Original citation

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Ling, T.-C., Poon, C.-S. (2014) Use of recycled CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in dry-mixed concrete paving blocks. Journal of Cleaner Production; 68: 209-215. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652614000092

Use of recycled CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in dry-mixed concrete paving blocks
Tung-Chai Ling1,2, and Chi-Sun Poon1,* Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. 2 School of Civil Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
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1. Introduction With the recent widespread use of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) television and monitors, environmental concern related to disposal of discarded cathode ray tube (CRT) glass has becoming progressively significant (Poon, 2008). CRT funnel glass contains 20-25 % of PbO is regulated as hazardous waste, and its Pb content if leached to the environment can pose a threat to human health (Lee et al., 2004). Therefore, finding alternative methods to manage the huge amount of CRT glass waste is important. Recently, a three-step recycling method for CRT glass waste which comprises crushing, acid washing and water rinsing to remove the lead has been developed and implemented in Hong Kong (Ling and Poon, 2011a). Experimental studies at the First author: tcling611@yahoo.com Page 1

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Keywords: CRT funnel glass, concrete paving blocks, properties, leaching of lead, dry-mix casting method

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The results show that the use of up to 100% CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in concrete paving blocks not only have satisfactory levels in compressive strength (>45MPa) and ASR expansion (<0.1%), but improved the resistance to water absorption, drying shrinkage and photocatalytic performance for reducing air pollutants. However, the TCLP results reveal that the casting method of producing dry-mixed concrete blocks had a significant influence on lead leaching, and the replacement ratio of the CRT glass should be limited to about 25%.

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Abstract This paper investigates the feasibility of using recycled glass derived from discarded cathode ray tube (CRT) glass as an alternate fine aggregate for the production of dry-mixed concrete paving blocks. The recycled CRT funnel glass used had been acid treated and regarded as a non hazardous material based on the regulatory thresholds of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Two series of concrete paving blocks were prepared, one with and one without the use of coarse aggregate. Additionally, TiO2, a photo-catalyst was added to the surface layer of the blocks during the fabrication process to effect photo-catalytic reaction for the removal of an air pollutant, nitrogen oxide (NO). For each series, the CRT glass was used to replace the fine aggregate by volume at different ratios. Their physical, mechanical and durability properties, lead leachability, and photocatalytic air purifier performance were studied.

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Hong Kong Polytechnic University demonstrated that nitric acid at 3–5% concentration levels can be used to remove most of the lead from the crushed funnel glass surface and rendered it as a non-hazardous waste based on the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The details of the recycling process and results have been reported in the literature (Ling and Poon, 2012a). Use of the treated CRT funnel glass as a substitute of natural aggregate in concrete blocks fabrication could be a possible recycling option. As for non-toxic/non-hazardous glass waste derived from beverage glass bottles, Turgut (2008) studied the properties of masonry blocks produced with waste limestone sawdust and glass powder. It was found that glass powder had a positive effect to the concrete structure and led to better compressive strength. Chidiac et al. (2011) also stated that waste glass powder can be incorporated to produce a better quality drycast concrete blocks at industrial settings. Poon and Lam (2008) found that smooth surface of coarser glass cullets (<5mm) could weaken the bonding between the glass particle and cement paste, and resulted in the loss of concrete strength. But the study focused in the possible use of a hazardous glass material (crushed CRT funnel glass) for use in concrete blocks after an acid treatment step. A major concern for using recycled glass in concrete is the potential risk of expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) (Park and Lee, 2004). This is because the rich-silica crystal structure of glass is very reactive in an alkaline environment. Lam et al. (2007) found that without the use of ASR suppressant it was not possible to produce a durable concrete paving block containing 100% recycled beverage glass. Works have proved that ASR can be suppressed by incorporating pozzolan such as fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag etc. since the amount of alkali hydroxide is limited by the pozzolanic reaction (Shi et al., 2007). Lee at al. (2011) found that concrete blocks produced by a dry-mix casting method contained a relatively higher porosity were able to accommodate more amount of ASR gel. The ASR expansion of dry-mixed concrete block containing 100% glass aggregate was found to be 44% lower when compared to the concrete produced by using a traditional wet-mix method. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the feasibility of using recycled CRT funnel glass for the production of concrete paving blocks, as it can positively promote green and environmental sustainability. The recycled CRT funnel glass used had been treated and rendered as nonhazardous material by an acid washing process. Two series of dry-mixed paving blocks were prepared, one with and one without the inclusion of coarse aggregate. In both series, the effects of CRT funnel glass content (0%, 50% and 100% was used to replace equal volume of recycled fine aggregate) on the properties of concrete paving blocks were investigated. Additionally, methods that can reduce the potential leachability of lead from the CRT glass were also assessed.

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2. Experimental procedures 2.1. Materials ASTM type I ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and fly ash (PFA) complying with ASTM class F were used as cementitious materials for the production of the concrete paving blocks. The chemical compositions and physical properties are shown in Table 1.

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A commercially available nano-TiO2 powder (P25, Degussa) was used as the photocatalyst. The particle size of the TiO2 was 20-50 nm, with a specific BET surface area of 50 ±15 m2 g-1.

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Coarse and fine aggregates used in this study were recycled concrete aggregate obtained from a construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling facility in Hong Kong. The particle size range of the recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) and the recycled fine aggregate (RFA) were 5-10 mm and 0-5 mm (see Table 2). The recycled CRT funnel glass was obtained from a CRT waste recycling center in Hong Kong, in which the CRT funnel glass was crushed, acid treated and water washed. The treated CRT funnel glass with leachable Pb value of 2.2 mg/L was rendered as a non hazardous material based on the regulatory thresholds of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The particle size distribution and other physical properties of these aggregates are shown in Table 2. The particle size distribution expressed as a percent passing (%) is the percentage of total aggregate by weight passing through a given sieve size.

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Table 1: Chemical compositions and physical properties of cement and fly ash * Class F **CRT funnel Chemical compositions (%) OPC PFA Fly ash glass 3.74 Calcium oxide (CaO) 63.15 <3 50.50 Silicon dioxide (SiO2) 19.61 56.79 2.40 Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) 7.33 28.21 3.32 5.31 Ferric oxide (Fe2O3) >70 (SiO2 +Al2O3+ Fe2O3) 30.26 92.32 1.17 Magnesium oxide (MgO) 2.54 5.21 3.00 Sodium oxide (Na2O) 0.13 0.45 9.27 0.39 1.34 Potassium oxide (K2O) <5.0 Sulfur trioxide (SO3) 2.13 0.68 24.50 Lead oxide (PbO) 2.90 Barium oxide (BaO) 2.10 Strontium oxide (SrO) 0.41 Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) <6.0 Loss on ignition 2.97 3.9 Physical properties Specific gravity 3.16 2.31 2 Blaine fineness (cm /g) 3519 3960 * The chemical composition of the Class F Fly ash is according to the ASTM C618. **The chemical composition of CRT funnel glass powder was measured using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) method.

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Table 2: Particle size distributions and physical properties of RCA, RFA and CRT funnel glass Sieve size and physical properties RCA (5-10mm) 10 mm 5 mm 2.36 mm 1.18 mm 0.6 mm 0.3 mm 0.15 mm Fineness modulus Relative density Water absorption (%) 100 19.6 0.86 0.80 0.76 0.73 0.63 5.77 2.47 4.37 Percentage passing (%) RFA (< 5mm) 100 99.6 72.0 44.8 26.3 15.7 7.2 3.40 2.53 5.80 CRT (<5 mm) 100 99.6 77.7 48.6 24.5 8.3 1.5

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Note: the notation of paving blocks without coarse aggregate is expressed as PB; the notation of paving blocks with coarse aggregate is expressed as C-PB.

Separately, to study the effect using the crushed CRT funnel glass on the photocatalytic air purifying performance, an additional of 5% nano-TiO2 by cementitious materials weight was added to the mixture. Only the most upper layer of the concrete blocks (5mm thick concrete surface layer) was incorporated with the TiO2 because in actual application the air pollutant (e.g. NO) only comes in contact with the surface of the blocks. Due to the thickness limitation, the maximum particle sizes of RFA and CRT glass used to cast the concrete surface layers was First author: tcling611@yahoo.com Page 4

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Table 3: Mix proportions of paving block with and without recycled coarse aggregate (kg/m3) Material compositions Mix notation OPC PFA RCA RFA CRT Water w/c PB0 1811 0 340 113 0 136 0.3 PB50 906 1074 340 113 0 136 0.3 PB100 0 2148 340 113 0 136 0.3 C-PB0 340 113 453 1358 0 136 0.3 C-PB50 340 113 453 679 805 136 0.3 C-PB100 340 113 453 0 1611 136 0.3

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2.2. Mix proportion of paving blocks To achieve required propertied of standard concrete paving blocks, the control concrete mixes were designed with a fixed OPC content of 340 kg/m3, aggregate-to-cement ratio of 4:1 and water-to-cement ratio (w/c) of 0.3. Two series of paving blocks were prepared in this study, i) paving blocks without RCA and ii) paving blocks with RCA. For the paving blocks with RCA, 25% of RFA was replaced by RCA weight. For each concrete series, the crushed and processed CRT funnel glass was used to replace RFA by volume at 0%, 50% and 100%. Table 3 shows the materials composition (in kg/m3) of the 6 different concrete mixes prepared in this investigation.

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below 2.36 mm. The mix proportions of the photocatalytic surface layer are shown in Table 4. Table 4: Mix proportions of concrete surface layers (kg/m3) Material compositions Mix notation OPC PFA RFA CRT Water PSL0 340 113 1811 0 136 PSL50 340 113 906 1074 136 PSL100 340 113 0 2148 136
Note: the notation of photocatalytic surface layer is expressed as PSL.

TiO2 22.7 22.7 22.7

Cubes of 70×70×70 mm in size were used for the determination of hardened density, water absorption and compressive strength. 25×25×285 mm prisms were used for measuring the dimension change of dry shrinkage and the expansion due to ASR. 5 mm think concrete layers with a surface area size of 200×100 mm were prepared for the photocatalytic reaction test. 2.4. Test methods 2.4.1. Hardened density The hardened densities of the block specimens were determined by using a water displacement method according to ASTM C 642 (2006) for hardened concrete. The reported results were the average values of three specimens. 2.4.2. Water absorption The cold water absorption values of the block specimens were determined in accordance with ASTM C 642 (2006). The reported results were the average values of three specimens. 2.4.3. Compressive strength According to ASTM C 349 (2008), the compressive strength was determined by using a universal testing machine with maximum a load capacity of 3000 kN. The loading was applied to the nominal area of the block specimen. Three samples for each mix were tested at 7, 28 and 56 days. Page 5

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2.3. Paving block specimen preparation All paving block specimens were fabricated in the laboratory using a dry-mix method (Xiao et al., 2011). Cementitious materials and aggregates were first mixed in a pan mixer for approximately 3 min. Water was added slowly into the bowl of the mixer and the mixture was further mixed for another 3 min. The fresh concrete (with zero slump value) was placed into steel moulds in three layers of about equal thickness. After each of the first two layers was laid, compaction was applied manually by hammering a wooden plank on the surface layer to provide an evenly distributed compaction. The last layer was prepared by slightly overfilling the top of the mould (approximately 5 mm) and the overfilled materials were subjected to a static compaction twice by using a compression machine. A compression force of 25 N/mm2 was applied for the first compaction. After removing the excessive materials with a trowel, a second compaction force of 30 N/mm2 was applied and the specimen was left in a laboratory environment for the first 24 h. After one day, the specimens were demoulded and cured in water at an average temperature of 23±3°C until the day of testing.

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2.4.4. Dry shrinkage The dry shrinkage of the concrete block specimens was determined according to BS 6073 (1981). After 28 days of room temperature curing, the initial lengths (25×25×285 mm) of the block specimens were measured. After the initial reading, the specimens were conveyed to a drying chamber with a temperature of 23°C and with a relatively humidity of 55% until further measurement at 14th days. 2.4.5. Expansion due to the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) An accelerated ASR test was carried out in accordance with ASTM C 1260 (2007). A zero reading was taken after storing the prism samples in 80°C distilled water for 24 h. The samples were then transferred and immersed in 1N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution at 80°C until testing time. The measurements of ASR expansion were taken at 14th days according to the ASTM C1260. Each value represents the average of three specimens. 2.4.6. Toxic characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) The leachability of lead, as the main concern of the feasible use of CRT glass in concrete blocks, was determined by using TCLP method according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 1311 (2011). The samples were taken from the broken pieces after completing the compressive strength testing at 28th day and were crushed to pass through a 10 mm sieve. 20 g of crushed sample was put into 400 ml of the TCLP leachant (prepared by diluting 5.7 mL of glacial acetic acid in 2 L of distilled water) for tumbling 18 h in a rotary mixer. The lead concentration in the leachate was then determined using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectral photometer (ICP). Each value represents the average of six samples. 2.4.7. Photocatalytic removal of nitrogen oxide (NO) The influence of CRT glass content on the degradation of NO by the photo-catalytic reaction was investigated. The experimental set up used has been described previously (Guo et al., 2013) and it was carried out in a reactor with the flow of the testing gas (1000 ppb NO) was adjusted by two flow controllers to a rate of 3 L/min. The UV lamp (intensity 10 W/m2) was positioned 100 mm above the concrete surface layer. Prior to all photocatalytic conversion processes, the testing gas stream was introduced to the reactor with the absence of UV radiation for at least half an hour to obtain a desired RH as well as gas-solid adsorption-desorption equilibrium. Then the UV lamp was turned on for the photocatalytic process to begin. For each sample, the NO removal test lasted for 1 h and the concentration changes of NO at the outlet were monitored continuously by a Chemilluminescence NO analyzer (42C, Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc.). The calculation of the amount of NO removal follows the instruction in the JIS R 1701-1 (2004). The specific NO removal in unit of mgh-1m-2 is calculated by using the following formula:

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Where QNO: The amount of nitrogen monoxide removed by the test sample (mol) MWNO: The molecular weight of NO

3. Results and discussion The hardened density, water absorption, compressive strength, dry shrinkage, expansion due to First author: tcling611@yahoo.com Page 6

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NO(removal ) =

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QNO × MWNO × 10 3 Samplingtime(h) × surfacearea (m 2 )

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ASR and lead leaching test results of all paving blocks with and without RCA are shown in Table 5. Each of the test results are discussed in details in the following sections. Table 5: Test results of block specimens
Mix notation PB0 *SD PB50 SD PB100 SD C-PB0 SD C-PB50 SD C-PB100 SD Standard limit Density Water 28-day compressive 14-day dry 14-day ASR (kg/m3) absorption (%) strength (MPa) shrinkage (%) expansion (%) 2294 6.85 2460 6.95 2595 10.60 2319 5.93 2465 16.59 2585 11.08 7.8 0.14 5.6 0.35 3.4 0.29 6.7 0.26 4.4 0.32 3.0 0.09 <6.0 64.9 0.46 45.4 2.94 45.0 4.60 68.6 0.97 68.3 1.08 55.6 0.10 >45.0 0.060 0.002 0.057 0.002 0.032 0.002 0.056 0.002 0.037 0.003 0.025 0.001 0.001 0.0006 0.005 0.0021 0.056 0.0025 0.015 0.0009 0.025 0.0020 0.042 0.0021 Lead content (mg/L) 0.21 0.029 7.69 0.063 10.47 0.053 0.17 0.029 3.40 0.032 9.77 0.018

*SD – Standard deviation

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At 0% and 50% CRT glass content, C-PB sample showed higher density than that of PB sample. This could be due to the fact that C-PB series with coarse aggregate could provide a better packing density (continuous grading pattern) than that of PB series which only contained a single sized fine aggregate fraction (< 5 mm). However, when the CRT glass content was increased to 100%, it appears that the density effect (high specific gravity of CRT glass) had outweighed the packing density effect rendering a higher density in the PB100 mix. 3.2. Water absorption Fig. 2 shows the water absorption of the paving block specimens with different CRT glass contents. The control mixes without CRT glass showed the highest water absorption values, 8.0 % for PB0 and 6.7 % for C-PB0. It is clear that the water absorption of paving blocks was reduced by increasing the CRT glass content due to impermeable properties of the glass (Ling and Poon, 2011b). First author: tcling611@yahoo.com Page 7

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3.1. Hardened density Fig.1 shows the hardened density of the paving block specimens (PB and C-PB series) with different CRT glass replacement contents. The hardened density of PB (without recycled coarse aggregate) was between 2294 kg/m3 to 2595 kg/m3 and C-PB (with recycled coarse aggregate) was between 2319 kg/m3 and 2585 kg/m3. For both series of paving blocks, the density increased with an increase of CRT glass content. This phenomenon is probably related to the high specific gravity of CRT funnel glass due to the presence of lead compounds within the glass (Ling et al., 2013).

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<0.060 <0.100

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Fig. 1: Density of PB and C-PB with different CRT glass contents

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For a same CRT glass content, the water absorption of the paving blocks with coarse aggregate (C-PB series) was lower than that of the paving blocks without coarse aggregate (PB series). This may be attributed to better packing density and the lower water absorption capacity of RCA. As prescribed by ETWB of Hong Kong (2004) for Grade A paving block for pedestrian areas, First author: tcling611@yahoo.com Page 8

eFig. 2: Water absorption of PB and C-PB with different CRT glass contents

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Standard Limit of 6%

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only the control mixes (PB0 and C-PB0) exceeded the requirement of 6.0%. 3.3. Compressive strength The results of the 7-day, 28-day and 56-day compressive strength of PB and C-PB mixes with different CRT glass contents are shown in Figs. 3 and 4. It can be observed that for a given glass content, the compressive strength of C-PB was slightly higher than that of PB mix. This result is in line with the previous density and water absorption results. The higher density and lower absorption specimens gave rise to higher compressive strength results. In Table 5, the 28-day compressive strength of the blocks in the PB series was ranged from 45.0 to 64.9 MPa, while the C-PB series was varied from 55.6 to 68.6 MPa. It should be emphasised that in general, the percentage of strength gain at 7 days was more than 80% of their corresponding 28-day compressive strength, which reveals that including CRT funnel glass did not delay the hardening process. The figures also show that the percentage of strength increase at 56 days for the concrete blocks with CRT glass are slightly higher than the control blocks. The strength improvement at this stage could be partly attributed to the pozzolanic reaction of the very fine glass particles in CRT glass, and this was also observed previously (Lee et al., 2013).

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Fig. 3: Compressive strength development of PB series with different CRT glass contents

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Standard Limit of 45 MPa

Standard Limit of 45 MPa

Fig. 4: Compressive strength development of C-PB series with different CRT glass contents

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eCRT glass Cement paste

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Micro-crack Loss of bonding due to smooth surface of glass particle Weak ITZ Fig. 5: Microstructure of (a) C-PB0 and (b) C-PB100 Page 10

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(a)

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(28 day crushed samples; magnified ×30 and ×1,000) Observing the influence of glass content, the compressive strength became lower with increasing CRT glass content, probably due to the weak bonding between the glass aggregate and the cement paste (Ling et al., 2011). Similar results were also reported elsewhere (Castro and de Brito, 2013). This is supported by SEM observations, as denser structures are present on the surface of C-PB0 (see Fig 5(a)); whereas a smooth surface of CRT glass can be clearly seen in Fig. 5(b), which led to a weaker interface and reduced the mechanical strength of the concrete mixes. However, all the 28-day compressive strength results fulfilled the minimum strength (45 MPa) requirement, as prescribed by ETWB of Hong Kong (2004) for Grade A and B paving block for pedestrian and trafficked areas. 3.4. Dry shrinkage The dry shrinkage values (measured at 14 days) of the samples are shown in Fig. 6. The results show the drying shrinkage values decreased with increasing percentage of CRT glass in the mixes. In fact, for the mixes prepared with 100% CRT glass replacing RFA, the drying shrinkage values were reduced by more than 46% and 56% as compared to their respective control mixes of PB0 and C-PB0. This occurs because the CRT glass decreased the total water content and thereby reduced the shrinkage.

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3.5. Expansion due to the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) The expansion due to ASR measured at 14 days is shown in Fig. 7, where the expansion increased with increasing CRT glass content. It should be noted that the ASR expansion of CPB100 was slightly lower than that of PB100, probably due to the lower amount of CRT glass in the mix (because in the C-PB series, 25% of the total aggregate was RCA). All the expansion values were still within the prescribed limit of 0.1% based on ASTM C1260 (2007). This is First author: tcling611@yahoo.com Page 11

eFig. 6: 14-day dry shrinkage of paving blocks with and without RCA

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because the alkalis in the concrete was partly consumed by the pozzolanic reaction of fly ash which led to lowering in ASR reactivity of the glass aggregate (Ling and Poon, 2012b). The results also indicate that 25% replacement of cement with fly ash is usually sufficient for controlling the deleterious expansion in concrete glass blocks. Similar results were also reported in Lee et al. (2011) who stated that the dry-mixed concrete blocks having larger pores can accommodate the formation of certain amount of ASR gel resulting in lower expansion.

Fig. 7: 14-day ASR expansions of paving blocks with and without RCA 3.6. Lead leaching The leaching of lead from the PB and C-PB samples containing CRT glass was assessed by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Fig. 8 shows the lead leaching was significantly increased with the incorporation of CRT glass in the concrete mixes, and the leaching value of PB series were slightly higher than that of C-PB series. As it can be seen only control mixes and C-PB50 mix satisfied the TCLP limit of 5 mg/L despite previous TCLP test conducted on the original processed CRT glass showed much lower leachable concentrations (see Table 2). This perhaps due to the fragmentation of the CRT glass (breakage of glass) by vigorous manual compaction applied during casting, and thus increased leachability of lead from the broken glass.

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In order to further assess effect of different level of CRT glass on the leaching of lead from the paving blocks, an additional mix was prepared using 25% CRT glass in PB and C-PB. As expected, the leaching of lead of the block samples were reduced to 1.42 mg/L and 0.86 mg/L respectively, as shown in Table 6. This is consistent with the previous studies (Ling and Poon, 2012c) indicated that the alkaline environment of cement hydration was able to stabilize and prevent the lead leaching to some extent.

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TCLP limit of 5 mg/L

Fig. 8: TCLP results of PB and C-PB with different CRT glass contents Table 6: TCLP result of PB and C-PB with 25% of CRT glass Pb concentration (mg/L) CRT content PB C-PB 25% Standard deviation TCLP limit 1.42 0.034 0.86 0.055

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Previous studies (Ling and Poon, 2013) showed it was feasible to use 100% processed CRT funnel glass as fine aggregates in wet-mixed cement mortar or concrete and the leaching of lead satisfied the TCLP standard. In the wet-mixed cement mortar of concrete, manual compaction by hammering with a wooden plank was not necessary. Therefore, it was expected that a higher percent CRT glass could be used in the concrete mixes of the dry-mixed concrete products, if the manual compaction could be eliminated. As such, further trials were conducted to cast concrete blocks with 100% CRT glass replacing RFA by using only the compression machine as the mechanical means of compaction. A comparison of the TCLP results for PB100 and C-PB100 produced by both (manual+mechanical) and (mechanical only) casting methods are shown in Table 7. It is clearly shown that lead leaching could be reduced by about 60% from both the PB and C-PB blocks by eliminating the manual compaction process. But in actual factory production of paving blocks using mechanical compaction, a high frequency of vibration and compaction forces are used. Therefore, it is suggest that a pilot plantscale production should be carried out before the CRT concrete paving blocks with satisfactory leaching characteristics can be safely produced.

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Table 7: TCLP results of the PB100 and C-PB100 produced by two casting methods Pb concentration (mg/L) (Manual + Mechanical) (Mechanical only) PB100 10.47 3.81 Standard deviation 0.053 0.081 C-PB100 9.77 3.79 Standard deviation 0.018 0.047 Mix notation 3.7. Photocatalytic degradation of nitrogen oxide (NO) The 5mm thick concrete surface layers prepared with TiO2- intermixed cement mortar was used for assessing pollutant removal performance. Fig. 9 illustrates the NO removal results of photocatalytic surface layers containing different CRT glass contents. The NO removal rates for surface layers with 50% and 100% CRT glass were enhanced by 5% and 7%, respectively as compared to the control mix (without glass). This is consistent with the results of previous studies (Chen and Poon, 2009; Guo et al., 2012) which showed the incorporation of crushed glass cullet in the surface layer improved the photo-catalytic activity. But in comparison, the enhancement effect of using transparent recycled beverage glass was higher than that of CRT glass. This is probably due to the lead content and the darker colour CRT glass decreased the penetration of UV light to the photo-catalysis.

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Fig. 9: NO removal of concrete surface layers with different percentages of CRT glass replacements. 4. Conclusion In this study, the feasibility of using CRT funnel glass as a fine aggregate for the production of concrete paving blocks has been demonstrated. The results show that the use of 100% CRT funnel glass as the fine aggregate in concrete paving blocks not only had satisfactory levels in compressive strength (>45MPa) and ASR expansion (<0.1%), but also improved resistance to First author: tcling611@yahoo.com Page 14

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water absorption, drying shrinkage. The photocatalytic performance for reducing air pollutants was also improved. To limit the possible leaching of lead, it is recommended to prepare the concrete blocks with < 25% of CRT glass. But the experimental results also demonstrated that a higher percentage of CRT glass (up to 100%) can be incorporated in the blocks if alternate block forming and compaction methods are used to reduce the fragmentation of the incorporated CRT glass. To facilitate large scale applications, further pilot-plant studies are needed to ascertain the environmental performance of the CRT glass concrete blocks produced at an industrial setting (using a vibration and compaction casting method). Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank the Environment and Conservation Fund and the Woo Wheelock Greed Fund, and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University for funding support. References ASTM C 1260, 2007. Standard test method for potential alkali reactivity of aggregates (mortarbar method). ASTM International, USA. ASTM C349, 2008. Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic-cement mortars. ASTM International, USA. ASTM C642, 2006. Standard test method for density, absorption, and voids in hardened concrete. ASTM International, USA. BS 6073-Part 1, 1981. Precast concrete masonry units, specification for precast concrete masonry units. British Standards Institution, UK. Castro, S.D., Brito, J.D., 2013. Evaluation of the durability of concrete made with crushed glass aggregates. Journal of Cleaner Production 41, 7-14. Chen, J., Poon, C.S., 2009. Photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide modified concrete material- Influence of utilizing recycled glass cullets as aggregates. Journal of Environmental Management 90, 3436-3442. Chidiac, S.E., Mihaljevic, S.N., 2011. Performance of dry cast concrete blocks containing waste glass powder or polyethylene aggregates. Cement and Concrete Composites 33, 855-863. ETWB TCW No. 24, 2004. Specifications facilitating the use of concrete paving units made of recycled aggregates. Works Bureau Technical Circular, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Gou, M.Z., Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2012. TiO2-based self-compacting glass mortar: Comparison of photocatalytic nitrogen oxide removal and bacteria inactivation. Building and Environment 53, 1-6. Gou, M.Z., Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2013. Nano-TiO2-based architectural mortar for NO removal and bacteria inactivation: Influence of coating and weathering conditions. Cement and Concrete Composites 36, 101-108. JIS R 1701- 1, 2004. Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics)- test method for air purification performance of photocatalytic materials- Part I: Removal of nitric oxide. Japanese Industrial Standard, Japan. Lam, C.S., Poon, C.S., Chan, D., 2007. Enhancing the performance of pre-cast concrete blocks by incorporating waste glass- ASR consideration. Cement and Concrete Composites 29: 616625. Lee, C.H., Chang, C.T., Fan, K.S., Chang, T.C., 2004. An overview if recycling and treatment of scrap computer. Journal of Hazardous Materials 114 (1-3), 93-100. First author: tcling611@yahoo.com

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Lee, G., Ling, T.C., Wong, Y.L., Poon, C.S., 2011. Effect of crushed cullet sizes, casting methods and pozzolanic materials on ASR of concrete blocks. Construction and Building Materials 25, 2611-2618. Lee, G., Poon, C.S., Wong, Y.L., Ling, T.C., 2013. Effects of recycled fine glass aggregates on the properties of dry-mixed concrete blocks. Construction and Building Materials 38, 638-643. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2011a. Utilization of recycled glass derived from cathode ray tube glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar. Journal of Hazardous Materials 192 (2), 451-456. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2011b. Properties of architectural mortar prepared with recycled glass with different particle sizes. Materials and Design 32 (5), 2675-2684. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., Kou, S.C., 2011. Feasibility of using recycled glass in architectural cement mortars. Cement and Concrete Composites 33(8), 848-854. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2012a. Development of a method for recycling of CRT funnel glass. Environmental Technology 33(22), 2531-2537. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2012b. A comparative study on the feasible use of recycled beverage and CRT funnel glass as fine aggregate in cement mortar. Journal of Cleaner Production 29-30, 46-52. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2012c. Feasible use of recycled CRT funnel glass as heavyweight fine aggregate in barite concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production 33, 42-49. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., 2013. Effects of particle size of treated CRT funnel glass on properties of cement mortar. Materials and Structures 46(1-2), 25-34. Ling, T.C., Poon, C.S., Lam, W.S., Chan, T.P., Fung, K.L., 2013. X-ray radiation-shielding properties of cement mortar prepared with different types of aggregate. Materials and Structures 46(7): 1133-1141. Park, S.B., Lee, B.C., 2004. Studies on expansion properties in mortar containing waste glass and fibers. Cement and Concrete Research 34, 1145-1152. Poon, C.S., 2008. Management of CRT glass from discard computer monitors and TV sets. Waste Management 28, 1499. Poon, C.S., Lam, C.S., 2008. The effect of aggregate-to-cement ratio and types of aggregates on the properties of pre-cast concrete blocks. Cement and Concrete Composites 30, 283-289. Shi, C., Wu, Y., Riefler, C., Wang, H., 2007. Characteristics and pozzolanic reactivity of glass powders. Cement and Concrete Research 52(2), 234-247. Turgut, P., 2008. Properties of masonry blocks produced with waste limestone sawdust and glass powder. Construction and Building Materials 22, 1422-1427. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Test Method 1311, 2011. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). Specifications of the Committee on Analytical Reagents of the American Chemical, USA. Xiao, Z., Ling, T.C., Kou, S.C., Wang, Q.Y., Poon, C.S., 2011. Use of wastes derived from earthquakes for the production of concrete masonry partition wall blocks. Waste Management. 31(8), 1859-1866.

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