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English Paper

Created by Akhmad Maladi Akbar Yanuar Adisaputra Zamratul Hamdani Zulkifli Paldana Akbar Teknik Konstruksi Sipil 1S2 Sore

POLITEKNIK NEGERI JAKARTA 2010

PREFACE

Praise we pray toward the presence of the only God, the Almighty God who has given his blessing and guidance so that the preparation of papers Conjunction be resolved.

Now we are in the 21st century, a century full of competition, local competition, national competition, and global competition. Competition in all cases can not be avoided. Therefore, we must equip ourselves to face the competition. Provision of science and technology alone is not enough if not balanced with good language skills

Papers Conjunction is designed to give an explanation about the form, type and function of the adverb with the aim of completing the task of making a paper for English subject.

Finally, our gratitude goes to all those who have helped resolve this paper. In addition, we also like to thank the authors whose articles we have quoted as reference material. We hope this paper can assist students in learning English.

Jakarta, November 2010

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface. Table of content Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Introduction Discussion. A. The Description of Conjunction. B. The Types of Conjunctions C. The Exercises of Conjunctions Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Ending. bibliography

The Conjunctions
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
In this era of globalization, as now, language proficiency is one of ability to be controlled because it is a start-up capital to compete in the world of office. Moreover, as a student, we are required to be proficient in English for one day to compete in all areas because English is the language most widely used in the world. In English there is an adverb that has many forms and uses. In this paper we discuss about type of adverb. The Purpose of this paper is to assist in understanding the adverb used in the English language.

CHAPTER 2 DESCRIPTION
In Grammar, a Conjunction is a part of speech that connects two words, sentences, phrases or clauses together. This definition may overlap with that of other parts of speech, so what constitutes a conjunction should be defined for each language. In gener al, a Conjunction is in invariable grammatical particle, and it may or may not stand between the items it conjoins. The definition can be also be extended to idiomatic phrases that behave as a unit with the same function as a single-word conjunction (as well as, provided by that, etc). This use of conjunction is called parallel structure. However, modern usage in both Spanish and English is accepting of allowing conjunctions to be used at the beginning of a sentence to join it with a previous sentence.

The Conjunctions have another meaning : noun (for Conjunction) 1. Grammar . a. any member of a small class of words distinguished in many languages by their function as connectors between words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, as and, because, but, however. b. any other word or expression of similar function, as in any case. 2. the act of conjoining; combination. 3. the state of being conjoined; union; association: The police, in conjunction with the army, established order. 4. a combination of events or circumstances. 5. Logic . a. a compound proposition that is true if and only if all of its component propositions are true. b. the relation among the components of such a proposition, usually expressed by and or & or 6. Astronomy . a.the coincidence of two or more heavenly bodies at the same celestial longitude. b. the state of two or more such coinciding heavenly bodies. 7. Astrology . the coincidence of two or more heavenly bodies at the same celestial longitude, characterized by a unification of the planetary energies; an astrological aspect.

Related forms conjunctional, adjective conjunctionally, adverb nonconjunction, noun

Synonyms 2. joining, meeting, associating.

The Types of Conjunction


a. Coordinating Conjunction
Coordinating Conjunction also called coordinators, are conjunctions that join two or more items of equal syntactic importance, such as word, main clauses, or sentences. In English mnemonic acronym FANBOYS can be used to remember the coordinators for, and, nor, but, or, yet and so. The word coordinate (verb) means of the same order or important; equal in rank. So, coordinating conjunctions often link similar grammaticalparts of a sentence together (i.e. parts of speech + parts of speech ; phrase + phrase ; clause + clause). Here are the meanings and some examples of Coordinators Conjunction : And ex But ex Or ex Nor ex For ex Yet ex So ex : presents non-contrasting item(s) or idea : Zulkifli and Akbar are watching TV at my home : presents a contrast or exception : Rani is pretty but lazzy : presents an alternate item or idea : Zulkifli wants to watch TV or listen to some music : presents a non-contrasting negative idea : Neither my brother nor my parents are here : presents a reason : I was studying English for TOEFL examination tomorrow : presents a contrast or exception : they were not study, yet they passed the exam. : presents a consequence : I was tired, so I went to bed

As you can see the above examples coordinating conjunction come between the individual words, phrases, and independent clauses they are joining.

b. Subordinating Conjunction
Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are conjunctions that introduce a dependent clause. Subordinating conjunctions join an independent clause (contains both subject, and a verb and can act as a complete sentence) and a dependent clause (also contains a subject, and a verb, but is not a complete sentence). Basically, dependent clause cannot exist on their own; they need to joined to an independent clause. Subordinating conjunctions do just that. The word subordinate (Adjective) means something of lesser of unequal value, which also gives you a clue about is position in a sentence in relation to an independent clause. Subordinating conjunctions always come at the beginning of a dependent clause. Its important to note, however, that dependent clauses can sometimes (not always) come before an independent clause.

The most common subordinating conjunctions in the English language include the following and the examples :

after although by the time as because before as long as if once since as soon as now that even though that until till when whenever The first time while

: After she graduates, she will get a job. : Although it was very hot, they went running. : by the time she arrived, we had already left. : As I was walking home, it began to rain. : Because he was sleepy, he went to bed. : I will leave before she comes. : I will never speak to her again as long as I live. : If it rains, the streets get wet. : Once it stops raining, we will leave. : I have not seen her since she left this morning. : As soon as its stops raining, we will leave. : Now that the semester is finished, I am going to rest a few days. : Even though I was not tired, I went to bed. : That she arrived , we had already left. : We stayed there until we finished our work. : We stayed there till we finished our work. : When I arrived, she was talking on the phone. : Whenever I see her, I say hello. : The first time I went to Jakarta, I went to University of Indonesia : While I was walking home, it began to rain.

While coordinating conjunctions join parts of sentence that are similar, subordinating conjunctions often shows a contrasting or unequal relationship.

c. Correlative Conjunction
Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together to coordinate two items. The word correlative (adjective) means a similar relationship of some kind. Thus correlative conjunctions join similar concepts in a sentence together. Similar to coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions joins similar grammatical parts of a sentence (parts of speech + parts of speech; phrase + phrase; clause + clause).

Here are the meanings and some examples of Correlative Conjunction :


both / and not only / but also either / or neither / nor whether / or

: Both my mother and my brother are here. : Not only my mother but also my brother is here. : I will take either chemistry or phyics next semester. : Neither my brother nor my parents are here. : Im going to go swimming tomorrow whether or not it is cold.

CHAPTER 3 ENDING
The Conjunction is a word to describe conjunction. There are so many kinds of conjunction. Each form has their role respectively. Each type also has a shape and its own characteristics. To better understand in every language studied, especially the English language we must understand the basic concepts in English. Then we should practice it in everyday life. In this case is an conjunction. In English are so many types, shapes and uses conjunctions. It is therefore not enough just to memorize, but it must be practiced in everyday language. Karena dengan memahami dan lebih mengenal many kinds of conjunctions and sentences in other kita dapat lebih cepat memahami dan mengerti dalam menggunakan bahasa inggris sebagai penghubung kita dalam memahami ilmu teknik sipil ini. I hope this paper can be used to another person to understanding conjunction.

CHAPTER 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Schramper,Betty. Understanding and Using English Grammar. 1993. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara List of Conjunctions. http//:www.yourDictionary.com , Grammatical Conjunctions. www.wikipedia.com Exercise about Conjunctions. www.UniversityofBristol.com Conjunctions Exercice. www.yourDictionary.com