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CHAPTER - 4 EDDY CURRENT METHOD

GENERAL
Technological advances in the field of eddy current testing equipment has so broadened the scope of capabilities that today eddy currents are being used are evaluation of : fatigue effects , depth of case, decarburization, film thickness, discontinuities, material hardness, alloy composition, material thickness, carbon content in steel melt, movement of surfaces in adverse environment , etc. The article configuration, scope of the test, location of area of interest, type of environment, dictate the method, type of coil which would be required for the specific test. Eddy current testing more so than any other form of nondestructive testing is strictly specialized. This makes the development of techniques which would be universal very difficult. The three general groups which will be covered are conductivity testing, discontinuity testing, and coating measurement.

CONDUCTIVITY TESTING 1) GENERAL


One of the ma or applications of eddy current testing is the measurement of conductivity. This application is possible since most materials have a unique conductivity value determined by the materials chemical composition, its processing and method of manufacture. !t should be noted that most pure metals, e.g., gold, copper, silver etc,. have definite conductivity values, whereas most alloys have broad values or ranges.

2) INTERNATIONAL ANNEALED COPPER STANDARD (IACS)


"tandard conductivity has been defined by the international Electrochemical #ommission in terms of the amount of resistance to be found in a specified grade of high purity copper when measured at $% #. &'()*. This

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resistance amounts is appro+imately %.,- chms per gram meter, which has been arbitrarily designated as ,%% . conductivity. E+pressing conductivity in terms of !nternational /nnealed #opper "tandard or . !/#" is a convenient method of comparing one material with another. )or e+ample, material with a conductivity of -% . !/#" would be interpreted to mean that the conductivity when compared to the !/#" would be only -% ..

3) EQUIPMENT SCALES
Equipment designed to measure conductivity indicates the conductivity in terms of the !/#" percentage. )igure 0 1, illustrates a typical tester which has a scale e+pressing conductivity in terms of a percentage. 2ormally the range of the scale is a small segment of the total !/#" range. )or e+ample, the range of the scale in the tester in )igure 0 1, may have a conductivity range of '% 3 ,,% . !/#". /lthough some tester have a removable scale, the trend is toward specific conductivity ranges designed for a specific application as in Table 0 3 ,.

Figu ! T"#i$%& C'()u$*i+i*" T!,*!

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T%-&! 4 .1/ T"#i$%& S$%&! R%(g!, Scale Number Conductivity Ranges % IACS 1!-%& 1 -*& )&-11& Resistivity Range In Micro OHM CM !" #$ '() !" %(' '() 1( %(+

1 % " ! 4) CALI0RATION

#alibration of eddy current conductivity testers is accomplished by the use of calibration samples &)igure 0 3 ,*. 2ormally two samples are provided, one for each end of the scale. / typical calibration procedure is detailed as follows: a. 4lace position switch &)igure 0 3 ,* to position 5. b. #heck that meter indication falls in red area on right end of meter scale. This denotes that battery power is satisfactory. c. 4lace position switch to position ,. &This is the low sensitivity position.*

d. "elect calibration sample with the highest !/#" value and, using the !/#" knob, set this value on the !/#" scale. &"cale has a #enterline to permit setting of specific value.* e. 4ress eddy current probe against selected calibration sample. f. /d ust calibration 6!76 control to obtain 8ero indication on meter scale.

g. 9eplace calibration sample with the !/#" sample for the low end of the scale. h. 4ress eddy current probe against the sample and ad ust calibration :O; control to obtain zero indication on meter scale. i. 4erform final calibration by placing position switch $ and repeat steps done through h

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NO,-. 5ecause of interactions between the high and low sensitivity positions
&, and $*, !t may be necessary to repeat the procedures several times to obtain zero indications on both positions.

1) CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS
The following paragraphs describe the measurement procedures, the interpretation, and the various factors related to evaluating the results.

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/ typical measuring procedure is detailed as follows: ,. Ensure that tester is calibrated. $. Ensure that article<s temperature is appro+imately the same as the calibration samples.

NOTE/ 2ormally the ambient temperature of the calibration samples and the
article are the same, therefore, if calibration is accomplished immediately prior to performing conductivity measurements, the requirement of "tep $ is satisfied. =. 4ress eddy current probe against test article. 0. "lowly rotate !/#" knob until mete indicates zero. -. Observe value on !/#" scale. This is the conductivity of the test article.

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The typical tester shown in )igure 0 1, is a compact, portable, battery 3 powered instrument with a fi+ed frequency and with probe matched to the tester. /ccuracy is within > = . of the scale reading which can be improved when the tester is calibrated within a range less than the full range of the scale. ,. "ince the tester has a fi+ed frequency and coil, the depth of the eddy current penetration on a specific material will vary with the conductivity of the material. &Table $ 1,*. /s the conductivity increases the depth of the penetration decreases. )or e+ample, for material ?+@ with a value of A( . !/#", the depth is %.%=%. This means that conductivity measurements are being made only near the surface of the article, and are independent of the

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thickness of the article, providing that the article is thicker than the depth of penetration. $. Bost eddy current conductivity testers are designed for use on non 3 magnetic conductive materials, This, of course, is based on a magnetic material adding a second variable, permeability, and making it impossible to use established scales that relates readings to conductivity values. To measure magnetic materials, it would be necessary to saturate the material. #omplete saturation may not be possible in some highly magnetic materials or in thick sections. 6owever, where it is possible, saturation of the material would make the permeability value appro+imately one. =. !n the measurement of a magnetic conductive material, the !/#" value is an absolute value and can be related to a material or group of materials as shown in )igure 0 3 $ and 0 3 =. !t should be pointed out, however, that heat treat, cold working, aging and ambient temperatures all affect the conductivity valueC therefore, the actual relationship of the measured value to the information in )igures 0 3 $ and 0 3 = must be qualified. 2ormally, the conductivities of a number of acceptable articles are measured and correlated against actual physical testing so as to qualify their conductivity measurements as reference standards2

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Figu ! 422 R!&%*i+! C'()u$*i+i*" '3 V% i'u, M!*%&, %() A&&'", V! ,u, E))" Cu !(* M!*! R!%)i(!,,

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Bost nonmagnetic pure metals can be screened by the means of their conductivities. 6owever in screening alloys the conductivity values frequently overlap. This overlapping is characteristics of the alloying elements which govern the conductivity. Two general cases can be identified. !n the first case, a number of materials have been mi+ed. Each material can be identified and its conductivity defined. ;ith this information, it is then possible to sequentially measure each article in the mi+ed group and to separate the article based on the differences in conductivity. The sorting operation can only be performed when there is no overlap in the ranges of conductivity for each material. if the ranges overlap, it becomes impossible to determine which article falls in which material class. !n the second case, a group of articles of the same material must be sorted based on the differences in conductivity between articles. )or this condition, the absolute conductivity value of each article is not required. / typical procedure for performing sorting under this condition is detailed as follows: 117

,. Ensure that tester is calibrated. $. "elect article with ma+imum allowable conductivity. =. "elect article with minimum allowable conductivity. 0. "elect article with conductivity that is halfway between ma+imum and minimum allowable values. Dse this article to set value on !/#" scale. 4ress probe against article. -. 9otate !/#" knob to obtain zero indication on meter. '. 4lace probe against ma+imum allowable conductivity article, observe meter value, and record value. E. 4lace probe against minimum allowable conductivity article, observe meter value, and record value. (. "ort articles by pressing probe against test 9eference standard, observing meter indications, and accepting or re ecting articles based on the limits established by the ma+imum and minimum references and indicated on the metal.

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Eddy current conductivity testing can also be used to infer the hardness of a number of nonmagnetic materials. Dsually conductivity decreases as hardness increases. / relative scale can be set up for this relationship by selecting two or more calibration samples which cover the range needed for the articles to be tested. These samples are measured by normal hardness techniques, e.g., 9ockwell, then conductivity measurements are made and correlated. T%-&!4-2 illustrates how such information can be gathered regarding the hardness of a specific material. This information can be related to a range of conductivity values for the material. !t thus becomes possible to use conductivity measurements rather than hardness measurements to infer the hardness of this specific material. !t should be noted that other variables may not affect the article<s conductivity but may affect its physical properties &9eference 2ote ,, Table 0.$* #aution must always be e+ercised in an implied hardness measurements by means of eddy current, for it is common that hardness measurements may be in gross error

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!) H!%* T !%*4!(* V% i%*i'(,/


!n the processing of materials and articles heat treatment and quenching techniques are used which produce metallurgical variation in the articles. These variations produce changes conductivity &nonmagnetic material* which can be detected by eddy current testing. "uch conductivity tests are being used as in 3 process controls. #onductivity tests can also be used to evaluate damage caused to structures as a result of e+cessive heat. )or e+ample, if the conductivity of a &structure* material is established and then the structure is e+posed to e+cessive hear, it is possible to determine the degree of physical change due to the e+posure. !n many cases localized heating of a structure may occurC therefore, a comparisor, can be made between the two areas on the same structure, the strength of an article will decrease and the conductivity increases in direct relation to the amount of heat treatment received by the articleC therefore, through conductivity measurements, it becomes possible to monitor changes in an article<s strength as shown in T%-&! 4 -32

3) D!#*5 '3 P!(!* %*i'(/


!n performing conductivity testing, it is necessary to keep in mind that eddy current testing is essentially a surface testing technique. !n the case of a plane conductor, the current falls off e+ponentially with depth below the surface. &)igure 0.0* The standard depth of penetration in a plane conductor in a uniform field is the depth at which the current is equal to ,Fe &=E percent* times its value at the surface. The greater the frequency, permeability or conductivity, the less the depth of penetration. )or nonmagnetic materials whose value of permeability &G* is appro+imately one, the desired penetration can be controlled by the frequency selection.

g) TEMPERATURE/
/ #hange in the temperature of an article will change the electrical conductivity due to the increase in lattice parameter and thermal vibration of the atom. !n several techniques this increase in lattice size and the resulting change in conductivity can be used to measure temperature of an article in an adverse environment. 6ow ever in most applications where conductivity is being measured, the control of the reference standard and the article<s

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temperature may be of utmost importance 2 /ll test which are critical in nature.

T%-&! 4 -3/ P5",i$%& P '#! *i!, '3 C'##!


CONDITION /" #/"T 6OT ;O9HEI /" 6OT ;O9HEI /2I JDE2#6EI )9OB ,%-% # /" JDE2#6EI /2I /7EI /T -%% # )O9 , 69 YIELD POINT 6SI A ,( UTS 6SI $E == ELONGATION7 8 ON 2 IN2 0$ 0% HARDNESS7 DPH '% E, CONDUCTIVITY 9 IACS -A 'A

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T%-&! 4 -22 C'()u$*i+i*" V%&u!, ;R;C H% )(!,, ALUMINIUM ALLOY . SHEET AND PLATE - 0ARE
MAT MAT<L 141? 0RINELL VALUE 1= MM 0ALL 1== >g2 LOAD CODNDUCTIVITY VALUE 8 OF IACS 9 99 (MATERIAL THIC6NESS 2 =1= THIC6ER)

SPEC MIL .A . 1@A42

COND2 = H321 H343 = T4 T?7 T?11 = T?D T?11 TB3 T?7 T?11 = T?7 T?11 = T?7 T?11

STANDARD

SUPERFICIAL

NO HARDNESS TEST DATA AVAILA0LE NO HARDNESS TEST DATA AVAILA0LE NO HARDNESS TEST DATA AVAILA0LE H B1 MAC2 H @1 MIN2 E A1 MIN2 EBB MAC2 0A3 MIN2 0?@ MIN 11 T?4 MIN 3= T4B21 MIN 1B MIN2 A= MIN2 442= . 4@2= 3121 . 4=21 4=2= . 412= 442= . 4B2= 3=21 . 3421 3A2= MIN 3=21 . 342= 432= . 4B2= 3=2= . 342= 442= . 4B2= 3=21 . 342=

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B=B@ B1BA B1BA B=B@ B=B@

MIL . A . AABB MIL . A . @1A=

NO HARDNESS TEST DATA 0 A? MIN2 3=TB4 MIN2 141 MIN2

NOTE 1. T6!" K/:DE !" TO 5E D"EI O2:L TO IETE9B!2E T6/T B/TE9!/: !" 2OT !2 T6E ?O@ #O2I!T!O2. !T IOE" 2OT !2 /2L ;/L !2I!#/TE ;6ET6E9 O9 2OT T6E B/TE9!/: 6/" 5EE2 49O4E9:L 6E/T T9E/TEI TO T6E T E= #O2I!T!O2". 2O9B/: 9O#H;E:: TE"T!27 ;!:: 5E D"EI O2 B/TE9!/: T6!#H2E"" ODT"!IE T6E 9/27E" /DT6O9!8EI / 9O#H;E:: "/B4:E "6/:: 5E T/HE2 )O9 T6O"E :OT" TE"TEI E2T!9E:L 5L #O2ID#T!K!TL TE"T!27

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DISCONTINUITY TESTING
1) GENERAL
/ second ma or application of eddy currents is the detection of discontinuities. !n such detection eddy currents flow in regular patterns within an article and a discontinuity changes this pattern. &)igure0.-*. /s the pattern changes, the output indication changes.

Figu ! 4-1/ E))" Cu !(* P%**! ( C5%(g!, Ietection of discontinuities depends directly on the design of the specific types of eddy current detectors. !t also depends directly on whether manual or automatic methods are used. The following paragraphs will describe the application of the impedance method of performing discontinuity testing. )igure &0.'* illustrates a typical eddy current discontinuity detector. This is the same detector described in #hapter =. !n using this detector, it should be recalled that the detector does not provide absolute measurements. / change in the meter indication simply means that the article has changed the impedance of the test coil. !f a change in characteristics will change the coil<s impedance which, in turn, will cause a change in the meter indication.

2) CALI0RATION
The typical impedance &discontinuity* detector &)igure 0 3 '* does not require calibration immediately prior to use. !t is sufficient to turn on the detector and allow ,- minutes of warm up prior to use. Turn on the detector as follows:

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Figu ! 4-?/ T"#i$%& I4#!)%($! (Di,$'(*i(ui*") D!*!$*'

a. #onnect probe to PRO0E receptacle. b. #onnect detector to power source. c. 9otate SENSITIVVITY control clockwise to B/M position. This turns on the detector and sets the sensitivity of the detector to the ma+imum position.

d. #heck that POEER O2 light comes on.

3) DISCONTINUITY DETECTION
Dse of a typical impedance &discontinuity* detector is a two step process: ,*4reparation and $* detection. !n using the detector, it is important to know that the depth of penetration can be changed by the )9EJDE2#L control. Ten positions are shown in )igure 0 1'. The lowest position &position,* is the highest frequency &e.g., ,=0 kilocycles*C the highest position &position ,%* is the lowest frequency &e.g., -0 kilocycles*. 9otating the control from the lowest position increases as the frequency is decreased. The :!)T 3 O)) control is a fine frequency &vernier* control for any frequency selected by the )9EJDE2#L control. !n normal practice, the )requency control is set to a position is thus a coarse frequency control

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while the :!)T 3 O)) control, the final frequency is selected. The )9EJDE2#L control is thus a coarse frequency control while the :!)T 3 O)) control is a fine frequency control.

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4reparation for discontinuity detection is accomplished as follows: ,. Ensure that detector is turned on and SENSITIVITY control is rotated clockwise to MAC position. $. Turn 0ALANCE control counter clockwise to ma+imum position. =. Turn LIFT . OFF control counter clockwise to ma+imum position. 0. "et FREQUENCY control to position ,. &or to specified setting, if known*. -. 4ress probe on surface of reference. Dse reference that has been previously determined to be acceptable. NOTE/ Eddy current detection is a relative testing technique. /rticle references must be established for comparison. '. /d ust 5/:/2#E control to obtain mid 3 range indication &appro+imately $-% microamperes on meter scale* E. :ift, then return probe to reference<s surface, noting the direction of meter deflection. (. !f meter deflects downscale &towards lower scale*, rotate )9EJDE2#L control to position $ &or ne+t highest number* and repeat steps &'* and &E*. !f necessary, repeat procedure using position = &or ne+t highest number* until deflection in the upscale direction is obtained. A. 4lace sheet of ordinary writing paper &%.%%$ to %.%%0 thickness* between probe and article. ,%. "lide paper out from under probe and note direction of meter deflection. ,,. 9otate LIFT . OFF control in clockwise direction of note direction of meter deflection. ,$. Kerify that meter deflection direction in step &,,* is the same as in step &,%*. !f it is not the same, rotate FREQUENCY control to the ne+t

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highest position number and ad ust 0ALANCE control to obtain mid range indication. ,=. 9epeat steps &A* through &,$* until no meter deflection occurs when paper is removed from under probe. ,0. !f desired, the sensitivity can now be reduced by rotating the SENSITIVITY control in the clockwise direction. This reduces the spread as displayed on the meter.

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Eddy current discontinuity detection, using the impedance method, is a gross detection system based on the detection of changes from a standard reference. The article, through the regular eddy current patterns within the article, is the reference. /s the eddy current test coil probe is moved across the article<s surface, a meter deflection will indicate a change from a standard reference. The reason for the change cannot be determined by observing the meter deflection. The 2IT specialist only knows that something within the article has changed.

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"ince a number of factors within the article affect the test coil, the significance of the deflection change depends upon the specific test application, the 2IT specialist<s e+perience, and the availability of standard references with artificial or natural discontinuities. !t is also necessary to keep in mind that the depth of penetration varies with the test frequencyC therefore, the depth of testing is not constant. One must also realize that eddy current testing is basically a surface testing technique which is limited by the depth of penetration. ;hen the depth of the article is greater than the depth of penetration &the normal case* ,%% percent testing of the article is not being accomplished throughout all areas of the article.

COATING ; PLATING THIC6NESS TESTING


1) GENERAL
Beasuring the thickness of a coating or plating on the surface of an article is another ma or eddy current application. Two approaches are

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possible, depending upon whether the coating is conductivity or nonconductive.

2) CONDUCTIVE COATINGS
!f the coating &or plating* is conductive, the conductivity of both the coating and the article can be measured by the use of an impedance &conductivity* tester &)igure 0 3 ,*. The impedance &discontinuity* detector &)igure 0 3 '* may also be used to detect changes in thickness. "ince the impedance &discontinuity* detector normally has a means of changing the test frequency, the detector is superior to the discontinuity tester for certain application. Through the use of the frequency selector the depth of eddy current penetrations can be ad usted so that the depth is ust slightly greater than the thickness of the coating. Dnder this condition, ma+imum sensitivity in the coating area is obtained, !n normal practice, no calculation are required since calibration curves &)igure 0 1E* are prepared which relate thickness to meter indications. "uch curves are prepared for each type of measuring instruments, probe and coating. / group of articles with varying thickness are prepared and used to establish the initial calibration curve. 5y the use of the curves, it is only necessary to observe the meter indication, locate the observed value on the curve, and note the thickness related to this value on the curve. The validity of the test requires that the test frequency be specified and the instrument is periodically calibrated. !t should also be realized that discontinuities may affect the meter indication.

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Figu ! 4-B/ T"#i$%& C%&i- %*i'( Cu +!, F' T5i$>(!,, T!,*i(g

3) NONCONDUCTIVE COATINGS
/lthough coatings may be classified as conductive or nonconductive coatings do not have eddy currents, such coating cannot be measured by the direct use of conductivity measurements. )or such coatings, the lift 3 off effect property of surface coils is used. Kariations in the thickness of a nonconductive coating cause a change in the distance between the test coil &probe* and the conductive area of the article. / change in distance produces a change in the output indication. The impedance &discontinuity* detector &)igure 0 1'* may be used to sense such a change. 2ormally, standard references with specific thickness are prepared to provide a basis for comparison. The lift1off effect is a sensitive effectC therefore, it is important to maintain constant pressure on the probe to ensure that the probe pressure does not produce lift1 out effects. "pring 3 loaded probes are particularly useful in performing thickness measurements on nonconductive coatings.

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4) COATING CONDUCTIVITY VS 0ASE MATERIAL CONDUCTIVITY


/lthough coatings may be classified as conductive or nonconductive, the technique and accuracy of measurement is dependent upon the relative degree of conductivity between the coating and its base material. a. Betal coatings having a higher conductivity than the base metal, i.e., copper, zinc, cadmium on steel. b. Betal coating having a lower conductivity than the base metal i.e., chromium or lead on copper. c. 2onconductive coatings on a metallic base, i.e., anodize or paint on aluminium alloy, organic coatings on metals, etc.

d. Betal coatings on a nonconductive base material, i.e., metallic film on glass, ceramic or plastic, etc.

1) USE OF SPEICAL THIC6NESS TESTING EQUIPMENT


"pecial eddy current equipment is available for determining coating thickness. This equipment is normally limited to special applications &a specific thickness* from micro inches to several thousands of an inch.

NONCONDUCTIVE ARTICLES
Through the lift 3 off effect is also possible to measure the thickness of nonconductive articles. This is accomplished by placing the nonconductive article on a conductive surface and inducing eddy currents into the conductive surface. "pecial commercially available units are used for this purpose and some units can measure up to = inches of nonconductive material.

TESTING FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS


;hen eddy current testing techniques are applied to magnetic, trouble is e+perienced in resolving the measurement. The presence of permeability greater than one interferes directly with the indications because of the masking and opposing signal. !t can be compared to a perfect conductor where the depth of penetration is almost zero. This permeability can be reduced to nearly one &air equivalent* by means of

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saturation. "aturation can be accomplished by a I# magnetic field, or if the test area is small, it is possible to use a saturating magnetic field from a permanent magnet. Once the permeability factor is eliminated, eddy current tests can proceed as if testing nonmagnetic materials &appro+imately the same depth of penetration*. ;hen elimination of the permeability variable is not necessary, it is possible to interpret test indications by means of a cathode ray presentation.

PHASE ANALYSIS 1) GENERAL


/s described in #hapter $, the technique of phase can be applied to eddy current testing. The analysis can be performed by the 2IT specialist on a manual basis or it can be performed by phase analysis circuits which are a part of the testing equipment. )or 2IT specialist interpretation, three phase analysis methods have been identifiedC vector 3 point method, ellipse method, and linear time 3 base method. These methods are described in #hapter $.

2) APPLICATION OF VECTOR . POINT METHOD


)igure = 1,( illustrates a typical vector 3 point method. !n this method, the cathode ray tube indication is a dot of light and two sets of test coils are usedC one for the standard article and one for the test article. Testing can be accomplished on either a manual or automatic basis. Through controls it is possible to separate the conductivity variable from the permeability and dimensional variables and to establish limits. "etup for the vector 3 point method is a accomplished by using a test article with a specific variation. The article is placed in the test coil and is compared with the standard reference. Through equipment controls, the cathode ray tube dot is positioned so that movement of the dot only reflects the desired variation. That is, if by the equipment controls it was established that conductivity variations in the test article move the point of light up and down, any other variables will move the point horizontal. ;ith the control, the horizontal movements can be held to a minimum and the observer or recorder will see only the vertical movement of the dot is established by the

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test article, and through scaled on the #9T or though circuits within the #9T equipment, any dot values greater than the ma+imum limits are the basis for discrepancy evaluation of the test article. The dot indication can be related to sorting gates which automatically separate the articles based on the limits initially established by the article and indicated by the dot.

3) APPLICATIONS OF ELLIPSE METHOD


The ellipse method is described in chapter = and illustrated in )igure =1,A. )igure 01( shows typical #9T indications. :ike the vector1point method, the ellipse method uses two sets of test coils with the test article being balanced by a reference standard. ;hen both reference standard and test article have the same properties, a condition of balance e+ists. This is shown in view / of )igure 01(. a. S!*u#/ !nitial setup for test is accomplished by using a test article with a known variable. This article is placed in the test coil and compared with reference standard. Through controls in the #9T equipment, the indication is ad usted so that a change in indication from view / )igure 01( to Kiew # presents a dimensional change. This is the dimensional change in the test article used established the initial setup. b. T!,*/ Test is a accomplished by manually or automatically passing test articles through the test article coil observing the #9T indication. c. Inter/retation. The ellipse method provides indications of two variables at the same time. A change in dimension is indicated by the orientation of the ellipse. If the test article has only a dimensional variation, the ellipse will be a straight line which will be at some position (e.g., view c in Figure 4- ! other than the hori"ontal position shown in view A. if the article contains only a conductivity change, then the hori"ontal straight line will change to an ellipse (view #!. on the other hand, when both a change in dimension as well as a change in conductivity e$ists, then a display such as shown in view % will be obtained. The orientations of the ellipse depends upon how the initial conditions are established and the phase relationships. Typical ellipse orientations are shown in Figure 4-&. The initial setup may establish the straight line indication 130

at some angle other than the hori"ontal position shown in view A of Figure 4- . since this angle can be related to the scales on the front of the '(T, it is only necessary to establish a reference position. depends upon the interpretation handboo*. %etail interpretation of ellipse patterns specific application) not be therefore, provided in detail this will

information

Figu ! 4-A/ T"#i$%& E&&i#,! M!*5') C%*5')! R%" Tu-! I()i$%*i'(,

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Figu ! 4-@/ T"#i$%& E&&i#,! O i!(*%*i'(,

4) APPLICATION OF LINEAR TIME . 0ASE METHOD


The linear time1base method is described in #hapter =. )igure 01,% shows typical #9T indications. !n the linear time1base method two sets of test coils are used. / reference standard is used to balance the properties of the test article. !n normal application, the reference standard may not completely balance the test articleC therefore, balance controls on the #9T equipment are used to accomplish the final balance the coil containing the reference standard and the coil containing the test article. a. S!*u#/ 5ecause of equipment differences it is not possible to provide details setup procedures in this handbookC only the general approach to setup will be described. "etup is accomplished as follows: ,. "elect two identical standard articles, $. 4lace one standard article in the reference standard test coil. &Either test coil may be used as the reference standard test coilC however, once this

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test coil has been established as the standard it should be retained as the standard.* =. 5y observing the #9T display and operating the #9T controls, obtain the indication shown in )igure 01,,. 0. ;hile observing the #9T display, showly move reference standard back and forth in test coil. The center of the #9T display &view /* will move up or down. 4osition reference standard so that center of curve moves towards lower edge of #9T. /s the reference standard passes through the center of coil<s magnetic field, the curve will reverse its downward movement and will begin moving upward. "ince all testing should be done with the reference standard in the centre of the coil<s field, reposition the reference standard so that the #9T is as close as possible to the point where the curve reverses and moves upward. !f necessary, secure the reference standard in this position by using tape, clay, or wa+. -. /t this point, a transparent sheet may be fitted to the #9T screen and the test level for the particular test may be set by controls on the #9T equipment. 2ormally, this will cause the bottom of the curve to drop out of sight. This is normal. '. 4lace a second reference standard in the second test coil. 4osition the article so that it is in the same relative position as the article in the reference standard test coil. E. Observe #9T display. ;hen article is properly positioned, the #9T display should be a straight line as shown in )igure 01,$. for volume testing, guides would be used to ensure proper positioning of the test articles placed in the second test coil. The straight line is the result of combining the properties of the two articles. (. !f the #9T display is not a straight line, the #9T balancing coils may be used to balance the coils to develop the straight line. / slight ripple is also acceptable. A. /t this point it is possible to perform various types of testing. )urther, setup procedures depend upon the type of testC therefore, final setup procedure must be included in the specific test.

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Figu ! 4-1=/ T"#i$%& Li(!% Ti4! . 0%,! CRT I()i$%*i'(,

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Figu ! 4-11/ 0%&%($!) C'()i*i'(

Figu ! 4-12/ C'4-i(!) P '#! *i!, '3 T:' A *i$&!, b. M%*! i%& S' *i(g T!,*/ This test is the process of sorting various types of materials based on the displays and display limits shown on the #9T. This sorting is based on each material having distinct properties. )igure 0 1,= illustrates the results of passing three separate materials through the same test coil. !f a group of articles made from material / are passed through a test coil, each article will develop a characteristics display. This can be drawn on the transparent sheet covering the front of the #9T screen. The result will be a band of variation as shown ir )igure 0 3 ,=. The same procedure can be followed for articles from materials 5 and #. !f the bands do not overlap, it is possible to sort the three materials based on the limits set for each band.

135

Figu ! 4-13/ Di,#&%" '3 T5 !! Di33! !(* M%*! i%&, c. A *i$&! S' *i(g T!,*/ / group of articles can be sorted following the same procedure used for material sorting. ;hen an article sorting test is accomplished, the #9T display may be changed to fit the specific test. This depends upon whether it is desirable to have the value at the slit a zero value or a ma+imum value. Typical applications are details as follows:

,. )or a ma+imum slit value, two standard articles may be used to establish the initial display shown in )igure 0 1,$. a. !f test articles are then passed through the test coil a display such a shown in view / )igure 0 3 ,0 may be obtained. :imits can be established at the slit, and articles accepted or re ected based on the limits. Kiew, )igure 0 1,0, indicates the band of variation which can be drawn on the transparent sheet covering the #9T.

Figu ! 4-14/ 0%() V% i%*i'( b. !n some applications it may be desirable to use a definite display as a basic for comparison. This is possible by using the #9T control to

136

offset the initial balance between the test coils. ;hen this is done, a display such as shown in view / of )igure 0 1,0 can be obtained. This displays is drawn on the transparent screen, )igure &0 1,-* in front of the #9T and is used as a basis for comparison. ;hen a test is placed in the test coil, the display should match the display drawn on the transparent screen. The 2IT specialist evaluates the #9T display drawn on the transparent screen. The 2IT specialist or re ects based on how well two displays match.

Figu ! 4-11/ T %(,#% !(* S$ !!( Di,#&%" $. )or a minimum slit value, two standard articles may be used to establish the initial display shown in )igure 0 1,$. !n establishing a minimum value at the slit, it is necessary to realize that a dimensional change or a permeability change will produce a phase change that is A% degrees out of phase with the phase change produced by a conductivity change. The value at the slit can be made to represent either a conductivity change or a dimensional change &normally direct current saturation is used to make the permeability variable as the value at the slit. 5y reversing the values, the same procedure can be used to established the dimensional variable as the value shown at the slit. The conductivity variable is established at the slit as follows: a. "elect a test article with a dimension that is not the same as the reference standard and position this article in the test coil. b. Dsing the phase control on the #9T equipment, ad ust the display to obtain the display shown in )igure 0 3 ,'. The value at the slit should be zero.

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Figu ! 4-1?/ C'()u$*i+i*" Di,#&%" c. 9eplace test article with article containing ma+imum allowable value of conductivity. Observe and record the value at the slit. 9epeat procedure, using the article containing ma+imum allowable value of conductivity.

d. ;ith the slit values established, pass test articles through the test coil and accept or re ect based on established limits. /rticles are being tested for the conductivity variable only. d. I(*! # !*%*i'(/ The linear time 3 base method provides a number of specific indications. The actual display and the interpretation depends upon the specific test. )or many situations, the value at the slit can be read directly so interpretation is simplified. !t is only necessary to ensure that the slit value limits are not e+ceeded. )or the condition where a definite display is used with a ma+imum value at the slit this display is drawn on a transparent sheet to establish a standardC interpretation is a matter of e+perience. The 2IT specialist must know to what e+tent the #9T display from a test article must match the display on the transparent sheet.

MODUALTION ANALYSIS 1) GENERAL


The modulation analysis technique is described in #hapter $. typical indications are shown in )igure 0 1,E. )igure 0 1,( illustrates a typical modulation analysis unit with three recorder displays for the same test condition. /s shown in )igure 0 3 ,(, through the use of the )OD9!E9 #O2T9O: switch, the discontinuity can be separated from the other variables which are affecting the test coil.

138

2) TEST SPEED
The modulation analysis technique is based on the relative motion between the test article and the test coil. 2ormal movement through the test coil is from 0% to =%% feet per minute: however, higher test speeds are possible. 5elow 0% feet per minute, a loss in sensitivity occurs so it may not be possible to use low speeds in some applications. Dse of the modulation analysis technique requires a constant speed motor to ensure that the relative motion between the article and the test coil is constant. !t should be considered that the article speed through the coil does not e+ceed the signal, that is ?run away@ from the particular test frequency used. The article should be in the test coil long enough for the electromagnetic wave to travel in depth for the required test and return a data signal to the coil. !f the article has passed the test coil before the return of data signal, the condition is called ?run away@. / choice of raising test frequency or reducing article speed is necessary.

3) TEST COILS
!n modulation analysis the test coil design is very important to successfully produce usable indications. /ny of the basic types of coils may be used in an absolute technique, while both coils are used differentially to test very small areas of the article. /ll of the test coil factors discussed in #hapter = must be taken into account.

4) TEST FREQUENCY
Bodulation analysis units are equipped with means of changing the test frequency. )or each test situation an optimum test frequency e+ists. The selected frequency depends on the articles<s size and characteristics, the test coil, the test speed, and the specific article characteristic being tested. !t is preferred in the selection of a test frequency to use the highest frequency allowable to cause greater modulating effects from a given discontinuity. Table $ 1, illustrates how the depth of eddy1 current penetration varies with the nature of the material and test frequency.

1) TESTING CAPA0ILITY
Bodulation analysis is a high speed testing technique capable to providing over ,$% responses per second. Iiscontinuities spaced %., inch 139

apart can be detected. ;hen performing discontinuity testing, the modulation analysis technique is an area sensing form of testing. The depth and length of the discontinuity around the circumference of the article does not cause much change in the output indication. Table 0 .0 indicates typical areas that can be sensed by the modulation analysis technique.

140

Figu ! 4-1B/ T"#i$%& M')u&%*i'( A(%&",i, I()i$%*i'(,

141

Figu ! 4-1A/ T"#i$%& M')u&%*i'( A(%&",i, U(i* :i*5 I()i$%*i'( (R!$' )i(g S!$*i'( ('* S5':()

142

T%-&! 4 . 42 T"#i$%& M')u&%*i'( A(%&",i, Di,$'(*i(ui*" D!*!$*i'( A !%,


0(1(2A21A33 5-$,H 3-N2,H O9 ,HIC4N-SS 5ISCON,#I,6 5ISCON,IN#I,6 7INCH-S8 7INCH-S8 &(&%% &(&" &(&!+ &(&) &(&'" &(1&+ AN5 H-A:I-R &(&&1 &(&&1 &(&&% &(&&" &(&&" ! % O9 1A33 &(& & &(&)& &(&)& &(&)& &(&)& &(&)& AR-A 73-N2,H ,IM-S 5-$,H8 &(&&&&) &(&&&&) &(&&&1 &(&&&% &(&&&% ;(

%! %& 1' 1) 1! 1% AN5 H-A:I-R

?) PHASE ANALYSIS ;MODUALTION ANALYSIS INTERNATIONSHIP


The technique of phase analysis is normally incorporated into modulation analysis equipment and is used to suppress certain variables. The equipment generally contains a bridge circuit, and it is possible to establish various bridge balancing conditions through the M and 9 controls. &see )igure 0 1,E*. :ike the other phase analysis techniques covered in this chapter, either the dimensional variable or the conductivity variable can be suppressed in order to emphasize the variable of interest. "ince the modulation analysis capability of the equipment is related to the bridge balance, this means that the phase analysis settings must be specified in addition to the modulation analysis settings.

B) MODULATION ANALYSIS TESTING

143

5ecause of equipment differences detailed testing procedures are not providedC therefore the following discussion will present only a general approach to modulation analysis testing2 a. C%&i- %*i'(/ #alibration is the process of setting the equipment controls in accordance with an approved procedure and by passing a reference standard through the test system. The reference standard must be an acceptance quality control standard. ;here calibrating the equipment the resulting indication must correspond to the indications established by the approved reference standard. /n approved standard should be available for each type of article to be tested. The approved standard test article &standard* should be prepared with discontinuities that would represent the acceptable or unacceptable limits of the test. The reference standard should be applied to the test equipment prior to and after performing tests on a specific group of articles. This assumes that the equipment remains calibrated during the entire test period. b. S!*u#/ !n addition to performing calibration procedures, several factors are related to the task of establishing the initial conditions for test. ,. "ince modulation analysis is a moving system, special attention must be given to ad usting the rollers. The rollers must be aligned horizontally and vertically so that the article passes smoothly through the rollers without bouncing or impacting the rollers. "uch conditions will cause false indications. $. 9ecording ad ustments must also be made to ensure that the recorder properly reflects the output of the test coil. =. !n addition, the marking pen must be ad usted to ensure that discontinuities are properly identified. 0. "ome modulation analysis equipment uses prepunched cards to establish the initial conditions for test. Through the use of these card, the limits for the test are automatically established for a given test condition. This also establishes the acceptanceFre ection criteria for the test. Other equipment accomplishes this same task by simple integrated controls in the equipment. The length of the discontinuity and the number of discontinuities allowed per foot can be set by the controls. This, in addition to setting the test frequency, automatically establishes the initial conditions for test. 144

c.

T!,*/ "ince modulation analysis is a moving system, the 2IT specialist<s actions are generally limited to the task of ensuring that the articles is passing freely through the test system. The recorder may or may not be operating, depending upon the nature of the test.

d. I(*! # !*%*i'(/ when the recorder is used, the recording results can be compared with previous results. !f a significant change e+ists, retesting can be accomplished and, through the controls on the equipment, further analysis can be made. e. S#!$i%& F%$*' / Two factors merit special consideration. )irst, the article must always be passed through the test coil in the same direction because of the directional characteristics of some coils. /nd second, long seams and laps may not be not detected by the encircling coil technique. This problem can be solved by the use of a rotating surface coil which seams the circumference of the article.

RELATING INDICATIONS TO DISCONTINUITIES 1) GENERAL


The nature of eddy current is such that a clear relationship does not e+ist between the indication and the depth, and shape of a discontinuity within an article. !n general, it is not possible to accurately visualize the discontinuity based on the output indication

2) HOE EDDY CURRENTS SENSE A DISCONTINUTIY


!n discontinuity sensing, the discontinuity disrupts the normal eddy currents paths within the article. The disruption varies with the depth, volume and nature of the discontinuity. a. T!,* C'i&<, M%g(!*i$ Fi!&) Di,* i-u*i'( Ei*5i( A *i$&! / The test coil<s magnetic field distribution within an article is a variable which depends upon the coil<s shape, the coil<s position, and the nature of the article. Thus the distribution is a variable and varies within an article, 6owever, for a specific article, the distribution does form a pattern which can be used as a reference. b. E))" Cu !(* P%*5,/ The paths formed by the eddy currents are directly related to the pattern formed by the coil<s magnetic field. The 145

result is an eddy current pattern which, like the coil<s magnetic field, is unique to the particular testing system and test article. This eddy current pattern is used as a reference for sensing discontinuities. =* STATIC TESTING CONDITIONS / static testing condition can be defined as a situation in which a surface coil is located on the surface of an article and is slowly moved across the surface. The output equipment might be a simple discontinuity detector which provides an out1put indication in the form of a meter scale. The presence of discontinuities will cause the indicated value on the mter to change. !f no discontinuities are present, the indicated value will remain constant. ;hen the presence of a discontinuity causes a change in the output indication, the problem arises as to the meaning of this indication change. !n some cases, the answer can be found by relating the observed value to a reference standard with known discontinuities. This approach is a comparison method and provides only an appro+imation. 2o present means e+ists for providing e+act results. /t this point, one course of action would be to use another form of nondestructive testing and F or metallurgical analysis to evaluate the discontinuity. 0* DYNAMIC TESTING CONDITION /n article moving steadily through a test coil represents a typical dynamic testing condition. The output indication can be a cathode ray tube or a recording strip. "ince phase and modulation testing provides the greatest amount of information, the following statements apply to this form of testing. a. E))" Cu !(* P%**! ( /s an article moves through a test coil, it is convenient to visualize the article as being by a small field of eddy currents within the article. This field will be affected by the presence of a discontinuity. 5ecause the density of eddy currents varies within the article, the density of the field will not be the same across the field. The 2IT technician should also realize that the output indication is related to the density of the eddy current field in the area that is intercepted by the discontinuity as well as by the size of the discontinuity. P',i*i'( '3 Di,$'(*i(ui*" :i*5 R!,#!$* *' E))" Cu !(* Fi!&) /s the article moves through the test coil, the discontinuity may fall completely or only partially within the field due to the lack of eddy current penetration. !n, doing so, it should be remembered that eddy 146

b.

currents will flow around. The discontinuity and this causes a change in the output indication. c. D!#*5 '3 Di,$'(*i(ui*" )igure 0 3 ,A illustrates three indications appearing on a recording strip used in modulation analysis testing indications were obtained from an article with three holes having the same diameter 5ased on these indications, it might be supposed that the depth of a discontinuity can be related to the output indication. !n actual practice this is not true because the area, as well as the depth, of the discontinuity varies.

Figu ! 4-1@/ R!$' )i(g C5% * S5':i(g R!,#'(,! *' T5 !! Nu4-! A= D i&& H'&!, d. A !% S!(,i(g/ !n a dynamic system, eddy current testing is an area sensing system in which the area is composed of the depth and the length of the discontinuity. "ince the article is moving through the coil at a steady speed, area sensing is directly related to the specific test speed and the ability of the equipment to resolve ad acent discontinuities. This resolution characteristic is a function of the specific equipment. !n a typical case, three small discontinuities spaced %., inches apart along a length of tube can be resolved at a test speed of -% feet per minute. The discontinuities were %.%,0 inch diameter drill holes &N(%* drilled to a depth of %.%,% inches in a ,1inch, %.,%A inch wall, =%0 stainless steel tube. This amounts to resolving discontinuity impulses spaced ,% milliseconds apart. e. P5%,! D!&%"/ The output indication is also affected because the electromagnetic waves will move through the conductors at different speeds. The velocity of the wave is defined by the formula KOf , which 147

shows that the wave velocity decreases as the frequency decreases or as the wave length decreases. f. Sig(i3i$%($! '3 P5%,! D!&%"/ "ince the article is moving through the test coil at a relatively high speed &0% to =%% feet per minute*, phase delays can affect the value of the output indication. /lso, discontinuities at different depths produce different phase delays. Bost equipment contains phase circuits which can be ad usted for specific test conditions. /gainst this is a characteristic of particular test equipment. The use of reference standards that can be applied to all eddy current testing equipment.

1) OUTPUT INDICATION
!n general it can be said that the relationship between the output indication and the actual discontinuity characteristics &size, location, configuration and depth* within an article cannot be accurately visualized on the output indication. 6owever, by the use of artificial or natural reference standards and specific test equipment a qualitative comparison of the discontinuity can be made.

TECHNIQUES
1) GENERAL
Eddy current testing and variables that effect eddy currents are identified in the following paragraphs.

2) EDDY CURRENT VARIA0LES


A number of variables affect eddy currents. +ince they change the eddy current indication, many can be measured or detected by eddy current testing. Those which affected by currents are listed as follows: a. Iiscontinuities. b. /rticle dimensions, including diameter thickness, eccentricity, and coatings, where applicable. c. Electrical conductivity of article as affected by alloy composition, heat treatment, and effects of cold working &dislocations and orientations*. 148

d. !nternal stresses in metals. e. Kibrations and other changes in the coupling distance between the article and the test coil during testing. f. 2oise pickup &power lines, radio and electronic interference*.

g. Temperature.

3) TESTING CAPA0ILITES
Eddy current testing can be applied to round, flat, and irregular shaped conductive articles. !t is also possible to measure the thickness of both conductive and nonconductive coating. The thickness of a nonconductive article may be measured by backing the article with a conductive article and using the lift 3 off effect to measure the thickness of the test article. Kariables that can be measured or detected by eddy current testing are: a. #onductivity &varies with materials characteristics*. b. 6ardness & conductivity value is related to the stress characteristics of the article. c. "trength &conductivity value in heat treatment cause variations in conductivity*.

d. 6eat treatment &variations in heat treatment cause variations in conductivity*. e. Iimensions &dimensional changes cause changes in lift 3 off or fill 3 factor between the article and the coil.* f. #oating thickness &thickness in conductivity e+ist between a conductive coating and an articleC nonconductive coating varies the lift 3 out between the coil and the conductive area of the article*.

g. Iiscontinuities &cracks, inclusions, etc. cause changes in output indications* h. Temperature &conductivity changes with temperature*.

4) ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

149

Eddy current testing, like other forms of nondestructive testing, has specific advantages and limitations. a. The main advantage of eddy current testing are: ,. 6igh speed testing. $. /ccurate measurement of conductivity. =. Iiscontinuities at or near the surface of the article can be reliably detected. 0. 6igh sensitivity to small discontinuities. -. /ccurate thickness measurements. b. The main limitations of eddy current testing are: ,. :imited penetration into article. $. "everal variables simultaneously affect output indication. =. Iiscontinuities are qualitative, not quantitative, indications.

1) CYLINDERS
#ylinders are generally tested by using the differential coil arrangement shown in )igure 0 3 $%. in this arrangement, the secondary coils are connected so that the output of one coil oppose the output of the other coil. !f the conditions in the area under each coil are the same, no output indication e+ists. a. A,,u4#*i'(,/ !n using the differential coil arrangement it is assumed that discontinuities do not e+tend over both coils. b. S4%&& Di,$'(*i(ui*"/ The appearance of a small discontinuity under one coil generates an unbalanced condition between the two coils and an output indication will e+ists.

150

Figu ! 4-2=/ Di33! !(*i%& C'i& A %(g!4!(* 3' C"&i()! T!,*i(g c. L'$%*i'( '3 Di,$'(*i(ui*" '( Ci $u43! !($!/ when the encircling coil arrangement is used, it is not possible to determine the position of the discontinuity on the circumference of a cylinder. / surface coil can be used to locate the position of the discontinuity on the circumference.

d. S!%4 P% %&&!& *' Su 3%$!/ / long seam parallel to the cylinder<s surface cannot be detected by the differential coil arrangement because the seam e+tends, under both coils and is oriented in the same way. "ince no difference e+ists, no output indication will be obtained. e. L'(g Di,$'(*i(ui*" P! #!()i$u&% %() #% %&&!& *' *5! Su 3%$!/ / long discontinuity &crack* may e+tend under both test coils. "ince the discontinuity is both perpendicular and parallel to the surface, each test coil will produce a different output. Dnder this condition an output indication can be obtained even though the discontinuity e+tends under both coils. f. C'()u$*i+i*" M!%,u !4!(*,/ "ince the conductivity of one area of the cylinder is being compared with the conductivity of another area of the cylinder, differences in conductivity can be obtained.

g. Di4!(,i'(%& C5%(g!,/ ;hen dimension is the variable of interest, it is possible to ad ust the system so that dimension differences can be detected. h. S%*u %*i'(/ Iirect current saturation coils must be used when permeability effect must be cancelled. 151

i.

D!#*5 '3 T!,*i(g/ "ince the depth of eddy current penetration depends upon the test frequency, the cylinder<s conductivity and permeability, the 2IT specialist must realize that the depth of testing depends upon the specific conditions. Fi&& . )actor: The diameters of the test coil and the cylinder determine the fill 3 factor for a specific test application. To ensure consistent testing, the proper test coil must be used with a specific cylinder under test. R'&&! A)Fu,*4!(*/ To minimize the generation of additional variables and to ensure consistent testing, the rollers that position and guide the cylinder through the test coil must be carefully ad usted. R!3! !($! S*%()% ),/ / cylinder which has been previously tested and established as a reference standard is passed through the test system to ensure proper ad ustment and performance of the system.

k.

l.

m. C!(*! '3 % C"&i()! / The 2IT specialist should realize that eddy currents are not developed at the center of the cylinderC therefore, discontinuities can not be detected in this area. n. S!(,i*i+i*" *' Di,$'(*i(ui*" O i!(*%*i'(/ Iiscontinuities may be oriented circumferentially &parallel to the circumference* or a+ially &from the center to the surface*. "ince the direction of the eddy current parallel the current flowing through the test coil, ma+imum sensitivity is oriented towards a+ially oriented discontinuities. The encircling coil system is, therefore, relatively insensitive to circumferentially oriented discontinuities.

?) TU0ING
Buch of what has been stated about cylinders also applies to tubing. Testing of tubing however, presents unique problems. a. E%&& T5i$>(!,,/ The wall thickness is the key factor in applying eddy current testing to tubing. This thickness may be greater than the depth of eddy current penetration or it may be less. !f the wall thickness is greater than the depth of penetration, inside test coils may be used to complete the testing of the tubing wall. ,%% . testing is possible with a single coil where the wall thickness does not e+ceed depth of penetration. 152

b. Di%4!*! T!,*i(g/ !n tubing the diameter may be the variable of interest, rather than wall thickness. Through phase control ad ustments, it is possible to suppress the wall thickness variable &conductivity* and emphasize the dimensional changes of the tubing<s diameter. c. L'$%*i'( '3 Di,$'(*i(ui*" '( Ci $u43! !($!/ ;hen the encircling coil arrangement is used, it is possible to determine the position of the discontinuity on the circumference of a tube. / surface coil can be used to locate the position of the discontinuity on the circumference.

d. S!%4 P% %&&!& *' Su 3%$!/ / long seam parallel to the tubing<s surface cannot be detected by the differential coil arrangement because the seam e+tends under both coils and is oriented in the same way. "ince no difference e+ists, no output indication will be obtained. e. L'(g Di,$'(*i(ui*" P! #!()i$u&% %() P% %&&!& *' *5! Su 3%$!/ / long discontinuity &crack* may e+tend under both test coils. "ince the discontinuity is both perpendicular and parallel to the surface, each test coil will produce a different output. Dnder this condition, an output indication can be obtained even though the discontinuity e+tends under both coils. f. C'()u$*i+i*" M!%,u !4!(*,/ "ince the conductivity of one area of the tube is being compared with the conductivity of another area of the tube, differences in conductivity can be obtained.

g. S%*u %*i'(/ Iirect current saturation coils must be used when permeability effects must be cancelled h. Fi&&-F%$*' / The diameters of the test coil and the tube determine the fillfactor for a specific test application. To ensure consistent testing, the proper test coil must be used for the specific tube under test i. R'&&! A)Fu,*4!(*,/ To minimize the generation of additional variables and to ensure consistent testing, the rollers that position and guide the tube through the test coil must be carefully ad usted. R!3! !($! S*%()% )/ / tube which has been previously tested and established as a reference standard must be used to ensure proper ad ustment and performance of the system. S!(,i*i+i*" *' Di,$'(*i(ui*" O i!(*%*i'(/ Iiscontinuities may be oriented circumferentially &parallel to the circumference* or a+ially &from

k.

153

the center to the surface*. "ince the direction of the eddy current parallels the current flowing through the test coil, ma+imum sensitivity is oriented towards a+ially oriented discontinuities. The encircling coil system is, therefore, relatively insensitive to circumferentially oriented discontinuities. l. C' ',i'( T!,*i(gD "ince eddy current testing is basically a near1 surface testing system, sensitivity is greatest at or near the surface. !n tubing, corrosion may be located on the inner or outer surface and therefore be detected by eddy currents.

B2 SHEETS
"heets &or plates* are tested for material properties, discontinuities, and thickness. Testing can be accomplished manually or automatically. !n some instances, flat1type encircling coils can be used and the sheeting can be automatically passed through the coil<s slot. )or most cases, use of a surface coil is required. /gain, this can be automated to provide scanning. :ike thin1walled tubing, thickness can be accurately measured, using the conductivity properties of the material.

A2 IRREGULAR ARTICLES
!rregular articles can be tested by comparing specific areas on the test article against identical areas on a reference standard. "pecial fi+tures are often used to ensure that positioning of the surface coil is standardized in specific areas.

@2 COATINGS
/s previously pointed out in this chapter eddy current testing provides a means of measuring the thickness of coatings &or platings* on articles. This applies to cylinders and tubing, as well as to sheets. The coating may be either conductive or nonconductive. Iepending upon the nature of the coating, either conductivity or lift1off is used to perform the test. "pecial equipment can be used to indicate thickness directly in terms of physical units of measurement. /n alternative is the use of curves which relate indications to physical units of measurement.

154

CHAPTER . 4
EDDY CURRENT METHOD - LEVEL II QUESTIONNAIRE
12 E5!( *u-! *!,*i(g :i*5 i(*! (%& # '-!,7 !-i(,#!$*i(g %* 23@= %3*! u,i(g 3@= 5%, *5! %)+%(*%g! '3 -!**! )i,$ i4i(%*i'( -!*:!!( ID %() OD )!3!$*,2 A, :!&& a* magnetic deposits are discriminated from defects b* sensitivity to dents is increased c* sensitivity to support plates is decreased d* both b and c 22 T5! #u #',! '3 u,i(g % ,4%&& ,# i(g &'%)!) ,u 3%$! # '-! *' i(,#!$* *u-i(g i( %() (!% % *u-!,5!!* i, a* reduce lift1off b* increase sensitivity to small defects c* increase sensitivity to circumferential defects d* all of the above 32 T5! # i4% " #u #',! '3 4u&*i3 !Gu!($" !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g i, a* defect sizing b* elimination of non1defect signals c* to increase instrument frequency response d* to provide logarithmic amplification to avoid saturating signals 42 E5!( !H%4i(i(g %( !))" $u !(* )!3!$* ,ig(%&7 *5! %(g&! (#5%,!) '3 *5! ,ig(%& # i4% i&" i()i$%*!, )!3!$* a* depth b* length c* volume d* type 12 T5! IACS %*i(g '3 $'()u$*i+i*" i, -%,!) '( a* semiconductor technology b* pure annealed copper c* silver at standard temperature and pressure &"T4* d* OhmPs :aw ?2 E5!( 4%*! i%& ,' *i(g -" !))" $u !(* 4!*5'),7 $% ! 4u,* -! *%>!( ('* *' u,! *'' &': % 3 !Gu!($"2 E5%* i, *5! $'($! ( '3 *'' &': % 3 !Gu!($" 3' ,' *i(gI a* sensitivity to thickness changes b* sensitivity to o+idized surface layers c* poor field coupling d* probe1cable resonance 155

B2 G!'4!* " +% i%*i'(, $%( !,u&* i( ! ' , :5!( #! 3' 4i(g !,i,*i+i*" 4!%,u !4!(*, 3' ,' *i(g2 H': i, *5i, -!,* '+! $'4!I a* using very high test frequencies b* using low test frequencies c* using standards to duplicate test items d* machining flats on all test pieces A2 Pu&,!) DC ,%*u %*i'( i, u,!) i( EC *!,*i(g '3 4%g(!*i$ 4%*! i%&, *' a* allow welding to be converted to eddy current machines b* reduce heating effects c* improve response time d* increase permeability of the test coil to match that of the test piece @2 T5! #i$>u# ( !$!i+! ) $'i& '3 %( !))" $u !(* # '-! i, a* always the same coil as the magnetizing coil b* identical in diameter to the magnetizing coil c* coincident in position to the magnetizing coil d* of any size, position or even configuration 1=2 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g *"#!, '3 !))" $u !(* # '-! $&%,,i3i$%*i'(, i, ('* -%,!) '( 4')! '3 '#! %*i'(I a* surface transducers b* absolute transducers c* differential transducers d* both a and b 112 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g *"#!, '3 * %(,)u$! , i, ('* -%,!) '( i*, u,%g!I a* feed through b* encircling c* differential d* forked 122 T5! *!,* 3 !Gu!($" %*i' u,!) i( g!(! %*i(g &'$u, $u +!, $'4#% !, :5i$5 *:' 3 !Gu!($i!,I a* operating frequency and fA% b* resonance frequency and operating frequency c* operating frequency and limit frequency d* "tokePs frequency and fA% 132 E5!( *!,*i(g *5i( :%&&!) ('(4%g(!*i$ *u-i(g :i*5 !))" $u !(*,7 % $ %$> :'u&) 5%+! % ,i4i&% !33!$* %, a* lift1off b* a decrease in tube wall thickness c* a decrease in magnetic permeability d* increased conductivity

156

142 T!,* 3 !Gu!($" %*i' 3' *5i$> :%&& ('(4%g(!*i$ *u-!, *' '-*%i( 4%Hi4u4 ,!(,i*i+i*" *' %&& +% i%-&!, i, a* %., b* ,.% c* ,% d* more than that used in thin wall tubing 112 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g ,*%*!4!(*, i, $' !$*I a* !ncreasing test frequency increases depth of eddy current penetration. b* !f the e+isting /# magnetizing field penetrates through a tube wall eddy currents may not be optimum for detecting inside and outside surface cracks. c* )or a given setup eddy current intensity increases at a given depth with increasing conductivity and permeability. d* /ll of the above are correct. 1?2 E5!( *!,*i(g % *u-! :i*5 %( !($i $&i(g $'i& %() *5! !&%*i+! #! 4!%-i&i*" g %)u%&&" i($ !%,!, %&'(g *5! *u-! 3 '4 1 *' 27 :5%* :'u&) "'u !H#!$* *' 5%##!(I a* eddy current phase on the inside wall would change b* eddy current density on the inside wall would decrease c* sensitivity to inside diameter changes would decrease d* all of the above 1B2 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g i, u,! ,'&!&" %, % !3! !($! *' i)!(*i3" #% *i$u&% !&!$* '4%g(!*i$ $5% %$*! i,*i$, '3 % *!,* '-F!$*I a* limit frequency b* phase angle c* magnetic permeability d* resistivity 1A2 E))" $u !(* *!,*i(g i, '3*!( u,!) 3' ,' *i(g 4%*! i%&,2 E5i$5 # '#! *" $'u&) -! *5! -%,i, 3' % ,' *i(g *!,* '( ,!+! %& u(, '3 $'##! :i !I a* diameter b* alloy c* heat treatment d* all of the above 1@2 E5!( '(&" +% i%*i'(, i( -% )i%4!*! % ! !Gui !) *' -! )!*! 4i(!) :i*5 %( !($i $&i(g $'i& ,",*!47 3 !Gu!($" %*i' ,5'u&) -! a* , b* ' c* ,% d* as high as is practical

157

2=2 I( *5! %-,!($! '3 % *!,* #i!$! *5! '#! %*i(g #'i(* 3' %( !($i $&i(g $'i& i( % ,",*!4 u,!) 3' *!,*i(g 3! '4%g(!*i$ -% , i, :5! ! !&%*i+! *' i3 i* :%, u,!) *' *!,* ('(3! '4%g(!*i$ -% ,I a* at a point with greater real component b* at a point with greater imaginary component c* both real and imaginary positions would be greater d* the operating point would be the same 212 E5!( *!,*i(g % 3! '4%g(!*i$ -% :i*5 %( !($i $&i(g $'i& *5! ,ig(%& 4%g(i*u)! )!$ !%,!, -" JJJJJJJJJJJ :5!( *5! 3i&& 3%$*' i, !)u$!) -" 1=82 a* $-. b* -%. c* ''. d* E-. 222 T!,*i(g '3 3! '4%g(!*i$ -% , -" !($i $&i(g $'i&, 3' )!*!$*i'( '3 ,u 3%$! $ %$>,7 ,!%4, %() &%#, 5%, i*, %)+%(*%g! '+! *5! ,%4! i(,#!$*i'( '3 ('(-3! '4%g(!*i$ -% , -!$%u,! a* phase separation from probe wobble is improved b* eddy currents are more confined to near surface c* diameter variations are not seen d* surface flaws do not occur in non1ferromagnetic bars 232 Gi+!( 3;3g %*i', %() 3i&& 3%$*' , % ! %&& !Gu%&7 :5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g :'u&) gi+! % )i33! !(* !,#'(,! 3 '4 % &'(gi*u)i(%& $ %$> =21$4 )!!# i( % 1=$4 )i%4!*! %&u4i(iu4 -% I a* a longitudinal crack %.%%%- cm deep in %.%, cm diameter steel wire b* a longitudinal crack %.%%- cm deep in %., cm diameter tungsten wire c* a longitudinal crack %.%- cm deep in , cm diameter copper rod d* none of the above &all give the same signal* 242 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g i, %( %##&i$%*i'( '3 !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g '( ,5!!*, ' 3'i&,I a* determining electrical conductivity b* determination of metallic thickness c* non1contacting determination of temperature d* all of the above 212 A( %)+%(*%g! '3 *!,*i(g ,5!!* %() 3'i& 4%*! i%&, u,i(g % 3' >!) $'i& ,",*!4 (*5 'ug5-* %(,4i,,i'( *!$5(iGu!) i, *5! i(,!(,i*i+i*" *' a* sheet position between the coils b* sheet thickness variations c* conductivity variations d* permeability variations

158

2?2 A CRT u,!) *' )i,#&%" $5%(g!, i( i(#u* ,ig(%& %4#&i*u)! %() #5%,! :'u&) -! $%&&!) % a* 41meter b* I1meter c* phasorscope d* phasamplifier 2B2 E5!( *!,*i(g 4!*%&&i$ ,5!!* u,i(g *5! *5 'ug5 * %(,4i,,i'( *!$5(iGu!7 :5i$5 Gu%(*i*" :i&& ('* 5%+! %( !33!$* '( *5! 'u*#u* ,ig(%& i3 $5%(g!)I a* coil separation &between primary and secondary coils* b* pro+imity of sheet to receive coil c* thickness of the metal sheet d* permeability of the metal sheet 2A2 I( *5 'ug5 * %(,4i,,i'( *!,*i(g '3 ,5!!* # ')u$*,7 4%Hi4u4 ,!(,i*i+i*" *' $'()u$*i+i*" %() *5i$>(!,, $5%(g!, '$$u , u()! :5%* $'()i*i'(I a* ma+imum coil spacing b* minimum coil diameter to sheet thickness ratio c* ma+imum coil diameter to sheet thickness ratio d* ma+imum interruption of eddy currents 2@2 E5!( #! 3' 4i(g % *!,* '( % ,i4#&! ,5!!* :i*5 % ,i(g&! $'i& # '-!7 K! ' &i3*-'33 i, '-*%i(!) 3' a* the effective coil distance equal to zero b* the real coil distance equal to zero c* the imaginary coil distance equal to zero d* fFfg O -.3=2 E33!$*i+! $'i& )i,*%($! %, u,!) i( *!,*i(g ,5!!* :i*5 % ,i(g&! $'i& # '-! i, a* a constant b* a function of specimen conductivity c* a function of specimen thickness d* both b and c 312 T5! !33!$* '3 i($ !%,i(g &i3*-'33 i, a* a decrease in coil efficiency factor b* a decrease in magnetic lines of force linking to the metal c* increased sensitivity d* both a and b

159

322 C'()u$*i+i*" 4!%,u !4!(*, % ! ('* !&i%-&! i3 ,#!$i4!( *5i$>(!,, i, &!,, *5%( JJJJJJJJJ -!$%u,! 3i!&) ,* !(g*5 !)u$*i'(, )u! *' !))" $u !(*, % ! 3% g !%*! *5%( g!'4!* i$%& 3i!&) ,* !(g*5 !)u$*i'(,2 a* , micron b* %., mm c* ,.% mm d* -.% mm 332 A, $'4#% !) *' $'i& # '-!, u,!) 3' $'()u$*i+i*" 4!%,u !4!(*,7 $'i& # '-!, u,!) 3' )!*! 4i(i(g $'%*i(g *5i$>(!,,!, ,5'u&) 5%+! a* higher operating frequencies b* larger diameters c* more turns d* all of the above 342 E5%* #% %4!*! i, 4!%,u !) :5!( u,i(g !))" $u !(*, *' )!*! 4i(! *5i$>(!,, '3 %(')iK!) $'%*i(g, '( %&u4i4iu4I a* !nductive reactance b* conductivity c* lift1off d* resonance frequency 312 E5%* #% %4!*! i, 4!%,u !) :5!( u,i(g !))" $u !(*, *' )!*! 4i(! #%i(* *5i$>(!,, '( %( %&u4i(iu4 -'%* 5u&&I a* conductivity b* resistivity c* lift1off d* both a and b 3?2 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g # '+i)! '#*i4iK!) $'()i*i'(, 3' 4!%,u i(g #&%*i(g *5i$>(!,, ($'()u$*i+! $'%*i(g '( $'()u$*i+! -%,!)I a* large probe coil efficiency factor b* effective coil distance small as possible c* frequency ratio between , and E d* all of the above 3B2 S!(,i*i+i*" '3 # '-! $'i& (,u 3%$! # '-!) !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g i, 4' ! *5%( !($i $&i(g # '-!, 3' $ %$> )!*!$*i'( 3' :5%* !%,'( Q a* the ratio of crack zone area to probe area is greater b* cracks never occur at right angles to eddy currents in encircling probes c* cracks are always at right angles to eddy currents in surface probes tests d* both b and c

160

3A2 S!(,i*i+i*" *' % ,u 3%$! - !%>i(g $ %$> i, i($ !%,!) %, $ %$> )!#*5 )!$ !%,!, -" a* increasing clockwise phase rotation b* increasing counterclockwise phase rotation c* increasing test frequency d* increasing probe diameter 3@2 E5%* )' *5! $5% %$*! i,*i$ 3 !Gu!($i!, $%&$u&%*!) 3' $"&i()! ,7 ,5!!*, %() ,#5! !, 5%+! i( $'44'(I a* all solve Ba+wellPs field equation for the 5essel function equal to one b* all frequencies solving the equation have the same constant c* all frequencies solving the equation use the same probe diameter d* none of the characteristic frequencies are affected by relative permeability 4=2 E))" $u !(* *5!' " 3' *!,*, '( ,#5! !, $'u&) -! %##&i!) *' :5%* # %$*i$%& %##&i$%*i'((,)I a* ball bearing tests. b* bolts and roller bearing tests c* small metallic inclusions in non1metallic substances d* all of the above 412 T' i4# '+! 3i!&) $'u#&i(g :5!( *!,*i(g ,#5! i$%& #% *, "'u :'u&) u,! a* spherical coils b* longer coils &solenoids* c* higher test frequencies d* square1wave /# 422 I( !4'*! 3i!&) !))" $u !(* i(,#!$*i'(, *5! )!*!$*' # '-! i, &'$%*!) %-'u* 5': 3% 3 '4 *5! !H$i*! $'i&I a* as near as possible &within a couple of millimeters* b* half a pipe diameter c* $ to = pipe diameters d* - to ,% pipe diameters 432 E5%* % ! *5! *:' LK'(!,L i( !4'*! 3i!&) !))" $u !(* *!,*i(gI a* deep and shallow zone b* direct coupling and remote field zones c* near and far zones d* dead and active zones

161

442 E5%* *"#! '3 )!3!$* i( 3! '4%g(!*i$ *u-i(g $%( *5! !4'*! 3i!&) !))" $u !(* )!*!$*I a* pits b* cracks c* thinning d* all of the above 412 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g i, % )i,%)+%(*%g! '3 *5! !4'*! 3i!&) !))" $u !(* *!$5(iGu!I a* no couplant is required b* dirt, scale and lift1off have little effect on results c* inspection speeds are low due to frequencies used d* inside and outside defects are detected with equal sensitivity 4?2 I( ' )! *' *!,* 3! '4%g(!*i$ 4%*! i%&, "'u $'u&) a* use a saturating permanent magnet at the probe coil b* apply a I# electric field to the test material c* apply an /# electrical field to the test material d* either a or b could be used 4B2 F! '4%g(!*i$ %&&'", % ! ,' *!) -" a* conductivity variations b* permeability variations c* attraction of a standard permanent magnet d* none of the above, ferromagnetic alloys cannot be sorted 4A2 R!,i,*i+i*" 4!%,u !4!(*, 4%)! -" !))" $u !(* *!,* 4!*5'), % ! a* independent of part surface condition b* made without need for a reference standard c* made indirectly by measuring effect on a coil in an /# circuit d* unaffected by part geometry 4@2 A )!+i$! i($' #' %*!) i(*' %( !))" $u !(* i(,* u4!(* *5%* %&&':, %( %&% 4 *' * igg! :5!( % ,ig(%& $ ',,!, % *5 !,5'&) i, %(() a* filter b* gate c* amplifier d* resonance bo+ 1=2 E5%* *"#! '3 g%*i(g $%( -! u,!) '( CRT )i,#&%" !))" $u !(* i(,* u4!(*,I a* amplitude gates b* phase gates c* bo+ gates d* all of the above

162

112 E5%* 4u,* '$$u 3' %( %&% 4 *' -! * igg! !) '( %( !))" $u !(* i(,* u4!(*I a* a defect must be in the coilPs field b* a geometric or permeability change must be seen by the coil c* either a or b d* a signal must enter a gated region on the display 122 Mu&*i3 !Gu!($" !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g ,u## !,,!, u()!,i !) ,ig(%&, -" :5%* # i($i#&!I a* signal averaging b* bandpass filtering c* phase separation d* all of the above are used in concert 132 I( % 4u&*i3 !Gu!($" !))" $u !(* i(,* u4!(* :5%* 3u($*i'(, % ! %)Fu,*!) :i*5 ,!#% %*! $'(* '&, 3' !%$5 3 !Gu!($" ,!&!$*!)I a* frequency b* gain c* phase d* all of the above 142 D!*!$*i'( '3 4%g(!*i$ 3i!&), u,i(g *5! i(*! %$*i'( '3 *5! 4%g(!*i$ 3i!&) '( !&!$* i$%& $5% g! $% i! , i( ,!4i$'()u$*' 4%*! i%&, i, u,!) -" a* through transmission eddy current techniques b* 6all detectors c* diodes d* transistors 112 E5!( u,i(g H%&& )!*!$*' , i( !))" $u !(* # '-!,7 g!(! %*i'( '3 !))" $u !(*, i, -" a* the reverse 6all effect b* magnetostriction c* e+citation coils d* pyroelectric effect 1?2 T5! +'&*%g! *5%* !,u&*, :5!( % 4%g(!*i$ 3i!&) i(*! %$*, :i*5 % ,!4i$'()u$*' i, a* not measurable b* parallel to the magnetic field c* the 6all effect d* cancelled by eddy currents

163

1B2 E5%* i, *5! $%u,! '3 #'*!(*i%& )i33! !($! $5%(g! i( % H%&& )!*!$*' !&!4!(*I a* holes b* electrons c* e+ternal magnetic fields d* internal eddy currents 1A2 R!&%*i+! *' *5! 3%$! '3 *5! !$*%(gu&% H%&& !&!4!(*7 :5i$5 )i !$*i'( '3 4%g(!*i$ 3i!&) # ')u$!, *5! ,4%&&!,* H%&& +'&*%g!I a* parallel b* at right angles c* 0-R d* direction is not a factor in response amplitude 1@2 E5%* i, *5! &':!,* *!,* 3 !Gu!($" :i*5 :5i$5 % H%&& !33!$* )!*!$*' $%( -! u,!)I a* ,%% k6z b* ,%% 6z c* $- 6z d* I# ?=2 G!(! %&&" ,#!%>i(g7 ,!(,i*i+i*" *' % gi+!( )!3!$* :i&& i($ !%,! u()! :5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g $'()i*i'(,I a* increased lift1off b* increased depth to defect c* increased operating frequency d* increase probe diameter ?12 D!3!$* ,!(,i*i+i*" i, # '#' *i'(%& *' JJJJJJJ 3' ,u 3%$! # '-!, %() JJJJJJJJJJ 3' L5' ,!,5'!L # '-!,2 a* coil diameter, gap width b* coil length, core arc radius c* resistance, inductance d* conductivity, resistivity ?22 T' !H%4i(! *5! !33!$*, '3 +% i'u, #% %4!*! , '3 *5! *!,* ,#!$i4!( :i*5'u* $'($! ( 3' +% i%*i'(, i( # '-! )!*%i&,7 *5! # '-! i4#!)%($! i, a* subtracted from the materialPs resistance b* added to the materialPs resistance c* normalized d* standardized

164

?32 A # '-! i, '#! %*!) %* 4==>HK %() *5! i4#!)%($! )i,#&%" i, % %(g!) ,' *5%* *5! '#! %*i(g #'i(* '3 *5! # '-! -%&%($!) i( %i 4'+!, +! *i$%& :5!( - 'ug5* (!H* *' % 3! i*! ,%4#&!2 S%4#&!, 1 *' 4 :5!( $'(*%$*!) 4'+! *' % #'i(* *' *5! &':! ig5* '3 *5! ,$ !!( %() ,%4#&! 1 4'+!, *5! '#! %*i(g #'i(* *' *5! u##! ig5*2 S%4#&! 1 i, # '-%-&" a* ferro magnetic &GS,* b* non1conductive &conductivity O %* c* thicker than all the other samples d* thinner than all the other samples ?42 O#! %*i(g (!% *5! >(!! '3 *5! $u +! '3 *5! i4#!)%($! &'$u, #! 4i*, 4%Hi4u4 )i,$ i4i(%*i'( '3 a* resistivity b* lift1off c* permeability d* density ?12 I3 3! i*! i, % %(g!) *' -! +! *i$%& 3' % # '-! '#! %*!) %* 1===>HK %() -%&%($!) i( %i 7 &i3*-'33 3' %( u(>(':( ,#!$i4!( :i&& -! a* horizontal b* up and to the right of the instrument monitor c* down and to the right of the instrument monitor d* determined by the material parameters of the specimen ??2 E5!( u,i(g !))" $u !(* 4!*5'), 3' )!*! 4i(i(g *5i$>(!,, 3 !Gu!($" i, ,!&!$*!) ,' *5! &i3*-'33 %() *5i$>(!,, $5%(g! ,ig(%&, % ! ,!#% %*!) -" a* 0-R b* A%R c* ,(%R d* $E%R ?B2 E5!( 4!%,u i(g *5! *5i$>(!,, '3 #%i(* '( %&u4i(iu4 #&%*! (('($'()u$*i+! $'%*i(g '( % $'()u$*' ) "'u :'u&) )!*! 4i(! *5i$>(!,, -" a* lift1off changes b* phase angle measurements c* frequency modulation d* none of the above ?A2 M!%,u i(g #%i(* *5i$>(!,, (('(-$'()u$*i+!) '( %&u4i(iu4 i, % $'4#% %*i+! *!$5(iGu! %() !Gui !, a* a written procedure b* a national standard c* standard reference thicknesses &calibration piece* d* an approved probe 165

?@2 I3 % ,u 3%$! - !%>i(g $ %$> 144 )!!# %() % &% g! ,u-,u 3%$! +'i) &'$%*!) 144 )!!# % ! &'$%*!) i( % *!,* #&%*!7 *5! !))" $u !(* ,ig(%&, 3 '4 *5!,! 3&%:, :i&& a* be the same amplitude b* probably have the crack as a larger amplitude c* probably have the void as a larger amplitude d* have the same phase angles B=2 T5! 3 !Gu!($" u,!) *' '-*%i( @=M ,!#% %*i'( -!*:!!( &i3*-'33 %() *5i$>(!,, $5%(g!,2 I* i, 3'u() 3 '4 12? #;*N (>HK)2 T5i, 3 !Gu!($" i, $%&&!) *5! (# i, !,i,*i+i*") a* fA% b* characterisitic frequency c* knee frequency d* resonance frequency B12 E5i$5 i, ('* % 4!*5') u,!) *' g%ug! )!#*5 '3 % )!3!$*I a* pattern recognition b* amplitude c* phase angle d* none of the above are depth gauging methods B22 F! '4%g(!*i$ i($&u,i'(, % ! ,! i'u, i()i$%*i'(, i( !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g -!$%u,! a* they are often mistaken for serious defects &eg. cracks* b* ferro1cracks inevitably occur off them c* they are only seen when testing near probe1cable resonance d* there is no known cure for them B32 C%&i- %*i'( ,*%()% ), (-&'$>,) % ! u,!) i( !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g *' a* allow pattern recognition b* set phase rotation c* set sensitivity d* all of the above B42 E($i $&i(g # '-!, $%(('* -! u,!) '( a* wire b* square tubing c* he+agonal tubing d* none of the above are restrictions to encircling probes provided the appropriate coil shape is used

166

B12 Tu-u&% # ')u$*, $%( -! *!,*!) u,i(g a* surface probes b* absolute encircling or internal probes c* differential encircling or internal probes d* all of the above B?2 T5! !,u&*, '3 % ,&ig5* )!$ !%,! i( 3i&& 3%$*' :i&& -! a* small decrease in near surface defect sensitivity b* large decrease in signal amplitudes c* both a and b d* none of the above, small fill factor changes are not significant BB2 I( % )i33! !(*i%& # '-!7 *5! ,ig(%& 3 '4 % )!3!$* i, )i,#&%"!) *:i$! (i3 ,5' * !('ug5)2 T5i, i, )u! *' a* the defect being given a magnetic north and south pole b* two separate sensing coils being present c* the Treflection effectT similar to the transmit1receive method d* none of the above BA2 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g i, ('* * u! 3' *5! %-,'&u*! # '-!I a* immune to temperature drift b* sees abrupt and gradual property and dimensional changes c* very sensitive to probe wobble d* indicated total length of defects B@2 G %)u%& *5i((i(g '3 % 5!%* !H$5%(g! *u-! %, % !,u&* '3 !H*! (%& ! ',i'( i, 4',* &i>!&" *' -! 4i,,!) i3 "'u u,! :5i$5 *"#! '3 # '-!I a* surface probe b* absolute probe c* differential probe d* all of the above would be unable to find the flaw A=2 E))" $u !(* $'i&, % ! ,!(,i*i+! *' a* lift1off b* fill factor c* temperature d* any variation that affects conductivity or permeability A12 I( *u-! *!,*i(g7 3i&& 3%$*' i, !Gui+%&!(* *' a* normalized resistance b* the characteristic parameter c* lift1off d* phase angle

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A22 E5i$5 i, ('* % #',,i-&! 3i&&-3%$*' +%&u!I a* ,., b* ,.% c* %.A d* %., A32 E5!( *!,*i(g :i ! ' ,'&i) -% 7 *5! ,!(,i*i+i*" %* *5! $!(* ! '3 *5! *!,* #i!$! :5!( u,i(g %( !($i $&i(g $'i& # '-! i, a* ma+imum b* one half that at the surface c* the square root of the surface value d* zero A42 E5!( *u-! *!,*i(g :i*5 !i*5! -'--i( ' !($i $&i(g # '-!,7 :5%* $'()i*i'( 4u,* '$$u 3' *5! i(,#!$*i'( *' -! 3 !! '3 #5%,! &%g (!33!$*i+!&")I a* thickness must be much greater than skin depth b* thickness must be much less than skin depth c* fill factor must be less than or equal to , d* fill factor must be greater than or equal to , A12 C5'i$! '3 *!,* 3 !Gu!($" i, '3*!( *5! '(&" #% %4!*! i( :5i$5 *5! '#! %*' 5%, %(" $5'i$!2 T!,* 3 !Gu!($" i, u,u%&&" a* fA% b* fg c* fc d* a compromise based on various parameters A?2 T5! 3 !Gu!($" 3@= *"#i$%&&" u,!) i( *u-i(g i(,#!$*i'(, # '+i)!, @=O #5%,! ,!#% %*i'( -!*:!!( a* lift off and permeability b* fill factor and e+ternal defects c* internal defects and fill factor d* resistivity and permeability AB2 I3 !,i,*i+i*" (#) i, gi+!( i( P'54-$47 :%&& *5i$>(!,, i( 447 *5! !Gu%*i'( 3' 3@= 3' *!,*i(g *u-!, i, a* ,.' pFtU b* ,., tFp c* = pFtU d* =pUFt AA2 C%&i- %*i'( ,*%()% ), 3' *u-! *!,*i(g u,! a* drilled holes and EIB notches b* a+ial and circumferential machined grooves c* actual defects d* any of the above can be used 168

A@2 Mu&*i-#%($%>! $'i& # '-!, %() Kig-K%g $'i& # '-!, % ! ,'4!*i4!, u,!) %, i(*! (%& *u-! i(,#!$*i'( # '-!, -!$%u,! a* conventional bobbin coils are too sensitive to temperature b* they have better sensitivity to circumferential cracks c* they are insensitive to permeability changes d* they are cheaper to make @=2 S!**i(g *5! %*i' '3 *u-! :%&& *5i$>(!,, *' ,>i( )!#*5 *' 1217 gi+!, % 3 !Gu!($" $%&&!) *5! 3@= 3' *u-! *!,*i(g2 T5i, %*i' i, )!*! 4i(!) a* by the characteristic parameter b* solving Ba+wellPs equation c* from IoddPs number d* empirically @12 E5%* $%u,!, &i3*-'33 *' !)u$! ,ig(%&, ,!!( '( *5! E2C2 i(,* u4!(* )i,#&%"I a* smaller magnitude eddy current flow b* reduced field coupling of the detector to eddy current fields c* both a and b d* none of the above, lift1off does not affect signal amplitude @22 H': % ! $"&i() i$%& '-F!$*, i(,#!$*!) 3 '4 *5! 'u*,i)! ,u 3%$! u,i(g !))" $u !(* 4!*5'),I a* by fi+ed probes helical motion of the cylinder b* by advancing an encircling probe along the cylinder c* by moving the cylinder through a rotating array of probes d* all of the above can be used @32 A u(i3' 4 )i,$'(*i(ui*" ,$%((!) u,i(g % )i33! !(*i%& # '-! %() )!*!$*!) ,i4u&*%(!'u,&" by both windings will a* not be detected b* require inspection at = frequencies c* be detected only at the ends d* only be detectable if the windings are orthogonal @42 E))" $u !(* *!,*i(g '(-&i(! i( ,*!!& 4i&&, '3*!( i(+'&+!, *!,*i(g +! " 5'* ,u 3%$!, (!g2 1711=MC2)2 A&*5'ug5 !Gui#4!(* $',*, 4%" i($ !%,! *5! ! $%( -! %)+%(*%g! *' *!,*i(g %* ,u$5 5ig5 *!4#! %*u !2 E5i$5 i, %( %)+%(*%g!I a* increased inspection speeds b* no problems with permeability variations c* lower resistivities d* smaller defects can be found

169

@12 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g :'u&) -!(!3i* *5! 4',* i3 *!,*!) -" !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g :5i&! ,*i&& 5'* (171==MC2)I a* copper pipe b* aluminium wire c* steel rod d* brass tubing @?2 E5%* :'u&) *5! !$'44!()!) '(-&i(! i(,#!$*i'( 4!*5') -! 3' *!,*i(g ,*!!& ') :i*5 # ')u$*i'( ,#!!), '3 1== 4!* !, #! ,!$'()I a* radiography b* eddy current testing c* ultrasonics d* acoustic emission @B2 C"$&i$ &'%)i(g )u i(g 3&ig5*7 *%>!-'33 %() &%()i(g $%( !,u&* i( JJJJJJJJJJJ :5i$5 % ! )!*!$*%-&! -" !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g2 a* e+foliation losses b* fatigue cracks c* stress corrosion cracks d* both b and c @A2 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g i, ('* %( %##&i$%*i'( '3 !))" $u !(* i( *5! %i $ %3* i()u,* "I %) 4!%,u i(g 4!*%& %() $'%*i(g *5i$>(!,, b* inspection of bolt holes c* sorting of mi+ed aluminium alloys d* the premise of the question is wrong, all the above are aircraft applications @@2 I3 "'u :! ! u,i(g ECT *' $5!$> *5! g%# -!*:!!( *:' ,5!!*, '3 %&u4i(iu4 %() 3'u() *5! g%# :%, '$$%,i'(%&&" *'' g !%* *' ('*i$! '( "'u i(,* u4!(*7 :5%* ,5'u&) "'u )'I a* use a higher test frequency b* use a lower test frequency c* use a bigger probe d* use a smaller probe 1==2 T5! g%# -!*:!!( *:' #&%*!, '3 %&u4i(iu4 i, )!*! 4i(!) -" !))" $u !(* *!,* -!$%u,! a* of electrical short circuiting for small gaps b* eddy currents can be induced in the far plate c* magnetic waves bounce off the far plate and reinduce eddy currents in the first plate d* none of the above, eddy currents cannot be used to check gap between plates

170

1=12 T5i( 'Hi)! &%"! , u,u%&&" '$$u '( %&u4i(iu4 #&%*!2 T5!,! )' ('* (' 4%&&" i(*! 3! ! :i*5 !,i,*i+i*" )!*! 4i(%*i'( # '+i)!) a* frequency used is high enough b* the instrument has lift1off compensation c* the through transmission technique is used d* the coil probe is made using aluminium wire 1=22 E5i$5 '3 *5! 3'&&':i(g i, ('* % 4%*! i%& *!,* +% i%-&! *' $'(,i)! :5!( 4%>i(g !,i,*i+i*" !%)i(g,I a* edge effect b* curvature of surface c* instrument lift1off compensation d* temperature 1=32 E)g!-)i,*%($! $u +!, #&'* $'()u$*i+i*" !%)i(g, %g%i(,* # '-! )i,*%($! 3 '4 *5! !)g! '3 % ,#!$i4!(2 H': $%( *5i, $u +! -! ,u-,!Gu!(*&" u,!)I a* to apply correction factors to production tests b* to calculate correct probe diameter c* to calculate a usable test surface range for a given probe d* both a and b 1=42 E5%* %,#!$* '3 !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g %&&':, ,' *i(g '3 %&u4i(iu4 %&&'",I a* coil resistance of the probe b* conductivity of the sample c* permeability of the sample d* both b and c 1=12 A ,%4#&! '3 #u ! 4%g(!,iu4 %() %('*5! '3 %( %&u4i(iu4 %&&'" 5%+! i)!(*i$%& !,i,*i+i*i!,2 H': i, *5i, #',,i-&!I a* alloy content can reduce conductivity b* heat treatment can change conductivity c* a combination of a and b d* it is not possible for $ metals of different composition to have the same resistivity 1=?2 E5" i, !))" $u !(* $'()u$*i+i*" *!,*i(g u,!) *' %,,!,, 3i ! %() 5!%* )%4%g! *' %&u4i(iu4 '3 %i $ %3*I a* a direct relationship e+ists between conductivity, hardness and mechanical properties of aluminium b* it is cheap and fast c* it avoids the mess made using ultrasonics d* the hazards of +1ray diffraction are avoided

171

1=B2 A&u4i(iu4 i, u,!) !H*!(,i+!&" i( %i $ %3* i()u,* i!, :5! ! i* i, '3*!( *!,*!) -" !))" $u !(* 4!*5'),2 E5%* i, *5! )i33! !($! -!*:!!( 2===7 3===7 %() 4=== ,! i!, %&&'",I a* heat treatment used b* ma or alloy constituent c* forming process ie. cast, rolled, e+truded d* conductivity 1=A2 OH"g!( !4- i**&!4!(* '( *i*%(iu4 ,u 3%$!, i, $%&&!) %&#5%-$%,! )!#*5 '3 *5i, $%,! i, )!*! 4i(!) -" 5ig5 3 !Gu!($" !))" $u !(*, (1MHK *' ?MHK)2 E5" % ! ,u$5 5ig5 3 !Gu!($i!, u,!)I a* to ensure sufficient sensitivity to reliably indicate depth b* due to the low conductivity of the o+ide c* it eliminates noise problems from fluorescent lights d* to compensate for the lift1off caused by the none conductive layer 1=@2 I(*! (%& ,u 3%$!, '3 3%,*!(! 5'&!, % ! i(,#!$*!) -" '*%*i(g !))" $u !(* # '-!,2 T5!,! $%( )!*!$* JJJJJJJJJJJJJJ i( -'&* 5'&!, )':( *' ?44 )i%4!*! 2 a* corrosion b* ovality c* cracking d* all of the above 11=2 G%# -!*:!!( %( %&u4i(iu4 %() % *i*%(iu4 #&%*! ,!#% %*!) -" %-'u* 2 *' 3 44 :'u&) -!,* -! )!*! 4i(!) -" a* an eddy current lift1off technique b* resistivity measurements c* eddy current permeability determination techniques d* ultrasonics 1112 I( % *5 !! &%"! % %(g!4!(* '3 %&u4i(iu4 ,5!!*,7 5': i, i* #',,i-&! *' )!*!$* % $ %$> i( *5! ,5!!* 3u *5! 4',* 3 '4 *5! # '-!I a* pulsed eddy currents b* selecting a sufficiently low frequency c* using a probe diameter equal to twice total sheet thickness d* using a differential probe 1122 E5!( i, *5! ,*%()% ) )!#*5 '3 #!(!* %*i'( u,!) i(,*!%) '3 *5! !33!$*i+! )!#*5 '3 #!(!* %*i'( (u,u%&&" *%>!( *' -! 3 *i4!, *5! ,*%()% ) )!#*5 '3 #!(!* %*i'()I a* when it is required to detect anomalies in a second layer b* to improve near surface resolution c* to improve sensitivity d* both b and c

172

1132 C %$>i(g i( ,!$'() &%"! ,* u$*u !, '3 %i $ %3* i, -!,* )!*!$*!) -" a* ultrasonics b* low frequency eddy currents c* high frequency eddy currents d* +1rays 1142 C %$> )!*!$*i'( -" !))" $u !(* 4!*5'), % ! #! 3' 4!) '( :5%* $'4#'(!(*, i( *5! %u*'4'*i+! i()u,* "I a* a+le shafts and transmission shafts b* nuts, bolts and ball oint studs c* aluminium castings d* all of the above 1112 E5%* i, *5! 4%i( )i33! !($! -!*:!!( ,ig(%&, 3 '4 3! i*i$ )!#',i*, '( *5! ID '3 $'##! *u-! %() *5',! '( *5! OD '3 *5! ,%4! *u-! :5!( i(,#!$*i(g :i*5 %( i(*! (%& )i33! !(*i%& # '-!I a* tightness of flyback signal to approach signal b* amplitude c* initial direction of motion &ie. up or down* d* phase angle of the flyback signal 11?2 E5%* !33!$* )'!, )!$ !%,i(g 3i&& 3%$*' 5%+! '( *5! S;N %*i'I a* increases b* decreases c* no change d* it depends on if the material is ferromagnetic or not 11B2 I( % ,i(g&! 3 !Gu!($" *!,* '3 % -'i&! *u-! % 1=8 OD #i* Fu,* 5%##!(, *' '$$u !H%$*&" '+! % 1=8 ID #i*2 E5%* i, *5! !,u&*i(g )i33! !(*i%& ,ig(%& &i>!&" *' &''> &i>!I a* a $%. OI pit b* a $%. !I pit c* a $%. midwall void d* a through wall defect 11A2 I( 4u&*i3 !Gu!($" !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g7 :5%* i, *5! #u #',! '3 *5! 4iH ' ,!$'() 3 !Gu!($"I a* to produce the signal to be used for subtraction b* to provide a carrier with a preprogrammed signal for averaging c* for high pass filtering d* for low pass filtering

173

11@2 Mu&*i3 !Gu!($" !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g ,!#% %*!, )i,$'(*i(ui*" ,ig(%&, -" u,i(g a* phase b* amplitude c* filtering d* both a and b 12=2 E5" i, $'()u$*i+i*" ,' &': 3' i(,u&%*' ,I a* no free electrons are available b* because of impedance mismatch c* phase differences cause current cancellation d* because insulators are non1magnetic 1212 E5%* %,#!$*, '3 *5! # '-! $'i& %33!$* $5%(g!, i( i4#!)%($! %, i* i, &'$%*!) (!% *5! *!,* #i!$!I a* size b* shape c* position d* all of the above 1222 E5%* i, *5! ' i!(*%*i'( '3 !))" $u !(*, :i*5 !,#!$* *' *5! i()u$i(g 4%g(!*i$ 3i!&) (H)I a* parallel to 6 b* circular paths in planes perpendicular to 6 c* in the imaginary plane of 6 d* in the real plane of 6 1232 H': % ! *5! !33!$*, '3 +% i'u, *"#!, '3 )i,$'(*i(ui*i!, '( !))" $u !(* ,ig(%&, # !)i$*!)I a* mechanically by artificial defects b* theoretically by numerical modelling c* both a and b d* effects cannot be predicted and must be determined empirically 1242 I( !))" $u !(* *!,*i(g :5%* $'4#'(!(* i, 4!%,u !) i( *5! )!*!$*i(g $'i&I a* resistivity b* impedance c* potential difference d* both b and c

174

CHAPTER . 4
EDDY CURRENT METHOD LEVEL II . ANSEER
Q2NO2 ANS Q2NO2 ANS Q2NO2 ANS Q2NO2 ANS Q2NO2 ANS , I =, I ', / A, # ,$, I $ I =$ 5 '$ # A$ I ,$$ 5 = 5 == 5 '= / A= # ,$= # 0 / =0 # '0 5 A0 5 ,$0 I 5 =# 'I A# ' / =' I '' 5 A' 5 E # =E / 'E / AE 5 ( 5 =( # '( # A( I A I =A / 'A 5 AA 5 ,% / 0% I E% / ,%% 5 ,, # 0, / E, 5 ,%, 5 ,$ # 0$ # E$ / ,%$ # ,= 5 0= 5 E= I ,%= / ,0 I 00 I E0 I ,%0 5 ,5 0# EI ,%# ,' I 0' I E' # ,%' / ,E / 0E 5 EE 5 ,%E 5 ,( I 0( # E( / ,%( / ,A I 0A 5 EA # ,%A I $% I -% I (% I ,,% / $, 5 -, I (, # ,,, 5 $$ 5 -$ # ($ / ,,$ / $= I -= I (= I ,,= 5 $0 I -0 5 (0 5 ,,0 I $/ -# (I ,,# $' # -' # (' 5 ,,' 5 $E 5 -E # (E # ,,E I $( I -( / (( I ,,( / $A / -A I (A 5 ,,A I =% I '% # A% I ,$% /

175