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UCL - INSTITUTE OF ARCHAEOLOGY ARCL 1009 INTRODUCTION TO EGYPTIAN AND NEAR EASTERN ARCHAEOLOGY

2013/2014 Year 1 Option 0.5 unit Co-ordinator: Dr Mark Altaweel m.altaweel@ucl.ac.uk Room 103. Tel: 020 7679 74607 (Internal: 24607)

Left: An archaeological mound in Iraqi Kurdistan. Right: The temple of Edfu, Egypt.

AIMS To provide an introduction to the archaeology of Egypt and the Near East from the early prehistory, that is the beginning of the Holocene Epoch (nearly 12,000 years ago) to the dawning of the 20th century AD, with a focus on historical periods between 3000 BC to 330 BC. Some of the major aims of the course are:
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To provide an introduction to the archaeology and early history of the Near East, with emphasis on the civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Levant, Anatolia, and Iran.

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To consider the nature and interpretation of archaeological and textual sources in approaching the past of Egypt and the Near East. To consider major issues in the development of human society in Egypt and the Near East, including the origins and evolution of sedentism, agriculture, complex societies, urbanism, literacy, and empires.

Major issues including the development of interest in Egypt and the Near East and its legacy are also included. The course is taught through two-hour lectures over Term II Assessment will be through two essays, each of about 2500 words. This course is normally a prerequisite for the second/third year course options including ARCL2033 Archaeology of the Near East from Prehistory to 2000 BC and ARCL2034 Archaeology of the Near East 2000-300 BC. OBJECTIVES On successful completion of this course a student should:

Have a broad overview of the archaeology of Egypt and the Near East. Appreciate the significance of the archaeology of Egypt and the Near East within the broad context of the development of human society. Appreciate the importance of critical approaches to archaeological and textual sources. Contextualise our modern world with relevance to the ancient societies of Egypt and the Near East.

LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of the course students should be able to demonstrate: Understanding and critical awareness of arrange of primary and secondary sources. Written and oral skills in analysis and presentation. Appreciation of and ability to apply methods and theories of archaeological and historical analysis.

COURSE INFORMATION This handbook contains the basic information about the content and administration of the course. See also http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/handbook/common/ for general information common to all courses. Additional subject-specific reading lists and individual session handouts will be given out at appropriate points in the course. If students have queries about the objectives, structure, content, assessment or organisation of the course, they should consult the course coordinator. TEACHING METHODS The course is taught over Term II through two-hour lectures, which include a major element of discussion. PREREQUISITES There are no formal prerequisites for this course. WORKLOAD There will be 20 hours of lectures, including discussion. Students will be expected to undertake around 80 hours of reading for the course, plus 40 hours preparing for and producing the assessed work. This adds up to a total workload of 140 hours for the course. METHODS OF ASSESSMENT a) two written essays (2,375-2,625 words, each 50% of course-mark); If students are unclear about the nature of an assignment, they should discuss this with the course coordinator. The nature of the assignment and possible approaches to it will be discussed in class, in advance of the submission deadline. See below for the questions and details on the assignments. ATTENDANCE A register will be taken at each class. If you are unable to attend a class, please notify the lecturer by email. Departments are required to report each students attendance to UCL Registry at frequent intervals throughout each term. Students are expected to attend at least 70% of classes. LIBRARIES The library of the Institute of Archaeology will be the principal resource for this course. Please note that the reading lists for this course are available online at: http://ls-tlss.ucl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/displaylist?module=07ARCL3051 MOODLE Please note that materials relevant to this course can be found on UCLs Virtual Learning Environment at Moodle: http://moodle.ucl.ac.uk/

TEACHING SCHEDULE INTRODUTION Lecture 1: 17th January 2014 Aims and Objectives The Relevance of the Ancient Near East and Egypt. Geography and Time FOUNDATION OF CIVILIZATIONS: PREHISTORY Lecture 2: 24th January 2014 The Neolithic Revolution Lecture 3: 31st January 2014 The Formation of Early States CITIES, STATES, AND TRADE: THE BRONZE AGE Lecture 4: 7th February 2014 Sacred Kingship: Temples, Palaces, and Pyramids Lecture 5: 14th February 2014 The Origin of the Urban World: The Third Millennium Reading Week (February 17-21, 2014) Lecture 6: 28th February 2014 The Archaeology of Social Inequality Lecture 7: 7th March 2014 Globalization in Egypt and the Near East: The International Age FROM EAST TO WEST: THE IRON AGE AND BEYOND Lecture 8: 14th March 2014 Development of Empire: The Assyrian and Persian Empires Lecture 9: 21st March 2014 Transition from Ancient to Modern Egypt and the Near East Lecture 10: 28th March 2014 The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt and the Ancient Near East

Lecturers: All lectures will be by Dr. Mark Altaweel and Dr. Richard Bussmann Basic Texts See also Digital resources listed at the end of this handbook. Basic texts, Egypt and Near East: Frankfort, H. (1948). Kingship and the gods: A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society and Nature. Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press. INST ARCH DBA 200 FRA Frankfort, H. (1951). The Birth of Civilization in the Near East. London: Williams & Norgate. INST ARCH DBA 100 FRA Kuhrt, A. (1995) The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC. London: Routledge. INST ARCH DBA 100 KUH Sasson, J. (ed.) (1995) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Scarre, C. (ed.) (2005/2009) The Human Past. World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies. London: Thames and Hudson. INST ARCH BC 100 SCA. See also the associated website: http://www.thamesandhudsonusa.com/web/humanpast/ Wengrow, D. 2010. What Makes Civilization? The Ancient Near East and the Future of the West. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Issue desk WEN 8; INST ARCH DBA 100. Basic texts, Near East: Bryce, T. (2009) The Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia, London: Routledge. ANC HIST B2 BRY. Chavalas, M. W. (2006) The Ancient Near East. Historical Sources in Translation. Oxford: Blackwell. MAIN ANC HIST B 4 CHA Levy, T.E. (1998) The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, London: Leicester University Press. INST ARCH DBE 100 LEV; ISSUE DESK IOA LEV 3 Lloyd, S. (1978) The Archaeology of Mesopotamia from the Old Stone Age to the Persian Conquest, London: Thames and Hudson. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK DBB 100 LLO Meyers, E.M. (ed.) (1997) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, New York: Oxford University Press. INST ARCH DBA 100 MEY Potts, D.T. (1999) The Archaeology of Elam. Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH DBG 100 POT; ISSUE DESK DBG 100 POT Potts, D.T. (e.d.). 2012. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. INST ARCH DBA 100 POT Pritchard, J.B. (ed.) (1955) Ancient Near Eastern Texts, Princeton: Princeton University Press. INST ARCH DBA 600 Qto PRI Roaf, M. (1990) Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, Oxford: Facts on File. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto ROA Sagona, A. and P. Zimansky (2009) Ancient Turkey, London: Routledge. INST ARCH DBC 100 SAG Snell, D. C. (ed.) (2005) A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Oxford: Blackwell. MAIN ANC HIST B 5 SNE

Van De Mieroop, M. (2007) A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC, Second edition. Oxford: Blackwell. INST ARCH DBA 100 MIE Wilkinson, T.J. (2003) Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. Basic Texts, Egypt: Baines, J. and J. Mlek (2000) Cultural atlas of Ancient Egypt. Revised edition. New York: Fact on file. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 2 BAI; ISSUE DESK IOA BAI 2 *Bard, K. 2007. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Malden, Mass., Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 BAR, ISSUE DESK IOA BAR 29 Brewer, D. J. (2012). The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt: Beyond Pharaohs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY E 5 BRE *Kemp, B.J., 2006. Ancient Egypt. Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK KEM; EGYPTOLOGY B 5 KEM Lloyd, A. B. (ed.) (2010) A Companion to Ancient Egypt. 2 volumes. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 LLO Nicholson, P. T. and I. Shaw (eds) (2000). Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS S 5 NIC *Shaw, I. (ed.) (2000) The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 SHA, ISSUE DESK SHA *Trigger, B. G. and A. Lloyd, B. Kemp, D. OConnor (1983) Ancient Egypt. A social history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 TRI, ISSUE DESK IOA TRI 1 Van de Mieroop, M. (2011). A History of Ancient Egypt. Malden Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 MIE *Wendrich, W. (ed.) (2010) Egyptian Archaeology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Wilkinson, T. (ed.) (2007) The Egyptian World. London: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 WIL, ISSUE DESK WIL 10 Wilkinson R. H. (ed.) (2008) Egyptology Today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 9 WIL, ISSUE DESK WIL 16 Encyclopedias, Egypt: Bard, K. (ed.) (1999) Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY A 2 BAR; ISSUE DESK IOA BAR 17 Redford, D. B. (ed.) (2001) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 2 OXF Texts in translation, Egypt: Allen, J. P. (2005) The ancient Egyptian pyramid texts. Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature. EGYPTOLOGY V 30 ALL Breasted, J. H. (2001 [1906-7]) Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical documents from the earliest times to the Persian conquest. Chicago: Chicago University Press/Urbana: University of Illinois EGYPTOLOGY T 6 BRE Faulkner, R. O. (2004 [1973]). The ancient Egyptian coffin texts: spells 1-1185 and indexes. Oxford: Aris and Phillips. EGYPTOLOGY V 30 FAU

Frood, E. (2007) Biographical texts from Ramessid Egypt. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 FRO Kitchen, K. A. (1993-2012) Ramesside Inscriptions: Translated and Annotated. Vol. 1-6. Oxford: Blackwell. *Lichtheim, M. and H.-W. Fischer-Elfert (2006) Ancient Egyptian literature: a book of readings. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC *Lichtheim, M. and A. Loprieno (2006) Ancient Egyptian literature: a book of readings. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC *Lichtheim, M. and J. G. Manning (2006) Ancient Egyptian literature: a book of readings. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. EGYPTOLOGY V 20 LIC Murnane, W. J. (1995) Texts from the Amarna period in Egypt. Altanta, GA: Scholars Press. EGYPTOLOGY V 50 MUR *Pritchard, J. B. (1955) Ancient Near Eastern texts relating to the Old Testament, 2nd edition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. INST ARCH DBA 100 QUARTOS PRI Quirke, S., (2004) Egyptian literature 1800 BC: Questions and readings. London: Golden House Publications. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS V 50 QUI Ritner, R. K. (2009) The Libyan anarchy: Inscriptions from Egypts Third Intermediate Period. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. EGYPTOLOGY T 6 RIT *Simpson, W. K. and R. K. Ritner (2003) The literature of ancient Egypt: An anthology of stories, instructions, and poetry. 3rd ed . New Haven, Connecticut, London: Yale University Press. EGYPTOLOGY V 20 SIM Strudwick, N. (2005) Texts from the pyramid age. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. EGYPTOLOGY T 6 STR Tailor, J. H. (2010) Journey through the afterlife: ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead. London: British Museum Press. EGYPTOLY QUARTOS V 50 BOO Wente, E. F. (1990) Letters from ancient Egypt. Atlanta, Georgia.: Scholars Press. EGYPTOLOGY V 50 WEN

ASSESSMENT DETAILS The deadlines for submission of assessed work are: Essay A: Essay B: Wednesday 26th February 2014 Thursday 1st May 2014

Choose one of the following for Essay A. Essay Titles Section A (A1) Is environmental change the driving force of history? Use case-studies from Egypt and the Near East and discuss the relevance of geography and climate for writing the past. (See reading list for session 1 and 2) (A2) Discuss some of the academic debates regarding the rise of agriculture. Which arguments do you think have the most merit and supporting evidence? Discuss using evidence from selected Neolithic sites and other relevant data. (See reading list for sessions 2) What were some common social and cultural trends that we see developing in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Levant, Iran, and Anatolia during the Neolithic? (See reading list for session 2) To what extent is Egypt an offspring of Neolithic developments in the Near East? Discuss interregional borrowings of technology, lifestyles, and ideas in the Egyptian context. (See reading list for session 2)

(A3)

(A4)

(A5)

What factors do you think transformed societies in Mesopotamia starting from the Ubaid until the end of the Uruk period? In what ways were societies in this time frame different than earlier societies in Mesopotamia? (See reading list for session 3) Would you describe Early Dynastic Egypt as an African state? Review the wider developments of the late 4th and 3rd millennia developments in North Eastern Africa and discuss attitudes towards Egypts African nature. (See reading list for sessions 3) Why are cities developing in the 4th to 3rd millennium throughout much of the Near East? Use evidence from the readings and class discussion to present your argument. (See reading list for session 3-5) How representative are temples and pyramids of Egyptian civilization? Use examples from across the 3rd to 1st millennia and evaluate their importance in history and modern perception. (See reading list for session 4-8)

(A6)

(A7)

(A8)

(A9)

Do you think it relevant whether Ancient Egypt was an urban society? Use different Egyptian sites as examples and discuss early urbanism crossculturally. (see reading list for session 3-5)

Choose one of the following for Essay B Essay Titles Section B. (B1) Early civilizations: a success story or the beginning of slavery? Discuss examples of social inequality in Egypt and the Near East against discussions of early civilization. (See reading list for session 3 and 6) Discuss how sea and land trade may have transformed societies in the Middle and Late Bronze Age? (See reading list for sessions 7) Imperialism, colonialism, trade: Is New Kingdom Egypt a Victorian Empire of the Late Bronze Age? Give examples of Egypts interaction with her neighbours and discuss. (See reading list for sessions 7) How did the Late Bronze Age collapse have lasting effects on societies of the Near East long after this period? (See reading list for sessions 7-8) How was the Neo-Assyrian Empire very different or similar to earlier empires in the Near East? (See reading list for session 8) Why were the Iron Age states in the Levant unable to form large, lasting alliances that might have resisted Assyrian domination? (See reading list for session 8) What aspects of the Achamenid empire endured long after this empire fell and how did it influence later societies? (See reading list for session 8) Does Archaeology in Egypt and the Near East disconnect the past from the present? Discuss the role of Egyptian and Near Eastern Archaeology in current heritage debates. (See reading list for sessions 9-10)

(B2) (B3)

(B4) (B5)

(B6)

(B7) (B8)

(B9) How have Ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern societies shaped the modern world? (see reading list for session 3, 6, 9, 10) GENERAL ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION If students are unclear about the nature of an assignment, they should discuss this with the Course Co-ordinator. Students are not permitted to re-write and re-submit essays or other coursework in order to try to improve their marks. Students may be permitted, in advance of the

deadline for a given assignment, to submit for comment a brief outline of the assignment. The course co-ordinator is willing to discuss an outline of the student's approach to the assignment, provided this is planned suitably in advance of the submission date. WORLD-COUNT Strict new regulations with regard to word-length were introduced UCL-wide with effect from 2013: Penalties for Over-length Coursework For submitted coursework, where a maximum length has been specified, the following procedure will apply: i) The length of coursework will normally be specified in terms of a word count ii) Assessed work should not exceed the prescribed length. iii) For work that exceeds the specified maximum length by less than10% the mark will be reduced by ten percentage marks; but the penalised mark will not be reduced below the pass mark, assuming the work merited a pass. iv) For work that exceeds the specified maximum length by 10% or more, a mark of zero will be recorded. vii) In the case of coursework that is submitted late and is also overlength, the lateness penalty will have precedence. The following should not be included in the word-count: title page, contents pages, lists of figure and tables, abstract, preface, acknowledgements, bibliography, captions and contents of tables and figures, appendices, and wording of citations. SUBMISSION PROCEEDURES Students are required to submit hard copy of all coursework to the course coordinators pigeon-hole via the Red Essay Box at Reception by the appropriate deadline. The coursework must be stapled to a completed coversheet (available from the web, from outside room 411A or from the library). Late submission will be penalized in accordance with these regulations unless permission has been granted and an Extension Request Form (ERF) completed. Please note the stringent penalties for late submission that have been introduced (UCL-wide) from 2012-13. Students should put their Candidate Number on all coursework. This is a 5 digit alphanumeric code and can be found on Portico: it is different from the Student Number/ ID. Please also put the Candidate Number and course code on each page of the work. It is also essential that students put their Candidate Number at the start of the title line on Turnitin, followed by the short title of the coursework.. e.g., YBPR6 Funerary practices

Date-stamping will be via Turnitin (see below), so in addition to submitting hard copy, students must also submit their work to Turnitin by midnight on the day of the deadline. Students who encounter technical problems submitting their work to Turnitin should email the nature of the problem to ioa-turnitin@ucl.ac.uk in advance of the deadline in order that the Turnitin Advisers can notify the course co-ordinator that it may be appropriate to waive the late submission penalty. If there is any other unexpected crisis on the submission day, students should telephone or (preferably) e-mail the course co-ordinator, and follow this up with a completed ERF. UCL-WIDE PENALTIES FOR LATE SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK UCL regulation 3.1.6 Late Submission of Coursework Where coursework is not submitted by a published deadline, the following penalties will apply: i) A penalty of 5 percentage marks should be applied to coursework submitted the calendar day after the deadline (calendar day 1). ii) A penalty of 15 percentage marks should be applied to coursework submitted on calendar day 2 after the deadline through to calendar day 7. iii) A mark of zero should be recorded for coursework submitted on calendar day 8 after the deadline through to the end of the second week of third term. Nevertheless, the assessment will be considered to be complete provided the coursework contains material than can be assessed. iv) Coursework submitted after the end of the second week of third term will not be marked and the assessment will be incomplete. vii) Where there are extenuating circumstances that have been recognised by the Board of Examiners or its representative, these penalties will not apply until the agreed extension period has been exceeded. viii) In the case of coursework that is submitted late and is also over length, only the lateness penalty will apply. Please see the Coursework Guidelines document at http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/handbook/common/ (or your degree programme handbook) for further details of the required procedure and of penalties. The Class Enrolment Password is IoA1213 for Moodle. Please upload assignments to Turnitin via the Moodle site for this course. Moodle will be the primary way in which you will be able to upload assignments, receive course information, and have access to additional resources about the course. The Turnitin enrolment key, if you need this, is: 4159, with class ID as: 595490. Further information is given here: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/handbook/common/cfp.htm Turnitin advisers will be able to help you via email: ioa-turnitin@ucl.ac.uk if you need help generating or interpreting the reports.

TIMESCALE OF MARKED COURSEWORK You can expect to receive your marked work within four calendar weeks of the official submission deadline. If you do not receive your work within this period, or a written explanation from the marker, you should notify the IoAs Academic Administrator, Judy Medrington. KEEPING COPIES Please note that it is an Institute requirement that you retain a copy (this can be electronic) of all coursework submitted. When your marked essay is returned to you, you should return it to the course co-ordinator within two weeks. CITING OF SOURCES Coursework should be expressed in a students own words giving the exact source of any ideas, information, diagrams etc. that are taken from the work of others. Any direct quotations from the work of others must be indicated as such by being placed between inverted commas. Plagiarism is regarded as a very serious irregularity, which can carry very heavy penalties. It is your responsibility to read and abide by the requirements for presentation, referencing and avoidance of plagiarism to be found in the IoA Coursework Guidelines on the IoA website. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/administration/students/handbook. Strict new penalties for plagiarism have been introduced since the 2012-13 session. For guidelines on referencing in assessed work, please see: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/handbook/common/referencing.htm For guidance on the use of illustrations in your essays, please see: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/archaeology/handbook/common/illustrations.htm AVOIDING PLAGIARISM The term plagiarism means presenting material (words, figures etc.) in a way that allows the reader to believe that it is the work of the author he or she is reading, when it is in fact the creation of another person. In academic and other circles, plagiarism is regarded as theft of intellectual property. UCL regulations, all detected plagiarism is to be penalized and noted on the students record, irrespective of whether the plagiarism is committed knowingly or unintentionally. The whole process of an allegation of plagiarism and its investigation is likely to cause considerable personal embarrassment and to leave a very unpleasant memory in addition to the practical consequences of the penalty. The penalties can be surprizingly severe and may include failing a course or a whole degree. It is thus important to take deliberate steps to avoid any inadvertent plagiarism. Avoiding plagiarism should start at the stage of taking notes. In your notes, it should be wholly clear what is taken directly from a source, what is a paraphrase of the content of a source and what is your own synthesis or original thought. Make sure you include sources and relevant page numbers in your notes.

When writing an essay any words and special meanings, any special phrases, any clauses or sentences taken directly from a source must be enclosed in inverted commas and followed by a reference to the source in brackets. It is not generally necessary to use direct quotations except when comparing particular terms or phrases used by different authors. Similarly, all figures and tables taken from sources must have their origin acknowledged in the caption. Captions do not contribute to any maximum word lengths. Paraphrased information taken from a source must be followed by a reference to the source. If a paragraph contains information from several sources, it must be made clear what information comes from where: a list of sources at the end of the paragraph is not sufficient. Please cite sources of information fully, including page numbers where appropriate, in order to avoid any risk of plagiarism: citations in the text do not contribute to any maximum word count. To guard further against inadvertent plagiarism, you may find it helpful to write a plan of your coursework answer or essay and to write the coursework primarily on the basis of your plan, only referring to sources or notes when you need to check something specific such as a page number for a citation. COLLUSION, except where required, is also an examination offence. While discussing topics and questions with fellow students is one of the benefits of learning in a university environment, you should always plan and write your coursework answers entirely independently.

SCHEDULE AND SYLLABUS TEACHING SCHEDULE Lectures will be held as follows: Term II Fridays 14.00-16.00 Archaeology

Room

209,

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WEEK-BY-WEEK SYLLABUS The following is an outline for the course as a whole, and identifies essential and supplementary readings relevant to each session. It is expected that you read the essential readings. Information is provided as to where in the UCL library system individual readings are available; their location and Teaching Collection (TC) number, and status (whether out on loan) can also be accessed on the eUCLid computer catalogue system. Readings marked with an * are considered essential to keep up with the topics covered in the course. Student, however, should utilise all readings for possible research topics. Lecture 1: 17th January 2014 Aims and Objectives The Relevance of the Ancient Near East and Egypt. Geography and Time The Ancient Near East and Egypt are the oldest civilizations on the globe and are deeply ingrained in Western thought. This lecture outlines how scholars found their way into an archaeological engagement with Egypt and the Ancient Near East and describes the different environmental and chronological settings of Mesopotamia, Iran, Anatolia, the Levant, and Egypt. Reading: Essential Readings: Hassan, F. A. 1997. The Dynamics of a Riverine Civilization: A Geoarchaeological Perspective on the Nile Valley, Egypt. World Archaeology 29/1: 51-74. Available through www.jstor.org Meskell, L (e.d.). 1998. Archaeology Under Fire: Nationalism, Politics and Heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East. Chapters 5. Routledge, London. ISSUE DESK IOA MES 2 Murnane, 1995. The History of Ancient Egypt: An Overview. In Sasson, J. (ed.) (1995) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East II, 691-718. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Wilkinson, T.J. (2003) Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. Pages 15-32. ISSUE DESK IOA WIL 20 Further Readings: Introduction and Geography of the Near East

Cordova, Carlos E. (2005) The degradation of the ancient Near Eastern environment in A Companion to the Ancient Near East. Daniel C. Snell (ed.). Malden, MA: Blackwell. Pages 109-125. ANCIENT HISTORY B 5 SNE Pollock, S. and Bernbeck, R. 2005. Archaeologies of the Middle East: Critical Perspectives. Chapters 3-6. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford. ISSUE DESK IOA POL 4 Potts, D.T. (e.d.). 2012. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. INST ARCH DBA 100 POT (Chapters 16). Redman, C.L. (1978) The Rise of Civilization. From Early Farmers to Urban Society in the Ancient Near East, San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. Pages 1649. INST ARCH DBA 100 RED Egypt Chronology and Geography Atzler, M. 1995. Some remarks on interrelating environmental changes and ecological, socio-economic problems in the development of the early Egyptian inundation culture. Archo-Nil 5: 7-65. Bard, K. 2007. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Chapters 1-3. Malden, Mass., Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 BAR, ISSUE DESK IOA BAR 29 Bell, B. 1975. Climate and History of Egypt: The Middle Kingdom. American Journal of Archaeology 79/3: 223-269. Available through www.jstor.org Brocks, N. 2006. Cultural responses to aridiy in the Middle Holocene and increased social complexity. Quaternary International 151: 29-49. Available through SFX Butzer, K. W. 1960. Archaeology and Geology in Ancient Egypt. Science, New Series 132 (no. 3440, Dec. 2): 1617-1624. Available through www.jstor.org Butzer, K. W. 1976. Early hydraulic civilization in Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 BUT; ISSUE DESK IOA BUT; available online Butzer, K. W. 1984. Long-term Nile flood variation and political discontinuities in pharaonic Egypt. In Clark, J. D. and S. A. Brandt (eds.), From hunters to farmers: The causes and consequences of food production in Africa, 102112. Berkley, London: University of California Press. INST ARCH DC 100 CLA Butzer, K. W. (1995). Environmental change in the Near East and Human Impact. In Sasson, J. (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East I, 123-152. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Dalfes, N. and G. Kukla, H. Weiss (eds.) (1997). Third Millennium BC Climate Change and Old World Collapse. Berlin, London: Springer. ISNT ARCH BA 40 DAL Hassan, F. 1981. Historical Nile floods and their implications for climatic change. Science, New Series 212(4499): 1142-1145. Hassan, F. A. 1997. Holocene Palaeoclimates of Africa. African Archaeological Review 14(4): 213-230. Holdaway, S. J., and W. Wendrich, R. Phillipps (2010). Variability in Low Level Food Production Societies as a Response to Resource Uncertainty. Antiquity 84(323): 185-194. Available through SFX

Jeffreys, D. 2008. Regionality, cultural, and cultic landscapes. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 102-118. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Kuper, R. and S. Krpelin (2006). Climate-Controlled Holocene Occupation in the Sahara: Motor of Africas Evolution. Science 313: 803-807. Accessible online. Manzanilla, L. 1997. The impact of climatic change on past civilizations: A revisionist agenda for further investigation. Quaternary International 43/44: 153-159. Available through SFX Moeller, N. (2005). The First Intermediate period: A Time of Famine and Climate Change? gypten und Levante 15: 153-176. INST ARCH PERS Redford, D. B. 2008. History and Egyptology. In Wilkinson, R. (ed.), Egyptology Today, 23-35. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press EGYPTOLOGY A 9 WIL Richards, J. 1999. Conceptual landscapes in the Egyptian Nile Valley. In Ashmore, W. and B. Knapp, Archaeologies of landscape, 83-98. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher. INST ARCH BD ASH; ISSUE DESK IOA ASH 5; ISSUE DESK IOA ASH 6 Smith, S. T. (2010). A portion of life solidified: Understanding ancient Egypt through the integration of archaeology and history. Journal of Egyptian History 3: 159-189. Available online. Spalinger, A.. J. 2001. Chronology and Periodization. In Rdford, D. B. (ed.), The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt, Vol. I, 264-268. Oxford University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 2 OXF Lecture 2. 24th January 2014: The Neolithic Revolution Gordon Childe coined the term of the Neolithic Revolution for describing developments such as the beginning of sedentism and domestication of animals and plants, pivotal for the emergence of larger polities. The Ancient Near East is the birthplace of modern ways of life adopted later also in other areas of the world such as in Egypt. Childes model has a great explanatory power but is now controversially debated with new data from across the globe. The lecture sets recent archaeological results against a wider discussion of the Neolithisation of the world. Reading: Essential Readings: Khler, E. Christiana (2011). Neolithic in the Nile Valley (Fayum A, Merimde, elOmari, Badarian). Archo-Nil 21, 17-20. INST ARCH PERS Mellaart, J. (1975) The Neolithic of the Near East. London: Thames and Hudson: Chapters 2 and 5. INST ARCH DBA 100 MEL Watkins, T. (2009) From foragers to complex societies in Southwest Asia, in C. Scarre (ed.) The Human Past. World Prehistory and the Development of

Human Societies. London: Thames and Hudson, Pages 200-233. INST ARCH BC 100 SCA Wengrow, D. 2006. Egypt and the Outside World. In Wengrow, D., The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformation in North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2650 BC, pp. 13-40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPT B 11 WEN, ISSUE DESK IOA WEN 7 Further Readings: Early villages in the Fertile Crescent Bar-Yosef, O. and Meadow, R.H. (1995) The origins of agriculture in the Near East, in D.T. Price and A.B. Gebauer (eds.) Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press (School of American Research Advanced Seminar Series): 39-94. INST ARCH HA PRI Barker, G. (2009) Early farming and domestication, in B. Cunliffe, C. Gosden and R. A. Joyce (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology, Oxford: University Press: 445-483. INST ARCH AH CUN Braidwood, R (1958) 'Near Eastern prehistory' Science 127(3312):1419-1430. Kuijt, I. (2000) Keeping the peace: ritual, skull caching and community integration in the Levantine Neolithic, in I. Kuijt (ed), Life in Neolithic Farming Communities, 137-164. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York. INST ARCH DBA 100 KUI; ISSUE DESK Neolithic life in Anatolia Atalay, S. and Hastorf, C.A. (2006) 'Food, meals, and daily activities: Food Habitus at Neolithic atalhyk.' American Antiquity 71(2):283-319. Esin, U. and Harmankaya, S. (1999) A!kl, in M. zdo"an and N. Ba!gelen (eds.) Neolithic In Turkey: The Cradle of Civilization, Istanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yaynlar (Ancient Anatolian Civilizations Series 3): 115-132. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA OZD Hauptmann, H. (1999) The Urfa region, in M. zdo"an and N. Ba!gelen (eds.) Neolithic in Turkey: The Cradle of Civilization, Istanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yaynlar (Ancient Anatolian Civilizations Series 3): 65-86. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA OZD Mellaart, J. (1967) atal Hyk; A Neolithic Town in Anatolia, London: Thames and Hudson. Pages 1-32 and illustrations. INST ARCH DBC 10 MEL Rosenberg, M. and Redding, R.W. (2000) Hallan emi and early village organization in eastern Anatolia, in I. Kuijt (ed.) Life in Neolithic Farming Communities. Social Organization, Identity, and Differentiation, New York: Kluwer: 39-61. INST ARCH DBA 100 KUI *Sagona, A. and P. Zimansky (2009) Ancient Turkey, London: Routledge. Pages 37-123. INST ARCH DBC 100 SAG The Neolithic of Iran Mathews, R., Y. Mohammadifar, W. Matthews, A. Motarjem (2010) Investigating the Early Neolithic of Western Iran: The Central Zagros Archaeological Project (CZAP). Antiquity 084 (323). http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/matthews323/. Weeks, L. (2006) The Neolithic settlement of highland SW Iran, Iran 44: 1-31. INST ARCH Pers

The Neolithic in Egypt and the Sudan (see also lecture 3 Egypt and Africa) Archo-Nil 1- (1990-). Journal with English contributions on Prehistoric, Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt. http://www.archeonil.fr/summaries.html Egypt at its Origins is a conference series on Early Egypt. The conference proceedings are extensive and wide-ranging. If you type in Egypt at its origins in UCL Library Explorer you will find the locations in the library of each volume. Bard, K. 2007. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, chapter 4. Malden, Mass., Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 BAR, ISSUE DESK IOA BAR 29 Hendrickx, S., and D. Huyge, W. Wendrich (2010). Worship without Writing. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 15-35. Chichester: WileyBlackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Kabaci#ski, J. and M. Ch$odnicki, M. Kobusiewicz (eds.) (2012). Prehistory of Northeastern Africa: New Ideas and Discoveries. Pozna#: Muzeum Archeologiczne w Poznaniu. INST ARCH DC 100 KAB Nicoll, K. (2004). Recent environmental change and prehistoric human activity in Egypt and Northern Sudan. Quaternary Science Reviews 23: 561-580. Shirai, N. (ed.) (2013). Neolithisation of Northeastern Africa. Berlin: Ex Oriente. INST ARCH DC 100 QUARTOS SHI Wendorf, F. and R. Schild (1998). Nabta Playa and Its role in Northeastern African Prehistory. Journal of Anthropologcial Archaeology 17.2: 97-123. Available through SFX Wendorf, F. and R. Schild (2004). The Western Desert during the 5th and 4th millennia BC: the Late and Final Neolithic in the Nabta-Kiseiba Area. Archo-Nil 14: 13-30. Lecture 3. 31st January 2014: The Formation of Early States The Fourth millennium sees the formation of regionally specific styles of visual display, material culture, increasing social hierarchies and early urbanisation ultimately leading in some regions of the Ancient Near East to early states. This is coupled with the invention of writing and bureaucracy, usually seen as key factors for the Great Divide between Pre-history and History. The lecture summarises the major developments in Egypt and Mesopotamia and concludes with some critical comments on the underpinnings of archaeological discussions on the period. Reading: Essential Readings: Algaze, G. 1989. Uruk expansion: Cross-cultural exchange in early Mesopotamian civilization. Current Anthropology 30(5):571-608.

Campagno, M. 2013. Late Fourth Millennium BCE. In Grajetzki, W. and W. Wendrich (eds), UCLA Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egypt. Los Angeles. Available online http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9988b193 Levy, T. 1995. Cult, metallurgy and rank societies: Chalcolithic period. In The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land (ed. T. Levy). Leicester, pp. 226243. DBE 100 LEV and Issue Desk Wenke, R. J. (1991). The evolution of early Egyptian civilization: issues and evidence. Journal of World Prehistory 5: 279-329. Available through SFX Further Readings: Late Neolithic and Chalcolithic societies in the Levant Banning, E.B., Rahimi, D., and Siggers, J. (1994) 'The late Neolithic of the southern Levant: Hiatus, settlement shift, or observer bias? The perspective from Wadi Ziqlab.' Palorient 20(2):151-164. Rowan, Y.M. And Golden, J. (2009) 'The Chalcolithic period of the southern Levant: A synthetic review,' Journal of World Prehistory 22(1):1-92. Chalcolithic Societies of Mesopotamia and Iran Curtis, J. (ed.) (1993) Early Mesopotamia and Iran, London: British Museum. Pages 23-30. INST ARCH DBA 100 CUR Nissen, H. (1986) Early History of the Ancient Near East, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. INST ARCH DBA 600 NIS Nissen, H.J., Damerow, P. and Englund, R.K. (1993) Archaic Bookkeeping: Early Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. INST ARCH DBA 600 NIS Oates, D. and Oates, J. (1980) The Rise of Civilization, Oxford: Elsevier Phaidon. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto OAT Pollock, S. (1999) Ancient Mesopotamia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pages 5-6, 93-116, 149-72. INST ARCH DBB 100 POL; ISSUE DESK IOA POL Potts, D.T. (1999) The Archaeology of Elam. Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH DBG 100 POT; ISSUE DESK DBG 100 POT Redman, C.L. (1978) The Rise of Civilization. From Early Farmers to Urban Society in the Ancient Near East, San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. Pages 198201. INST ARCH DBA 100 RED Safar, F., Mustafa, M.A., and Lloyd, S. (1981) Eridu. Republic of Iraq, Ministry of Culture and Information, State Organization of Antiquites and Heritage. Stein, G. (1994) 'Economy, ritual, and power in 'Ubaid Mesopotamia.' In G. Stein and M.S. Rothman (eds.), Chiefdoms and Early States in the Near East: The Organizational Dynamics of Complexity. Monographs in World Archaeology, No. 18. Madison, WI: Prehistory Press. Pages 35-46. Stein, G. (2007) Local identities and interaction spheres: Modeling regional variation in the Ubaid horizone, in: Beyond the Ubaid: Transformations and Integration in the Late Prehistoric Societies of the Middle East, Robert Carter and Graham Philip (eds.). SAOC 63. Pages 23-44. (see: http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/saoc63.pdf).

Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods in Egypt Archo-Nil 1- (1990-). Journal with English contributions on Prehistoric, Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt. http://www.archeonil.fr/summaries.html Egypt at its Origins is a conference series on Early Egypt. The conference proceedings are extensive and wide-ranging. If you type in Egypt at its origins in UCL Library Explorer you will find the locations in the library of each volume. Baines, J. 1995. Origins of Egyptian kingship. In OConnor, D. and D. P. Silverman (eds.), Ancient Egyptian Kingship, 95-156. Leiden, New York, Cologne: E. J. Brill. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 OCO Bard, K.A., 1994. From Farmers to Pharaohs. Mortuary Evidence for the Rise of Complex Society in Egypt. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS E 7 BAR Bard, K. 2007. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, chapter 5, 89120. Malden, Mass., Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 BAR, ISSUE DESK IOA BAR 29 Craig Patch, D. (ed.) (2011). Dawn of Egyptian Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. EGYPTOLOGY M 5 PAT Hoffman, M. (1991). Egypt Before the Pharaohs: The Prehistoric Foundations of Egyptian Civilization. Austin: University of Texas Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 11 HOF Kemp, B.J., 2006. Ancient Egypt. Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK KEM; EGYPTOLOGY B 5 KEM Spencer, A. J. (1993). Early Egypt: The Rise of Civilisation in the Nile Valley. London: British Museum press. EGYPTOLOGY B 11 SPE Stevenson, A. 2009. Social relationships in predynastic burials. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 95: 175-192. Availably through SFX. Trigger, B. G. 1983. The rise of Egyptian civilization. In Trigger, B. G., and B. Kemp, A. Lloyd, D. OConnor, Ancient Egypt: A social history, 1-70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Teeter, E. (ed.) (2011). Before the pyramids: the origins of Egyptian civilization. Chicago: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 11 TEE Van den Brink, E. C. M. and T. Levy (eds.) (2002). Egypt and the Levant: Interrelations from the 4th through the early 3rd Millennium BC. London, New York: Leicester University Press. INST ARCH BRI 7, ISSUE DESK IOA BRI 7 Wengrow, D. 2006. The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformation in North-East Africa, 10,000 to 2650 BC, chapters 7 and 8, p. 135-175. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPT B 11 WEN, ISSUE DESK IOA WEN 7 Wenke, R. 1991. The evolution of early Egyptian civilization: Issues and evidence. Journal of world prehistory 5: 279-329. Wenke, R. 2009. The Ancient Egyptian State. The Origins of Egyptian Culture (c. 8000-2000 BC). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPT B 5 WEN Wilkinson, T. (1999). Early Dynastic Egypt. London Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 WIL

State formation, general and Egypt An%elkovi&, B. 2006. Models of state formation in Predynastic Egypt. In Kroeper, K. And C. Marek, M. Kobusiewicz (eds.), Archaeology of early Northeastern Africa: In Memory of lech Krzy!aniak, 593-609. Poznan: Archaeological Museum. INST ARCH DC 100 KRO, ISSUE DESK IOA KRO 1 An%elkovi&, B. 2011. Factors of state formation in Protodynastic Egypt. In Friedman, R.F. and P. N. Fiske (eds.), Egypt at its origins 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference Origin of the state: Predynastic and early dynastic Egypt, London 27th July - 1st August 2008, 1219-1228. Leuven: Peeters. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 FRE Campagno, M. 2011. Kinship, concentration of population and the emergence of the state in the Nile Valley. In Friedman, R.F. and P. N. Fiske (eds.), Egypt at its origins 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference Origin of the state: Predynastic and early dynastic Egypt, London 27th July - 1st August 2008, 1229-1242. Leuven: Peeters. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 FRE Feinman, G. M. and J. Marcus (ed.) (1998). Archaic States. Santa Fee, NM: School of American Research Press. INST ARCH BD FEI Grajetzki, W. 2004. Tarkhan: A cemetery at the time of Egyptian state formation. London: Golden House Publications. EGYPTOLOGY E 7 GRA Guksch, G. E. (1991). Ethnological models and processes of state formation: Chiefdom survivals in the Old Kingdom. Gttinger Miszellen 125: 37-50. *Khler, E. C. (2010). Theories of State Formation. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 36-54. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Smith, M. E. (ed.) (2012). The Comparative Archaeology of Complex Societies. New York, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH AH SMI# Egypt and Africa (see also lecture 3 Neolithic in Egypt and Sudan and lecture 10 The Black Athena Debate) Celenko, T. (ed.) (1996). Egypt in Africa. Indianapolis: Indianapolis Museum of Art. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B20 CEL Davies, W. V. (ed.) (1999). Egypt and Africa: Nubia from Prehistory to Islam. London: British Museum Press. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 60 DAV Derricourt, R. 2011. Ancient Egypt and African sources of civilisation. In Derricourt, R., Inventing Africa: History, archaeology and ideas, 103-119. New York: Pluto Books. INST ARCH DC 100 DER Edwards, D. N. (2004). The Nubian Past: An Archaeology of the Sudan. London: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY E 120 EDW Edwards, D. N. (2007). The Archaeology of Sudan and Nubia. Annual Review of Anthropology 36: 211-228. Available through SFX (an introductory overview of Nubian history) Exell, Karen (ed.) (2011). Egypt in its African context: proceedings of the conference held at The Manchester Museum, University of Manchester, 2-4 October 2009. Oxford: Archaeopress. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 20 EXE Howe, S. (1998). Afrocentrism: Mythical Pasts and Imagined Homes. London, New York: Verso. INST ARCH DC 200 HOW

Levkowitz, M. (1997). Not out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Main library ANCIENT HISTORY P 72 LEF OConnor, D. (1990). Egyptology and Archaeology: An African Perspective. In Robertshaw, P. (ed.), A History of African Archaeology, 236-251. London: Currey. INST ARCH DC 100 ROB, ISSUE DESK IOA ROB 4 OConnor, D. (1993). Ancient Nubia: Egypts Rival in Africa. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 60 OCO Roth, A. M. (1995). Building bridges to Afrocentrism. Newsletter of the American Research Center in Egypt 167.1: 14-17 and 168.1:12-15. See also online: http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Articles_Gen/afrocent_roth.html Shaw, T. (ed.) (1993). The Archaeology of Africa: Food, Metals and Towns. London: Routledge. INST ARCH DC SHA T'r'k. L. 2009). Bewteen Two Worlds: The Frontier Region Between Ancient Nubia and Egypt, 3700 BC 500 AD. Brill: Leiden. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 TOR William, A. Y. (1977). Nubia: Corridor to Africa. London: Allen Lane. EGYPTOLOGY B 60 ADA Lecture 4. 7th February 2014: Sacred Kingship: Temples, Palaces, and Pyramids One of the fundamental social innovations of early states is the emergence of a new type of rule characterised by the association of kings with the gods and monumental display. While social developments are similar in the Ancient Near East and Egypt monumental display takes individual shapes in different areas reflected in the material record. The lecture compares some of the most iconic monuments of the pre-classical worlds and outlines shared trajectories and unique features. Reading: Essential Readings: Baines, J. 1995. Palaces and Temples of Ancient Egypt. In Sasson, J. (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East I, 303-318. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Lehner, M., 1997. The Complete Pyramids, chapter IV "The Living Pyramid", p. 200-243. London: Thames and Hudson. EGYPTOLOGY K 7 LEH The book is onlinve available via https://archive.org/ Potts, D. 1997. Mesopotamian Civilization: The Material Foundations. Chapter 9. INST ARCH DBB 200 POT Van De Mieroop, M. (2007) A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC, Oxford: Blackwell. Pages 39-58. INST ARCH DBA 100 MIE Further Readings: Mesopotamia and Beyond

Aruz, J. (ed.) (2003) Art of the First Cities. The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. INST ARCH DBA 300 Qto ARU Kuhrt, A. (1995) The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC, London: Routledge. Pages 27-44. INST ARCH DBA 100 KUH. Liverani, M. (1993) Akkad: An introduction, in M. Liverani (ed.) Akkad. The First World Empire, (History of the Ancient Near East Studies 5) Padova: Sargon srl: 1-10. INST ARCH DBB 200 LIV Pollock, S. (1999) Ancient Mesopotamia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Pages 205-217. INST ARCH DBB 100 POL; ISSUE DESK IOA POL Potts, D.T. (1999) The Archaeology of Elam. Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH DBG 100 POT; ISSUE DESK DBG 100 POT. Chapter 4. Postgate, J.N. (1992) Early Mesopotamia. Society and Economy at the Dawn of History, London: Routledge. Pages 25-40. INST ARCH DBB 100 POS; ISSUE DESK IOA POS 2 Woolley, L. and Moorey, P.R.S. (1982) Ur of the Chaldees, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. INST ARCH DBB 10 WOO Zettler, R. L. and Horne, L. (eds) (1998) Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Museum. INST ARCH DBB 300 ZET Egyptian kingship Richards, J. (2010). Kingship and Legitimation. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 55-84. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN OConnor, D. and D. P. Silverman (eds.) (1995). Ancient Egyptian Kingship. Leiden, New York, Cologne: E. J. Brill. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 OCO Frankfort, H. (1948). Kingship and the gods: A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society and Nature. Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press. INST ARCH DBA 200 FRA Leprohon, R. J. (1995). Royal Ideology and State Administration in Ancient Egypt. In Sasson, J. (ed.) (1995) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East I, 273-288. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Egyptian pyramids, tombs, and funerary practice Assmann, J., 2005. Death and salvation in ancient Egypt. Translated from the German by D. Lorton. London: Cornell University Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 ASS Baines, J. and P. Lacovara 2002. Burial and the dead in ancient Egyptian society: respect, formalism, neglect. Journal of social archaeology 2/1: 5-36. Online Reading List ARCLG197 Bard, K. 2007. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, chapter 6, p. 121-166. Malden, Mass., Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 BAR, ISSUE DESK IOA BAR 29 Dodson, A. and S. Ikram 2008. The tomb in ancient Egypt: Royal and private sepulchers from the early dynastic period to the Romans. London: Thames and Hudson. EGYPTOLOGY E 7 DOD Dodson, A. and S. Ikram 1998. The mummy in ancient Egypt: Equipping the dead for eternity. London: Thames and Hudson. EGYPTOLOGY E 7 IKR Grajetzki, W. 2004. Harageh: An Egyptian burial ground for the rich, around 1800 BC. London: Golden House Publications. EGYPTOLGY E 7 GRA

Grajetzki, W. 2005. Sedment: Burials of Egyptian farmers and noblemen over the centuries. London: Golden House Publications. EGYPTOLOGY E 7 GRA Hays, H. M. 2010. Funerary Rituals (Pharaonic Period). In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1r32g9zn Hornung, E. & Lorton, D., 1999. The ancient Egyptian books of the afterlife. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell Univ. Press. EGYPTOLOGY V 50 HOR Ikram, S., 2007. Afterlife Beliefs and Burial Customs. In Wilkinson, T. (ed.), The Egyptian World, 340-351, London and New York: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 WIL Kanawati, N. 2001. The Tomb and beyond. Burial customs of the Egyptian officials. Warminster: Aris and Phillips. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS E 7 KAN Montserrat, D. and L. Meskell 1997. Mortuary Archaeology and Religious Landscape at Graeco-Roman Deir el-Medina. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 83: 179-197. Available through JSTOR Parker Pearson, M. 1999. The archaeology of death and burial. Stroud: Sutton. INST ARCH AH PAR; ISSUE DESK IOA PAR 8 (This is an excellent background reading on funerary archaeology more generally.) Redford, D. B., 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. III, Oxford: Oxford University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 2 OXF Weeks, K. R., Tombs: An Overview, 418-425 Arnold, D., Tombs: Royal Tombs, 425-433 Dodson, A., Tombs: Private Tombs, 433-442 Redford, D. B., 2001. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. I, Oxford: Oxford University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 2 OXF Lesko, L. H., Funerary Literature, 570-575 Richards, J. E. 2005. Society and death in ancient Egypt: mortuary landscapes of the Middle Kingdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY E 7 RIC Riggs, C. 2010. Body. In Frood, E. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0n21d4bm Riggs, C. 2010. Funerary Rituals (Ptolemaic and Roman Periods). In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1n10x347 Smith, M. 2009. Democratization of the Afterlife. In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/70g428wj Snape, S. 2011. Ancient Egyptian tombs: The culture of life and death. Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY E 7 SNA Stevenson, A. 2009. Predynastic Burials. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2m3463b2 Egyptian temples and religious practice Assmann, Jan 1989. State and religion in the New Kingdom. In Allen, J. P. (ed.), Religion and philosophy in Ancient Egypt, 5588. New Haven: Yale University. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 ALL

Assmann, J., 2001. The search for god in ancient Egypt. Translated from the German by David Lorton. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 ASS Baines, J. 1987. Practical Religion and Piety. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 73: 79-98. Available through www.jstor.org Bussmann, R. 2011. Local traditions in early Egyptian temples. In Friedman, R. F. and P. N. Fiske (eds.), Egypt at its origins 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference Origin of the State. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt, 747-762. Leuven, Paris, Walpole: Peeters Publishers. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 FRI Coppens, F. 2009. Temple Festivals of the Ptolemaic and Roman Periods. In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4cd7q9mn Darnell, J. C. 2010. Opet Festival. In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4739r3fr Gundlach, R. 2001. Temples. In Redford, D. B. (ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. III, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 363-379. EGYPT A 2 OXF Hornung, E., 1983. Conceptions of God in ancient Egypt. The one and the many. Translated from the German by John Baines. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 HOR Kemp, B. J., 1995. How religious were the ancient Egyptians? Cambridge Archaeological Journal 5: 25-54. INST ARCH PERS and available online through SFX Kemp, B.J., 2006. Ancient Egypt. Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition. London: Routledge, 111-135. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK KEM; EGYPTOLOGY B 5 KEM Pinch, G. 1993. Votive offerings to Hathor. Oxford: Griffith Institute. EGYPTOLGOY R 5 PIN Pinch, G. 2006. Magic in ancient Egypt. Revised edition. London: British Museum Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 PIN Pinch, G. and E. A. Waraksa 2009. Votive Practices. In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7kp4n7rk Quirke, S., 1992. Ancient Egyptian religion. London: British Museum Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 QUI Sadek, A. I. 1987. Popular religion in Egypt during the New Kingdom. Hildesheim: Gerstenberg. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 SAD (one copy is held at Issued Desk of IoA) Shafer, B. E. (ed.), 1998. Temples of ancient Egypt. London: Tauris Publ. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 SHA Shafer, B. E. and J. Baines (ed.) 1991. Religion in ancient Egypt: Gods, myths, and personal practice. London: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 SHA Spencer, N. 2010. Shrine. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5t48n007 Stadler, M. 2008. Procession. In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/679146w5

Stevens, a. 2003. The Material Evidence for domestic religion at Amarna and preliminary remarks on its interpretation. The Journal for Egyptian Archaeology 89: 143-168. Available through www.jstor.org Stevens, A. 2009. Domestic Religious Practices. In Wendrich. W. and J. Dieleman (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7s07628w Sullivan, E. A., 2010. Karnak: Development of the Temple of Amun-Ra. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1f28q08h Wilkinson, R. H. 2000. The complete temples of ancient Egypt. Yew York: Thames and Hudson. EGYPT K 7 WIL Zivie-Coche, C. 2008. Late Period Temples. In Wendrich, W. (ed.) UCL An Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/30k472wh Egyptian palaces Baines, J. (1995). Palaces and Temples of Ancient Egypt. In Sasson, J. (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East I, 303-318. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Bietak, M. (ed.) (1996). House and Palace in Ancient Egypt / Haus und Palast im alten gypten. Vienna: Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS K 6 BIE Lacovara, p. (1997). The New Kingdom Royal City. London: Kegan Paul. EGYPTOLOGY K 5 LAC Lecture 5. 14th February 2014: The Origin of the Urban World: The Third Millennium The modern world across the globe is widely characterised by cities allowing for complex social interaction. The first developments towards urbanism can be seen in the Mesopotamian city state civilization while the urban nature of Egypt has been debated controversially for a long time. Most cities are inhabited over many centuries and developed into urban mounds archaeologists call tells. Other cities, like Amarna, are short-lived allowing archaeologists to explore urban life in the plain. The lecture presents key sites in the discussion and demonstrates the potential of settlement archaeology and related methods. Reading: Essential Readings: Adams, R. 2012. Ancient Mesopotamian urbanism and blurred disciplinary boundaries. Annual Review of Anthropology 41:1-20 Bietak, M. 1979. Urban Archaeology and the Town Problem in Ancient Egypt. In Weeks, K. (ed.), Egyptology and the social sciences: Five studies. 97-144. ISSUE DESK IOA WEE; EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEE

Lehner, M. 2008. Villages and the Old Kingdom. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 85-101. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Potts, D.T. (e.d.). 2012. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. INST ARCH DBA 100 POT. Pp. 556574. Further Readings: Early Urbanism in the Near East Adams, R. 2008. An interdisciplinary overview of a Mesopotamian city and its hinter- lands Cuneiform Digital Library Journal http://cdli.ucla.edu/pubs/cdlj/2008/cdlj2008_001. html (accessed 10 January 2008). Aruz, J. (ed.) (2003) Art of the First Cities. The Third Millennium B.C. from the Mediterranean to the Indus, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. INST ARCH DBA 300 Qto ARU. Read Cities of the South and Cities of the North chapters. Crawford, H. 2004. Sumer and the Sumerians. 2nd edition. INST ARCH DBB 100 CRA. Chapter 3. Finkelstein, I and Gophna, R. 1993. Settlement, demographic, and economic patterns in the highlands of Palestine in the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Periods and the beginning of urbanism. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 289:1-22. Kolinski. R. The upper Khabur region in the second part of the third millennium BC. Altorientalische Forschungen 34(2):342-369. Steadman, S., McMahon, G., McMahon, J.G. 2011. The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia. New York: Oxford University Press. Chapters 10-12. ISSUE DESK IOA STE 17. Weiss, H. 1985. Excavations at Tell Leilan and the origins of the north Mesopotamian cities in the third millennium BC. Palorient 9(2):39-52. Weiss, H. (e.d.). 1986. The Origins of Cities in Dry-Farming Syria and Mesopotamia in the Third Millennium B.C. Four Quarters Publishing. See Moodle site. Egypt in the Old Kingdom (see also Basic texts, Egypt for overivews) Brta, M. (ed.) (2006). The Old Kingdom Art and Archaeology: Proceedings of the Conference Held in Prague, May 31-June 4. Prague: Czech Institute of Archaoelogy. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 12 BAR Lupo, S. (2007). Territorial Appropriation during the Old Kingdom (XXVIIIth-XXIIrd Centuries BC): The Royal Necropolises and the Pyramid Towns in Egypt. Archaeopress: Oxford. EGYPTOLOYG QUARTOS E 7 LUP Metropolitan Museum of Art (ed.) (1999). Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS M 5 MET Vymazalov, H., and M. Barta (eds.) (2008). Chronology and Archaeology in Ancient Egypt: The Third Millennium. Prague: Czech Institute of Archaoelogy. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 10 VYM

Strudwick, N. and H. Strudwick (eds) (2011). Old Kingdom, New Perspectives: Egyptian Art and Archaeology 2750-2150 BC. Oxford: Oxbow. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 6 STR Settlement Archaeology in Egypt: Alson, R. and R. D. Alston 1997. Urbanism and the Urban Community in Roman Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 83: 199-216. Available through www.jstor.org Bietak, M. 1996. Avaris: The capital of the Hyksos. Recent excavations at Tell elDaba, London: British Museum Press. ISSUE DESK IOA BIE 2; EGYPTOLOGY E 100 BIE Bietak, M. and E. Czerny 2010. Cities and urbanism in ancient Egypt. Wien: Verlag der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS E 20 BIE Butzer, K. W. 1976. Early hydraulic civilization in Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 BUT; ISSUE DESK IOA BUT Emery, V. L. 2011. Mud-Brick Architecture. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4983w678 Eyre, C. 1999. The village economy in Pharaonic Egypt. In Rogan, E. L. and A. K. Bowman (eds.), Agriculture in Egypt: From Pharaonic to modern times, 3360. Oxford: Oxford University Press. EGYPTOLOGY S 5 BOW Fairman, H. W. 1949. Town Planning in Pharaonic Egypt. The Town Planning Review 20/1: 32-51. Available through www.jstor.org Hassan, F. 1993. Town and village in ancient Egypt: Ecology, society and urbanization. In Shaw, T. (ed.), The archaeology of Africa: Food, metals and towns, 551-569. London: Routledge. Hoffman, M. A., Hamroush, H. A., Allen, R. O. 1986. A Model of Urban Development for the Hierakonpolis Region from Predynastic through Old Kingdom Times. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 23: 175-187. Available through www.jstor.org Kemp, B. 1972. Temple and town in ancient Egypt. In Ucko, P. J. and R. Tringham, G. W. Dimbleby (eds.), Man, settlement and urbanism: Proceedings of a meeting of the Research Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects held at the Institute of Archaeology, London University, 657-680. London: Duckworth. Kemp, B. J. 1977. The city of el-Amarna as a source for the study of urban society in ancient Egypt. World Archaeology 9: 124-139. INST ARCH PERS and available online through SFX Kemp, B. J. 1977. The early development of towns in Egypt. Antiquity 51: 185200. Available online through SFX Kemp, B. J. 1987. The Amarna workmens village in retrospect. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 73: 21-50. Available through www.jstor.org Kemp, B.J., 2006. Ancient Egypt. Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition, 193-244. London: Routledge. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK KEM; EGYPTOLOGY B 5 KEM Kemp, B. J. 2012. The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Amarna and Its People. London: Thames & Hudson. (Ordered for IoA library)

Marcus, E. S. 2006. Venice on the Nile? On the maritime character of Tell Daba. In: Czerny, E. et al., Timelines: Studies in honour of Manfred Bietak, vol. II, 187-190. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto, Teaching Collection Moeller, N. (2007). Urban life. In Wilkinson, T. (ed.), The Egyptian World, 57-72. London, New York: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 WIL Moreno Garca, J. C. 2011. Village. In Frood, E. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/4fs1k0w9 Mumford, G. D. 2010. Settlements Distribution, Structure, Architectonic: Pharaonic. In Lloyd, A. B. (ed.), A Companion to Ancient Egypt I, 326-349. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 LLO Redford, D. B. 1997. The ancient Egyptian city: figment or reality?. In Aufrecht, W. E. and N. A. Mirau, S. W. Gauley (ed.), Urbanism in antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete, 210-220. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Quirke, S. 2005. Lahun: A town in Egypt 1800 BC, and the history of its landscape. London: Golden House Publications. (Egyptian Sites). EGYPTOLOGY E 100 QUI Szpakowska, K. M. 2008. Daily Life in Ancient Egypt: Recreating Lahun. Malden, Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 SZP Rathbone, D. 1990. Villages, land and population in Graeco-Roman Egypt. In The Cambridge classical journal: proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 36: 103-142. Seidlmayer, S. J. 1996. Town and state in the early Old Kingdom. A view from Elephantine. In Spencer, A. J. (ed.), Aspects of early Egypt, 108-127. London: British Museum Press. Shaw, I. 1992. Ideal homes in Ancient Egypt: the archaeology of social aspiration. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2/2: 147-166. Available online through SFX Trigger, B. G. 1965. History and settlement in Lower Nubia. New Haven: Department of Anthropology, University of Yale. EGYPTOLOGY B 60 TRI Wenke, R., 1998. City-States, Nation-States, and Territorial States. The problem of Egypt. In Nichols, D. L. and T. H. Charlton (eds.), The archaeology of city-states: Cross-cultural approaches, 27-49. London: Smithsonian Institution Press. Wilson, J. A. 1960. New Kingdom Egypt: Civilization without cities. In Kraeling, C. H. and M. Adams (eds.), City invincible: A symposium on Urbanization and Cultural Development in the Ancient Near East held at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, December 4-7, 1958, 124-164. Chicago: Chicago University Press. ANCIENT HISTORY A 64 KRA Yoffee, N. 2005. The meanings of cities in the earliest states and civilizations. In Yoffee, N., Myths of the Archaic State. Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civilizations, 42-90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH BC 100 YOF; ISSUE DESK IOA YOF 4; available online through SFX http://www.amarnaproject.com/index.shtml Amarna Project http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/projects/edfu/ Edfu Project http://www.dainst.org/en/project/elephantine?ft=33 Elephantine http://www.oeai.at/index.php/335.html Website of the Austrian Archaeological Institute Tell el Dabba

http://www.auaris.at/html/index_en.html Website of excavation bibliography Tell el Dabba http://www.farkha.org/english/english.html Tell el-Farkha

project

and

Urbanism in the Ancient World Auffrecht, W. E. and N. A. Mirau, S. W. Gauley (eds) (1997). Urbanism in Antiquity: From Mesopotamia to Crete. Sheffield: Sheffield Univesity Press. ISSUE DESK IOA AUF Marcus, A. and J. A. Sabloff (eds) (2008). The Ancient City: New Perspectives on Urbanism in the Old and New World. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press. INST ARCH BC 100 MAR Storey, G.R. (ed.) (2006). Urbanism in the Preindustrial World: Cross-cultural Approaches. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Ucko, P. J. and R. Tringham, G. W. Dimbleby (eds.) (1972). Man, settlement and urbanism: Proceedings of a meeting of the Research Seminar in Archaeology and Related Subjects held at the Institute of Archaeology, London University. London: Duckworth. INST ARCH BC 100 UCK Lecture 6. 28th February 2014 The Archaeology of Social Inequality A consequence of social complexity is growing social inequality reflected in the material record, such as different house sizes, burial equipment, differentiation of the sexes, and access to prestige goods that are apparent in the Bronze Age. A review of issues of gender, rank, ethnicity, age, and networks helps view the societies of the Ancient Near East and Egypt from a less monolithic view and explains the beginning of a social experience typical in the contemporary world. Reading: Essential Readings: Baines, J. and N. Yoffee, (1998). Order, Legitimacy, and Wealth in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. In Feinman, G. and J. Marcus, J. (eds.), Archaic States, 199-260. Santa Fe: SAR Press. INST ARCH BD FEI Levy, T. (ed.) (1995) The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land, Leicester: Leicester University Press. Articles by Gophna (esp. last 2 pages on Egypt); Ilan (pp. 297-319); and Bunimovitz (pp. 320-331). INST ARCH DBE 100 LEV; ISSUE DESK Pinnock, F. 2001. The urban landscape of Old Syrian Ebla. Journal of Cuneiform Studies 53:13-33. Sweeney, D. 2011. Sex and Gender. In Frood, E. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA Encyclopaedia of Egyptology. Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/3rv0t4np. Further Readings: Inequality in Bronze Age Levant, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia

Curtis, A. (1985) Ugarit, Cambridge: Lutterworth Press. INST ARCH DBD 10 CUR Dever, W. (1987) The Middle Bronze Age: The zenith of the urban Canaanite era, Biblical Archaeologist (now renamed Near Eastern Archaeology) 50: 148-177. INST ARCH Periodicals B Feldman, M.H. 2009. Hoarded treasures: The Megiddo ivories and the end of the Bronze Age. Levant 41(2):175-194. Knapp, A.B. (1992) Bronze Age Mediterranean island cultures and the ancient Near East, Parts 1-2, Biblical Archaeologist (now renamed Near Eastern Archaeology 55 (2): 52-73 and 55(3): 112-129 INST ARCH Periodicals B Maeir, A.M 2000. The political and economic status of MB II Hazor and MB II Trade: An inter- and intra-regional view. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 132(1):37-58. Moorey, P.R.S. (1975) Biblical Lands, Oxford: Bedrick. pp. 41-64 & 33-40. INST ARCH DBE 100 MOO; MAIN ANC HIST Qto B52 MOO Ristvet, L. 2008. Legal and archaeological territories of the second millennium BC in northern Mesopotamia. Antiquity 82:585-599. Sasson, J. (ed.) (1995) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, New York: Scribners. Articles by Milano, Vol. II: 1219-1230, Soldt, Vol. II: 1255-1266. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Tubb, J. (1999) The Canaanites, London: British Museum. INST ARCH DBE 100 TUB Yener, A.K. 2007. The Anatolian Middle Bronze Age kingdoms and Alalakh: Mukish, Kanesh and Trade. Anatolian Studies 57:151-160. Civilization, general (see also lecture 3 State Formation) Flannery, K. V. (1972). The cultural evolution of civilizations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3: 399-426. Available through SFX (outdated but useful as an introduction to social evolution) Flannery, K. and J. Marcus 2013. The Creation of Inequality: How our Prehistorical Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press. INST ARCH BC 100 FLA. Frankfort, H. (1951). The Birth of Civilization in the Near East. London: Williams & Norgate. INST ARCH DBA 100 FRA Wengrow, D. 2010. What Makes Civilization? The Ancient Near East and the Future of the West, Chapters 4-5 The First Global Village and Origin of Cities. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Issue desk WEN 8; INST ARCH DBA 100. Smith, M. E. (ed.) (2012). The Comparative Archaeology of Complex Societies. New York, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH AH SMI Trigger, B. 2003. Understanding Early Civilizations: A comparative study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH BC 100 TRI; ISSUE DESK IOA TRI 8 Egyptian Society Baer, K. (1960). Rank and Title in the Old Kingdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 BAE Castillos, J. J. 2009. The development and nature of inequality in early Egypt. British Museum studies in ancient Egypt and Sudan 13, 73-81. Available online: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_journals/bmsae

s/issue_13.aspx (reprinted in: Friedman, R.F. and P. N. Fiske (eds.), Egypt at its origins 3: Proceedings of the Third International Conference Origin of the state: Predynastic and early dynastic Egypt, London 27th July - 1st August 2008, 1243-1253. Leuven: Peeters. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 FRE) Cooney, K. M. 2007. The cost of the death: The social and economic value of Ancient Egyptian funerary art in the Ramesside period. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten EGYPTOLOGY B 20 COO Frood, E. 2010. Social Structure and Daily Life: Pharaonic. In Lloyd, A. B. (ed.), A Companion to Ancient Egypt. Volume 1, 469-490. Chichester: WileyBlackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 LLO available through SFX Grajetzki, W. (2008). Class and society: Positions and possessions. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 180-199. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Kemp, B. J., 1995. How religious were the ancient Egyptians? Cambridge Archaeological Journal 5: 25-54. INST ARCH PERS and available online through SFX Kemp, B. J. 2012. City of People. In Kemp, B., The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Amarna and Its People, chapter 5. London: Thames & Hudson. EGYPTOLGOY B 12 KEM Leahy, A. (1995). Ethnic Diversity in Ancient Egypt. In Sasson, J. (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East I, 225-234. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Meskell, L. 1999. Archaeologies of social life: Age, sex, class et cetera in Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 MES Richards, J. E. 1997. Ancient Egyptian Mortuary practice and the study of socioeconomic differentiation. In Lustig, J. (ed.), Anthropology and Egyptology: A developing dialogue, 33-42. Sheffield: Sheffield University Press. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 9 LUS Richards, J. E. (ed.) 2000. Order, legitimacy, and wealth in ancient States. New York: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH BC 100 RIC Richards, J. E. 2005. Society and death in ancient Egypt: mortuary landscapes of the Middle Kingdom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY E 7 RIC Szpakowska, K. M. 2008. Daily Life in Ancient Egypt: Recreating Lahun. Malden, Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 SZP Toivari-Viitala, J. O. 2001. Women at Deir el-Medina: A study of the status and roles of the female inhabitants in the workmens community during the ramesside period. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut Voor Het Nabije Oosten. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 TOI Trigger, B. 1993. Early Civilizations: Ancient Egypt in Context. Cairo: American University of Cairo. INST ARCH BC 100 TRI; ISSUE DESK IOA TRI 6 Trigger, B. G. and A. Lloyd, B. Kemp, D. OConnor 1983. Ancient Egypt. A social history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 TRI, ISSUE DESK IOA TRI 1 Wilfong, T. G. (2010). Gender in Ancient Egypt. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 164-179. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Zakrzewski, S. R. 2007. Gender relations and social organization in the Predynastic and Early Dynastic Periods. In Goyon, J.-C. and C. Cardin (eds.), Proceedings of the Ninth International congress of Egyptologists,

Grenoble, 6-12 Septembre 2004, vol. 2, 2005-2019. Leuven: Peeters. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 CON Lecture 7. 77h March 2014 Globalization in Egypt and the Near East: The International Age The Late Bronze Age is the first period of globalization and demarcates increased interactions between elites and general trade. It is also a period of major states and new empires, such as Egypt, Babylonia, Mitanni, and Hatti, which interacted in a variety of ways, including warfare, diplomacy, trade, and migration. Textual and material evidence reflect a rich record demonstrating that the Levant is a pivotal zone of exchange. The lecture reviews key pieces of evidence in light of recent archaeological discussions on large-scale interaction. Reading: Essential Readings: Frank, A.G. et al. 1993. Bronze Age World System cycles [and comments and reply]. Current Anthropology 34(4):383-429. Kemp, B. J. (1978). Imperialism and Empire in New Kingdom Egypt. In Barnsey, P. D. A. and C. R. Whittaker (eds), Imperialism in the Ancient World, 7-57. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Main Library ANCIENT HISTORY M 61 GAR Liverani, M. (1987) The collapse of the Near Eastern regional system at the end of the Bronze Age: the case of Syria, in M. Rowlands, M.T. Larsen, and K. Kristiansen (eds) Centre and Periphery in the Ancient World, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 66-73. INST ARCH AB ROW Smith, S. T. (1997). State and Empire in the Middle and New Kingdoms. In Lustig, J. (ed.), Egyptology and Anthropology: A Developing Dialogue, 66-89. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 9 LUS Further Readings: Trade and Diplomacy Cline, E. 1994. Sailing the Wine-Dark Sea: International Trade and the Late Bronze Age Aegean. George Washington University. INST ARCH DAG 100 Qto CLI Haldane, C. 1993. Direct evidence for organic cargoes in the Late Bronze Age. World Archaeology 24(3):348-360. Vidal, J. 2006. Ugarit and the southern Levantine sea-ports. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 49(3):269-279. Westbrook, R. 2000. Babylonian diplomacy in the Amarna letters. Journal of the American Oriental Society 120(3):377-382. The end of the Bronze Age in the Near East

James, P.A. (1991) Centuries of Darkness, London: Jonathan Cape. INST ARCH BC 100 JAM Neumann, J. and Parpola, S. (1987) Climatic change and the eleventh-tenth century eclipse of Assyria and Babylonia, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 46: 161-182. MAIN CLASSICS Pers Pflzner, P. (2006) Syrias royal tombs uncovered, Current World Archaeology 15: 12-22. INST ARCH Pers. Singer, I (2000) New evidence on the end of the Hittite Empire. In E.O Oren (Ed.), The Sea Peoples and their world: A Reassessment. University Museum Symposium Series 11. Philadelphia, PA: University Museum, pp. 21-33. Ward, W.A. and Joukowsky, M.S. (eds) (1992) The Crisis Years: the Twelfth Century BC from beyond the Danube to the Tigris, Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK IOA WAR 1 Wilhelm, G. (1995) The kingdom of Mitanni in second-millennium Upper Mesopotamia, in J. M. Sasson (ed.) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, New York: Scribner, 1243-54. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Near Eastern Archaeology 63:4, December 2000. Special issue devoted to Ugarit. INST ARCH Pers Wilhelm, G. (1995) The kingdom of Mitanni in second-millennium Upper Mesopotamia, in J. M. Sasson (ed.) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, New York: Scribner, 1243-54. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Near Eastern Archaeology 63:4, December 2000. Special issue devoted to Ugarit. INST ARCH Pers Egypt in the Late Bronze Age (see Basic Texts for overview of New Kingdom) Assmann, J. (1995). Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom: Re, Amun and the Crisis of Polytheism. Translated from the German by Anhtony Alcock. London: Kegan Paul International. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 ASS Bard, K. 2007. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt, chapter 8, p. 207-262. Malden, Mass., Oxford: Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 BAR, ISSUE DESK IOA BAR 29 (ern), J. (1973). A Community of Workmen at Thebes in the Ramesside Period. Cairo: Institut Franais dArchologie Orientale. EGYPTOLOGY E 28 CER Janssen, J. J. (1975). Commodity Prices from the Ramessid Period. Leiden: Brill. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 JAN Kemp, B. J. (2012). The City of Akhenaten and Nefertiti: Amarna and its People. London: Thames and Hudson. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 KEM Kitchen, K. (1982). Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Warminster: Aris & Phillips. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 KIT Kozloff, A. P. and B. M. Bryan, L. M. Berman (eds) (1992). Egypts Dazzling Sun: Amenhotep III and His World. Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art in cooperation with Indiana University Press. EGYPTOLOYG QUARTOS C 81 CLE Lesko, L. H. (ed.) (1994). Pharaohs Workers: The Villagers of Deir el Medina. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 LES McDowell, A. G. (1999). Village Life in Ancient Egypt: Laundry Lists and Love Songs. Oxford: Oxfrod University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 MAC Meskell, L. (2002). Private Life in New Kingdom Egypt. Princeton: Princeton University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 MES

OConnor, D. and E. J. Cline. Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his reign. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 OCO Reeves, C. N. (1990). Valley of the Kings: The Decline of a Royal Necropolis. London: Thames and Hudson. EGYPTOLOGY E 100 REE http://www.leidenuniv.nl/nino/dmd/dmd.html Deir el-Medine database Egypt: Interregional interaction in the Bronze Age gypten & Levante INST ARCH PERS. This journal focuses on Egypt and the Levant. Bietak, M. (ed.) (1995). Trade, Power and Cultural Exchange: Hyksos Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean World 1800-1500 (= themed volume of gypten & Levante 5). INST ARCH PERS Bietak, M. (2000). The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium BC. Vienna: sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto BIE Bietak, M. and E. Czerny (2003). The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium BC II. Vienna: sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto BIE Bietak, M. and E. Czerny (2007). The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Second Millennium BC III. Vienna: sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto BIE Cohen, R. and R. Westbrook (eds) (1998). Amarna Diplomacy: The Beginnings of International Relations. Baltimore, London: John Hopkins University Press EGYPTOLOGY B 12 COH Davies, W. V. and L. Schofield (eds.) (1995). Egypt, the Aegean and the Levant: Interconnections in the Second Millennium BC. London: British Museum Press. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 6 DAV Giddy, L. L. (1987). Egyptian Oases. Warminster: Aris & Phillips. EGYPTOLOGY A 20 GID Higginbotham, C. R. Egyptianization and elite emulation in Ramesside Palestine: Governance and Accomodation on the imperial periphery. Boston: Brill. INST ARCH DBE 100 HIG T'r'k. L. 2009). Bewteen Two Worlds: The Frontier Region Between Ancient Nubia and Egypt, 3700 BC 500 AD. Brill: Leiden. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 TOR Morris, E. F. (2005). The Architecture of Imperialism: Military Bases and the Evolution of Foreign Policy in Egypts New Kingdom. Leiden: Brill. EGYTPOLOGY B20 MOR Murnane, W. J. (1990). The Road to Kadesh: A Historical Interpretation of the Battle Reliefs of King Sety I at Karnak, 2nd edition. Chicagro: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 12 MUR Oren, E. (2000). The Sea Peoples and Their World: A reassessment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania INST ARCH AH QUARTOS A 57 ORE Phillips, J. (ed.) (1997). Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, and the Near East: Studies in Honour of Martha Roads Bell. San Antonio, TX: Van Sicklen Books. EGYPTOLOGY A g BEL

Potts, D. T. (1995). Distant Shores: Ancient Near Eastern Trade with South Asia and Northeastern Africa. In Sasson, J. (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East III, 1451-1464. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Redford, D. B. (1992). Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press. INST ARCH DBA 100 RED Redford, D. B. (2003). The Wars in Syria and Palestine of Thutmose III. Leiden: Brill. EGYPTOOLOGY B 20 RED Schneider, T. (2010). Foreigners in Egypt: Archaeological Evidence and Cultural Context. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 143-163. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Schmidt, H. (1993). Foreign Affairs under Egypts Dazzling Sun. Rvue dgyptologie 44: 153-160. INST ARCH PERS Sherratt, A. and S. E. Sherratt (1991). From Luxuries to Commodities: The Nature of Mediterranean Bronze Age Trading Systems. In Gale, N. H. (ed.). Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean, 351-386. Jonsered: strm. ISSUE DESK IOA GAL 3 Smith, S. T. (1995). Askut in Nubia: the Economics and Ideology of Egyptian Imperialism in the Second Millennium BC. London, York: EGYPTOLOGY B 20 SMI Smith, S.T. (2003). Wretched Kush: Ethnic Identities and Boundaries in Egypts Nubian Empire. London: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY B 60 SMI Sowada, K. 2009. Egypt in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Old Kingdom: An Archaeological Perspective. Fribourg: Academic Press, Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. EGYTPOLOGY B 20 SOW Spalinger, A. J. (2005). War in Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom. Malden, MA, Oxford: 2005. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 SPA Trigger, B. (1976). Nubia under the Pharaohs. London: Thames and Hudson. EGYPTOLOGY B 60 TRI Yalin, nsal (2006). The ship of Uluburun: A Comprehensive Compenium of the Exhibition Catalogue The Ship of Uluburun: World Trade 3000 Years Ago. Bochum: Deutsches Bergbau-Museum. ISSUE DESK IOA YAL 1 Warburton, D. 2001. Egypt and the Near East: Politics in the Bronze Age. Neuchtel, Paris: Recherches et Publications. EGYTPOLOGY B 20 WAR Lecture 8. 14th March 2014 Development of Empire: The Assyrian and Persian Empires The empires of the Bronze Age collapse around 1000 BCE, an effect of wider social developments in the Mediterranean world. During the First millennium, Assyria and Persia establish successively new types of world empires spanning the entire Near East, including Egypt. Ultimately, they are forced into the empires of Alexander the Great and the Romans; however, these major empires left lasting legacies in the region. Reading: Essential Readings:

Bedford, P.R. 2009. The Neo-Assyrian Empire. In: The Dynamics of Ancient Empires, in: Ian Morris and Walter Scheidel (eds.). Oxford University Press, New York. Pages 30-66. ANCIENT HISTORY A 61 MOR Kuhrt, A. (1995) The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC, London: Routledge. Pages 473-546. INST ARCH DBA 100 KUH Wilkinson, T.J. et al. (2005) Landscape and settlement in the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 340: 23-56. Further Readings: Curtis, J. and Reade, J. (1995) Art and Empire. Treasures from Assyria in the British Museum, London: The British Museum. INST ARCH DBB 300 CUR Joffe, A. 2002. Rise of secondary states in the Iron Age Levant. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 45(4):425-467. Liverani, M. 1979.The Ideology of the Assyrian Empire, In M.T. Larsen (ed.), Power and Propaganda: A Symposium on Ancient Empires. Copenhagen. Pp. 297-317. INST ARCH DBA 200 LAR Lloyd, S. (1978) The Archaeology of Mesopotamia from the Old Stone Age to the Persian Conquest, London: Thames and Hudson. Pages 187-221. INST ARCH ISSUE DESK DBB 100 LLO Oates, J. and Oates, D. (2001) Nimrud. An Assyrian Imperial City Revealed, London: British School of Archaeology in Iraq. INST ARCH DBB 10 OAT Parker, B. 2001. The Mechanics of Empire: The Northern Frontier of Assyria as a Case Study in Imperial Dynamics. University of Helsinki: Helsinki. Parpola, S. and Porter, M. (2001) The Helsinki Atlas of the Near East in the NeoAssyrian Period, Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. MAIN ANCIENT HISTORY Qto B2 PAR Radner, K. 2000. How did the Assyrian king perceive his land and its Resources? Rainfall and Agriculture in Northern Mesopotamia, in: R.M. Jas (ed.). Proceedings of the Third MOS Symposium. Leiden. See: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/86492/1/86492.pdf. Reade, J. (1983) Assyrian Sculpture, London: British Museum. INST ARCH DBB 300 REA Saggs, H.W.F. (1984) The Might that was Assyria, London: Sidgwick and Jackson. INST ARCH DBB 100 SAG Iron Age Iran and beyond the Achaemenid empire Curtis, J. (1989) Ancient Persia, London: British Museum. Pages 32-50. INST ARCH DBG 100 CUR Curtis, J. and N. Tallis (2005) Forgotten Empire. The World of Ancient Persia. London: British Museum. INST ARCH DBG Qto CUR Ferrier, R.W. (ed.) (1989) The Arts of Persia, London: chapter by M. Roaf. INST ARCH DBG Qto FER Harper, P.O., Aruz, J. and Tallon. F. (eds) (1992) The Royal City of Susa. Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. Pages 215-252. INST ARCH DBG 10 HAR Kuhrt, A. (1995) The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC, London: Routledge. Pages 647-701. INST ARCH DBA 100 KUH Moorey, P.R.S. (1975) Biblical Lands, Oxford: Peter Bedrick Books. Pages 107-116; 117-136. INST ARCH DBE 100 MOO

Nylander, C. (1965) Ionians at Pasargadae, London. INST ARCH DBG 10 NYL Roaf, M. (1990) Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East, Oxford: Facts on File. Pages 204-221. INST ARCH DBA 100 Qto ROA Roaf, M. (1995) Media and Mesopotamia: history and architecture, in J. Curtis (ed.) Later Mesopotamia and Iran, London: The British Museum: 54-66. INST ARCH DBA 100 CUR Van De Mieroop, M. (2007) A History of the Ancient Near East ca. 3000-323 BC, Oxford: Blackwell. Pages 267-80. INST ARCH DBA 100 MIE Waters, M. (1999) The earliest Persians in Southwestern Iran: The textual evidence. Iranian Studies 32(1):99-107. Westenholz, J.G. 1996. Royal Cities of the Biblical World, Exhibition, Bible Lands Museum, Jerusalem, 1996. Pages 234-83. INST ARCH DBA 100 WES Egypt in the 1st millennium (see also Basic Texts for overviews) Broekman, G. P. F. and R. J. Demaree, O. (eds.) (2009). The Libyan Period in Egypt: Historical and Cultural Studies into the 21st 24th Dynasties. Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor her Nabije Oosten, Peeters. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 BRO Kitchen, K. A. (1986). The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100-650 B.C.). 2nd edition. Warminster: Aris & Phillips. EGYPTOLOGY K 12 KIT Leahy, M. A. (ed.) (1995). Libya and Egypt: ca. 1300-750 BC. London: SOAS Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies and the Society for Libyan Studies EGYPTOLOGY B 20 LEA Lewis, N. (2001). Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt: Case Studies in the Social History of the Hellenistic World. Oakville: American Society of Papyrologists. Main Library ANCIENT HISTORY C 15 LEW Morkot, R. G. (2000). The Black Pharaohs: Egypts Nubian Rulers. London: Rubicon EGYPTOLOGY B 60 MOR My*liwiec, K. (2000). The Twilight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E. Translated from the German by David Lorton. Ithaca, NY, London: Cornell University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 MYS OConnor, D. (1993). Ancient Nubia: Egypts Rival in Africa. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 60 OCO Rainey, A. F. (ed.) (1987). Egypt, Israel, Sinai: Archaeological and Historical Relationships in the Biblical Period. Jerusalem: Tel Aviv University. INST ARCH DBA 100 EGY Redford, D. B. (1992). Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton: Princeton University Press. INST ARCH DBA 100 RED Ruzicka, S. (2012). Trouble in the West: Egypt and the Persian Empire, 525-332. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Main library ANCIENT HISTORY F 70 RUZ Lecture 9. 21st March 2014 Transition from Ancient to Modern Egypt and the Near East The fall of the Persian Achaemenid Empire to Alexander the Great is often seen as a watershed moment for the region, transitioning from the Ancient Near East and Egypt to the Hellenistic and later modern words. During this time, new major world religions formed in the region that seemed to gradually lead to the

disappearance of the older cultural roots. We discuss how and if the two seemingly different worlds, the ancient vs. the Hellenistic and more recent, can be bridged. In what ways do we see continuity or change? Reading: Essential Readings: Bierman, I. A. (2008[1998]). Art and Architecture in the Medieval Period. In Petry, C. F. (ed.), Cambridge History of Egypt I: Islamic Egypt 640-1517, 339-374. Available online through SFX. Crone, P. 2010. The ancient Near East and Islam: The case of lot-casting. Journal of Semitic Studies 55(2):423-450. Jeffreys, D. (ed.) (2003). Introduction: Two Hundred Years of Ancient Egypt: Modern History and Ancient Archaeology. In Jeffreys, D., Views of Ancient Egypt Since Napoleon Bonaparte: Imperialism, Colonialism and Modern Appropriations, 1-18. London: UCL Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 JEFF Potts, D.T. (e.d.). 2012. A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. INST ARCH DBA 100 POT. Chapter 58. Further Readings: Transition Bartl,K. and Hauser, S (e.d.). 1996. Continuity and Change in Northern Mesopotamia from the Hellenistic to the Early Islamic Period. Berlin. INST ARCH DBA 100 BAR. Berkey, J.P. 2003. The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cotton, H (e.d.). 2009. From Hellenism to Islam: Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East. Cambridge University Press. ANCIENT HISTORY B 72 COT. Crone, P. 2010. The ancient Near East and Islam: The case of lot-casting. Journal of Semitic Studies 55(2):423-450. Segal, J.B. 1986. Arabs at Hatra and the vicinity: Marginalia on new Aramaic texts. Journal of Semitic Studies 31(1):57-80. Roman, Byzantine, and Islamic Egypt (see also Basic Texts for overviews) Adams, W. Y. (2010). Qasr Ibrim: The Earlier Medieval Period. London: Egypt Exploration Society. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS E 42[89[ Atiya, A. S. (ed.) (1991-). The Coptic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1-. New York: Macmillan. EGYPTOLOGY A 2 COP Bagnall, R. S. and D. W. Rathbone (eds) (2004). Egypt: From Alexander to the Copts: An Archaeological and Historical Guide. London: British Museum Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 BAG Bagnall, R. S. (ed.) (2007). Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 17 BAG Daly, M. W. (1998). The Cambridge History of Egypt II: From 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Online resource

Daly, M. W. (ed.) (1998). Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the End of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 CAM Elzin, I. S. (2004). Islamic Archaeology in the Sudan. Oxford: Archaeopress. INST ARCH DCR QUARTOS ELZ Frend, W. H. C. (1955). The Archaeology of Early Christianity: A History. London: Goeffrey Chapman. INST ARCH AG FRE Frankfurter, D. (1998). Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 FRA Friedman, F. D. (ed.) (1989). Beyond the Pharaohs: Egypt and the Copts in the 2nd to 7th Centuries AD. Providence, RI: Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS M 5 FRI Insoll, T. (1999). The Archaeology of Islam. Oxford: Blackwell. INST ARCH DBA 100 INS Johnson, J. H. (1992). Life in a Multi-Cultural Society: Egypt from Cambyses to Constantine and Beyond. Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 6 DEM Milwright, M. (2010). An Introduction to Islamic Archaeology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. INST ARCH DBA 100 MIL Peacock, D. and L. Blue (2011). Myos Hormos Quseir al-Qadim: Roman and Islamic Ports on the Read Sea. Volume 1: Survey and Excavations 1999-2003. Oxford: Oxbow Books. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS E 100 PEA Peacock, D. and L. Blue (2011). Myos Hormos Quseir al-Qadim: Roman and Islamic Ports on the Read Sea. Volume 2: Finds from the Excavations 19992003. Oxford: Archaeopress. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS E 100 PEA Petry, C. F. (ed.) (1998). Islamic Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 5 CAM Rabbat, N. O. (2010). Mamluk History through Architecture: Monuments, culture and Politics in Medieval Egypt and Syria. London: I. B. Tauris. ARCHITECTURE B 1:64 RAB Raven, S. (1993). Rome in Africa. 3rd edition. London, New York: Routledge. INST ARCH AH R 26 RAV Rogan, E. L. and A. K. Bowman (eds.) (1999). Agriculture in Egypt: From Pharaonic to modern times. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ruffini, G. (2008). Social Networks in Byzantine Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 RUF Walters, C. C. (1974). Monastic Archaeology in Egypt. Warminster: Aris Phillips. EGYPTOLOGY K 5 WAL Wilfong, T. G. (2002). Women of Jeme: Lives in a Coptic Town in Late Antiquity. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 90 WIL Egyptian heritage (see also readings of lecture 10) Butler, B. (2007). Return to Alexandria: An Ethnography of Cultural Heritage, Revivalism, and Museum Memory. Walnug Creek, CA: Left Coast Press. INST ARCH DCA 100 BUT Colla, E. (2007). Conflicted Antiquities: Egyptology, Egyptomania, Egyptian Modernity. Durham, NC, London: Duke University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 COL Danforth, R. (ed.) (2010). Preserving Egypts Cultural Heritage: the Conservation Work of the American Research Center in Egypt, 1995-2005. San Antonio, TX: American Research Center in Egypt. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 8 DAN

Fagan, B. M. (2004). The Rape of the Nile: Tomb Robbers, Tourists, and Archaeologists. Revised and updated edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 FAG France, P. (1991). The Rape of Egypt: How the Europeans Stripped Egypt of its Heritage. London: Berrie & Jenkins. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 FRA Gershoni, I. (1992). Imagining and Reimagining the Past: The Use of History by Egyptian Nationalist Writers, 1919-1952. History and Memory 4.3: 5-37. Available through SFX Kohl, P. L. and C. Fawcett (eds) (1995). Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH AG KOH Moser, S. and D. Glazier, J. Phillips, L. N. El Nemr, M. S. Moussa, R. N. Aiesh, S. Richardson, A. Conner, M. Seymour (2002). Transforming Archaeology through Practice: Strategies for Collaborative Archaeology and the Community Archaeology Project at Quseir, Egypt. World Archaeology 34(2): 220-248 Moser, S. (2006). Wondrous Curiosities: Ancient Egypt in the British Museum. Chicago, London: University of Chicago. EGYPTOLOGY C 10 BM Owens, L. S. and A. De Trafford, G. J. Tassiee, J. van Wetering (eds) (2009). Managing Egypts Cultural Heritage: Proceedings of the the First Egyptian Cultural Heritage Organisation Conference on Egyptian Cultural Heritage Management. London: Golden House. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 HAS Reid, D. M. (2002). Whose Pharaohs? Archaeology, Museums, and Egyptian National Identity from Napoleon to World War I. Berkeley, CA, London: University of California Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 REI Riggs, C. 2010. Ancient Egypt in the Museum: Concepts and Constructions. In Lloyd, A. B. (ed.), A Companion to Ancient Egypt II, 1129-1153. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 5 LLO Sanders, P. (2008). Creating Medieval Cairo: Empire, Religion, and Architectural Preservation in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. ARCHITECTURE B 5:64 SAN Van der Spek, K. (2011). The Modern Neighbours of Tutankhamun: History, Life, and Work in the Villages of the Theban West Bank. Cairo, New York: American University in Cairo Press. Wood, M. (1998). The Use of the Pharaonic Past in Modern Egyptian Nationalism. Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 35: 179-1996. Available through SFX Vymazalov, H. and M. Megahed, F. Ondr+ (2011). Ancient Echoes in the Culture of Modern Egypt. Prague: Charles University. Insitute of Archaeology Library, IN ACQUISITION History of Egyptology (see also readings of lecture 10 and Basic Texts: Egypt) Bietak, M. (1979). The Present State of Egyptian Archaeology. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 65: 156-160. Available through SFX James, T. G. H. (1995). Rediscovering Egypt of the Pharaohs. In Sasson, J. (ed.) Civilizations of the Ancient Near East IV, New York: Scribners. 2753-2764. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Janssen, R. M. (1992). The First Hundred Years: Egyptology at University College London, 1892-1992. London: Petrie Museum. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 8 JAN *Jeffreys, D. (ed.) (2003). Introduction: Two Hundred Year of Ancient Egypt: Modern History and Ancient Archaeology. In Jeffreys, D., Views of Ancient

Egypt Since Napoleon Bonaparte: Imperialism, Colonialism and Modern Appropriations, 1-18. London: UCL Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 JEFF Lustig, J. (ed.) (1997). Egyptology and Anthropology: A Developing Dialogue. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS A 9 LUS Reid, D. M. (1985). Indigenous Egyptology: The Decolonization of a Profession? Journal of the American Oriental Society 105.2: 233-246. Available through SFX Trigger, B. G. (2006). A History of Archaeological Thought. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH AG TRI Wortham, J. D. (1971). British Egyptology 1549-1906. Newton Abott: David & Charles. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 WOR Tyldesley, J. A. (2005). Egypt: How a Lost Civilization Was Rediscovered. London: BBC Books. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 TYL Lecture 10. 28th March 2014 The Intellectual Heritage of Egypt and the Ancient Near East The Ancient Near East and Egypt have produced a wide range of ideas weaved into modern thought. The Great Flood, Moses the Egyptian, and the fairy tales of One Thousand And One Nights have caught the imagination of people and are transmitted in the Biblical, Classical, and Arabic Writings. Hellenistic and Arabic authors were also impressed by the scientific achievements of civilizations that were already ancient for them; more recent discoveries have also shown the deep roots of modern scientific ideas. Initially, archaeologists have tried to prove these texts with the material record but have then moved on to understanding the emergence of textual sources in their contemporary environment. The lecture reviews some case-studies and outlines how an archaeological response to these questions could potentially look like. Reading: Essential Readings: Dalley, S (e.d.). 1989. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford University Press. Pp. 39-136. ANCIENT HISTORY D 4 DAL el-Daly, O. 2003. Ancient Egypt in medieval Arabic writings. In Ucko, P. J. and T. C. Champion, The wisdom of ancient Egypt: Changing visions through the ages, 39-63. London: UCL Press, 2003. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 UCK Steele, J.M (e.d.). 2007. Calendars and Years: Astronomy and Time in the Ancient Near East. Pp. 115-132. Oxbow. Ucko, Egypt Ancient and Modern. In Ucko, P. J. and T. C. Champion, The wisdom of ancient Egypt: Changing visions through the ages, 1-22. London: UCL Press, 2003. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 UCK Parts of this chapter are online available: http://books.google.de/books?id=PWvVaDvvBTYC&pg=PA13&hl=de&sourc e=gbs_toc_r&cad=3#v=onepage&q&f=false.

Further Readings: Astronomy Steele, J.M. 2011. Visual aspects of the transmission of Babylonian astronomy and its reception into Greek astronomy. Annals of Science 68(4):453-465. Economy Baumol, W.J. 2010. The invention of enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to modern times. Princeton University Press. ECONOMICS N 46 LAN. Stolper, M.W. 1985. Entrepreneurs and empire: The Murashu Archive, the Murashu Firm, and Persian Rule in Babylonia. Uitgaven van het Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut te ,stanbul. ANCIENT HISTORY F 14 STO Technology and Medicine Hatton, G.D. et al. 2008. The production technology of Egyptian blue and green frits from second millennium BC Egypt and Mesopotamia. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(6):1591-1604. Moorey, P.R.S. 1994. Ancient Mesopotamian Materials and Industries: The Archaeological Evidence. Eisenbrauns. INST ARCH DBB 100 MOO Robson, E. 2008. Mathematics in Ancient Iraq: A Social History. Princeton University Press. ANCIENT HISTORY D 76 ROB Soltysiak, A. 2001. Cereal grinding technology in ancient Mesopotamia: Evidence from dental microwear. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(10):2805-2810. Literature George, A. 2010. The Epic of Gilgamesh. http://eprints.soas.ac.uk/8611/1/CUPGilg.pdf Ancient Egypt in Arabic Thought Broadhurst, R. J. C. (1952). The Travels of Ibn Jubayr. London: J. Cape. EGYPTOLGY A 30 IBN; Main Library HISTORY 53 e MUH El-Daly, O. (2005). Egyptology: The Missing Millennium. Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic Writings. London: UCL Press. EGPTOLOGY A 8 ELD Haarman, U. (1996). Muslim Perceptions of Pharaonic Egypt. In Loprieno, A. (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature: History and Forms, 605-627. Leiden: Brill. EGYPTOLOGY V 10 LOP Egypt in Western Thought (see also readings of lectures 6 Civilization and 9) Assmann, J. (2002). The mind of Egypt: History and meaning in the time of the Pharaohs. Translated from the German by Andrew Jenkins. New York: Metropolitan Books. EGYPTOLOGY B 12 ASS Assmann, J. (1997). Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Cambridge, MA, London: Harvard University Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 80 ASS, Main Library HEBREW QM 7 ASS Assmann, J. (2011). Cultural memory and early civilization: Writing, remembrance,

and political imagination. Translated from the German. New York: Cambridge University Press. INST ARCH AH ASS Bernard, A. and D. Attwell (eds) (2013). Debating Orientalism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Main library IN ACQUISITION Buchwald, J. Z. and D. G, Josefowicz (2010). The Zodiac of Paris: How an Improbable Controversy over an Ancient Egyptian Artifact Provoked a Modern Debate between Religion and Science. Pinceton, NJ, Oxford: Princeton University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 BUC Carrott, R. G. (1978). The Egyptian Revival: Its Sources, Monuments, and Meaning, 1808-1858. Berkeley, London: University of California Press. ARCHITECTURE B 8:81 CAR Clayton, P. 1982. The Rediscovery of Ancient Egypt: Artists and Travellers in the 19th Century. London: Thames & Hudson. ISSUE DESK IOA CAL 26 Copenhaver, B. P. (1992). Hermetica: The Greek Corpus Hermeticum and the Latin Asclepius in a new English Tradition, with Notes and Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Main library CLASSICS GM 16 Freeman, C. (1997). The Legacy of Ancient Egypt. New York: Facts on File. EGYPTOLOGY QUARTOS B 5 FRE Hassan, F. 2008. Egypt in the memory of the world. In Wendrich, W. (ed.), Egyptian Archaeology, 259-273. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 WEN Hornung, E. (2001). The Secret Lore of Egypt: Its Impact on the West. Translated from the German by David Lorton. Ithaca, NY, London: Cornell University Press. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 HOR Iversen, E. (1961). The Myth of Egypt and its Hieroglyphs in European Tradition. Copenhagen: Gad. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 IVE Iversen, E. (1984). Egyptian and Hermetic Doctrine. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. Main library PAPYROLOGY PZ 20 IVE MacDonald, S. and M. Rice (eds) (2003). Consuming Ancient Egypt. London: UCL Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 6 MAC Rice, M. (1997). Egypts Legacy: The Archetypes of Western Civilization 3000-30 BC. London: Routledge. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 RIC Said, E. W. (2003). Orientalism. London: Penguin. Main library HISTORY 6 a SAI Stevens Curl, J. (2005). The Egyptian Revival: Ancient Egypt as the Inspiration for Design Motifs in the West. London: Routledge. Main Library ART P 7 CUR Trafton, S. (2004). Egypt Land: Race and Nineteenth-Century American Egyptomania. Durham, NC, London: Duke University Press. EGYPTOLOGY A 8 TRA The Black Athena Debate (see also readings of lecture 3 Egypt and Africa) Bernal, M. (1991-2006). Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. Vol. 1-3. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. INST ARCH DBA 200 BER Binsbergen, W. M. J. (ed.) (2011). Black Athena Comes of Age: Towards a Constructive Re-Assessment. Berlin: Lit. Chioni Moore, D. (2001). Black Athena Writes Back: Martin Bernal Responds to his Critics. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. INST ARCH DBA 200 BER Levkowitz, M. and G. M. Rogers (eds) (1996). Black Athena Revisited. Chapel Hill, London: University of North California Press. Main library ANCIENT HISTORY P 72 LEV

Egypt and the Classical World (see also readings of lecture 9) Alvar Ezquerra, J. (2008). Romanising Oriental Gods: Myth, Salvation and Ethics in the Cults of Cybele, Isis and Mithras. Leiden: Brill. Main Library ANCIENT HISTORY R 74 ALV Ashton, Sally-Ann (2004). Roman Egyptomania. London: Golden House. EGYPTOLOGY QUAROTS M 5 ASH Bricault, L. and M. J. Versluys, P. G. O. Meyboom (eds) (2007). Nile into Tiber: Egypt in the Roman World. Leiden: Brill. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 BRI Bricault, L. and M. J. Versluys (eds) (2010). Isis on the Nile: Egyptian God in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. Leiden; Brill. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 BRI Kkosy, L. (1955). Egypt in Ancient Greek and Roman Thought. In Sasson, J. (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East I, 3-14. New York: Scribners. INST ARCH DBA 100 SAS Matthews, R. and C. Roemer (eds.) (2003). Ancient Perspectives on Egypt. London: UCL Press EGYPTOLOGY B 20 MAT, ISSUE DESK IOA MAT 7 Sarolta, A. T. (1995). Isis and Serapis in the Roman World. Main Library ANCIENT HISTORY R 74 TAK Egypt, the Bible and Christianity (see also readings of lecture 7-9) Assmann, J. (2008). Of God and Gods: Egypt, Israel, and the Rise of Monotheism. Madison, WIS: University of Wisconsin Press. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 ASS Currid, J. D. (1997). Ancient Egypt and the Old Testabment. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Books. EGYPTOLOGY R 80 CUR Hilhorst, A. and G. H. van Kooten (eds) (2005). The Wisdom of Egypt: Jewish, Early Christian, and Gnostic Essays in Honour of Gerard P. Luttikhuizen. Leiden: Brill. EGYPTOLOGY R 5 LUT Hoffmeier, J. K. (2005). Ancient Israel in Sinai: The Evidence for the Authenticity of the Wilderness Tradition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available online http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/0195155467.001. 000/acprof-9780195155464 King, L. W. (1918). Legends of Babylon and Egypt in Relation to Hebrew Tradition. London: Oxford University Press. EYGPTOLOGY R 80 KIN (Note the date of publication in the early 20th century!) Survivals of Pharaonic Egypt into modern Egypt Behlmer, H. 1996. Ancient Egyptian survivals in Coptic literature: An overview. In: Loprieno, A. (ed.), Ancient Egyptian Literature: History and forms, 567-590. Leiden, New York, Cologne: Brill. EGYPTOLOGY V 10 LOP Haikal, Fayza M. 1999. The roots of modern Egypt : A proposal for an Encyclopaedia of Survivals. Annales du Service des Antiquits de l'gypte 74: 163-168 INST ARCH PERS Kkosy, L. 1994. Survivals of the ancient religion in Egypt. In Fodor, A. and A. Shivtiel (eds.), Proceedings of the colloquium on popular customs and the monotheistic religions in the Middle East and North Africa, Budapest 1993, 65-71. Budapest: Etvs Lornd University. British Library ORW.1994.a.251; INST ARCH PERS (edited issue of the periodical Studia Aegyptiaca) Naguib, S.-A. 2008. Survivals of Pharaonic Religious Practices in Contemporary Coptic Christianity. In Dieleman, J. and W. Wendrich (eds.), UCLA

Encyclopedia of Egyptology, Los Angeles. http://escholarship.org/uc/item/27v9z5m8 Saphinaz-Amal, N. 1990. The festivals of Opet and Abul Haggag. Survival of an ancient tradition? Temenos: Studies in Comparative Religion 26: 67-84. Stores STORE PERS Wickett, E. 2010. For the Living and the Dead: The Funerary Laments of Upper Egypt, Ancient and Modern. London: Tauris. EGYPTOLOGY B 20 WIC

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Libraries The library of the Institute of Archaeology UCL will be the principal resource for this course. However, some materials will be found in History or other UCL library. Dyslexia If you have dyslexia or other relevant disability, please make your lecturer aware of this. Please discuss with your lecturer whether there is any way in which they can help you. Students with dyslexia are reminded to indicate this on each piece of coursework. Support your local Egypt and Near Eastern societies Please consider joining and thereby supporting the work of at least one of the major British institutes and societies working in Egypt and the Near East today. Many produce an annual journal as well as newsletters and other publications. They organise lectures on relevant topics, usually held in London, and they have some funding to help students travel and study in the modern countries of the region. More information can be found at their websites: British Institute for the Study of Iraq: http://www.bisi.ac.uk/ (listing of events, lectures, and other information about archaeology in Iraq): The American Academic Research Institute in Iraq (U.S. sister institution to BISI and about Iraq and archaeology): http://www.taarii.org/ British Association for Near Eastern Archaeology: http://banealcane.org/ http://ecai.org/iraq (extremely useful site devoted to the archaeology of Iraq) http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/ (British Museum site, basic introduction to ancient Mesopotamia, including Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria) http://www.etana.org/abzu/ (excellent resource covering all aspects of the ancient Near East) http://www.assur.de/ (devoted to German excavations at the important Assyrian site of Assur) http://www.utarp.org (devoted to archaeological project on north Assyrian frontier) http://www.learningsites.com/NWPalace/NWPalhome.html (reconstructions of the Northwest Palace at Nimrud) http://www .cba-inst.org (on-line version of Parpola, S. and Porter, M. (2001) The Helsinki Atlas of the Near East in the Neo- Assyrian Period, Helsinki: Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project) http://cdli.ucla.edu/(project aiming to put on-line all cuneiform documents, about 120,000 of them, dating from 3200 2000 BC)