identical but are complementar B one chain is the reverse of the other and runs in opposite direction %anti,parallel). xK^T#6bS`6 6 %U)" 1.. What are the differences bet'een %96 and E96? %96 E96 &
%96 1. #ouble helical strand !ingle strand E96

z{T
2. #eo yribose sugar

T
9ibose sugar

U
3. Thymine

U
Bracil

J`
*. Accurs only in the nucleus

Accurs in the cytoplasm and nucleus

M1
2. Ane type of #<A

M1A/
3 types of 9<A> m9<A, t9<A, r9<A

&6 #<A

& 9<Am9<A, t9<A, r9<A

1&*

11. %escribe the process %96 replication. d 5 %96 M ? "


1. The two polynucleotide chains of double heli un'ind and separate by brea.ing of hydrogen bonds. -ach polynucleotide chain serves as a template for new #<A synthesis.

z{E Qj 3Sx K^ TSK^T'- #<A e"


2. :ree nucleotides %synthesi0ed in cytoplasm) migrate to the template polynucleotide chains %A pairs with T with 2 8,bonds? " pairs with G with 3 8,bonds) in a complementary relationship.

(^(HA)DEFdK^eS` 6 J ` mSb 6 m"


3. The lined up nucleotides are then 2oined together to form a new polynucleotide chain complementary to the template. %96 pol merase is reCuired for 6oining up the nucleotides.

v-6U^ TUTOSE-66eK^TS?q %96 %"


*. Two new #<A molecules are formed. They are identical to the parent #<A. The new #<A has one ne' pol nucleotide and one old pol nucleotide. ie. #<A replication is semi,conservative.x #<A

E-S*6o #<A 6S #<A &6K^ T6eK^ TS #<A M" 12. Wh is the %96 replication called semi1conservative? %96 M ; M /'o ne' %96 molecules are formed. They are identical to the parent #<A. /he ne' %96 have one ne' pol nucleotide and one old pol nucleotide. i.e. #<A replication is semi, conservative. x #<A E-S*6o #<A 6S #<A &6K^T6 eK^TS #<A M"

Check point (#*) 1. "tate :endelAs first la'. M & 8 6N " @enes exist in pairs and in the formation of gametes, each gene segregate from the other member of the pair and passes into a different gametes so that each gamete has oneB and onl oneB of each kind of gene. DmEFGHS;lE-=Smxq- 2S q l 2 m`6 "

1&2

2. "tate the criteria to select a species for use in genetic experiments. M : 6q F + h "
1. It should have a short generation time, so that results can be observed Cuic.ly.

=S$"
2. It should reproduce se ually, so that variations can be easily observed.

&80SD&Bf"
3. It should produce large numbers of offspring, so that the results can be statistically analy0ed.

r S B& 2 t "
*. It should be small in si0e and therefore easy to handle and able to breed in laboratory conditions.

[ZS1hp/J
2. "ontrasting characters can be easily observed.

"

m8J" !. )o' to find out the genot pe of an organism 'ith an observed dominant phenot pe? 3 ! d& 8P u we must cross the organism of an un.nown genotype with an organism homo0ygous for the recessive character. 1e call this type of cross a test cross. B)66d&z8PuTUNUSNUU" #. Wh are garden peas suitable for genetics studies? F O Garden peas are suitable for genetics studies. This is because they have some contrasting and easily recogni0able characteristics, eg tall and short stems. *&ePuSW" $. )o' 'ould ou assure the stigma of one pea plant onl receive the pollens of another pea plant (cross pollination)? Wu 6 r O_ 6 (f ) ? :irst of all, remove the stamen before the flower is mature. Then, by using a small brush, transfer the pollens from another flower to the stigma of this flower. At last, wrap the flower by a plastic bag to prevent pollination from other flowers. OISH - S ( & H r9 9 6 " S F = Q < SD k " &. )o' 'ould ou assure self pollination. Wu ? 1rap the flower with a plastic bag before it is mature to assure self pollination. H - F = Q < SD "

1&&

(. "tate :endelGs second la'. M&8N" The distribution of each pair of genes is independent of the distribution of any other pair. 6m_q-'BD6 6m & u6 (," *. Explain sex determination in human beings. Wu R N 8" -very body cell of a human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes of which one pair, .nown as the se chromosomes. is very important in the determination of se . All egg cells carry a N chromosome. 1hen a sperm carries a N chromosome is fertili0ed with an egg, a 0ygote with 2 N chromosomes will be formed which will develop to a female. 1hen a sperm carries a I chromosome is fertili0ed with an egg, a 0ygote with one N chromosome and one I chromosome will be formed which will develop to a male. q['& 23 mD[S`6m8D[Sm8RN" lHN& & D[S;6& & D[l6lSE-6qI&x & D[lSl?-6q8" ;6& ' D[l6lS E-6qI&6 & 6 ' D[lSl?-6q8" +. Explain the probabilit of having a bo and a girl is e3ual. + _" !ince the number of N,bearing sperms and I,bearing sperms are eCual, and the fusion of the gametes is random, therefore the chance of having a boy or girl child is the same %2'() (1& & D[l6& ' D[l_S=l +S)+ ()*" 1.. What is meant b multiple alleles? u V M _ The condition in which three or more different forms of a gene %alleles) that produce different phenotypes of a certain character occur at the same loci of a chromosome. Mq)D9EFSHQ6PuB K | S_ '1D[" 11. What is meant b sex linkage? u V 8 T ? !e lin.age is the inheritance of a particular trait associated with the inheritance of se , which is caused by the location of genes on se chromosomes %usually N chromosomes). QPu8&S(1Pu18D[%P N D[)b "

1&3

12. Explain the cause of colour blindness. D ] " #efect occurs on the gene which control the formation of cone cells. There is reduced number of or some defect in one or more of the three types of cone cells. As it is a .ind se ,lin.ed inheritance, most patients are male. ]dESD`6)d{)&B" N D[8TSD8K" 1!. What is discontinuous variation? T ) f The characters of individuals are very definite and clear cut and usually can be grouped into 2 distinct classes with no intermediates between them. q[PuSPB2X&x," 1#. What is continuous variation? T ) f The characters of individuals are not Cuite clear cut and cannot be grouped into distinct alternate classes. q[PuJ2SPu6C 6 " 1$. What are the causes of genetic variation? f- )eredit :
1. Independent assortment of chromosomes at meiosis many different combination of gametes.

D[H23=C2l'&6_"
2. 9andom fertili0ation of gametes.

l+"
3. $utation> sudden and inheritable change of the gene.

X?H8Q" Environment }:
If one of the identical twins is brought up in a well,nourished environment while the other in a poorly, nourished environment, the former will be heavier than his twin.

Sz`6qq[HK{}.Sb 6q " H e } .S " 1&. What is mutation? u V ? !udden and inheritable change of the gene. ?H8Q"

1&4

Check point (#+) 1. >n 'hat form does %96 carr genetic information. %96 DEF It carries genetic information in the form of specific nucleotide base se3uence. *DPNZvSaG" 2. )o' is code 'ord represented? D EF| -ach code word is represented by ! successive nucleotide bases which specifying a particular amino acid. q'(qT)jZ%,-SqZE-6q[S lSql'6q " !. )o' does the se3uence of cord 'ords affect the protein structure? S Wu $% hiA The seCuence of code words determines the se3uence of amino acids incorporated into a polypeptide chain or protein. gRNK T v S " R NhiA " #. )o' does %96 determine an organismGs characteristics? %96 Wu R N6q8 7henot pe of organisms depends on t pes of protein present. e.g. en0ymes. = determining 'hich en4 mes are produced, the #<A can determine an organismFs characteristics. q[|R1uhiA%VW)GH" R2Q-'q% hiA)v6S RN B R N6qP u . $. Explain the necessit of a triplet code in coding for amino acids. q =q [ There are 6ust twenty amino acids in proteins, and each must have its own cord of base on the #<A. A triplet code of bases produces si ty,four codes, more than enough to satisfy the reCuirements of twenty amino acids. This is called the triplet code. hiA( 2' ,-S ' H #<A &*S[%qZ 3 )B &* %* ) S{ 2' b & & S ["

1&5

&. Explain 'h some codes must be degenerate. & q 4 " As there is &* triplet codes for 2' amino acids, some codes must be degenerate. i.e. more than one codon specify one amino acid. & &* ql 2' q S& q 4 SK16q l6q " (. What is meant b genetic code is commaless? X & <o nucleotide base to separate the codons X&Z2l" *. "tate the name of the code that do not code for an amino acid and give its function & l # & u M*" S W !ome codes do not code for any amino acid, they are called nonsense code. These codes are signals for the termination of polypeptide chain.&l#&u S*;IOlS*K - " +. %istinguish bet'een codon and anticodon. 2 l 6 l" "odon is a three bases seCuence %triplet) on the m9<A and specifies for one amino acid. Anticodon is also a triplet but on t9<A. The seCuence on codon is complementary to the corresponding anticodon. l1 m9<A [S*6q " l[S1 t9<ASlvSmlvS-" Check point ($.) 1.. Wh is the %96 replication called semi1conservative? %96 M ; M /'o ne' %96 molecules are formed. They are identical to the parent #<A. /he ne' %96 have one ne' pol nucleotide and one old pol nucleotide. i.e. #<A replication is semi, conservative. x #<A E-S*6o #<A 6S #<A &6K^T6 eK^TS #<A M" 11. Explain the term transcription. b C " It is the process by which the genetic message is transcribed into the form of 9<A %m9<A). )CH 9<A %m9<A) ?"

13'

12. %escribe the process transcription. d5C?" The double helix of %96 molecule un'ind. The appropriate part of the #<A %gene) serves as template for formation of m9<A. +airing of nucleotides occur, adenine to uracil, cytosine to guanine. 1hen all complementary 9<A nucleotides have paired with the free #<A bases 'ith the aid of the en4 me E96 pol meraseB they become 2oined together to form a strand of mE96. The m9<A leaves the nucleus through nuclear pores. In the cytoplasm it is attached to the ribosome. Qy #<A z{%vl)" M"Z%F)- m9<A e" Zm?S` 6 mS 6 m" 9<A %*? #<A S6q 9<A ^ #<A R2S9<A ^ TOH6E-6 9<A" m9<A 2lIS-DP<S qSbVHAU[" 1!. Explain the term translation. b C v " It is the process by which genetic message is decoded on the ribosome where mE96 is used as a template directing the specific amino acid se3uence during protein synthesis. Cv)1 #<A S m9<A e_ v-PN v S D hiA" 1#. %escribe the process translation. d5Cv?" #uring translation, a group of ribosomes becomes attached to the mE96 to form polysome. The complementar anticodon of a tE961amino acid complex is attracted to the first codon on the mE96. The second codon li.ewise attracts its complementary anticodon. /he ribosome act as binding site for the amino acids. Dnce the have combined b forming peptide bondsB the ribosome 'ill move along the mE96 to hold the next codon1anticodon complex together until the third amino acid is lin.ed with the second. In this way a pol peptide chain is assembled b the addition of one amino acid at a time. The free t9<A is released bac. into the cytoplasm to pic. up other amino acid. This up ta.e of amino acid reCuires energy from AT+. Cv=S6U[6 m9<A -6KU[" t9<A M [ l; m9<A 86ql9" 8ql*l"" U[ O Sxq E Q S*6 S U [ * m9<A S6qllM[Sh8q 6 8 q " " p6q SB 6 K T "

131

1$. %escribe ho' the information carried on %96 is used in protein s nthesis 1 %96 Wu1hiA " #<A carries genetic information in the form of specific nucleotide base se3uence. Then the description of the process transcription E translation. !ee Cuestion 12 and 1*. #<A DPZvS"S0?C/Cv?Sv 12 / 1*" 1&. %escribe the structure of tE96. d 5 tE96 "
It is a single stranded polynucleotide chain twisted to form a heli by formation of 8,bonds between complementary <,bases transcribed from #<A.

*6 #<A Cb"K^TS*-6q{S`E(TZ D Q T " " 1(. %istinguish bet'een the function of mE96 and tE96. 2 mE96 tE96 " The function of mE96 is to cop the message from %96 and carries it from the nucleus into the cytoplasm where it directs the assembl of a protein The function of tE96 is to deliver its corresponding amino acid to the mE96 where amino acids are assembled to form the protein m9<A ) #<A "SH)AS_ v-PNvSD-hiA" q t9<A '6qPN SHhiA-=St9<A ) @ m m9<A" 1*. "tate the t'o t pes of chromosome aberration. M D [x " "hange in number of chromosome per cell. D[9" "hanges in gross structure of a chromosomes. D[9" 1+. /here are t'o t pes of changes in number of chromosomeB name it. Mx 1 D [ "hanges involve the entire set of chromosomes. %polyploidy) D[9%K[) "hanges involve the addition or loss of one chromosome p)6D[

132

2.. Explain trisomic and name one disease resulted from it. D6 ] V[8" An individual having one e tra chromosome. -g. $ongolism =#ownFs syndrome q[p6D[SVW{%@)" 21. Explain the cause of trisomic. [8-" <on,dis6unction. 2" 22. Explain the term non1dis2unction. 2 " The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate at anaphase I of meiosis. i.e. !ome gametes get 2 copies of a chromosome, other get none. 8D[H23 I 2S&l&xD[S&6X&" 2!. )o' to identif trisomic (%o'nGs s ndrome)? Wu [8 ( { ) Identified in .aryotype %nuclear division) 7y inspecting the appearance of the chromosome at metaphase, including comparative si0e, shape and morphology of different chromosome. {B1E%23=)SH23=D[S= D[E" 2#. 9ame the # t pes of changes in gross structure of the chromosomes. M D [9 " #eletion, #uplication, Translocation, Inversion. \M\/s" 2$. %escribe the mutation that is at %96 level. d 5H %96 y}9 C ( )" :utation takes place in gene. %gene mutation) 9esult of a change in the nucleotide se3uence of the %96 molecule. It involves changes in the seCuence of nucleotide and the order of amino acids in polypeptide is altered. The molecular shape of proteins is therefore affected and this results in changes of the phenotype of an organism. H?S( #<A 2l^vS%SBDZ M\.\\s/" ^vS%)HK v S HhiA2lEH|

133

2&. @ive one example of gene mutation and its cause. M6qVl/`-" !ic.le cell anaemia "aused by replacement of a nucleotide of one of the genes that controls the production of normal haemoglobin. Vl 8 ( hi6q ^ ; : % " -" 2(. Explain 'h disadvantageous genes are able to pass from generation 'ithout being eliminated b natural selection. F P J ; !ic.le shaped red blood cells are destroyed more rapidly %short life span) and cause anaemia. 8owever, disadvantage genes may have beneficial effects. Gene for sic.le cell anaemia is bad but it ma.es the carriers more resistant to malaria. +lasmodium, cannot easily invade sic.le cells. :urther more, most disadvantageous genes are recessive. They ma.e no phenotypic differences for natural selection. They have to be double recessive for e pression #SSSHQSB&S8 HFS*BmS@|Jm " k SR2 F '8SHNS6|IfSHHS FPJ;" 2*. "tate the causes of mutation. M -" 1. "pontaneous mutation > $utation occurs in nature without any .nown cause. !uch mutation occurs at a very low rate. H H?S@S?" 2. >nduced mutation > Induced artificially by mutagens. ? B,"?" 2+. @ive some examples of mutagens. M6 , Vl" (a) Ioni0ing radiation> N,rays, protons, neutrons, O,P,Qrays. / X VW N,/^\Al\l\O\P\Q _/^" (b) "hemical mutagens> nitrous acid, base analogues, formaldehyde, mustard gas. Q ' , X VW6\Z\ l " !.. Explain 'h ioni4ing radiation can cause mutation. Vl / B " These radiations produce ions b colliding 'ith atoms and releasing electron from stable molecules. Thus making the organic base less stableB ma be replaced b other improper

13*

basesB causing mutation. The greater the dosage, the greater the mutation rate. _/N2l@lS lMlS B Z NS*B;` 2 ;Z:Sb",rBSB" !1. Explain the role of mutation in evolution and speciation. H E- :utation results in variations 'hich confer different survival values to organisms 'hich are then sub2ect to natural selection. The most significant .inds of mutation are most li.ely those adding ne' genes or chromosomes. /he promote evolutionar change and ma result in the formation of ne' species. fS&FpDS&P) D[S*TQ/E-" Check point ($1) 1. Explain the term genetic engineering. b s ? " In genetic engineering, one gene or most commonly, a set of genes is ta.en out of the #<A of one organism and inserted into the #<A of another organism. It produces genetic products what human need. It modifies or creates new species. s?)6q)6,Q #<A p:M"S)*. 6 #<A S* % q +S) + " 2. Dutline the recombinant %96 technolog (transgenic technolog ). + 5 %96 , B (C B )" 1. Abtaining #<A fragments of degsired gene. 9:gy Abtain #<A fragments from blood, saliva, semen and bones, etc. \\0_9: #<A gy" "utting out the #<A of the desired gene. 3M #<A 2. The desired gene is cut into small sections by using restriction en0ymes % restriction endonucleases). These en0ymes are used to cut #<A between specific base seCuences which the en0yme recogni0es. %8))-yS_ B PN Z v S S H H_NR) #<A -y" 3. Inserting the gene into a vector. .[" The plasmids in bacteria are often used as vectors. The plasmid is also cut open by restriction en0ymes first. The recombination of genes is carried out with the aid of the en0yme #<A

132

ligase. A]=[SA]I S A] TOq #<A T O \ " *. Insertion of the vector into a host cell. )[w" The vector %recombinant plasmid) carrying the desired gene is inserted into a host cell which allows the vector #<A to replicate. The host cell can be a bacterium, a yeast cell or a mammalian cell. They treat the foreign #<A as its own. &[%,A])wSwBD\s\) S*)M" !. What is remombinant %96 , %96 ? It is the #<A that results from the combination of #<A fragments from two different cells or organisms. , #<A _")q[ #<A TU,%E- #<A" #. Expain the meaning of clone. b M (x )"
A clone is a group of genetically identical individuals %or cells) derived from the ase ual reproduction of a common ancestral cell. 1e can obtain a clone of cells by cell culture.

%x)6,96%))S*6II80b"S Bg9:6q%x)" $. Explain the use of electrophoresis in genetic engineering. Wu 1 s ? 9" -lectrophoresis can be used to separate the #<A or 9<A fragments from one another according to their si0es. As #<A or 9<A molecules contain many phosphate groups, they are highly negatively charged. These fragments are attracted to the anode. They pass through a gel at a rate that is inversely proportional to their si0e. Thus this method can be used to separate different #<A or 9<A into bands. B #<A / 9<A gy" *2S #<A / 9<A I&JKj,S &JK Sgy;SL6y>FSb$6*[Z -SB) #<A / 9<A gy2SH>F9E-" &. What is %96 fingerprinting? %96 _ 2 t ? It is a techniCues involved the use of #<A analyses to identify individuals. P6 #<A 2t"NB"

13&

133

(. What is the principle of electrophoresis? 5 @ " It ma.es use of an electric field to attract #<A fragments to the positive terminal. #<A fragments move at speeds that depend on their si0e. S #<A gyS#<A gy$:R1*" *. "tate the applications of genetic fingerprinting. M6 _ " To provide evidence to the court in forensic science. HA'9" To identify victims in disasters. N-x" To establish family relationships in parentage tests. HolNo" +. What is human genome pro2ect? ,
The 8uman Genome +ro6ect %8G+) is an international collaborative research effort, which aims to identify and locate all human genes, and to determine the complete nucleotide seCuence of human #<A.

,68OSHNN%&HD[9 S/ #<A ^vwvS" 1.. "tate the goals of human genome pro2ect. M , "
1. Identify all the appro imately 3',''' genes in human #<A.

w #<A %&% 3',''' q)" 2. #etermine the seCuences of the 3 billion base pairs that ma.e up human #<A. M,- #<A mZvS" 3. !tore this information in databases. Ha[" *. 8elp researchers pinpoint specific genes on our chromosomes. This could help curing genetic diseases li.e haemophilia. The .nowledge will provide new strategies to diagnose, treat, and possibly prevent human diseases. RMQHD[9Sb\f]_]Sj\g ]" 2. Address the ethical, legal, and social issues %-;!I) that may arise from the pro6ect. O,%"! \/F

134

11. What are the contributions of the data obtained from the )@7? , H & ? 1. 7etter understanding of genetics. \m' " 2. Improved diagnose and treatment of diseases. P]jgS" 3. 7etter understanding of evolution. \mTQ "
12. What are the limitations of the )@7 data?

, H & ? The genetic data obtained may still not be enough to understand all biological processes. %HG{D %&?" They have raised ethical, legal and social issues. H!\ \F" Check point ($2)
1. What is the origin of life? M# 8 " It is belived that life is evolved from inorganic matters li.e ammonia, methane, water vapour and hydrogen. In ancient atmosphere, there was freCuent lightning and strong ultraviolet radiation. These supply energy for the reactions among the above inorganic matters to form simple organic molecules li.e amino acids and organic acids. The organic molecules then 6oined to form the first organism.

A'#I+W \ \ n _ b " " H q & / XS*rD9I+?Q'S W /` 2 & + _4 &+A"&+-@" 2. Explain %ar'inGs theor of evolution. & TQ!" 1. Existence of variation GHf
#ifferent individuals of a species show considerable variation, such that some individuals are better adapted to the environment than others.

q[K&efSefQ`2F}" 2. "truggle for existence G


Arganisms generally produce more offspring than the environment can support. This leads to overcrowding, resulting in .een competition between individuals.

P K1 } % S Sq[ M R 8 "
!. 9atural selection The environment e erts a weeding,out effect, so that the poorly adapted organisms perish before they reach se ual maturity.

}XF"
#. "urvival of the fittest FG

135

Individuals with favourable variations will stand a better chance of survival. As a result well adapted individuals reach reproductive age and hand on their favourable characteristics to their offspring whereas less well adapted individuals fail to do so.

&fJGSF}BS)8 6Sbq[;" !. @ive evidence of evolution from fossil records. MTQ!Q @ H " It is found that the top la ers of rock strata sho' complex fossils in the order of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes as we go downwards, while the lower %older) layers show fossils belonging to invertebrates. This shows that simple organisms gradually evolved to comple organism. The fossil records sometimes show extinct forms intermediate bet'een t'o presentl living t pes. :or e ample, Archaeoptery was an e tinct bird that had teeth and a long tail %character of reptiles) and also had feathers %character of birds). This proved that the birds had evolved from the reptiles. @y|}d?S%Q@M6q(9bS \ \ U \ x \ " 2y%i)Q@KInYSMMN4TQb" Q@&=BGSVW6 Q@S6 wS & ;< /.t %UPu)S&&%Pu)SB UTQb"" #. What are the limitations of using fossil record as evidence for evolution? Q @ TQ H & 8 ? There are missing lin.s in the fossil record. Q@GH}" !oft,bodied orgaisms cannot be fossili0ed. (A,c-@Q" !ome fossils are located in inaccessible areas. &Q@1-DORc" $. @ive evidence of evolution from comparative anatom . MTQ! ' H " If different animals have started with the same ancestor, subseCuent generations should show slight modification of the basic anatomical plan. They should have homologous structures. )aving homologous structures (the presence of pentadactyl limb) in no'ada s organisms showing adaptations to different environmental conditions and mode of life suggests the existence of divergent evolution. S'6Ib"S [ S ['IJS & 8 " G&F}/SF8%)fQH" &. @ive evidence of evolution from genetic similarities.

14'

MTQ! A 8 H " The more similar the base seCuence of #<A, the closer the evolutionary relationship of the organisms. eg. 54( base seCuence of human is the same as that of chimpan0ees, but only 4'( of rabbits. 8uman therefore have a closer evolutionary relationship with chimpan0ees than rabbit. xZSwBS*TQB" VW>ZSw0& 54( S0l"& 4'(S6TQ6l" Check point ($!) 1. Explain the mechanism of evolution. TQ + " -volution is due to the combined effect of variation and natural selection. TQ(f/6%-"
1. There is always variation among individuals in a population.

q[Gf"
2. !ome favourable variations ma.e an individual more li.ely to survive and reproduce than other individuals.

&fBpq[G/06+"
3. The environment e erts a weeding,out effect, so that the poorly adapted organisms perish before they reach se ual maturity.

}XF"
*. Those variant traits that enhance survival will be found in an increasing succeeding generation.

P&GPuH6B"BK"
2. Aver many generations, the action of natural selection leads to the evolution of new species.

JKSHTQ" 2. Explain the role of variation in evolution fHTQ9" Genetic variation ensures that all populations contain a range of phenotypes. Anly some phenotypes of each generation will be well enough adapted to survive in the immediate environment. These phenotypes will breed and pass on their genes to the ne t generation. ;ess well adapted phenotypes will not be able to survive the competition for food and space, they will not breed and their genes will be lost when they die. 8owever, if there is a change in the environment there is a chance that some of the adaptations which were ill,fitted to the first environment will be advantageous in the new environment, and now these phenotypes will survive to breed and pass on their genes. The e istence of variation increases the chances of a species surviving environmental change. fq'G&6q>|S&Q|{ DG1 =}S|BUS)*6" |H/%SGUS*?* xYb" S}&%SQIBH}&S|

141

BG/0S)*6S G" !.

G&f&6q+HC}

Explain the cause of variation. f-" (1) %ue to sexual reproduction< #uring se ual reproduction there can be innumerable combinations of genes from the two parents, resulting in a large number of variations among the offsprings. 1hen genes are lin.ed, crossing over can lead to new combinations of the genes, giving new varieties in the offsprings. &8 0 H&80Sq:6D[SD[C2S9 BD&I,SMrf";T=SaB ,S"-" (2) %ue to mutation What is meant b natural selection? It means that those organisms that are best adapted to their environment are most successful in reproducing offsprings. *TQwpSE?F} " Explain the process speciation. E- ? " !peciation is a process of forming ne' species from one or more species. It occurs as a result of barriers leading to reproductive isolation bet'een members of the population. This would stop gene flo' bet'een populations. Then, their gene pools can change independentl through natural selection. E-&+E-+?SQ>?b"-0S HUSBgbCC" Explain the isolation mechanism in speciation. E- = + "
Isolation mechanisms can be defined as any factors that decrease the amount of interbreeding between groups of organisms. If they are isolated, they will evolve independently so that after some time, they will diverge from each other so much that they can no longer breed with each other.

#.

$.

&.

+BNO&uB[USS[S*CTQS Q=S[fSD*kU"

142

(.

@ive examples of isolation mechanisms. M + qVl" 1. @eographical isolation< eg. mountain ranges, rivers and oceans. R VW$\_">?6+}" 2. Eeproductive isolation> Accasionally a mutation arises which ma.es the individual possessing it incapable of breeding with the companion. 0 &=&?&U" 3. =ehavioral isolation> Two species are prevented from interbreeding because they have different behaviour. U xq+&Ub;U" %escribe ho' evolutionar theor is supported b selective breeding. WuD " TQ" :an selected the animal or plant with Cualities he desired to breed. This acts as the natural selection stated in evolutionary theory. As a result, genot pe 'ith desired phenot pes can survive 'hile those not cannot. After a period of time, the gene pool of the species change S22+"SU6TQ!%/ SM{|BGb"S6y= S+"

*.

Check point ($#) 1. 9ame the three parts of the kidne . M q w R2" 1. "orte , outer region R + y 2 $edulla , dar.er inner region R + \Dy 3. +elvis , whitish central region + iDR 2. What is the name of the smallest unit that made up kidne ? ,- ? nephron k !. What structure does nephron start 'ith? k ? -ach nephron starts with the cup,shaped 7owmanFs capsule. E{"

143

#. 9ame the tubes that =o'manAs capsule connected to? M { % TO " tubule $. %escribe and explain the feature of tubule. d 5 P u " The tubule is highly coiled to increase surface area and time for more reabsorption. {Dpk_|}Z=" &. What vessel enters =o'manAs capsule and 'hat is its appearance inside =o'manAs capsule? T { S*H Wu ? A tiny artery %afferent arteriole) enters the 7owmanFs capsule, inside, it divides into a dense networ. of capillaries, the glomerulus. 6()T{SHb2{iJ|" (. What change occurs on the capillaries 'hen it leaves the glomerulus? ;i { & C ? The capillaries from glomerulus 6oin up again to form efferent arteriole. ik%H6E-M" *. What 'ill be the fate of the efferent arteriole? M #Wu ? The efferent arteriole brea.s up into capillaries which envelop the tubule and 6oin up to a tiny vein. M2{=>?iJ|Si6/" +. %ra' a flo' chart to sho' the ducts leading from =o'manAs capsule to bladder. 6 ? D { ! " 7owman@s capsuleHtubuleHcollecting ductHpelvisHureterHbladder {(q)`[" 1.. %ra' a flo' chart to sho' the blood vessels leading from afferent arteriole to renal vein. 6 ? D / "
Afferent arterioleHglomerulusHefferent arterioleHcapillaries surround the tubuleHveinHrenal vein (iJ|) M>iJ|//

11. What is meant b ultrafiltration? ? :iltration under pressure, 7owmanFs capsule acts li.e a filter, 2'( of plasma is force from the capillaries into the capsular space. H-p"{6qLS2)*O;iTS

14*

E-" 12. )o' to attain high blood pressure at glomerulus? Wu - ? Afferent arteriole has a larger diameter than efferent arteriole M" 1!. What is the featureof nephron to aid ultrafiltration? k H9& P S \ ? -fferent arteriole is smaller than afferent arteriole lead to high blood pressure, plasma is forced to pass through the capillary wall and capsular wall. The wall of 7owmanFs capsule and capillary is thin which allow material to pass through them easily. MSHE-[/-SOPi ~{~ST{" i/{~a(6y)/dg8S2lJBP" 1#. >s there an blood cells in glomerular filtrateB 'h ? & X &S ? <o blood cells and proteins because they are too large to pass through. IhiS2Ii~" 1$. What happens to the filtrate 'hen it passes do'n the tubule? ; = & > ? ? 1hen the filtrate passes down the tubule, useful substances %water, glucose, amino acids, salts) are reabsorbed into the blood capillaries. &A(n\KLU\ \ _);Ti" 1&. What substances 'ill not be reabsorbed? A; _ ? Brea. " 1(. )o' can the useful substances be absorbed completel 'hen it is in lo' concentration? &AH 4 Wu; _ ? 9eabsorption of useful substances occurs by active transport against the concentration gradient. &A_/w["m4t" 1*. Can glucose be found in urineB 'h ? B 7 H KL U S ? <ormally, no glucose is found in urine due to reabsorption by active transport. PIKLUSw[k_)*"

142

1+. Explain 'h there is a higher concentration of salt and urea in urine 'hen compared 'ith filtrate. 6 S I 4 2" As the fluid passes along the tubule, large amount of water is reabsorbed but urea is not reabsorbed, thus leading to a relatively higher concentration of salt and urea in the collecting duct. ;P=SRn;k_S;_S`& 4" 2.. Compare the component of glomerular filtrate 'ith that of plasma. O -2" The component of glomerular filtrate is Cuite similar to that the plasma, both contain water, amino acids, glucose, urea and minerals, e cept that the former do not have proteins. -26OSx'&n\ \ KL U \ AS X&hiA" 21. Explain one situation 'hich leads to the excretion of glucosein the urine of a health person. H S6q 45 v KL U ? x M6 S # D" After a person eats too much sugary food, the digested sugar will be absorbed into the blood. 1hen the blood glucose level is so high that it e ceeds the absorptive capacityof .idney tubule, glucose is e creted with urine. ;TrIUSQU;_";OKLU4ISD k_pSKLUvM" 22. "tate and explain the concentration of urine 'hen 'e drink al lot of 'ater. M 4 ; Kn = " 1hen we drin. a lot of water > water content in the body is increased, a smaller proportion of water is being reabsorbed, therefore a lot of diluted urine. [npSVn;k_S1 r f " 2!. "tate and explain the concentration of urine 'hen our bod is short of 'ater. M 4 ; [n = " Didney reabsorbs most of the water, small amount of dull yellow concentrated urine. k_RnS&rl4" 2#. Wh is the concentration of urea in pelvis higher than in glomerulus? 4 1 ? It is because the water in the filtrate is reabsorbed. n;_"

14&

2$. Wh is the amountof glucose in blood entering the kidne higher than leaving? KL U4 1 ? It is because in the .idney some glucose is used to provide energy by o idation. H&KLUr" 2&. "tate all the functions of kidne . M %&" 1. Asmoregulation g : 2. 9emoval of e cess salt vDK" 3. - cretion > to remove urea. v- : vD" 2(. %istinguish bet'een excretion and egestion. 2 vv " Excretion > the removal of metabolic wastes from the body. v : vD([ " Egestion > removal of indigested or unabsorbed food substances. v : vDQ);_" 2*. @ive examples of excretor products. x MvVl" They are carbon dio ide, water, urea and bile pigment. * Q \n\ # D " 2+. ;or the excretor products of the above 3uestion (carbon dioxideB 'aterB urea and bile pigment)B state 'here it is formedB and b 'hich process it is formed. 9 %5v ( Q \n\ # D )S2 _ M*Hu / = % / ?" "arbon dio ide is formed in body cells by cellular respiration. Brea is formed in liver by deamination. 7ile pigment is formed in liver when old red blood cell is bro.en down. Q nH = $ = $ H #DH;cd= " !.. 6fter eating a lot of beansB ho' 'ould it affect the urea concentration in urineB explain. r SWu $% vM " 2 r ? W " The urea concentration in urine will increase. 7eans contain a lot of proteins, after digestion it will be converted to amino acids. The e cess amino acids will be deaminated in liver and part of it becomes urea. This will e crete out with urine and ma.e the urea concentration increase.

143

vM"2r9,"(1I&rhiAS;hiA S ;Q- S` Kb X &; _ ; 2b S vM r9," !1. Explain ho' does the brain carr out osmoregulation. Z RWuTU g " In the hypothalamus of the brain, there are groups of osmoreceptor cells which are sensitive to the osmotic pressure of blood. 1hen the osmotic pressure of blood increases %eg. when the body is dehydrated), the osmoreceptorswill send impulses to the posterior lobe of the pituitary which will then secrete a hormone called antidiuretic hormone %A#8) into the blood stream. Through the blood, A#8 reaches the collecting duct and increases the permeability of it. $ore water will be reabsorbed from the collecting duct to the loop of 8enle so that the water can be reabsorbed once more at the distal convoluted tubule. 7y this method, more water is retained by the body. 1hen the osmotic pressure of blood decreases %eg. when a large amount of water is drun.), less A#8 will be released from the pituitary so that more water will be e creted from the body. HZRZ&gS2mg-" ;g-9,%VW[n)Sg[Y?MS*2 T" ?S`Sp*mng8SKn`; _T{SnBHqk;_SWS[BKn2" ;g-%Kn)S[YMTSKn 2;vM[" !2. Explain the maintenance of plasma sodium (salt) level. Wu l ( )n " The maintenance of plasma salt level is controlled b the hormone aldosterone secreted from adrenal corte . It alters the salt reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. It stimulates the active uptake of 9aH from the filtrate into the capillaries. l %)n(A2 %S*H q 2_?S* l w [ S ) l T i " !!. What 'ill be the change in blood pressure in severe s'eating? r M m - & $% !evere sweating leads to loss of 'ater and salt from the bod . ;oss of water leads to decrease in plasma volume and thus decrease in arterial blood pressure. rM[nSn2O[ZS-"

144

!#. What events 'ill occur at kidne 'hen the blood pressure decrease? - " :irstly, adrenal cortex produces more aldosterone to increase reabsorption at kidne tubules. !econdly, glomerular filtration rate 'ould decrease to decrease the e cretion of water and sodium. OISA K D p lH_" `S$Dn22v" !$. What happen to the h pothalamic osmoreceptor 'hen there is a loss of 'ater? n2 m Z g L& $% S Z M 8oss of 'ater leads to increase in plasma osmolarit and thus stimulate h pothalamic osmoreceptors to secret antidiuretic hormone (6%)). A#8 leads to an increase in permeabilit to 'ater of collecting duct so that more water is reabsorbed into plasma. n2pOg-SZgL" gL[Y?MS[Yp2Sp n2_"T6Nn2SB-n22" !&. Explain the biological principle of kidne machine. + ' @ " A .idney machine carries out dialysis, a process in which the patientFs blood flows on one side of a thin membrane while a solution, called the dialysate, flows in the opposite direction on the other side. This is a .ind of counter,current flow. It ensures the most efficient e change of material across the membrane. As the membrane is permeable to small molecules such as urea, this waste product will diffuse from the plasma where it is relatively highly concentrated to the dialysate where its concentration is lower. To prevent the loss of useful substances li.e glucose and salts, the dialysateFs composition is the same as that of normal blood. This means that any substance which is in e cess, e.g. salts, will also diffuse out until they are in eCuilibrium with the dialysate. ;arge molecules such as blood proteins are too large to pass through the membrane and there is therefore no ris. of them being lost to the dialysate. A patientFs blood needs to pass through the .idney machine many times to ensure the complete removal of all wastes. Thus, it is necessary for dialysis to ta.e place for up to ten hours every few days. +gtS`? ]H<6Sbgt"H 6 D SSa<ATU&Ua"(1a<BDW _2lgS-[)44gt" KLU_&ASgt-26-2" E?&uAS6;MSh6gt:"hi_2l (1Iba<S%DGH"b"]qP+LSD %&-';vDSTU. 1' ="

145

15'

Check point ($$) 1. Explain the rise in metabolic rate of homoeothermic animal in cold temperature. 3 H 9 , ? The metabolic rate of the homoeothermic animal rises in colder temperature so as to produce more heat to compensate the increased heat loss. This maintains a constant body temperature. H339," K ( " - E SB N[ 3 " What are the responses of the skin to a sudden hot condition? m HC( & 1. /asodilation 2. Increased sweating pM 3. The hairs lie flat on the s.in & What are the responses of the skin to a sudden cold condition? m HC & 1. /asoconstriction _= 2. #ecreased sweating M 3. The hairs are raised & 9ame some 'a s of producing more heat in the bod during cold condition. M6 = [ ( S " 1. In a cold condition, the body has a higher metabolic rate. [" 2. In a sudden cold condition, shivering can produce heat. HC=\^B (r " What are the responses of the bod to prolonged hot condition? [m. A ( & %1) The subcutaneous fat becomes thinner ka" %2) The metabolic rate becomes slower. "

2.

!.

#.

$.

151

&.

What are the responses of the bod to prolonged cold condition? [m. & %1) The subcutaneous fat becomes thic.er. k" %2) The metabolic rate becomes faster. " Explain 'h heat loss from a personAs bod is mainl through s'eating 'hen air temperature is higher than the bod temperature. ;3 1[ 3= S [ (w ?v " ? 1hen the air temperature is higher than the body temperature, our body cannot depend on losing heat by condution, convection and radiation. !weating becomes the main way to lose heat. The evaporation of sweat can carry body heat away. (13[S%D[\ m/_S(S1(wL]"n? [9(" Explain the s'eating rate during vigorous exercise. ^X = " #uring vigorous e ercise, the sweating rate is higher than that of at rest. It is because our body will produce a lot of heat during e ercise. This increases the body temperature. Thus our body increase sweating rate to get rid of this e tra heat. TU^X=S $ = " = [ r( S [9,S1[ " " Explain the rate of urine production during vigorous exercise. ^X = " #uring vigorous e ercise, our body will lose a lot of water through sweating. The water potential of the blood drops. The nephron will reabsorb a greater proportion of water from the glomerular filtrate? therefore decrease the rate of urine production. TU^X=S[vbrn2SnbS _Vn2S"

(.

*.

+.

1.. Explain 'h the face becomes red 'hen doing vigorous exercise. ^X = R C " #uring vigorous e ercise, our body produces a lot of heat. The arterioles of the s.in e pand so that more blood together with heat will flow to the s.in surface. 8eat lose to the surrounding and thus our face turns red. =S[ r( S%D S K d S ( bS D"

152

11. What is the importance of reddening of the face during vigorous exercise? ^X = R C &8 ? The arterioles e pand will promote heat lose from the body. It .eeps the body temperature constant. Thus en0ymes can function at the optimum temperature. T[(S[HNnS BH ? " 12. What kind of 'eather 'ill have a high risk of heatstroke? uJH? 8igh air temperatue with high humidity and low wind speed. 99/$" 1!. Explain the effect of high air temperature and high humidit on man. 36 9 m $% " If the air temperature and the relative humidity is very high, the life of a person will be endangered. The evaporation of water from the sweat become very slow and heat could not be lost from the body. As a result, the body temperature increased leading to the increase in the rate of metabolism. The increased in metabolic rate caused the increase of the body temperature further until it became so high that disturbed the normal functioning%denature the en0ymes) of the body and endangered the life of the person. ;369=S#S?S([ S[39,9,S9,[3T6N9,Sh[3Y F[([ 8 )S#" 1#. Explain the role of h pothalamus in temperature regulation. Z H " In the hypothalamus are two thermoregulator centres, the heat loss centre and the heat gain centre. Z&xq3{S({p({" The hypothalamus can detect the body temperature through two ways> ZBgDxqSw("
1. Increased in s.in temperature due to high external temperature is detected by skin thermoreceptors. The information will be carried by nerve fibers to the thermoregulatory centres.

3p3,S(3LwS(@ {"
2. Increased in core temperature %blood temperature) due to e ercise is detected by thermoreceptors in the h pothalamus.

%[3(3),(Z3Lw"
After receiving the information, the hypothalamus will ma.e the corrective mechanism.

_SZ?M_"

153

Check point ($&) 1. Which organ controls breathing. L % 7reathing is controlled by respirator centre on the medulla of the brain. [Z({)" 2. ;rom 'here does respirator centre receive the needed information? u 9 % q [ ? 1. "hemoreceptors in the respiratory centre> detect changes in the carbon dio ide content and o ygen content in blood. Q'L>w Q I r Q" 2. "hemoreceptors in the aortic and carotid bodies> detect changes in the carbon dio ide content and o ygen content in blood. The aortic bodies are some parts of the aorta wall. The carotid bodies are some parts of the carotid arteries which supply blood to the nec.. w[1[Q'L>w Q I r Q" w [1 ~9S1[11~9S1) d 1 R" 3. !tretch receptors in the lungs> they are stimulated %and send out impulses) when lungs inflate.
=L>==SS?M"

!. )o' does respirator centre initiate inhalation and exhalation ? Wu ? ? The respiratory centre sends nerve impulses to the intercostal muscles and diaphragm muscles to trigger inhalation. 1hen no impulse sent to the respiratory muscles, e halation occurs. ?Mt~<tuS?S;!?MS ?" #. )o' does respirator centre control the basic rh thm of breathing ? Wu ? The feedbac. mechanisms between the respiratory centre and the stretch receptors in the lungs control the basic rhythm of breathing. :H"=L"" $. Which factor in blood affects breathing rate? $% ? 7oth rate and depth of breathing is affected by the carbon dio ide concentration in blood. $\ Q 4 % $% " The respiratory centre does not respond directly to change in carbon dio ide content in blood, rather, it responds to change in p8 of blood. #hO Q 4 % Z $% " S "

15*

&. What is the effect of change in CD2 and ox gen concentration on rate of breathing? Q 4 4 m & $% Increase in carbon dio ide concentration will lead to a decrease in p8 of blood. This will lead to increase in rate and depth of breathing. p Q 4 p$ S$\p" #ecrease in o ygen concentration will lead to a less obvious increase in rate and depth of breathing. 4 $ \ p S / Q p = " (. Explain in detail the mechanism of increase of respirator rate b increasing the concentration of CD2. p Q 4 Wu p Increase in "A2 and decrease in o ygen are detected by chemoreceptors M the aortic and carotid bodies in the walls of ma6or arteries. These chemoreceptors are sensitive to minute changes in p8. 1hen p8 decreases, nerve impulses from these chemoreceptors are sent to the respiratory center. Q p (Q ' L% w S*1 w ~w[/1[S_Q'Lmi p$ CS; p$ =SQ'L?MS@" After processing, the respiratory centre sends more nerve impulses to the respiratory muscles to cause them to contract faster and stronger. This increases both the rate and depth of breathing. $ore carbon dio ide is removed from blood at a higher rate. S?MKtuS*_=/&pS $\pSbRv Q " *. What mechanism makes the heart beat? +{ )eart beat is m ogenic> i.e. the muscle has an inherent capacity for beating. {t@8Stu&_= +. Which node initiates the contraction of the heart? ? { The contraction is initiated at a point, the sinoatrial node %!A node), at the right auricle near the entrance of the superior vena cava. {816H,c9f{toS*1U{o%{l)~O 9/T{oR" 1.. )o' does the "6 node initiate the beating of the auricles? o Wu ? { o _ = As the sinoatrial node initiates the beating, it is also .nown as a pace ma.er. It sends out rh thmical 'aves of electrical excitation to both auricles, stimulating them to beat regularly. oRN{$SS*@M8()xq{oS *H6=_="

152

11. )o' does the 'ave of excitation from "6 node initiate the contraction of ventricles? o b " Wu ? { p _ = The wave of e citation from "6 node then reaches a similar group of cells kno'n as the atrioventricular node %A/ node) '.1 second later which lies between the two auricles. /o allo' blood to be forced up'ards into the arteriesB the ventricles need to contract from the ape upwards. To achieve this, ne' 'aveof excitation from the 6? node is conducted along 7urkin2e fibres which lead along the septum to the ape of the ventricles from where they radiate upwards. /he 'ave of excitation travels along these fibres and causes muscle contraction starting at the ape . ().1 )6opSop1xq{o" 97S*TS{pH29_=S-q?S" opH*?,-{{S*?{p<P {pS9/S*?@SH;Stu _=S{pS6=9_=Sq?{" 12. What is meant b cardiac output? { [ M r "ardiac output G stro.e volume %3' ml) heart rate %32) G 2'*' ml %2;=min) {[Mr G {r %3' ml) { %32) G 2'*' ,%2 2 ,) 1!. @ive the name and location of the nervous s stem that control the heart rate? M{ " It is autonomic nervous s stem 'ithin the medulla oblongata of the brain. There are t'o centers in the medulla which control the heart rate > The cardio,acceleratory center and the cardio,inhibitory center . {[MrQ(w%SHZR[Z{&xq{$ {5" 1#. Explain the control of heart rate b cardio1accelerator center. { $ Wu{ " The cardio,acceleratory center is linked b the s mpathetic nerve to the "6 node. Impulses from the sympathetic nerve result in the secretion of small 3uantities of noradrenaline from the nerve endings at the "6 node onto the cardiac muscle. 9oradrenaline is po'erful in speeding up cardiac contractions and increases both the stro.e volume and heart rate. {$PU6oTOS_=SH{tuM 9`S9`p{/p{rS{[Mrp"

15&

1$. Explain the control of heart rate b cardio1inhibitor center. { 5 Wu{ " The cardio,inhibitory center is lin.ed by parasympathetic fibers within the vagus nerve, to the !A node and A/ node. Impulses arriving at the parasympathetic nerve endings result in the release of small Cuantities of acetylcholine onto the cardiac muscle, inhibit activity of the pacema.er, thus reducing heart rate, stro.e volume and hence the cardiac output. {5PU()6o/opTOSM) #ZS5S{/{rb{[Mr" 1&. What is the stimulus to affect the activities of the cardio1centers? u $% { $ { 5 " The activities of these two centers is affected by the p8 of the blood which in turn depends upon its carbon dio ide concentration. (Pq{bNSVW p8 Sb:R1 Q 4 " 1(. "tate the detector and explain the ph siological responses occur 'hen the level of carbon dioxide in the blood rises. W M Q 4 , = w Lm " 1hen carbon dio ide concentration of the blood increases as a result of vigorous e ercise, receptors in the carotid and aortic bod detect this change and send nervous messages to the cardio1accelerator center. >mpulse is then generated in the motor neuron to the heart and intercostal muscles and diaphragm which increases the heart beat and ventilation rate, thereby increasing the rate at 'hich carbon dioxide is delivered to the lungs for removal. ^X Q 4 , S p8 bSw[1[Q' Lw6QS{$?MS${$Sb =R[@ Q " 1*. %escribe the hormonal control of the heart rate. 5{ " #uring e ercise and e citement, the sympathetic nerve will send impulses to the adrenal gland to increase the secretion of adrenaline, and thyroid gland to to increase the secretion of thyro ine. These hormones, especially adrenalin, are powerful in increasing cardiac output to prepare the body for action in emergencies. G=SU?Md9`S*29`S`2 `SS^`9`SBp{[MrS[4S]G#> " 1+. What happens to the heart rate 'hen s mpathetic nerve is stimulated? ; U = S{ & Q The heart rate increases. {"

153

2.. What happens to the heart rate 'hen the paras mpathetic nerve is stimulated? ; U = S{ & Q The heart rate decreases. {p" 21. What can be deduced about the nature of innervations to the heart? { u8A The heart receives two nerves of opposing effects. {x%" Check point ($() 1. 9ame the sex hormones that are produced b the pituitar gland. M( Z [%28" :ollicle stimulating hormone %:!8) and luteini0ing hormone %;8). n%:!8)/[%;8)" 2. 9ame the sex hormones that are produced b the ovaries. M( * %28" Aestrogen and progesterone !. @ive the functions of ;"). M n " :!8 stimulates the development of immature follicles in the ovary. n*n?" It promotes the secretion of oestrogen form the developing follicles. *?n2" #. @ive the functions of oestrogen. M " It causes repair of the uterus lining following menstruation. 7l3<" It stimulates the pituitary to produce luteini0ing hormone %;8). %and also :!8R) [-[%/n)" $. @ive the functions of luteini4ing hormone. M [" It causes ovulation. v?" It stimulates the ovary to produce progesterone from the corpus luteum. *[- "

154

&. @ive the functions of progesterone. M " +rogesterone, produced by corpus luteum %yellow body), causes the uterus lining to be maintained in readiness for the embryo. ([%2Sl3<S4n" 8igh levels of progesterone and oestrogen together inhibit the secretion of :!8 and ;8 from the pituitary. n 6 S 5 [2 n [" (. "tate the se3uence of the production of the sex hormones. M8- S " The hormones are produced in the following seCuence > :!8, oestrogen, ;8, progesterone. wS-:!8\\;8\ " +rogesterone %together with oestrogen) at the end of the seCuence inhibits the production of :!8. vHt%6)5 :!8 -" In turn, the production of the other hormones stops, including progesterone itself. b`2!-S`= " The absence of progesterone now means that the inhibition of :!8 ceases and so :!8 production starts again. X& E ? 5 :!8 -!Sn%:!8)-" In turn, all the other hormones are produced. This produces a cycle of event M the menstrual cycle. b%&`2BD(-SU 6q S 7" *. Which hormone inhibits the production of ;")? P 5 ;") - +rogesterone %together with oestrogen) %6)" +. Explain the action of contraceptive pill. 2 @ " It contains both synthetic oestrogen and progesterone and when ta.en daily it maintains high levels of these hormones in the blood. This inhibits the production of the gonadotrophic hormones from the pituitary, and the absence of :!8 and ;8 prevents follicle development and ovulation. 2I&- SW SB H nS5[ 8 ` S n / [B n ? /v "

155

1.. What is the importance of hormonal control of the menstrual c cle? 7 &8 ? 1. Ensure one ovum is discharged at a time. vM6ql" The other follicle will undergo development only if the ovulated ovum is not fertili0ed. This would result in better survival of the foetus, and avoid e penditure or a large amount of energy in developing unnecessary ova. `2nHwvMlX&=S?S&G+S/ rql=?Sr" 2. @ive time for the gro'th of ovum. =l." Avum needs time to accumulate nutrients for growth and mature. lq=Z%./-" !. 7repare for implantation. 4" It gives time for the hormones to e ert its effect so that the uterine lining is thic.ened for the implantation of embryo. =?`Sl3<pSD" #. 7repare for the next possible pregnanc . 64" ;et menstruation occurs and se hormones secrete again to start the ne t cycle and hence ne t possible pregnancy. 7?/8k2D 6 S 6 4 " 11. Explain the treatment of infertilit b hormones. Wu g ? 1. Treatment of failure of mature ova production by :!8> It stimulates follicle development ng l : n? 2. Treatment of no ovulation by ;8> It stimulates ovulation [gv: v 3. Treatment of failure of implantation by synthetic oestrogen and progesterone> It stimulates the
thic.ening of the uterine lining for the implantation of the embryo

- g ? Q - D ? : l3<Sn

2''

Check point ($*) 1. What 'ill be the impact of human population explosion on the environment m } & $% As the world population .eeps on increasing, more land is needed to feed and house people and for various economic activities. As a result many natural habitats are destroyed, the balance of nature is disturbed. $any organisms are endangered and some are near e tinction. <atural resources such as coal, natural gas and oil are good fuels. They are sources of plastics and other useful product. 8owever, they will be e hausted if they are continuously e tracted from the -arth. In addition, the development of technology after the industrial revolution in the 14th and 15th centuries has also caused many types of pollution. The environmental problems caused by human become more and more severe as the population increases. )9,SqK(R" \ o TU S L{qSYFJKHl}SaHSR!"S " 6 S }S j R y ? H 8 SW @B [ / IF +@[S8" SH 0 S s $ ? S S$%l}SbjpS " 2. Wh is population control necessar ? q ? The rapid growth in human population will incease the e haustion of natural esources and environmental degradation. +opulation control can help ensure a contiuous supply of natural resources for our current needs and for the future generations. #$p.H8}QS&K{8S Hp." !. "uggest some practical method in population control. 6 d[ S " 7irth control is the most effective mean in reducing human population. &nS" :amily planning is essential in educating people the advantages of a small family so that they are willing to carry out birth control. In case of an unplanned pregnancy, legali0ed abortion is also an effective birth control mean. mS}S*BS2TUS "HPX&bqS6q&p.S"

2'1

#. With examplesB explain 'hat are non1rene'able resources. Vlu V B k 8 " They cannot be replaced as they are used. There is a fi ed Cuantity of the resources on the -arth and in time they will be depleted. *;BkS*HR9r&SH6y="VW> %a) fossil fuel> eg. coal, petroleum and natural gas. Q@8[XVW\@BH" %b) minera A" $. With examplesB explain 'hat are rene'able resources? Vlu V B k 8 " They can be replaced. /he are things 'hich gro'. They are not produced in limitless Cuantities and their supply is ultimately e hausted if the rate at which they are removed e ceeds that at which they have been produced. eg. agriculture, fishery, forestry and wildlife. *BkS*.ASVW+" *IrR S& + S ; *%; D $ 1* $ =S*"VW> \\ &. What are the conse3uences of uncontrolled usage of resources? 8 & (1) Environmental degradation< } AX (a) 8andscape destruction< Y F X Aver e ploitation in forestry and the unrestricted hunting of wildlife has destroyed the scenery of the nature. YFHl
(b) "oil erosion<

!D"

( m X Aver e ploitation in forestry and over gra0ing by animals remove the protective natural plant cover, thus enhance the action of wind and subseCuently promote soil erosion. S (R9;S;&""= S |}(S$(m" (2) Exhaustion of non1rene'able resources< B k 8 X
%a) - haustion of fossil fuel > It is estimated that the supply could only last for 12' years.

Q@[S#Q@[H6$" (b) Dver exploitation of rene'able resources < ASSSQ)H"

2'2

(!) Dver exploitation of rene'able resources < Bk8X %a) Aver e ploitation in fisheries > %X It results in a decline in the regeneration of fisheries yields. X&{ = 0S r " %b) Aver e ploitation in forestry X It results in a decline in the regeneration of forestry yields. SX{ = / + k S r " %c) $alpractices in agriculture> ; #estruction of natural habitats YFH" !oil erosion (m "hemical %to ic) pollution. Q'%8)" "hemical fertili0ers has adverse effect Q+&> "hemical used in rearing livestoc. has adverse effect &e&> (. Explain the difficulties arise at rec cling of metals. H | Ck % 5 - " In theory these metals can be recycled, but in practice this is often difficult or impossible for various reasons> !9_BD|CkSh9-hU" 1. The metal may be o idi0ed or converted into a form unsuitable for rec cling. _B Q) C Q-6 F | Ck EF" 2. The Cuantities of the metal within a material may be so small that it is not 'orth'hile recovering it. e.g. The thin layer of tin on most metal cans. HLdQIrBIS ) * p M " SVWH Q ' }9 6yaa(A" 3. The metal is often combined 'ith man other materials, which ma.e it difficult to separate. QB 6AH6 S * - D2"

2'3

*. Explain the effect of over exploitation in fisheries. % $% " 9esults in a decline in the regeneration of fisheries yields. - tinction of certain species and disturbance of the ecosystem. X&{ = 0S r " Q+ a l " +. Explain the effect of over exploitation in forestr . $% " 9esults in a decline in the regeneration of forestry yields. - tinction of certain species, and a disturbance of the ecosystem, resulting in a #ecrease in other fauna, landscape destruction and soil erosion. SX{ = / + k S r " Q+ a l S S Y F ( m" 1.. What are the undesirable effects of the chemical control of pests and 'eeds? Q ' + | N & The continued use of one pesticides to control specific pest often leads to the selection of a resistant strain. It is better to alternate the use of recommended pesticides rather than use the same one every time. .=6|DQ|| 8S '6" )

!ome pesticides are very poisonous. When leaked out accidentall from the field ma cause great harm to human being. They have to use with great care. Q|8S;RM*=Sm-S H{" S

The insecticides ma kill non1target species. $any pesticides are non,selective %not specific) eg. ##T. 7esides the pest, it also .ills other organisms li.e invertebrates, fish, etc. This upset the natural control of population si0e in the ecosystem. BxSK|'8|%X&P8)SVW ##TSDx|S*x`*SVWInY\ _" aHlSl" They may have long poisoning effect. !ome pesticides are long lasting, i.e. they are non, biodegradable. eg. ##T is fairly persistent and can accumulate in the fatty tissue as well as along the food chains. ##T reaches a high concentration at upper trophic level and may .ill the animals which contain it. -ven though the concentration is not sufficient to .ill, it may cause harm. The birds may be infertile and the egg shells are so thin that they brea. during incubation.

2'*

JK8\qSQS*J;iSVW ##T NSHk,cZ%S**T+ZSH8y9S4 SP=xI&*S*4{DxS-SW ~pShaSH,Q=hJY3" They may harm the a3uatic organisms. :ungicides usually contain mercury and copper. These heavy metals are poisonous. They may pollute the rivers and coast when they are washed away by rainfalls or lea.ed into the underground water course. nSJK,'I&n-.S_S* S T= S)H n ! M = " 11. What are the adverse effects of excessive use of chemical fertili4ers? r Q + & The e cessive use of chemical fertili0ers will pollute the environment by causing$ rQ+D@ } !oil erosion (mX The e cessive use of chemical fertili0ers will decrease the soil fertility render the land unsuitable for agriculture. It is because the intensive use of chemical fertili0ers implies that organic fertili0ers are being replaced. The soil becomes lac. of humus or organic matter, and thus the water retaining ability is greatly reduced. 1hen the farmer abandons the land, the top soil cannot be protected by vegetation and may be washed away easily by rainfall leading to soil erosion. rQ+(+pS*kFSrQ+E?&++[ );:S(0A/&+SnpS;/-*=SX& ;|(S|(;nS(m" +ollution X 1hen too much fertili0ers are applied to the farmland, it will not be all absorbed by the crops. !ome leached into the nearby rivers and la.es. These fertili0ers act as the nutrients for the algae. The massive growth of algae will upset the ecological balance and pollute the water course. It finally cho.ed up the rivers, a condition called eutrophication. The algae used up the o ygen in the water at night. This causes aCuatic organisms die of suffocation. ;IKQ+1R=S#_%&Q+S&T%-)V /01S+[ST*.Sr0l S n ! S ! 2 S " 3 n " TU Sn b 4 x Y " Ather effects `2$% The manufacture of chemical fertili0ers would release harmful gaseous into the atmosphere leading to air pollution and global warming. In addition, the lea.age of fertili0ers into the underground water may contaminate the drin.ing water. Q + M& [S / 8 Q" SQ + B R nS n "

2'2

12. What are detrimental effect of land clearance on the ecos stem? R m l " -
1. %epletion of lot of plant and animal species.

K+"
The removal of natural habitat will lead to the e tinction of many species.

Hl}DK+ "
2. 8oss of a lot of valuable medicine.

EJK&"
$any important "hinese herbal medicines are come from forest flora.

JK&'""
3. Eeduce the removal of carbon dioxide and the rene'al of ox gen .

Q v D "
/egetations are important in producing o ygen and removal of carbon dio ide. There may be green house effect as a result of increasing atmospheric carbon dio ide level.

H v D Q S }S Q n 9 , 3 p "
*. %estro the beaut of landscape.

YF

!"

2. "oil erosion.

(m"
;and clearance may lead to soil erosion as peoples abandon the land later. It is because plant has the function of holding the soil particles, protecting the soil from washing away by heavy rains and adding organic matter to the soil.

R(mS;-Rb"*=SX&5G'(]S |(nSkp(&+S(m" 1!. What are the impact of land reclamation on marine organisms? m -
1. %estro the habitats of marine organisms.

YFH"
There will be a loss of marine habitats along the original shore line due to reclamation.There will be a loss of breeding ground or feeding ground of many species.

*^rSJK+'*URc"
2. :arine organisms are directl killed b bur ing the animals as a result of dumping of soil at the reclaimed sites.

'(hO6T

r7SJK;x"

3. >ncrease in suspended solids in sea'ater.

pn\2]l"
This reduces light penetration in the water column thus affecting photosynthetic activity of phytoplan.ton.

/TnS$%2,"
The 0ooplan.ton would also be affected as they feed on phytoplan.ton.

2,$%S*2,"

2'&

In turn the food for the predator community such as fish will decrease and the entire food web will be affected.

2,WSqT'$%"
The soil particles may clog the fish gills.

Hn\2'(]R"
The feeding of filter feeders is seriously affected.

JK8SVW8_S'$%"
*. Increase in nutrient level in seawater.

pnn"
<utrients from the sediment are released into the seawater causing eutrophication %red tide).

='(MSn(P)"
2. >ncrease in toxin level in sea'ater

pnn"
The soil may contain heavy metals and organic pollutants which poison the sea organisms when dissolved into seawater

'(BI&/&+ S nS "
&. "hange in shore line may affect the flo' pattern and flo' rate of 'ater . There will be an increased wave action in harbour due to e cessive reclamation.

^B$%n$nFSHtp" Check point ($+) 1#. %escribe the effect of dust and smoke particles on the global temperature. 5 ] T 9 ]m R 3 & $% #ust and smo.e particles reduces the visibility, lower the temperature of the -arth. %ice,bo effect) 5]T9]*STRSR3%:;)" 1$. %escribe the effect of air pollution on vegetation. m & $% The presence of dust and smo.e particles reduce the available light energy for photosynthesis. #amages to vegetation> sulphur dio ide, nitrogen dio ide can cause the collapse of leaf tissues. VW Q \ Q _ Y, c Q = S ^ ` , c " 5]/T9]TU" 1&. %escribe the effect of air pollution on causing human diseases. m 45 & $% "ausing human diseases> as lung irritants that cause respiratory diseases. Asbestos dusts> lung cancer. Tetramethyl lead> damage the nervous system. "arbon mono ide> reduces the o ygen carrying capacity of blood. ]X 5]T9]=RS!]SVWA!"

2'3

svM"@</==KM"@<]=X" -vM"IQBH0Z%SYF" 6 Q p" 1(. %escribe the effect of air pollution on deterioration of materials. mA m & $% The acid rain formed by dissolving nitrogen dio ide and sulphur dio ide in the atmosphere may deteriorate the concrete buildings and roc.s. The acid rain also increases the acidity of soil. In some industrial areas, the soil may be so acidic that the plants cannot grow. Q Q 1 nS S* 6 >( > @ " p(8SHQscS'(BSkF." 1*. %escribe the effect of increased concentration of CD2 on the global temperature. Q 4 9 , m R 3 & $% "arbon dio ide in the atmosphere traps the sunFs heat li.e a green house and cause an increase in -arthFs temperature %green house effect). Q B 3 p 7 ( ?S R 3 9 ,%3p)" 1+. Explain green house effect. 3 p " "arbon dio ide in the atmosphere traps the sunFs heat li.e a green house and cause an increase in -arthFs temperature %green house effect). The rise in temperature that green house effect produces will cause the gradual melting of the polar ice caps and conseCuent rise in sea level. This would in turn cause flooding of low,lying land. IByR|}A(S%M(.?S ;S Q % 3 C p S ` I S S Q ( 1 y a (H3p! 6"3pR39,Sx:QS n}9,S@R;nA<" 2.. Explain the beneficial function of the o4one la er. y " 7etween 12 and *' .ilometres above the earth is a layer if o0one. A large amount of the potentially harmful ultra,violet radiation is absorbed and so prevented from reaching the earthFs surface. ;iving things are protected from radiation that otherwise would destroy them by changing the structure of their nucleic acids, causing sun burnt and s.in cancer. R9SBC&6 yS( // % -Sd " b8/;_bR|}SB/S SD/X"

2'4

21. With an exampleB explain the effect of air pollutants on o4one la er. Vl m y $% " +ollutants such as the chlorofluorocarbons %":") can affect the o0one layer. They enter into the stratosphere irreversibly react with o0one molecules. The o0one molecules are bro.en to o ygen gas. This beneficial o0one layer is being damaged by atmospheric pollution to the point where a hole in it had appeared over the Antarctic and possibly the Arctic too. JK 'B Y F yS`M Q %":")" ":" 1:;E,S*F8 PSJSRT3yS 2 Sy& y ; % Y F SH G y w 6q SB H &" 22. Explain the t'o origins of se'age and ho' do the create a biochemical ox gen demand. nxq " 8 /*Wu - Q q r " !ewage has two main origins> from industry and from the home. #omestic effluents is 52,55( water, the remainder being organic matter. Arganic material is harmless, but it acts as a food source for many saprophytic organism, especially bacteria. Aerobic saprophytes decompose the organic material , a process called putrefaction , and in so doing use up o ygen. This creates a biochemical o ygen demand %7A#). nA v - n%=X*\ \ |,_)s-n%=X[\ )_b" -n%n)& 52,55(nS`&&+"&+IS*KS^` "8"H& S q ) & + 2S S ? q S Q q r S4 =D% 6b" 2!. Explain the effect of untreated se'age on aerobic species. v nn ! m q $% " 1here sewage is deposited untreated into relatively small volumes of water, i.e. rivers and la.es rather than the oceans, the =D% ma be great enough to remove entirel the dissolved ox gen. This causes the death of all aerobic speciesB including fish, leaving onl anaerobic ones. In addition to the death of aerobic species, these conditions can result in the build up of ammonia and h drogen sulphide from anaerobic decomposition of se'age. The chemicals are to ic and result in an almost lifeless river. S n v m n[ = S I 01 b = S7A#%Qq r )B {D%& Sb %& q = x Y S & 6 : + "H *IKqR'& nv SBHR . n'& l S D q x Y S C n % Q Z % SQ ' A& SB I X &# x "

2'5

2#. What is eutrophication? u V 1hen an e cess of nutrients is introduced into a freshwater habitat %rivers), it causes a dramatic growth in certain .inds of algae. 1hen the nutrients have been used up, the algae die, and the bacterial decomposers which feed on the dead algae use up the o ygen in the water giving rise to an biochemical o ygen demand. This may be result in o ygen depletion and death of most living organisms in the rivers. ;rvTnSVW=S S Q # ^ p " d,S;=SxYS 2S2=qn SQq r S q %_) b R x Y " 2$. Explain the cause of red tide. P -" 9ed tide is a t pe of eutrophication caused b red algae bloom. Bsually the algae level in an aCuatic area is limited b the nutrient level available. #uring summer time, the sea 'ater is 'arm. The temperature is favourable for the gro'th and multiplication of algae. If the nutrient level is suddenly increased due to the influx of nutrients produced b pollution, eutrophication occurs. P(6Dr0%SPnn %S;""=Sn38S3F.0S59T nb n #$ 9 , S ? S P " 2&. Explain the effects of red tide. 45 P $% "
R #ue to a sudden increase in the algae population during eutrophication, the dissolved o ygen available to fish or other aCuatic organisms decreased due to the increased upta.e by the respiration of algae.

br0SH3 X& "


R R

n S /` 2

The shortage of dissolved o ygen may lead to the death of such aCuatic organism.

H _n r x Y "
$oreover, some types of micro,organisms causing a red tide may be to ic to fish or other organisms.

SQPi2/`2"
R R !ome types of red tide may cause direct harmful effects to a personFs health.

QPBDm45-hO"
1hen the nutrients are e hausted, the algae will die . The decomposition of the dead bodies of the algae causes further decreases in dissolved o ygen.

;SxYSH2xY=Sq S r T6 N"

21'

2(. What is the main cause of oil pollution? ( @B % n - !pilling of oil during oil tan.er accidents mainly causes oil pollution. In addition, there is deliberate discharge of waste oil from ocean,going vessels, accidental spillage in harbors when oil is transferred from ship to shore. R2(@Bn @ H } B J B ' S s -B S) B J?=K@B" 2*. %escribe the effect of oil pollution on 'ater birds. M B m $% " Ail spills is ver damaging to 'ater1birds. The oil coats their feathers. The birds, while trying to clean themselves by preening, can ingest the oil and be poisonedI or the oil may deposit on their plumage and destro their natural heat insulation. 7ird will become chilled and die. 8eavily oiled bird can lose their buo anc and dro'n. B " H L M 1 & 9 B = S T @B Sb " C&NBObP"b" B C 3 pS - 3 x " ; B N ~2pSb5P" 2+. %escribe the effect of oil on sea plant. M B m $% " The oil coats seaweed, preventing photosynthesis. B =? S G !.. %escribe the effect of oil on shellfish. M B m Q $% " The oil covers the gills of shellfish, interfering with feeding and respiration. B ;< Q S " !1. Explain 'h the top consumers are more affected b insecticides (eg.%%/) than lo'er consumers. K K J (%%/)% $% 1. ##T is sprayed on the field to .ill the pests. The crops absorb ##T at low concentration. DDT(R)1*Dx|SS_4 DDT" 2. ##T is non,biodegradable. It cannot be e creted or bro.en down in the tissues. DDT -SvM[);[2" 3. Ane pest feeds on many crops and one carnivorous bird feeds on many pests, ##T will accumulate in the body and concentrate along the food chain. 6TBJKSSb B JK S DDT H[Z%S *Tj," *. :inally the top consumers %birds) will have the highest concentration of ##T in their tissues. They become poisoned and some may be .illed. -ven the concentration is not sufficient to

211

.ill, it may cause harm. PK()& DDT 4S S& x Y S DDT 4 #Sm-" Check point (&.) 1. "tate the !Es principle and its importance in pollution control. MH % !E @ " /`8" 9educe, 9euse and 9ecycle the resources. \k/|}k"
Importance> minimi0e pollution and run out of resources

8: / 8 2. "tate the ! ke pollution control strategies in )ong 5ong. M t " %1) To reduce municipal solid waste 'U[- %2) To reduce air pollution
%3) To solve sewage problem

R n !. "tate the # main topics in reduction of municipal solid 'aste. M ' U [ - V " 1. !ource separation of solid waste [-8r2 2. 9ecovery and recycling programs _/|}k 3. 9eduction on plastic bags F *. #evelopment of -co+ar. ?}W #. Explain 'hat the government has done in the reduction of air pollution. X H S }% Y p" The use of leaded petrol had been banned in 1555. 1555 ZIB" Adopting higher fuel sulphur content and vehicle emission standards. [BI/-v4" +romoting the use of liCuefied petroleum gas, a cleaner fuel, in public light buses and ta is. x\.;/l@B["

212

9eCuiring the installation of catalytic converters in all diesel vehicles to remove nitrogenous compounds, carbon mono ide and incomplete burnt hydrocarbons in e haust fumes. ]B^~QCQLD Q\6 Q Qv" 9educing e haust fumes by switching off engines while waiting. 7U!_`#D-v" $. "tate and explain some air pollution control methods. M # 6 S " 1. 9emove the to ic components %especially petroleum derivatives and sulphur) from the fuel and refuse before burning. H[/-D&A%PB/)" 2. After burning, the pollutants in the smo.e can be removed by means of filtering, electrostatic precipitation, or dissolving them by certain solvents. The incinerators in 8ong Dong are all fitted with one of these devices. Bsing catalytic converters in car e haust systems. H B " D SVW / LS) *1Q,StaQb'&_D SH v ~QCQL" 3. Increase the use of alternative energy sources such as solar energy, hydro,electricity, wind energy, tidal power and geothermal power, etc. p`28SVWI\np?\\Pc/R(" *. !mo.e control by legislation > X %1) :actory owners are fined if they allow too much smo.e to be emitted out. sSvMK-Sw" %2) - haust fumes from motor vehicles are chec.ed by police and their owners will be fined if the amount of smo.e e ceeds the standard value. d %vM " S ; " 2. +lant green vegetation everywhere so that carbon dio ide can be recycled. HD_ Q S*B |} k " &. Explain 'hat the government has done in solving se'age problem. X H R n % Y p"
1. Fser pa s se'age charge<

]v K:
The consumer has to pay a sewage charge on the volume of water supplied. The charge not only covers part of the cost of sewage treatment wor.s, but also encourages us save water and reduces sewage discharge.

%n]Mv KSKBR2 n K S C B nS nv"


2. /he )arbour 6rea /reatment "cheme <

213

hQt
It is an overall sewage collection and treatment scheme for areas on both sides of /ictoria 8arbour.

*}txci%TU n _` / s ? "
It involves the construction of long deep underground tunnels to carry sewage from both 8ong Dong and Dowloon side to a sewage treatment plant at !tonecutters Island for chemical treatment and disinfection.

*/6q.\ye!S)"t/f nS [ d gJh n Q' " (. "tate and explain some 'ater pollution control methods. M # 6nA S " %a) -ffluents from the factories should be controlled. To ic substances should be prevented from entering water. HsvM" nS & AT n ! " %b) #omestic sewage should be treated by sewage treatment plant before discharging into river or sea. nHv H n S v ! ) " %c) Agricultural effluent is treated by integrated farming system. !olid wastes are collected and converted to compost. nB " S _` [ - B + " %d) =iodegradable pesticides or biological control methods are used to .ill the pests instead of ##T which reCuires a very long time to degrade. B|)"x|Sb ##TS ##T q6y .=" %e) After an oil spill, chemicals and microbes can be used to brea. down the oil to reduce the adverse effects of oil pollution. ?B SBQ ' + i ")B 2S *m $% " +eoples are educated through mass medium or campaigns li.e the Tclean 8ong Dong campaign@ to .eep the water clean by not littering. g ) x U t _ " Hn " %f) Industrial wastes are collected and treated in the chemical Treatment +lant at Tsing Ii. 8eavy penalty is put by the government on the discharge of it. _`s n H TU n SVWH Q ' S n S vTn ! S)Xi" *. Explain the problems in rec cling. |} k % 5 - :
1. 8igh costs involved in collection and separation of waste materials.

_`)-[2-"
2. The public awareness of the importance of environmental protection is still relatively low.

B } GH a X "
3. !mall house si0es in 8ong Dong restrict waste separation and storage.

21*

tj 2 / a "
*. The low prices and lac. of mar.et demands of some recovered materials %eg. plastics and glass)

_[] (VWIF/`a)/U|}k?" +. %escribe the modern methods of se'age treatment. 45 n S " 1. 7rimar treatment n X "e'age is passed through a series of screens to remove large ob2ects, such as bo es and rags, then through a finer screen to remove grit. The sewage then passes into sedimentation tan.s. The sludge is ta.en off for anaerobic digestion. The supernatant liCuid, or effluent , passes onto the ne t stage for secondary treatment. nI6T'WDDSW@\+r\+;_SD !S0?DDk" n 0 ?& f d E 2 R l (l)S& +ASm'nl2S"A ' SN l 2 'QlTU QS wD R2 [ - n - nS (lPRvS 6q n l(oQl)ST6y n " 2. "econdar treatment n X 6erobic microorganisms are used to break do'n most of the organic matter in the effluent. The organic matter in the sewage is used as a nutrient medium for the growth of a great variety of aerobic microorganisms in large tan.s. A ygen levels are .ept at a very high level by constantly aerating the sewage, either by bubbling air through or by rapidly rotating paddles. 8 ' S n& + i S 1nl6w& i .Sn 4 Hn S BgHn"SSHn)$p{Yg" =SR2n&+';DS ' I& r i S i6R2|}kS6 n lS & STU I ' Q" !. ' 2X
!ludge is transferred to a large air tight tan. %anaerobic digestion tan.). $ethane %biogas) is the only thing produced in anaerobic conditions. Temperature must e ceed 12 o". The methane produced is used to heat up the digester. !ometimes it is used to generate electricity which can be used to power the sewage plant. #igested sludge is then dried. Aften it is used as landfill in reclamation. It may be applied to farm land as a soil conditioner. It improves the water,retaining capacity of the soil and supplies certain mineral salts, such as phosphates and nitrates.

';Tl( Q l)S2-4QSM(q)S3. 1 1( o, D9" %M B ) Q l ( S) ? SD q n p"Q ' v l(Q)SkDn2S-[ AB" ' ( P , S*B p ( np + pSVWj/ 6"

212

1.. %ra' a flo' diagram of treating se'age in a cit se'age treatment plant. M n n ?
!ewage n !creening !edimentation !ludge '

oQl

activated sludge 8 ' %I&i)

Aerated digestion tan. %containing microorganisms) sludge setting tan. 'l anaerobic digestion tan. Q l liCuid methane

-n
digested sludge wQ '

chlorination drying bed Q to sea v half dry sludge '

11. @ive t'o reasons for treating se'ageB Mxq n (" :irstly, sewage can contain pathogens which cause disease. !econdly, by treating sewage, pollution of the environment can be avoided. TU n &xq@S O I S nI& ] ] @[S k S S } B" 12. Explain the need for conservation. q " Conservation is the wise management of our environment so as to maintain a balance between harvest and renewal so that there will be a continual yielding of natural resources. RH8D*ESH_96:S8B88 "

21&

1!. Explain the importance of maintaining biodiversit . K 88" 1. -very species helps scientists understand how life has evolved and how it will continue to evolve. q+BA'r8/*WuTQ" 2. The organisms in an ecosystem are interdependent. -ach species forms important parts of food chains and plays a specific role in the ecosystem. l/Sq+1T'&`P" 3. 7iodiversity is our heritage, 6ust li.e art and cultural achievements. 1e have the responsibility of .eeping it. K8sBQ7S S & & G*" *. Almost all food crops are domesticated from wild tropical plants. +lant breeders and farmers rely on their genetic diversity to improve crop yield, develop new crops and pests and diseases resistant crops. eK%&S'tb"St/u/f 2. 1ild plants supply us oils, dyes, fibre, paper and other useful products. B\[\\&A" &. 1ild plants supply us herbal medicines. " 3. 1ild plants and animals are a source of beauty, wonder, 6oy and recreational pleasure for us. 1ildlife tourism enables people to visit natural environments for rela ation. It also helps to educate people about the importance of conservation. 1ildlife tourism is a .ind of business, it provide 6obs and income for many people. \ vw/>SlxyBGz"S B}8S=*6`SJK{/_" 1#. What are the causes that lead to endangered species? @ - !" ? 1. "ommercial e ploitation or over harvesting of a species either legal or illegally> | (bTU))U This causes population drop to a very low level. eg. the hunting of tiger for their bodies as food and medicine, the .illing of elephants for their ivory, the .illing of turtles for their shells. nSVWi})f\ D:;\ ~D:~" 2. Indiscriminate hunting or collection> a/_`U It decreases many wildlife populations, eg. hunting for sport results in disappearing of leopards. JKSVW>b}" " 3. #estruction of natural habitats> H;YFU ;and cleared for urban development, construction of highway and recreation purpose. eg. golf course at !ha ;o Tung will destroy 8ong Dong@s best dragonfly habitat.

213

RUc?\ >$B\)>LSVWHn&uYFt 0" Acid rain has destroyed the forest. YF" Industrial wastes and agricultural wastes have polluted the streams and rivers. s-[/-[ / " *. +redation by abandoned animals> ;%U The introduced cows and sheep may over gra4e the plants on island. T;;B9" 1$. "tate some 'a s for the general public to protect the endangered species. M6 / B !" S " 1. %o not bu items such as ivory products, leopard furs or tiger s.ins. !"-+SW;+\)i}_" 2. %o not eat endangered animals !"" 3. %o not keep endangered animals as pets. !"" *. %o not engage in hunting for sport. >b!"" 2. %o not pick or collect specimens of plants when out for wal. in countryside. HxU=S" &. )ave an a'areness of how man@s activities endanger plants and animals. m$%!"G&d8" 3. "upport signature campaigns to rescue endangered species. !"bxU" 1&. Explain ho' the related authorities can protect the endangered species. & + WuB !" " 1. The government protects the endangered species by legislation. The following practices are prohibited> Xg!"SZ: 8unting or disturbance of wild animals or their nests. )`*" :eeding wild animals. " #amaging plants in any forest. YF" !ale and possession of protected wild plant and animal species. /&"

214

2. =reeding programs are set up by research centres, li.e AO+SW: Artificial insemination %captive breeding) in the breeding of panda. 0=s(s)" "aptive breeding in the conservation of 9omer@s tree frog. {s" -ndangered plant species %eg. orchid) are reproduced by artificial propagation. !"(W)Bs0SF" 3. @ene banks are set up by research centres> AO+: !eeds, sperm, ova, tissues, blood products and #<A of endangered species are stored in liCuid nitrogen vessels to .eep viability. They may be used for the later breeding. !" l\l\ l\, c \-2 DNA _S1 l D `#pSD1s" *. Through education programs run by government or conservation groups, the public are told the importance of conservation BgX)}:[%xU"B } " 1(. Explain the governmentAs 'ork in the conservation of habitats. X H % " s " %1) "ountry par.s BW They are set up by the government for nature conservation, countryside recreation, education and scientific studies. The conservation measures are > BW(XSH\ >\ A O S # W > tree planting and vegetation management. ; " preventing of hill fire. $" setting up of bird,nest bo es for bird breeding. *;0" building of educational facilities, such as visitor centres and natural trails. SWy{H]" %2) <atural reserves H c There are two nature reserves in Tai +o Dau and $ai +o. The one in Tai +o is the natural habitats of many species of butterflies and birds. /isitors are welcome there. 1hile in $ai +o are fish ponds, gei wai, reed bed and migratory birds. +ermission is needed for public visit. t&xqH cS21 / j S JK R S yvSj&JK\>\QSB W B v " %3) $arine reserve c There is a marine reserve in "ape #@Aguilar. It is a roc.y shore rich with coral that all coastal activities are prohibited. It is for conservation and scientific study only.

215

&6qcSP& AO"

SZ6n9S

%*) $arine par.s BW There are four marine par.s. 9ecreational activities are allowed %li.e swimming and diving) but collection of specimen is prohibited. t&qBWSyBHBW%W,/n)SZ`" %2) !ites of special scientific interest %!!!I)dPyA'] R c Areas with special animals and plants li.e $ai +o $arshes, 8oi 8a 1an and the "ape #@Aguilar are planned to be !!!I. <o development will be allowed there e cept for conservation. d&Py+Rc%Wj9R\);NdPyA'] R cS PbcSB?" %&) 9amsar site q&9R It arose from an international convention in 1531. All participating countries must at least designate one 9amsar site %wetland) within their country for conservation. The one in 8ong Dong is the $ai +o Inner #eep 7ay. ( 1531 %SHM6qq&9RSTU St1j" %3) 1etland +ar. 9RBW It is a piece of re,constructed wetland at $ai +o which house many water birds and wildlife. It opens for the public and serves the purpose of displaying the biodiversity of 8ong Dong@s wetland. 6g1j9RS*JKn/%SB xy /t9RlK8" 1*. Explain ecological restoration of damaged land 'ith the use of afforestation as an example. Vl Y F ( R l " -cological restoration is to restore the damaged habitats close to their natural state. l)EO@" 6fforestation The cutting of trees for fuel wood and burning down trees for farm land in the past have made the hillsides barren. Afforestation aims to reduce soil erosion has been practiced for hundred years. :ast growing trees li.e Taiwan Acacia and paper,bar. tree are commonly planted in the program. The forest provides food and shelter for local animals. The woodland area has increased from *( in 15*' to 13( now. / + [ / d R R S K $ r RS$SXjD(mSP$.+SW- /iyS@%S 15*' SR}Zw( *( , 13("

22'

1+. Explain the importance of afforestation. 8" 1. "ontrol of soil erosion (m" 2. $aintain the fertility of the soil (+p" 3. +rovide food, cover and shelter for wild life \;<%" *. 9emoval of carbon dio ide and renewal of o ygen p S D Q " 2. +rovide natural resources for rural inhabitants> / H 8 " They may get food and fruit. /n" Their cattle may have grass to eat. T" They can get fire wood for coo.ing. +][" They can get herbal medicine for treatment of illness. ]" &. Town inhabitants may obtain recreation through the following ways > Uc/BgDL]9:>U "ountryside provides places for picnic and camp sites. xU/RS" It provides a sense of en6oyment and contentment for people who want to appreciate nature. H + / L { " It provides natural trails for educational purpose. H]" 2.. What is meant b sustainable development? B ) ? ? !ustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. B)?_L{qSbElSL{2q? F" 21. What is the importance of sustainable development? B ) ? &8 ? It is based on conservation and the sustainable use of natural resources, ma.ing use of efficient economic development to achieve the goal of creating a society with improving Cuality of life.

221

*H8/B)M?S&R?SD6qjP AF" !ustainable development offers a number of potential benefits. These include> B)?B9DHX 1. 9educed wastage %eg. through energy savings)? K%VWP8)$ 2. Improved health and reduced economic burden on health care? P45S4$ 3. $ore efficient land use and improved amenity from outdoor areas? &R(R6PRS5>$ *. Greater community ownership of Cuality of life issues. mPA9&Fc$ 2. Greater competitive advantage as 8ong Dong@s regional and international image as a clean, safe and sophisticated world city is enhanced. tHci/6q\ /ITUESbt g" 22. )o' are fisheries managed in a sustainable 'a in )ong 5ong? t % Wu D B ) ? ? 1. >mplementing fishing moratorium :ishing is forbidden each year from Lune to August in !outh "hina !ea. This gives time for fish to grow and reproduce. 07ZHGiS&+.0" 2. 7rohibiting destructive fishing methods Z Y F 8 S The use of e plosive, cyanide, electricity and bottom trawling are prohibited by law. Z\ Q\ 2 J _ S " !. Eunning of the artificial reef pro2ect U s +ut boulders, construction wastes in appropriate sites to build artificial fish reef so as to provide habitats for marine organisms. HF;RD@S)>-[_sS%0" #. @iving advice on a3uaculture % * #evelop fish farming %farming of fish, shrimps and shellfish) rather than sea fishing. It reduces the burden on wild fisheries. ?%0\\8)b"9:SB" 2!. )o' are forestr managed in a sustainable 'a in )ong 5ong?

222

t Wu D B ) ? ? 1. :orests are protected by law +V "ontrol deforestation for agricultural, industrial and urbani0ation purpose. D\s/Uc?" 2. Afforestation programs 9eforest areas where fires have occurred. $?TU" 3. +revention of fire $ "reate fire lines for prevention of fire. \D$[" #uring the fire season from Actober to April, A:"# fire crews are on duty to detect and fight hill fires within country par.s. 77$LS%HHBWS #$" *. :orest certification system + This system assures the timber is obtained from well,managed and conserved forests to avoid destruction of the wild forest. B+" P/}SDYF"

2#. )o' are agriculture managed in a sustainable 'a in )ong 5ong? t Wu D B ) ? ? Arganic farming is the .ey of environment protection as well as sustainable agricultural development. It uses organic fertili0ers and organic pest control method in crop rotation. &+}/7)?S*1)9&++[/&+| " 1. Drganic fertili4ers &++[ "ompost is the most common form of organic fertili0er. It is made up of animal manure and waste plant material recycled from farm. Bnder aerobic condition, the bacteria will decompose the organic matter into compost. +&++[S*(*/-[,-SH& S )&+2-+[" Arganic fertili0ers contain a lot of nutrients reCuired by plants and it helps to hold soil particles together %improve aeration and water retaining ability). The use of compost not only provides nutrients to crops but also reduces pollution problems by recycling the waste material. &++[DI%SB)(]H6SpP/npS +BSCBg-|}k "

223

2. Drganic pest control & + | Arganic pesticides such as matrine and derris root e tract are used to control pest. They will be decomposed naturally and will not accumulate in body tissues. &+|,_WvZn_:|S|,12S H,cZ%" 7iological control is the other way of pest control. The pest is either .illed by using its predator %ladybird is used to control cottony cushion scale) or by bacterial and worm infections. 6 | S6 |%W|< |)S) )||S |x" !. Crop rotation ) +articular nutrients will be depleted Cuic.ly if a single type of plant is grown on a field for a long time. "rop rotation can prevent this by growing of different types of plants in different seasons, or different years. The advantages are as follow> S.16R96SQS)H) SB")W> !oil can remain fertile for a longer of time. *.=+" It interrupts the host,specific pest life cycle and reduces the pest population. *QdwP8|#S|" Growing of leguminous plants in crop rotation can increase soil fertility as nitrogen fi ing bacteria live in the root nodules of these plants. 1)ABp(+pS 1 _ : "

22*

Check point (&1) 1. What is a microorganisms? i ? :icroorganisms are very small organisms that can only be seen under the microscope including protista, algae %unicellular=microscopic), bacteria, cyanobacteria %blue green bacteria), fungi and viruses. i SiB*S*=@\6(-i )\\Z(Z)\]" 2. What is the structure of a virus? ] & ? A virus consists of nucleic acids %either #<A or 9<A) surrounded by a protein coat. It has no nucleus, cytoplasm, cell organelles, cell wall or cell membrane. ]I&(&6S "!A .!A)Sy=&hiASX&\ A\ L\~/<" !. )o' do viruses multipl ? ] Wu 0 ? /iruses can only multiply inside living host cells. The ma6or stages of multiplication are as follows> ]Hw0SwNW> 1. 6ttachment V: It adheres to the bacterium by its tail. *tRV1|}" 2. 7enetration : The tail sheath contracts. The cell wall of the bacterium is punctured and the #<A strand of the phage is in6ected into the bacterium. The protein coat remains outside and ta.es no further part in the reproductive process. t_=S~;Sv[ "!A [ShiGH1 [S*H0kX&" 3. =ios nthesis and replication Q-6M: +hage #<A codes for production of phage en0ymes using protein synthesi0ing machinery of host. +hage inactivates and brea.s down host #<A and phage #<A ta.es over cell machinery. +hage #<A replicates itself. ie. ma.e new viral proteins and new viral nucleic acids. ] "!A _w]sSsBQYFw "!ASHS] "!A B:Sv[TUMS ]hiA"

222

*. 6ssembl ,: After about 2' minutes, new phage particles are generated by assembly of protein coats around phage #<A. 1'' to 3'' complete phages are formed. 2Shi-] "!A S-]]lSB 6$$q]]l" 2. Eelease M: ;yso0yme made by phage #<A causes cell lysis releasing phages to infect other bacterial hosts if available, or if not, each can remain dormant indefinitely. ] "!A _ S ) ~ SM ] ]l `2SWX&Fw=S*BDIKl" #. "tate the gro'th re3uirement of microorganisms. wM i . " %1) %2) %3) %*) %2) %&) %3) %4) 1ater n2 <utrition Temperature 3 A ygen !alinity p8 Z Asmotic pressure gArganic growth factors &+.l

$. )o' do microorganisms gro'? i Wu p . ? $ost microorganisms divide into two identical individuals by binary fission when they reach a suitable si0e. The process repeatd regularly and the population of microorganisms increases e ponentially in favourable conditions. ;i6N[ZSR2D20S62S?8RGSH& }SiDmF#^p." &. "tate the different stages of gro'th in microorganisms. wM i . " 1. ;ag phase 2. ;og phase m 3. !tationary phase / *. #eath phase xY

22&

(. Explain lag phase. " Growth is slow at first, while the microbes acclimate to the food and nutrients in their new habitat. They are immature and not yet able to divide. .Si'HF}S2-SG23" *. Explain log phase. m It is the favourable condition for growth, the organisms multiply at a rapid rate. $ost individuals are reproductive mature and there are plenty of food. <umber doubles every few minutes. HX&SDj$p.SKq[w8-Sb K{S12B" +. Explain stationar phase. / The population density reaches ma imum and becomes constant. Avercrowding and competition occur. <utrient starts to decrease and to ic wastes accumulate. bNS?SS&-Z%" 1.. Explain death phase. x Y To ic waste products build up, food is depleted and the microbes begin to die. #eath rate e ceeds birth rate, resulting in a decrease in number of individuals. Z%IK&-SSixYSxY1MSq[ " 11. %escribe the procedures in viable count. 45 N " %1) $a.e the appropriate ten,fold serial dilutions F;wf" %2) Inoculation of the bacteria onto the algar plate. )O1k9" %3) Incubation 3" %*) "ounting the cells %2) "alculation

223

12. %escribe the procedures in optical densit count. 45 ' N " A spectrophotometer is used to measure the percentage of light transmission through a liCuid microbial culture, which is inversely proportional to the population of microorganisms. The larger the percentage of light transmission, the smaller is the microbial population. The population can be wor. out by reference to the A.#. population table. 2trMgi^$2S6ir-SBK gSBiSv|'mir|SBMir" 1!. %escribe the procedures in direct count. 45 hO N "
The samples are observed under a microscope. 7y using a cell counter, the number of bacterial cells from a given volume of sample is counted, dead cells are also counted too. 7y using the .nown volume trapped in the grid, the density of the microorganism can be wor.ed out. )1iSLS6Nr;S=x" wJ[rSMi"

1#. %escribe the procedures in biomass count. 45 r N " It involves e tracting the microorganisms from the liCuid culture and weighting it directly. The microorganisms are obtained by getting the residues after centrifugation. The residues are then dried by heating at 1''o" for 1' hours. The dried residue is weighted and can represent the population of the microorganisms. :2iH2rSiB{+p:S9%&H 1))o, 3 1) =SHr%&SB7Mr" 1$. Explain the importance of aseptic techni3ues.. 8" Aseptic techniCues are the precautionary measures ta.en to prevent contamination of pure cultures and sterile laboratory eCuipment. 1e must treat all organisms as potential pathogens for sa.e of safety. $any of the organisms can be opportunistic in their abilities to cause infection. /hL # S H ) %& i ; ] @[ DSJKi'B+8" 1&. What are aseptic techni3ues? u V ? Aseptic techniCues are the procedures used to e clude unwanted microorganisms in order to avoid contamination. It involves sterili0ing eCuipment and culture media before and after use for safe disposal. iS H N S*= H h ) L/ S"

224

1(. %escribe the method of making solid medium. 45 [ " 1. 7oil agar powder = pieces with nutrient solution. kgn6-" 2. The resulting mi ture is poured into sterili0ed petri dishes. Add cover. )%sTwS9<l" 3. The petri dishes with agar solution are sterili0ed by heating under pressure in an autoclave. )&kT- SD 3 - " *. After sterili0ation, let the liCuid agar solidifies at room temperature. A petri dish containing solidified nutrient agar is called an agar plate. It is ready to culture bacteria. SkHp3-[S&[kHBkS *wBD"" 1*. %escribe the method of making li3uid medium. 45[ "
1. #issolve the necessary nutrient in distilled water.

)%qTn"
2. The resulting mi ture %nutrient broth) is poured into sterili0ed test tubes.

)%([)sTw"
3. The test tubes with nutrient broth are sterili0ed by heating under pressure in an autoclave.

)&T- SD 3 - "
*. After sterili0ation, the mouth of test tube is covered with a plug of cotton. It is ready to culture bacteria.

SH9<S*wBD"" 1+. %escribe the streak plate method in inoculating the culture medium. 45 O = e ^ " 1. The inoculating loop is first sterili0ed by heating it to red hot. O}OI(PD" 2. The loop is allowed to cool down for 1' seconds. O}" 3. The loop is dipped into a broth containing the bacteria. )O}<I&[" *. The loop is stro.ed across the surface of agar in a series of continuous ! shaped movements. O}Hk|}^SMKT)E^" 2. The loop is sterili0ed again by heating, stro.ed across the surface again after cool down on unstro.ed area. )O}k(SHk|}^c)^" 2.. Wh should the gro'ing microorganisms be incubated? i q 3 ? An incubator can control the temperature as well as the concentration of o ygen and carbon dio ide inside its chamber. This can promote microbial growth. 3;B3\ 4 / Q 4 SB i ."

225

21. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of different counting methods. r S " Counting method rS
/iable count

6dvantages
"an distinguish viable and dead.

%isadvantages
<o instant result and laborious.

B26x"

B=!/LM"
!ome microorganisms cannot be cultured.

&i"
Aptical density count "onvenient and has instant result. <ot applicable to low population.

'
#irect count

S/B=!"
Instant result and simple instrument.

F1Ir"
"annot distinguish viable and dead, and very often bacteria are too small to be detected.

hO

B=!/L4"

B26xSJK= -1"
7iomass count -asy way to obtain data.

J"

<ot accurate for low population. "annot distinguish viable and dead,

1Ir=4SB2 6x" Check point (&2) 1. "tate all the beneficial aspects of microorganisms. wM i m " 1. 2. 3. *. 2. &. 3. 4. :ood production :ood processing s /accines uH Antibiotics Industrial en0ymes s !ewage treatment n 7iogas production q +ollution indicating organism _

2. Explain the use of microorganisms in producing food. H 9Wu i " Bnicellular microorganisms are grown and used as single,cell proteins for livestoc. and human consumption. $ycoprotein produced by fungi as a meat substitute is an e ample. iB-hi;)hOSVl:hiu +"

23'

!. )o' are microorganism used in producing health food? Wu i 1 45 +" $icroorganisms rich in certain nutrients can be used as health food. -g. !pirulina is used to produce powder capsules as a dietary supplement. It is added to normal food products, such as mil.. IQiB45+SW{B-FK,S) T+SW" #. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using single1cell protein? hi " 6dvantages
8igh production rate due to high growth rate.

%isadvantages
!ingle,cell proteins are colourless and tasteless.

hiIDIE"
+roduct safety and Cuality have to be concerned.

S&. "
They can be easily genetically modified for varying the amino acid composition.

+/Aq{"
!ome bacterial and fungal protein have amino acids different from animal proteins.

JD - " 8igh protein content. hiAIr"


"heap or waste materials are used to grow microbes, may help in the removal of

&/ 6 "
The conseCuences to humans after long term consumption are still not Cuite clear.

pollutants. B-SB " ;and reCuirements is low. (Rq"


<o religious and ethical issues.

.C2f"

The reCuired eCuipment and production process are e pensive.

L/?Sg" X&!9"
As it is come from microbes, may not be accepted by some of the customers.

(ib"SHO" $. Explain the use of microorganisms in food processing. H s 9Wu i " 1. Alcoholic fermentation by yeast. s6" 2. 7a.ing of bread. The carbon dio ide released by yeast is used to raise the dough so that the bread becomes porous and soft. =S:?s=s%M Q H 8 = = A " 3. +roduction of butter and cheese %by some species of +enicillium). B9()" *. +roduction of yoghurt %by bacteria). 9()" 2. +roduction of vinegar %by fungi).

231

()" &. Explain the use of microorganisms in vaccines production. H u H 9Wu i " !ome diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms. 1hole microorganisms, their components %eg. antigens) or products %eg. to ins) are used to produce vaccines to induce immunity against diseases. &](]8iSqi)R2[(W@)) +(W)Bu HO u " 1hole agent vaccine> uH: /accines containing whole microorganisms which are either wea.ened or .illed. uHI&qiSPwx)Xi" !ubunit vaccine> kuH: /accines containing components of a pathogen rather than the whole organism %eg. outer surface protein) uHI&R2ib[SW|}hi" (. Explain the use of microorganisms in producing antibiotics. Wu i " Antibiotics are substances produced by microorganisms that inhibit or .ill other microorganisms. They can be used to treat infections inside the body of both humans and animals. eg. penicillin. Bx`2i)*.S*Bf/]SVW " In its mass production, the fungus grows in large fermenter. The growing fungus secretes the antibiotic into the culture medium. The culture medium is filtered to obtain the liCuid filtrate. Antibiotics in the filtrate can then be e tracted and purified. 1r= .S. S& H M ?sL 1S;D9:S`;pM"/D" *. Explain the use of microorganisms in industrial en4 mes production. H s 9Wu i " $icroorganisms are widely used to produce en0ymes which are used in many industries. i1 s " 1. 7iological washing powder> 8: $icroorganisms are usd to produce various en0ymes, such as amylase, lipase and protease to brea. down stains on clothes. i" SW \k hi S B D 9 " 2. :ruit 6uice e traction> $:: -n0ymes ae used to increase the volume of 6uice produced and the speed of e traction. +ectinase is used to digest pectin in cell walls and helps release more 6uice than can be achieved by sCuee0ing. +ectinase can also ma.e the 6uice clearer and sweeter.

232

F; B p $ : [ Z / :$ S F B2n ~S)FDS1$p:=ShO:9K$SF B $/8" +. Explain the use of microorganisms in se'age treatment. H n 9Wu i " In secondary treatment, aerobic microorganisms present in the sewage or added from the previously digested sludge brea. down the organic wastes into harmless inorganic compounds in aerobic condition. H n S q i H& S ) & + 2 I I+ " The sludge is digested by anaerobic microorganisms in the digester to produce methane gas. & ' @d Q l S1 S; i 2 " 1.. Explain the use of microorganisms in biogas production. H q 9Wu i " 7iogas consists mainly of methane which is an e cellent fuel. It burns cleanly and is produced from the fermentation of organic wastes in a digester. qw-2 S*6 [ S S(& + H Q l ? s b " In the digester, the organic wastes are bro.en down by different types of anaerobic microorganisms, including methogens, into methane. HQlS i S ^ ` S ) & + 2 " 11. )o' can microorganisms be used as pollution indicating organism? i WuB 1 _ ? -. coli is a .ind of bacteria that is freCuently used as a biological indicator of water pollution %both marine and fresh water). The number of it increases with the degree of pollution caused by organic matters %li.e human and animal faeces). !ince faeces are a potential vector for spreading intestinal pathogens, detection of it in water sources suggests the water has a high ris. of causing intestinal diseases. The water source is not safe for human consumption or leisure activities. -. coli nA _ n/ n F S* r ?(& + %W /*) ? p b p S * ! ] [SSHn[M)|&!]bSPn8F)"

233

12. What is recombinant %96 technolog ? u V , %96 B ? A fragment of #<A %containing the target gene) from one organism combines with the #<A of a different organism. The resulting #<A contains a new combination of genes from two different organisms. This new #<A is called recombinant #<A. 6 "!A(I&)6 6 "!A SE- "!A I&,S "!A , "!A" 1!. What are geneticall modified organisms? ? Arganisms produced by recombinant #<A technology are called transgenic or genetically modified organisms, of which the ma6ority are microorganisms. (, #<A B C ) S`R2' i " 1#. Explain the use of geneticall modified microorganisms. i " G$ microorganisms have great contributions to medical, industrial and agricultural areas. They are the living factories for producing drugs, hormones, en0ymes and vaccines. i1fg\s9S* \\ u H s " - ample %1)> Insulin is produced by G$ bacteria. (%" - ample %2)> 8epatitis 7 vaccine is produced by G$ yeasts %a gene codes for protein coat in hepatitis 7 virus is introduced into the yeast cell). )AuH(s%%))]his) - ample %3)> The en0ymes reCuired by the synthesis of fructose are produced by G$ bacteria. 1 U ( % " 1$. "tate the potential ha4ards of the applications of geneticall modified microorganisms. M i H b " 1. It may enhance the development of super pathogens. BM]@[" 2. It may upset the ecological balance when G$ microorganisms accidentally released into the nature. ;RH}SBl" 3. It may be used as biological weapon by terrorist. B;2lL"

23*

Check point (&!) 1. )o' do viruses cause diseases? ] Wu ] ? All viruses are parasites. They use the host machinery in reproduction and upset the physiological balance of the infected cell. They .ill the host cell when new viral particles leave and burst the cells and so resulting in disease. %&]'S*wL0Saw ]l=SY3SbxSb]" S;]

2. )o' do bacteria cause diseases? Wu ] ? 7acteria multiply among body cells and cause various types of tissue damage. They may produce en0ymes to digest host tissues. !ome release to ins into the tissue fluid which is then circulated throughout body by bloodstream, 7acterial to ins often cause fevers, muscle spasms, vomiting, diarrhea, heart damage and respiratory failure. H0m,c"-YFS* Q w , c S&H, c S(StuSS0\{E" !. )o' do protists cause diseases? @Wu ] ? +rotists include microscopic algae and proto0oan. They cause disease by producing to ins or by releasing en0ymes that disturb the normal functioning of the host cells. !ome invade the host cell and cause massive death of it %eg. malaria). @=i/@S*B2)M S Sb]S&m%W)SrxY" #. )o' do fungi cause diseases? Wu ] ? :ungi grow on or 6ust below the surface of the bodies of the patients. They cause diseases by secreting en0ymes to brea. down the host tissues and absorb the digested nutrients. 1[|})|S* D Q w , c S ) _ " $. What are food1borne diseases? ] ? :ood,borne diseases are caused by eating food contaminated with pathogens. ](T]@[ b " There are two types> food,borne infections and food poisoning caused by microbial to ins. &x> (i" &. Explain food1borne infection 'ith a suitable example.

232

Vl " !almonellosis is a food,borne infection caused by bacteria of the genus !almonella. n{]6(n{]" The bacteria live in the intestine of infected humans and livestoc. such as chic.ens and duc.s. Therefore, food contaminated by faeces may contain !almonella bacteria. The symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting and a slight fever. 1/&%W)!S * S& + n{S=>?\00Rp" (. Explain food poisoning caused b microbial toxins 'ith a suitable example. Vl( i " 7acterial to ins > 7otulism is a type of food poisoning caused by a bacterium called "lostridium. The bacterial to in is very to ic. +atients may have double vision and drooping eyelids, slurred speech, dry mouth, difficulty swallowing and wea. muscles. !evere case is fatal. u%])6(uSSp \\\\-tuIp"=B#" *. What is microbial deterioration? i ? 1. #eterioration of food X $any are saprophytes. They cause food decay and food poisoning. JKiS*" 2. #eterioration of manFs belongings X 1ood, wool, fur, paper, leather goods may be decayed by saprophytic micro,organisms. i+\;&\\~_" +. What happens to the foodstuff in food spoilage? = A&u C ? $ost spoilage involves the brea.down of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. R2'&hiA\k nQ2" +roteins are hydroly0ed to amino acids, amines, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. hiA;n \ \ / Q " :ats are hydroly0ed to fatty acids and glycerol, while carbohydrates are fermented into acids, alcohols and gases. k;nkOBb nQ ? s \ / ["

23&

1.. What are the favourable conditions for food spoilage? Hu J ? :ood spoilage is more li.ely when the food is rich in nutrients, o ygen and water are present and temperature and p8 conditions are suitable. HDJ? \ n2 K { \ 3 / Z F " 11. "tate some methods used to preserve food. MG S "
#eep free0ing, 9efrigeration, /acuum pac.ing, 8eating, "uring, +asteuri0ation, 7ottling and canning, Asmotic dehydration, +ic.ing, #rying,

:E\ \ n\n

\ 3\ T\ .\ /'\ \ g

Check point (&#) 1. What is biotechnolog ? s ? ?


7iotechnology involves the use of organisms, biological systems or processes in producing goods or providing services.

s?_\)? ) B " x VW > 2. @ive some examples of traditional biotechnolog . W s ? x 6Vl"


1. +roduce crops and animals with desirable characteristics by selecting the best varieties of organisms to breed. This is called selective breeding.

+TUUDMd&

Pu&S"

2. Bse microorganisms to produce bread, cheese, soya sauce, wine and beer.

iD=\9\B\7_" !. What is modern biotechnolog . @ive some examples. s ? S x 6Vl"


$odern biotechnology involves the manipulation of #<A, cells, tissues or biological processes for mass production of goods and services. It includes genetic engineering and cloning.

s?_ #<A\ \ ,c)?Dr ) " *= s ?x%M)x"

233

#. What is genetic engineering. s ? ? In genetic engineering, one gene or most commonly, a set of genes is ta.en out of the #<A of one organism and inserted into the #<A of another organism. It produces genetic products what human need. It modifies or creates new species. s?)6q)6,Q #<A p:M"S)*. 6 #<A S* % q +S) + " #. What is meant b cloning? x ? A clone is a group of genetically identical individuals %or cells) derived from the ase ual reproduction of a common ancestral cell. 1e can obtain a clone of cells by cell culture. %x)6,96%))S*6II80b"S Bg9:6q%x)" $. What are the functions of restriction en4 mesB %96 pol meraseB %96 ligaseB %96 probes and vectors in genetic engineering? \ %96 % \ %96 TO \ %96 w [H s ? S }& L ? Tool sd restriction en0yme #<A polymerase #<A % #<A ligase #<A TO #<A probes #<A w vectors [ :unction To cut double stranded #<A at specific sites. HPNzT #<A. To catalyse the synthesis of a new #<A strand against a template. DT #<A eS~Q #<A TTo catalyse the 6oining of complementary #<A fragments. ~Qxy #<A gyTO" To detect a gene of interest in a #<A sample. w #<A 7I& To act as a carrier to transfer a gene of interest into a host. S C w

&. Wh are plasmids suitable for use as vectors in recombinant %96 technolog ? A] F , %96 B [ ?
1. They are non,essential genes of the bacteria, but beneficial to the survival of them.

*HS&mG&"
2. They are small rings that the genes can be located by mapping easily.

*}SJN"
3. They ta.e up foreign #<A readily. *O_"`2 #<A" *. They can be transferred easily between bacteria.

*BDHC"
2. They can replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome and e ist in multiple copies.

234

*BDC1D[SMSBDMKqA]" (. =riefl describe the basic principle of recombinant %96 technolog . 45, %96 B @ "
1. Abtaining #<A fragments of desired gene.

9:gy Abtain #<A fragments from blood, saliva, semen and bones, etc. \\0_9: "!A gy"
2. "utting out the #<A of the desired gene.

3M "!A The desired gene is cut into small sections by using restriction en0ymes. ) - y "
3. Inserting the gene into a vector.

.["
The plasmids in bacteria are often used as vectors. The plasmid is also cut open by restriction en0ymes first. The recombination of genes is carried out with the aid of the en0yme #<A ligase.

A]=[SA]I S A] TOq "!A T O \ "


*. Insertion of the vector into a host cell.

)[w" The vector %recombinant plasmid) carrying the desired gene is inserted into a host cell which allows the vector #<A to replicate. The host cell can be a bacterium, a yeast cell or a mammalian cell. They treat the foreign #<A as its own. &[%,A])wSwBD\s\) S*)M" *. What are the applications of recombinant %96 technolog ? , %96 B & P ? It can be used in producing useful products %eg. human insulin and growth hormone) and genetically modified organisms %G$As). B1 & %VW> . )/" +. )o' to select the transformed bacteria? Wu C Q ? To select the transformed bacteria, plasmids carrying a mar.er such as an antibiotic resistance gene are used as vectors. eg. The recombinant plasmid carries both #<A encoding human insulin and antibiotic resistance gene. 1hen the bacteria carry this recombinant plasmids are e posed to an antibiotic, only the transformed bacteria will survive. -CQS&m&8A][SVW>=& / 8,A]S ; & ,A] 1I& 9=S&-CQG""

235

1.. )o' to carr the recombinant plasmid into the plant cell? Wu ) ,A] ? $ethod 1> Bse bacterium mediated transformation technology to carry the recombinant plasmid into the plant cell %a biological method). eg. 7T corn. S 1> CQBS),A]%8S)SVW|j" $ethod 2> The target genes are fired into plant cells by using a gene gun %a physical method). 7efore using, the tungsten beads are coated with #<A which contains the target gene. Then tungsten beads are fired into the target plant cells. S 2> ?/% S)SHS & #<A H "|}SH ? / 11. )o' to carr the recombinant plasmid into the animal cell? Wu ) ,A] ? $ethod 1> $icroin6ectiona physical method. S 1> i/ S" 7y using a super fine micropipette, in6ect the e ogenous #<A directly into the fertili0ed ovum. `airS & 8 #<A /" $ethod 2> 7y using a retrovirusa biological method. S 2> C]S" A retrovirus %eg. tumor virus) is an 9<A virus that is duplicated in a host cell using the reverse transcriptase en0yme to produce #<A from its 9<A genome. The #<A is then incorporated into the hostFs genome. The pathogenic gene of the virus will be removed first before using. C]%VWY])6 9<A ]S*BwSC )* 9<A C- #<ASH] #<A w #<A SwM =)] #<A M"=I)]]D"

2*'

Check point (&$) 12. With an exampleB briefl describe the process of plant cloning. Vl4 d 5 M ? "
1. 9emove the somatic cells %meristematic tissues) from a tomato plant.

H:6[(2,c)"
2. +lace the cells into a sterile medium containing all necessary nutrients for growth and plant hormones for differentiation and development.

)1I&%&/"
3. Bnder suitable conditions, the cells divide and develop into a group of undifferentiated cells called callus.

HF}STU23?-6:2QS["
*. "ut the callus into pieces. Transfer a piece to a solid medium for the development of plantlets.

)[2-JKS`6[.S*.-6"
2. The mature cloned plant is regenerated.

MM6-" 1!. Explain the cloning process of the cloned sheep %oll . 4 M ; K M ? "
1. An unfertili0ed egg was collected from a sheep %A).

6T;(A):M"
2. The nucleus of the unfertili0ed egg was removed.

;"
3. A cell was ta.en from the mammary gland of the donor sheep %7).

6q;(0)[:M6q`" *. The nucleus from mammary gland cell wastransferred into the enucleated egg cell. `;" 2. The fused cell was incubated in a culture medium for si days to develop into an embryo %"). TS2?-6q(C)" &. The embryo which has the genes of the donor animal %7) was implanted into the uterus of another sheep %#) %the surrogate mother). 6;(0)&; 6 T ;(D)l3" 3. A baby sheep named #olly whose has genes identical to the donor %7) was born. 6q6@;(0)#M;K"

2*1

1#. "tate some applications of plant cloning. M M 6 "


To grow plants that are endangered, or economic importance which is hard to grow by traditional method. %eg. orchids)

!" (W)S)-DS] "


To produce disease,free plants by growing them in a sterile medium.

HI}SMX&]"
To rescue plants with diseases by culturing their unaffected tissues.

]:45,cS-S]"
To produce G$ plants from cells inserted with a desirable gene.

S-"

Those plants and animal stoc.s with high yield, better taste and high nutritional value Cualities can be produced without afraid the losing of the desirable characters through se ual reproduction.

P+W r \ E ! / ] _SBg M r b S k {H&80_Pu" 1$. "tate some applications of animal cloning. M M 6 "
To produce good Cuality farm animals or endangered animals.

0+A&)!""
To produce genetically identical animals for use in drug tests or research.

-2 "
To provide stem cells for medical treatment.

fg L "
To mass produce G$ animals for manufacturing of drugs and chemicals.

r D 9: )Q ' +"
Those plants and animal stoc.s with high yield, better taste and high nutritional value Cualities can be produced without afraid the losing of the desirable characters through se ual reproduction.

P+W r \ E ! / ] _SBg M r b S k {H&80_Pu" 1&. Explain the process of pol merase chain reaction. % T ? "
1. !amples are heated to 5&o" for several minutes to denature %separate into single strands) the target #<A.

zT DNA H 16 C (2(8)-T DNA"


2. The temperature is lowered to 22 o" for several minutes allowing the forward %left) and bac.ward %right) primers to anneal %attach themselves to the single #<A strands) to their complementary seCuences on either side of the target seCuence.

0?3 55 C 2STUxqlTO1T6"
3. The temperature is raised to at 32 o" for several minutes allowing #<A polymerase to attach at each priming site and e tends %synthesi0e) a new #<A strand.

3, 22 C 2S DNA %V?1ql9SrSTU[. -M"


*. At the end of cycle one, two #<A molecules are formed.

H(6)tSE-xzT DNA
2. The temperature is raised to 5& o" again, denaturing the target #<A as in cycle one. The cycle is repeated for many times.

2*2

3k, 16 CSW(6)7) DNA 8SW6kG@ "PN DNA DTM" 1(. "tate some examples of the applications of 7CE. x M6 % T Vl"
1. #etection of hereditary diseases from early embryo.

D & X & ] "


2. +reparation of genetic fingerprints from crime scene.

k_"
3. #iagnosis of infectious diseases %eg. !A9!).

j](VWz=)"
*. "loning of genes.

M"
2. +aternity testing.

olN"
&. Amplify #<A from the remains of historical figures or e tinct species for studies.

pv)% DNASTUO"
3. In human genome pro6ect, amplify the interested genes for investigation.

TU,=S

qOp"

1*. Explain the basic principle of %96 fingerprinting. %96 _ 2 t @ "


1. Anly 2( of human #<A codes for functional proteins. The remaining #<A has no function and is called non1coding %96.

& 2( #<A 1hiAS&S %96"


2. Among the non,coding #<A, there are highly variable regions called variable number tandem repeats (?9/Es). Each ?9/E consists of repetitive base se3uence of +1*. base pairs .

H #<A &BciS_ci18D['BDS*B OM(?9/Es)Sq ?9/E ( +1*. qZmMK-"


3. #<A fingerprinting is based on the detection of differences in /<T9s between individuals. #<A _2t@

Mq[ /<T9 e"

1+. )o' does gel electrophoresis help in %96 fingerprinting? > F Wu \ %96 _ 2 t ?
Electrophoresis is a techniCue used to separate molecules of different electrical charge or molecular weights. It can be used to separate #<A or 9<A fragments from one another according to their si0es.

6"2& [ZS *2"

)2lr2lS"*B:H #<A ) 9<A g

2*3

2.. "tate some applications of %96 fingerprinting. M %96 _ 2 t 6 " 1. ;orensic science A'<
It helps to find out the truth of the crime.

*Nk>h" 2. 7arentage tests ol<


!. Dther applications `2: Identify victims in disasters.

N-x"
"onfirming the pedigree of animals.

N"
#etecting some inherited diseases.

NQ]"
$onitoring bone marrow transplants

0"
-volution studies.

TQO"
#istinguish between natural food and G$ food.

NHb" Check point (&&) 1. Cite some example of pharmaceutical products made b biotechnolog . M6 s ? fg +"
8uman insulin, human growth hormones, vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.

\ .\ u H x [" 2. With an exampleB explain the process of production of subunit vaccine (antigenic protein). Vl k u H (@8hi ) ? "
1. The gene for producing the surface protein of the hepatitis 7 virus is inserted into a plasmid.

)]|}hiA]"
2. The recombinant plasmid is then introduced into a yeast cell.

),A]s"
3. The viral gene direct the production of viral suface protein in the G$ yeast cells.

]_s]hi"
*. The protein is collected and purified for in6ection.

_`hiAuH/" !. What are monoclonal antibodies? x [ ?


They are antibodies produced by the cell clones derived from a single parent 7 cell.

*(6 7 M"x% ["

2**

#. "tate some applications of monoclonal antibodies. M x [6 "


1. ;or diagnosis of disease

j]
!ome monoclonal antibodies can recogni0e the surface proteins of cancer cells.

&x[BX|}hi"
2. ;or isolating and purif ing important biological molecules

2l2/
$onoclonal antibodies are coated on the surface of beads. 1hen solution containing the wanted molecules pass through, the molecules bind to the antibody and is retained. These molecules can be collected later by special washing procedures.

)x[1l|}S;I&2lP=S2l [SDSP?SB92l"
!. ;or use of sensitive test

sd
eg. 8ome pregnancy tests. #uring pregnancy, 8"G is present in urine. 8"G can bind to the monoclonal antibody and cause a colour change.

VWS=SI&'&<8`%8"G)S8"G x[ S k D 9 C "
#. /reatment of cancers

fX
$onoclonal antibodies are used in the treatment of some forms of cancer such as breast cancer and lung cancer. !ome antibodies are lin.ed with to ic drug or a radioactive substance. The antibodies recogni0e and attach to a cancer cell, then release the drugs to .ill the cell %targeted therapy) .

x[B"fX=X_XS&[9)/8AS[ /VHXSM)Xx(lg)" $. What are the basis of gene therap ? g @ ?


To treat a disease by supplementing the defective gene with a normal gene.

BDg] &. %istinguish bet'een germ line and somatic gene therap . 2 g 6 [ g " germ line gene therapy g It affects gametes or 0ygotes $%l)l Genetic correction is inheritable gB somatic gene therapy [g It affects somatic cells. $%[ Genetic correction is not inheritable gB

2*2

(. "tate the potential benefits of gene therap . M g "


1. Treatment of genetic diseases caused by the loss of a functional protein.

f(hiA%]"
2. Treatment of cancers and infectious diseases. The new gene or gene product may inhibit the activity of cancer cells or pathogens.

fX]S)` +) 5 X / ] @[ "
3. A preventive measure against diseases. eg. A gene codes for an en0yme may protect heart tissues from damage when the o ygen level falls.

B]SVWQB6P S { 1 = "
*. Germ line gene therapy may correct a disease before it happens. It may help the removal of all defective genes in human.

gB]MS*)&D%&B" *. "tate the potential ha4ards of gene therap . M g H " + "


1. /iral vectors may regain its disease causing ability during operation.

][H?B9]p"
2. /iral vectors may cause severe immune reactions. eg. A young man died a few days after gene therapy in 1555 because he is allergic to the vector.

][BuSVl: H 1/// S61gxYS *m]["


3. The insertion of new genes may affect the e pression of e isting genes. eg. some patients die of blood cancer after gene therapy. The point of insertion may be the locus of a gene involved in cell division.

.B$%@&|SVl:&]gx1XS@" .23"
*. The new genes may be wrongly transported into non,target cells. This results in other health problems.

[B)>S`245"
2. Treatments may have to be repeated as the treated cells die and are replaced.

gBGTUSxY;a" +. Explain the nature of stem cells. A"


!tem cells are the body@s VmasterW cells. They can renew themselves indefinitely and differentiate into any types of speciali0ed cells, such as muscles, nerves, organs, bone, blood and so on.

[ w S*BUI2Q&uPQSVWtu\ \01_"

2*&

1.. "uggest some uses of stem cells in future treatment. )" B f ] ?


1. It provides advance treatment for patients with a range of diseases such as>

ITg(9;v)Df6w]SW
%a) To cure 7arkinsonAs disease by transplanting stem cells into the patient@s brain.

]ZRDf]"
%b) To cure heart disease by transplanting stem cells into the diseased heart.

]{Df{]"
%c) To cure leu.emia by producing new bone marrow for the patients who are suffering from leu.emia.

][0Dfi]"
%d) To cure diabetes mellitus by transplanting stem cells into the diseased pancreas.

] D f U ] "
2. This technology %developing) may be used to generate tissues and organs for transplantation so that the need for organ donation could be significantly reduced.

B(O)B" , c /L L S )"q L B "


%a) To cure heart diseases by cloning a new heart to replace the diseased one.

M6q45{":]{Df{]"
%b) To cure hepatits by cloning a new healthy liver to replace the diseased one.

M6q45":?]Df" 11. What are transgenic organisms? C ?


They are organisms whose genetic material has been altered through genetic engineering.

*As?" 12. What are the differences bet'een genetic modification and traditional breeding? 6 &
@enetic modification /raditional breeding

1. Isolation and transfer of well,defined genes. 8igh accuracy of transfer.

"rossing of thousands of genes at one time. ;ow accuracy of transfer.

)PN2/CS4"
2. Introduction of desired genes across the species barrier

'NUDS4"
Gene transfer usually within,species. H+C"

)%qH+C"
3. :aster and less costly $ore time consuming in the process of observation and natural selection to achieve the desired characteristics.

$]"

q=1/D9%qPu"

2*3

*. #esired change can be achieved in one generation

"annot be achieved in one generation.

16"

q6B%qPu" 1!. With an exampleB explain the beneficial aspect of @: plant. Vl C "
Crop !oybean @: trait Pu 8erbicide tolerance 6dvantages 1eeds can be .illed simply by spraying a herbicide instead of cutting.

"orn

BoD,
Insect resistance

hOD,BSq&D"
+lants can produce to in which .ill caterpillars but safe to human.

j
Tomato

Bo|
#elay softening of tissue

B x&| m I "
:ruits with longer shelf life and better Cuality.

,cAQ Bo\

B&.G+A"
"rops can grow in winter, dy climates and saline lands.

9ice and wheat cold, drought and salty j tolerance

SBH\}(."

1#. With an exampleB explain the beneficial aspect of @: animal. Vl C "


6nimal !almon @: trait Pu :ast growing 6dvantages It decreases overfishing of wild salmon.

+ig

$. KuSk
+roduce lactose,free mil.

" E45"

$ore lean meat and less fat :ood is more delicious and healthy. It is suitable for people who cannot tolerate lactose.

Goats

$;
!heep

IU
+roduce more wool with better Cuality

F&U"
It increase wool production and improves Cuality.

K+;&

;& r /+A"

2*4

Check point (&() 1. 8ist some issues of @: ;ood 'hich are related to the belo' aspects. w x 6 6 D >& " %a) !afety issues %b) -thical issues ! %c) !ocial and economic issues F %d) -nvironmental issues } "afet issues
G$ food may cause allergics in some people.

mQ"
Antibiotic resistance genes are often used in screening of G$ organisms. If these genes are transferred to pathogens accidentally, super bacteria may be produced which is difficult to .ill.

8"SSC ]@[SB - D x " Ethical issues !


The production of G$As act li.e the role of @od which will not be accepted by most people.

^W9%SKO"
!ome people may worry about eating a food containing a gene from something they would not eat for religious reasons.

6TI&;O" "ocial and economic issues F


#eveloped countries have more money to invest on the production of G$ foods. The G$ foods are more competitive in mar.et and may affect the living of farmers in developing countries.

?&Kj61 9S HU9&8S$%? u" Environmental issues }


There may be unintended modification of similar species in the neighbouring fields due to cross pollination.

m}&H"+XPfM-DC\ m`2"-"
If herbicide resistance genes are transferred to weeds, super 'eeds may be produced which is difficult to control.

S,C9SB - D "

2*5

It will disturb the balance of ecos stems.

alSYFH] "

22'

2. 8ist some issues of cloning 'hich are related to the belo' aspects. w x 6 6 D >& x " %a) -thical issues ! %b) !ocial and economic issues F %c) -nvironmental issues } Ethical issues !
:or human cloning>

HM:
+eople produced from cloning may be regarded as unnatural or sub1human.

MSH)_"
It is difficult to set up relationship between the clone and the nucleus donor and his family.

M6/`-DN"
1hat will be the identit of the cloneX !hould he have his own identiey or share the identity of the nucleus donorX

M32&M3C6+ 3
This promotes the GuniparentF trend in human society and is against the culturally and naturally developed Fbiparent societyF.

HF"-ogSH9/ &jBAM"
9ich peoples may clone themself for organ transplant.

9zoQ"

9ich peoples may use the technology to produce servants to serve their needs.

&jBMML" "ocial and economic issues F Environmental issues }


Animal cloning reCuires e pensive eCuipment. This increases cost and hence price for food produced by this method.

MqgLSp +-SB CK 9"


-ndangered animals are suffering from loss of habitats. -ven the cloning is successful, the cloned one still have no place to live. !hould we put our money on habitat conservation, rather than cloningX

!"1ISM-SCIRS7 )86193
It may limit the gene pool as only a minority of the genes in the species is cloned.

S&+r;M"

221

!. 8ist some issues of human genome pro2ect 'hich are related to the belo' aspects. w x 6 6 D >& , " %a) ;egal issues %b) -thical issues ! %c) !ocial and economic issues F 8egal issues
Who o'ns and controls genetic informationX

&[3
Who should have access to personal genetic information, and how will it be usedinsurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies, and the military, among othersX

&:q[SbB\ w \ \ ' \ _ + \ S5)`23 [Wu3


!uppose a gene related to violence is found, can the possession of it be an excuse to prove someone innocent in courtX

S6qp&SH9S&B7I (" Ethical issues !


If there is no cure for a certain genetic disease, what is the benefit of diagnosing the diseaseX 1ould such a diagnosis cause anxiet to the patientX

SQ] S6 D ! & ] &u 3 j]K ~"


)o' 'ould one feel, if he is genetically different from the normX

SQ?Mf1S2&3 "ocial and economic issues F


;ife style can also affect the e pression of some genetic diseases. It may be better to promote health life st les rather than merely focusing on the cause of the diseases.

SFB$%]?]S)JK8745 SFSb%[1]-9"
The analysis of #<A of an individual results in the classification of people carrying genetic diseases as handicaps if their genetic information is disclosed. These people will be discriminated and their opportunities of getting a 6ob, buying insurance or admission to certain groups are lowered.

DNA 2tq]SS[;BS&] );%;SgH";S2Hs9S b9SQ:[9-"

222

#. 8ist some issues of gene therap 'hich are related to the belo' aspects. w x 6 6 D >& g " %a) !afety issues %b) -thical issues ! %c) !ocial and economic issues F "afet issues
/iral vectors may cause severe immune reactions as some patients are allergic to the vector

][BuS&]m][ "
/iral vectors may regain its disease causing abilit during operation.

][H?B9]p" Ethical issues !


It is hard to decide 'hen gene therap should be used. !hould it only apply to no cure diseasesX

-1RNu=qgS71I`2g]3
1here is the line between medical treatment and enhancementX

WuNf'g[Q^3
Germ line gene therapy will affect offsprings. Are we acting as God in changing the genetic constituent of future generationsX 1ould there be any hidden ha4ardsX

gB$%S7(9F "-S73 "ocial and economic issues F


Anly the rich people can afford the e pensive gene therapy. 1ould it further 'iden the gap bet'een the rich and the poorX

&&jBggS\3
Is it right to invest a large sum of mone in gene therapy to ta.e care of 6ust a fe' patientsX

gq6rS&]BS 3

223

$. 8ist some issues of stem cell therap 'hich are related to the belo' aspects. w x 6 6 D >& g " %a) -thical issues ! %b) ;egal issues %c) !ocial F Ethical issues !
To obtain embryonic stem cells, human embryos are destroyed. Is it a case of murderX

9:SqdS73 8egal issues


8ow can we ensure the stem cells are used in treatment of diseasse onlyX To some scientists, it would be an great temptation to clone human being.

Wu1fg93 m1QA'bSM 6" "ocial issues F


The cloned embryo is destroyed to harvest embryonic stem cells. 1ould this practice ma.e the public become used to the destruction of human lifeX

M;dD_`SU7B :2#`"

/he End