You are on page 1of 23

Numerical Simulation of Fatigue Crack Growth: Cohesive Zone Models vs.

XFEM

Thomas Siegmund Purdue University


T. Siegmund, Purdue
1

Funding
JOINT CENTER OF EXCELLENCE for ADVANCED MATERIALS, FAA Cooperative Agreement 04-C-AM-PU. Damage Tolerance and Durability of Adhesively Bonded Composite Structures Technical Monitor: Curt Davies Cost share: Purdue University Additional Funding: Catterpillar Inc.
T. Siegmund, Purdue

Research Accomplishements
Compare cohesive zone model approach to XFEM. Implement fatigue crack growth in XFEM Study contact fatigue failure

T. Siegmund, Purdue

XFEM-ABAQUS
eXtended Finite Element Method Extension of conventional FEM based on the concept of partition of unity;

T. Siegmund, Purdue

XFEM-ABAQUS
u = N I ( x ) [ u I + H ( x )a I ]
I =1 N

N I shape function u I conventional nodal dispalcement a I enriched nodal displacements

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Traction-Sparation Law
Tn,0 K 0 = Tt ,0 0 0 n K0 t =1

Tn,0 Tt ,0 max , max,0 max,0

Tn = (1 D )Tn,0 ,Tt = (1 D )Tt ,0 Teff d m Dm = 0 m T. Siegmund, Purdue 0 el


m

Example: CZM vs. XFEM


Plate with a central hole Remote displacements CZ elements along several radial lines XFEM enrichment throughout

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Damage Accumulation Rule


Damage accumulation starts if a deformation measure, accumulated or current, is greater than a critical magnitude. There exists an endurance limit which is a stress level below which cyclic loading can proceed infinitely without failure. The increment of damage is related to the increment of absolute value of deformation as weighted by the ratio of current load level relative to strength.

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Damage Accumulation Rules


T m eff CZM : dDc = Cf max , Dc = dDc

p1 p1 Cf , Dc = dDc XFEM : dDc = max

f..cohesive endurance limit .cyclic cohesive length

K0 = E0

f..cohesive endurance limit cyclic reference strain

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Fatigue Damage Model


Cyclic damage variable: DC = = Effective tractions: T n Since: Adamaged A0

F Tn = A0 (1 DC ) (1 DC ) =T ( T n n max,0 , 0 )

Tn = Tn max,0 (1 DC ), 0 Current Cohesive Properties:

max = max,0 (1 DC ) , n = max 0 = max,0 (1 DC ) 0

, , T , T ... ) =D (D , Need to define : D C C C n t n t


T. Siegmund, Purdue
10

Monotonic Loading
1.4E+07 1.2E+07 1.0E+07 ELASTIC XFEM

22 [Pa]

8.0E+06 6.0E+06 4.0E+06 2.0E+06 0.0E+00 0 0.002 0.004

CZM

0.006

0.008

E22

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Cyclic Loading: Damage Evolution in Mode I


1

Cyclic Damage [ ]

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

the first three elements of the row of elements emerging from the hole at . --- 1st element CZM (both integration points shown), - - 1st element XFEM, ---- 2nd element CZM (lagging integration point shown), - - 2nd element XFEM, ---- 3rd element CZM (lagging integration point shown), - - 3rd element XFEM.
Normalized Time [ ]

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Cyclic Loading: Mixed Mode

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Contact Fatigue
Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria:

Critical Plane Approach E.g.: Findley Criterion: max { a + f n ,max } = f

a shear stress amplitude on a plane n ,max max. normal stress on that plane
T. Siegmund, Purdue
14

Contact Fatigue
Multiaxial Fatigue Criteria:

Critical Plane Approach E.g.: Findley Criterion: max { a + f n ,max } = f

a shear stress amplitude on a plane n ,max max. normal stress on that plane
T. Siegmund, Purdue
15

Example Result

Provides location of crack initiation but not: -- number of cycles to failure -- not applicable to variable amplitude loading T. Siegmund, Purdue
16

CZM Approach
Cohesive Zone Model
LE CE CE LE LE CE CE LE

LE CE LE CE LE CE LE CE LE LE

Mesh generator available Tie CZ mesh to main model T. Siegmund, Purdue

CE

CE LE CE LE

17

Redefine: Effective Traction


Common Fatigue Crack Growth Contact Fatigue

T =

(Tn )

+ (Tt )

T =

( Tn )

+ ( Tt )
2

T =

0.64 2 T + T ( ) t n 3 if Tn > 0 T = 0.64 T n + Tt 3 if Tn < 0

T. Siegmund, Purdue

18

Pmax = 16800 N at Failure


Contact Radius

T. Siegmund, Purdue

19

Damage Evolution

Subsurface Crack Initiation Site

T. Siegmund, Purdue

Contact Radius

20

Damage Evolution Pmax = 2800 N

Subsurface Crack Initiation Site Contact Radius

T. Siegmund, Purdue

21

Comparison
Damage Accumulation Rate

0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000


Load
T. Siegmund, Purdue

Subsurface Surface

Summary
CZM vs. XFEM:
Provide close results if correctly calibrated CZM is mesh dependent, XFEM less

Contact Fatigue:
Multifacet CZM Effective traction Variable amplitude loading or tilted geometry

T. Siegmund, Purdue

23