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Experimental evidence for scalar fields

The controversy over longitudinal Ampre forces has persisted for over 170 years now, and it is clear that this discussion can not be settled solely by theoretical arguments, since several force laws exists that do or do not describe longitudinal forces acting on current elements. This force is one of the measurable 'scalar field' effects, since a scalar field mediates this force. Other scalar field effects are longitudinal electroscalar waves (wired and wireless) that transport energy from A to B, and thermoscalar effects.

Experimental evidence for longitudinal Ampre force Experimental evidence for longitudinal electric waves Experimental evidence for thermoscalar effects

Experiments that prove the existence of the longitudinal Ampre force

Several scientific experiments actually prove the existence of longitudinal Ampre forces, a.k.a. 'Ampre tension'. Lars Johansson wrote a great Master of Science Thesis on this subject, which shows an excellent overview of experiments that prove this force. Several experimental scientists, such as Ampre, de la Rive, Hering, Neumann, Tait, Nasilowski, Ruscak and Bruce, and Graneau & Graneau, confirm the existence of this force via a wide variety of experiments (see list, right):

wire fragmentation (observed by dr. Nasilowski and dr. Tesla) multi arc generator (observed by Ruscak and Bruce) railgun recoil (observed by Neil Graneau and Peter Graneau) stress between parts of an electric circuit called 'impulse pendulum' (Pappas, Moyssides and Peoglos)

liquid metal experiments, such as Ampre's hairping experiment, the liquid mercury fountain experiment (Ampre, de la Rive, Hering, Graneau, Northrup) stretching of chained conductors (Hering, Graneau) electrodynamic explosions in water, water-arcs explosions (Graneau) The Aharonov Bohm experiment, reviewed

Probably the best way of proving the existence of longitudinal Ampre 'stress' forces, is by means of Aharonov-Bohm type of experiments (see picture). Timothy Boyer has provided a classical (not quantum mechanical) explanation of the A-B experiment. This experiment is based on the interference pattern of electrons, influenced by a shielded solenoid. The currents in the solenoid causes a phase shift in an electron-wave that travels in a region free of external electric and magnetic fields, see situation (a) in the picture, the black dot represents the solenoid. This phase shift is visible as an interference pattern on an electron detection screen.

In stead of a phase shift, this effect can be explained as a non-shieldable force acting on the passing electrons, according to T. Boyer. This force is also described as a "back action force" and is obviously longitudinal and proportional to the speed of the electron, see situation (b) in the picture. Experiments still need to be done in order to show that the electron wave packets are actually spacially shifted by the shielded solenoid, in stead of just having a relative phase shift. Calculations show that Boyer's classical force hypothesis leads to the same observed results. Since the Lorentz force does not imply a longitudinal force, Gronniger speculate about a "violation" of Newton's third law of motion, in stead of putting into question the validity of the Lorentz force law which does not satisfy Newton's third law anyway.

AB effect According to my generalized Maxwell-Lorentz theory, a longitudinal scalar field force FS=qvS on the electrons exists, which is proportional to the velocity of the free electrons passing the solenoid. Note that the path of the electrons passing the solenoid is not a closed path. The total vector potential of all the charges, including the free electrons (!) is not divergence free ( A0 ). Only the magnetic field of coil current elements that are parallel to the electron path and metal plates are shielded, but the scalar field of coil current elements perpendicular to the electron path and metal plates are not shielded, and give rise to four regions of negative and positive scalar fields that accelerate and decellerate the passing

electrons. This is a far better 'classical' explanation for the A-B effect than the assumption of an electrical drag force: the mediating force is a non-shielded scalar field force that acts parallel to the direction of speed of the passing electrons, such that Newton's third law of motion is not violated. On the contrary, a scalar field force restores Newton' third law of motion for non-circuital currents, without the need to refer to the momentum of free electromagnetic fields.

It would be very interesting to do A-B type of experiments with a shielded and pulsed voltage source, in stead of a solenoid.

Experiments with wireless longitudinal electric waves

Dr. Tesla was probably the first experimental scientists who mentioned the existence of longitudinal electric waves in different media types. Tesla claimed his transmitter induced waves such that Hertz waves were neglegible. Officially such waves occur only in plasma media, and do not occur in vacuum or metallic wires. The generalization of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory allows for Tesla's longitudinal electric waves in vacuum and metallic wires. In order to prove the existence of such waves, it is best to construct a transmitter-receiver system and measure the wave properties of the transmitted signals. These properties should be:

the signal shows a frequency (it is not a static Coulomb field) the signal shows a phase shift between two points of measurement at different distances from the signal source (it is not a variable Coulomb field). the polarization of the electric field must be longitudinal (it is not a TEM wave) The famous experiment by Heinrich Hertz in order to detect TEM waves was such that a phase shift was measured between points at various distances from the signal source. Hertz also discovered that the wireless TEM waves travelled faster than the control signal waves guided by wires. There are also a few physicists who reported results on non-Hertzian waves, which will be summerized here.

Monstein & Wesley published a paper with title "Observation of scalar longitudinal electrodynamic wave". It describes an experiment with a spherical ball antenna that sends longitudinal electric waves,

and receiver in the form of a cubic array of nine 'half-wave length' wires, capable of detecting the electric field polarity of the received waves. Monstein & Wesley made the assumption that the vector potential A is negligible, so only the the scalar potential is necessary for describing the waves emitted by the ball antenna. Their theory is almost the same as my theory, except for a minor error and the following assumption: the speed of the longitudinal electric wave is c. Equation (2) in this paper comes 'out of the blue' and is not mathematically derived. Without the notion of a scalar field S, as defined within my generalized theory, this equation does not make much sense. Although Wesley & Monstein describe the frequency of the signal and measure the polarization of the signal which is longitudinal, see picture of polarization measurement instrument (right), they are silent on the required phase shift between points of measurement at different distances from the signal source. Therefore, their experiment can not be taken as proof for the existence of longitudinal electroscalar waves, because the measured signal might be a time varying Coulomb field.

polarization measurment The paper by Ignatiev and Leus "ON A SUPERLUMINAL TRANSMISSION AT THE PHASE VELOCITY" describes the signal transmission from a spherical send antenna to a remote receiver (1.5 Km away). The reported phase velocity of the signal is 1.12 c. A phase shift is measured between two points of measurement on different distance from the signal source, not only of the wireless signal, but also of a fiber-optic control signal. The authors of this paper do not describe the measurement of the polarization of the electric field component of the wave. However, calculations by the authors show that generation of TEM waves by the signal source is negligible, and only longitudinal electric fields are expected to be emitted by the spherical send antenna. This is a reasonable assumption, but a measured electric field polarization would have been more convincing in order to prove the existence of longitudinal electric waves. I consider this experiment as interesting evidence, but not fully conclusive evidence.

However, the combined evidence of Ignatiev, Leus, Monstein and Wesley, for the existence of longitudinal electro-scalar waves is strong.

Experiment with gravitic radiation

Evgeny Podkletnov created an impulse gravity generator that emits an unusual type of massless radiation. It is based on an electric discharge from a disk made of YBCO, see picture. This disk is super cooled by liquid nitrogen such that it becomes superconducting. Then it is charged to over a million volts, until a discharge occurs. The sudden discharge causes the emission of an impulse beam parallel to

the velocity direction of the discharged electrons, see the red arrow. The massless beam seems to be gravitic in nature: it sets pendulums into motion, see picture of pendulum in glass container. The gravitic force on the pendulum is independent of the chemical composition of the pendulum, and it is proportional to the pendulum mass. Note that just before the discharge there is a very strong electric field between the two electrodes. During the discharge this electric field collapses (travels away?), so if the gravity impulse has an electric field component, it is likely to be longitudinal. This beam is not an ordinary TEM wave: Podkletnov has measured the speed of the signal, it is more than 64 times the speed of TEM waves in vacuum. It passes through metal shields and it can be measured hundreds of meters away from the emitter. I assume that this beam does not have a transversal magnetic field component, otherwise it would be shielded by metal plates. Beside a gravitic effect, Podkletnov reports an energy amplification effect: the gravity impulse beam represents an energy flow that is higher than the initial electric input energy for charging the electrodes. At the other side there is a danger zone of harmful radiation. This radiation is somehow different from the 'gravity impulse beam'. This asymmetry is the also an indication that there are macroscopic electroscalar field components in both the 'gravity impulse beam' and in the danger zone radiation, but with opposite direction and sign. According to Petkov's theory, the 'gravitic' effect is due to a distortion of the Coulomb fields of all the particles in massive objects that are exposed to the gravity impulse beam. Podkletnov's impulse beam experiment confirms Tesla's geodynamic teleforce claim, which was based on Tesla's high voltage high frequency experiments. There is no doubt that superconductivity of the YBCO electrode has consequences for the macroscopic electrodynamics, beside the occurrence of quantum effects. For instance, the discharge impulse becomes very abrupt, since there is no electric potential (zero resistance) between two points in the superconducting YBCO emitter. The electric potential across the electrodes has the same value for all the electrons in the YBCO emitter, thus after reaching break-down voltage the electrons will all jump simultaneously. The magnetic field of the coils further damps the oscillation in the the discharge current, such that the drop in electric potential is even more abrupt. The shorter the discharge pulse (its rise time), the more forceful becomes the gravitic effect on the pendulum. A quote from Podkletnov: "The output force depends on the voltage and also on the effect of how sharp the the impulse is. If the rise-time of the impulse is long in duration, then we have a lower-power impulse, and if it is very sharp -- I mean the voltage rises very fast -- then the effect is very large and is able to bend metal plates". This clearly indicates that scalar field factor -00t can be associated with these measurable effects.

The most useful application of Podkletnov's experiment would be to 'catch' the extra energy, in exactly the same way Edwin Gray and Nikola Tesla transformed the massless beam energy back into "ordinary" electricity. The way to do this: use large metal plates (or metal grids) to 'catch' the impulse beam, and use a big coil to transform the energy into a magnetic field, and then further into useful electricy. If Podkletnov can do this, then I will move this section to my "free energy devices" page.

Podkletnov's impulse gravity generator

pendulum Experiments with single wire power transmission

Tesla showed it is possible to transport considerable electrical power along a single transmission line (without return wire) in London in 1892: Tesla connected two Tesla transformers with a single wire, see picture right.

Avramenko plugStanislav Avramenko modernised the receiver at the end of the single wire by means of the patented 'Avramenko plug' that consists of two diodes and a capacitor, see picture.

The big question: is the energy flow over the single wire a transveral electromagnetic wave, or a longitudinal electric wave? Acording to the Maxwell theory, it can only be an transversal electromagnetic wave, but in that case there should be a return wire since the electric field is transversal (perpendicular) to the wire. The "experts" will tell you that ground is the return wire: the electric field is perpendicular to the single wire and the ground. This is called "single wire earth return transmission". It will prove to be very difficult to actually measure the currents in 'ground' in order to save the Maxwell-Lorentz theory and the Poynting energy flow vector. For an alternative explanation for the single wire energy flow I refer to my generalized theory of electrodynamics, which describes a longitudinal electric wave carrying energy in case it is in interaction with a scalar field wave. This explanation for the electric energy flow over a single wire does not require an "earth return circuit".

Avramenko describes the wire signal as a longitudinal wave of an electric field. Tesla described the wave phenomena that he induced as longitudinal. Then who is right: these experimental scientists or the meanstream scientist who sticks to the Maxwell-Lorentz theory?

By applying Avramenko's plug, it should be easy to determine what kind of wave constitute the single wire energy flow. In case the single wire is positioned high above ground or earth, and this high position does not have any effect on the energy flow through the wire (the transmitted power is independent of the wire height), then the energy flow can be explained only by means of the longitudinal electroscalar wave. Keep in mind that the load, that is connected to the single wire via Avramenko's plug at the receiving end, is not wired to ground or earth, and therefore the transversal electric field (transversal to wire and ground) across the load is negligible, in case the load and single wire are high above ground.

Tesla's patented single wire transmission Thermoscalar effects

A scalar field S can explain two unsual types of thermic effects in metals or plasmas, since the longitudinal scalar field force FS=qvS accelerates or decelerates charged particles, independent of the direction of speed. These unusual thermoscalar effects are:

Metal jellification effect. Suppose S>0, then all positive ions or nuclei in this field are accelerated while all negative ions and all electrons in this field are decelerated. For instance this has an effect on metals: the speed of conduction electrons is greatly reduced while the vibration speed of the metal nuclei is slightly increased,. The initial speed of the nuclei is much smaller than the initial speed of the conductance electrons, therefore the decellerating force on the conductance electrons is much higher. The 'conductance electron temperature' drops considerably, and this causes electrons to change their free conductance state into a bound state, see the Fermi-Dirac statistics of conduction electrons. Now that many conduction electrons disappeared, also the 'glue' that holds together the metal nuclei is partially gone. The metallic bonds are weakened greatly by the positive scalar field. This explains why a metal object, placed in a positive scalar field, melts, distorts, ruptures, etc ... without noticeable rise in temperature of the metal! Also the phenomenon of breaking, even exploding, wires might be explained by weakened metallic bonds because of this thermic positive scalar field effect. Cold current effect. Suppose S<0, then the positively charged metal nuclei are decelerated (cooled down) while the conduction electrons are accelerated by the longitudinal scalar field force. Also, electrons in bound state can change into the conduction state, because of the electron accelerating scalar field. This could very well explain the cold current phenomenon where the temperature of

conductive medium drops slightly and at the same time an extra strong current is observed. Accelerated conduction electrons diffuse away from the 'scalar field spot' into a nearby area with less energetic electrons. Several researchers have observed this cold current phenomenon, such as Nikola Tesla, Thomas Moray and Edwin Gray.