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BUSINESS ENGLISH 3
LECTURE OUTLINE
Lecturer: Simona MITOCARU
Business English 3
2
nd
Lecture: CVs and Resumes
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Choosing a CV style
CHRONOLOGICAL
SKILLS-BASED / FUNCTIONAL
COMBINATION
CV PREPARATION AND DESIGN STAGES
1. PREWRITING
ANALYSE: the purpose is to respond to a job advertisement and win an
interview.
ANTICIPATE: the reader probably sees many resumes and will skim this one
quickly. He/she will be indifferent and must be persuaded to read on.
ADAPT: emphasize the specific skills that the targeted advertisement mentions.
2. WRITING
RESEARCH: investigate the targeted company and its needs. Find the name of
the person who will be receiving the resume.
ORGANISE: make lists of all accomplishments and skills. Select those items
most appropriate for the targeted jobs.
COMPOSE: experiment with formats to achieve readability, emphasis, and
attractiveness.
3. REVISING
REVISE: use present-tense verbs to describe current experience. Bullet
experience items. Check for parallel phrasing. Adjust spacing for best effect.
PROOFREAD: run spell checker. Read for meaning. Have a friend proofread.
EVALUATE: will this CV impress a recruiter in 30 seconds?
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(REVERSE-) CHRONOLOGICAL CV
it is most popular with recruiters since it is the
easiest to assess
It lists work history job by job in reverse
chronological order
It is appropriate for candidates who
have experience in their field of employment
show steady career growth.
It is inappropriate for young graduates or
people who have gaps in their work
experience.
It begins with the candidates name, address,
telephone number, job objective, education/ work
experience.
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THE FUNCTIONAL / SKILLS-BASED CV
It focuses attention on the applicants skills
rather that past employment.
It begins with the applicants name, address,
telephone number, job objective, education,
skills, short employment section.
It groups skills and accomplishments (special
subcategories).
It is useful for recent graduates, people who
have changed jobs frequently or have gaps in
their employment records.
It demonstrates transferable skills
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COMBINATION
It draws on the best features of the
chronological and skills-based CVs.
It emphasizes the candidates capabilities but
also includes a complete job history.
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Deciding on its length
Recruiters prefer 1-page CVs.
Make your CV as long as needed to sell your
skills.
Arranging the parts
Main heading
Career/job objective/personal statement/profile
Education
Experience
Capabilities and skills
Awards and activities
Personal information
References
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MAIN HEADING
begin with your name, address, and telephone
number.
Avoid showing both permanent and temporary
addresses; some specialists say that dual addresses
immediately identify about-to-graduate college
students.
Keep the main heading as uncluttered and simple as
possible.
Do not include the words CV or resume as a title.
CAREER/JOB OBJECTIVE
Opinion is divided about the effect of including a
career objective on a CV
career objectives make the recruiters life easier by
quickly classifying the CV.
They can also disqualify a candidate if the stated
objective does not match a companys job description.
EDUCATION
If it is more noteworthy than your work
experience, education is the next component.
include the name and location of schools, dates of
attendance, major fields of study, and degrees
received.
It is better to refer to courses only if you can relate
them to the position sought. When relevant,
include certificates earned, seminars attended and
workshops completed.
This section may be entitled Education, Academic
Preparation or Professional Training.
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WORK EXPERIENCE OR EMPLOYMENT
HISTORY
If your work experience is significant and relevant to
the position sought, this information should appear
before education. List your most recent employment
first and work backwards, including only those jobs
that you think will help you win the targeted position
For each position show the following:
Employers name, city, country
Dates of employment
Most important job title
Significant duties, activities, accomplishments and
promotions
Describe your achievements concisely but concretely.
Statements describing your work experience can be
made forceful and persuasive by using action verbs
ACTION VERBS FOR PERSUASIVE RESUMES
/ CVs
MANAGEMENT SKILLS COMMUNICATION SKILLS
administered
analysed
consolidated
coordinated
delegated
directed
evaluated
improved
increased
organized
planned
prioritized
recommended
strengthened
supervised
addressed
arbitrated
arranged
collaborated
convinced
developed
drafted
edited
explained
interpreted
negotiated
persuaded
promoted
recruited
translated
wrote
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ACTION VERBS FOR PERSUASIVE RESUMES/
CVs
RESEARCH
SKILLS
TECHNICAL
SKILLS
TEACHING SKILLS
clarified
collected
diagnosed
evaluated
examined
extracted
identified
inspected
interpreted
interviewed
investigated
organized
summarized
surveyed
systematized
assembled
built
calculated
computed
designed
devised
engineered
executed
fabricated
maintained
operated
programmed
repaired
solved
upgraded
adapted
advised
clarified
coached
communicated
coordinated
developed
enabled
encouraged
evaluated
explained
guided
instructed
persuaded
set goals
trained
ACTION VERBS FOR PERSUASIVE RESUMES/ CVs
FINANCIAL
SKILLS
CREATIVE SKILLS HELPING SKILLS
administered
allocated
analysed
appraised
audited
balanced
budgeted
calculated
computed
developed
forecast
managed
marketed
planned
projected
researched
conceptualized
created
customized
designed
developed
established
founded
illustrated
initiated
instituted
introduced
invented
originated
planned
revitalized
assessed
assisted
clarified
coached
counseled
demonstrated
diagnosed
educated
expedited
facilitated
familiarized
guided
motivated
referred
represented
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ACTION VERBS FOR PERSUASIVE
RESUMES/ CVs
CLERICAL OR DETAIL
SKILLS
MORE VERBS FOR
ACCOMPLISHMENTS
approved
catalogued
classified
collected
compiled
generated
monitored
operated
organized
prepared
processed
recorded
screened
specified
systematized
tabulated
achieved
directed
expanded
facilitated
formulated
improved
oversaw
pioneered
reduced (losses)
resolved (problems)
transformed
CAPABILITIES ANDSKILLS
list your special skills, include your ability to use computer
programmes, office equipment, foreign languages.
Describe proficiencies you have acquired through training
and experience, i.e., trained in computer accounting,
including.
Use expressions like:
Competent in
Skilled in
Proficient with
Experienced in
Ability to
highlight exceptional aptitudes, such as working well
under stress and learning computer programmes
quickly.
For recent graduates, this section can be used to give
recruiters evidence of your potential. Instead of
Capabilities, this section might be called Skills and
Abilities.
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AWARDS, HONS, and ACTIVITIES
If you have more than 3, list them under a
separate heading. If not, put them with the
Activities.
Include awards, scholarships (financial and
other), recognition, commendations and
certificates
This section provides an opportunity to
demonstrate leadership and interpersonal skills.
Explain your activities.
PERSONAL DATA (U.S. style)
Todays resumes and CVs omit personal data,
such as birth date, marital status, height and
religious affiliation. Such information does not
relate to genuine occupational qualifications.
Some job seekers write them, including hobbies
and interests that might grab recruiters
attention or serve as conversation starters. Do
not mention dangerous pastimes or time-
consuming interests. You should indicate your
willingness to travel or to relocate, since many
companies will be interested.
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REFERENCES
Normally, recruiters prefer that a candidate
bring to the interview a list of individual
willing to discuss their qualifications. Write
their full names and titles, include addresses
and telephone numbers (e-mail addresses).
Ask 3-5 instructors or previous employers
whether they will be willing to answer
inquiries regarding your qualifications for
employment.
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CHAPTER REVIEW
Resumes/ CVs that list work history job
by job, starting with the most recent
position, are classified as
____________ resumes / CVs.
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CVs that emphasize skill categories
and deemphasize work history are
classified as ____________ CVs.
This CV can be used to focus on
accomplishments and to hide negative
employment history.
A CV should always begin with a main
____________ that includes name,
address and telephone number.
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Opinion is divided on whether to
include a career ____________ on
a CV. Although this statement makes
the recruiters life easier, it can limit a
candidates opportunities.
One of the most important sections of
a CV is devoted to work
____________. List your most
recent employment first and work
backward.
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Answer the following questions:
From the candidates view, what are the
advantages of chronological CVs? Of
functional / skills-based CVs?
When should you include a career objective
/ personal statement on your CV?
Should you include references on your CV?
Why or why not?
INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS
LETTER WRITING
Lecture 3
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Ashley, A. The Oxford Handbook of Commercial
Correspondence. New Edition. Oxford: OUP, 2003.
Correspondence, whether it is by letter, fax, or email, is
a key aspect of the world of commerce and business. It
reflects on the competence and professionalism of the
person who has written it and the company he or she
works for. Clear, effective correspondence is an
important part of running an efficient business, and can
promote good relations. Unclear or confusing
correspondence can cause many problems, and can lead
to misunderstandings, delays, lost business, and poor
relations between individuals, departments, and
companies. Therefore, writing skills what is written
and how it is expressed should be as much a part of a
business education as accountancy or economics.
PROFESSIONAL WRITTEN
COMMUNICATION
PURPOSE-ORIENTED
Why do I write? What is the desired outcome
of my message?
INFORM and REMIND
PERSUADE
REQUEST and INQUIRE (ENQUIRE)
FOLLOW UP and REPLY
THANK, WELCOME or CONGRATULATE
AUDIENCE-ORIENTED
To whom do I write? (status, level of
knowledge, relationship)
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The 5 Cs of Effective Business Letter
Writing
COURTEOUS (polite)
CLEAR(logical arrangement, specific terms,
directness)
COMPLETE (communicate all the essential
ideas and details)
CONCISE (mention only the essential ideas and
details; short, active sentences)
CORRECT (proofread the letter for typos
[typographical errors] and failures to check
reference sources)
PARAGRAPHS
INDENTED PARAGRAPH
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
BLOCK PARAGRAPH
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
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LETTER LAYOUT Parts of a Letter
RETURN ADDRESS (senders)
DATE
INSIDE ADDRESS (sending address)
(attention line)
SALUTATION
(subject line)
BODY OF LETTER
COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE
SIGNATURE BLOCK
(Enc. / Encl., p.p., c.c.)
British FORMAT
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AMERICAN FORMAT
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SALUTATIONS and COMPLIMENTARY
CLOSES
NO NAME MENTIONED
Dear Sir
Dear Madam
Dear Sir or Madam
Dear Sirs
----------------------------------------
Gentlemen
NAME MENTIONED
Dear Mr Smith
Dear Ms Smith
Dear Mrs Smith
Dear Miss Smith
Dear Messrs Smith and Jones
Yours faithfully
------------------------
Yours truly
Best wishes / Best regards
(addressed to smb. that you
know well)
Yours sincerely
-------------------------
Yours truly
Sincerely
Best wishes / Best regards
(addressed to smb. that you
know well)
PUNCTUATION
MIXED PUNCTUATION
EUROPEAN STYLE
Dear Ms Smith,
Dear Sirs,
Sincerely yours,
Faithfully yours,
AMERICAN STYLE
Dear Ms. Smith:
Gentlemen:
Sincerely (yours),
Best wishes,
OPEN PUNCTUATION
EUROPEAN STYLE
Dear Ms Smith
Dear Sirs
Sincerely yours
Faithfully yours
AMERICAN STYLE
Dear Ms. Smith
Gentlemen
Sincerely
Best wishes
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SENDERS ADDRESS
British format: the top right-hand corner of the
page.
American format: the top left-hand corner of the
page.
Punctuation is rarely used in addresses these
days.
The BLOCK(ED) STYLE is the most widely used:
each line starts directly below the one above.
In the UK it is not usual to write the senders
name before his or her address.
LETTERHEAD
TYPE OF COMPANY
Ltd (UK)/ LLC (USA) the company has limited
liability
PLC (public limited company in the UK)/INC.
(incorporated in the USA) - shares can be
bought and sold by the public
(&) co. a partnership
If nothing is written after the companys name a
sole trader (a person who owns and runs the
business on their own).
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LETTERHEAD
Board of Directors
the name of the chairman (president US)
The name of the managing director (UK)/ chief executive
officer CEO (US and increasingly UK)
Address
The address of the office from which the letter is being sent
The address of the head office or registered office, if
different
Telephone and fax numbers, email and website addresses
Registered number
In small print, sometimes with the country or city in which
the company is registered.
REFERENCES
Are often quoted to indicate what the letter
refers to (Your ref.) and the correspondence to
refer to when replying (Our ref.)
May appear in figures (661/17 661 refers to the
number of the letter and 17 to the number of the
department)
May appear in letters (DS/MR DS stands for
the initials of the writer, Donald Sampson, and
MR for his assistant, Mary Raynor)
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DATE
Is written below the senders address, separated
from it by a space.
LETTERHEAD the date is written on the
right-hand side of the page (UK),
left-hand side (USA)
the month should not be written in figures
Br.E. day/month/year
Am.E. month/day/year
INSIDE ADDRESS (recipients address)
Written below the senders address and on the left-hand side of the
page.
Surname known
the name of the person is the first line of the address (Mr J.E. Smith/ Mr
John Smith)
Job title known
If you ignore the name of the person you are writing to, but know their
job title, you can use that (The Sales Manager, The Finance Director)
Department known
You can address the letter to a particular department of the company
(The Sales Department, The Accounts Department)
Company known
If you know nothing about the company and do not know which person
or department your letter should go to, you can simply address the letter
to the company itself (Compuvision Ltd.)
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INSIDE ADDRESS
ORDER OF THE INSIDE ADDRESS
Name of house or building
Number of building and name of street, road,
avenue, etc.
Name of town or city and postcode
Name of country
ATTENTION LINE
An alternative to including the recipients name
or job title in the address (For the attention of
the Sales Manager)
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SUBJECT TITLE/LINE
Written before or after the salutation,
provides a further reference
Saves introducing the subject in the first
paragraph
Draws attention to the topic of the letter
May begin with Re. (with regard to)
Re.: Application for the post of web designer
SALUTATION
Dear Sir a letter to a man whose name you do
not know
Dear Sirs (UK) / Gentlemen (USA) a letter
addressed to a company
Dear Madam letter addressed to a woman,
single or married, whose name you do not know
Dear Sir or Madam (Dear Sir/Madam) letter
addressed to a person when you do not know
their name or sex.
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SALUTATION
Dear + courtesy title
(Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss/Messrs/Dr/Prof) + surname
Dear Mr Smith
Mr male
Mrs married female
Miss unmarried female
Ms married and unmarried female
Messrs two or more men
COMPLIMENTARY CLOSE
Usually placed on the left, aligned under the rest
of the letter
Salutation without any name complimentary
close: Yours faithfully
Salutation with a personal name
complimentary close Yours sincerely
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SIGNATURE BLOCK
Leave some space for the handwritten signature
Below, type your name and, if relevant, your job
title

Donald Sampson
Sales Manager
Per pro
p.p. per pro for / on behalf of
Used by administrators or personal assistants
when signing letters on behalf of their managers.

p.p. Donald Sampson


Sales Manager
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ENCLOSURES
If there are any documents enclosed with a
letter, it is common to write Enc. or Encl. below
the signature block.
If there are a number a documents, these can be
listed:
Enc.
Bill of lading (3 copies)
Insurance certificate (1 copy)
Certificate of origin (1 copy)
Bill of Exchange (1 copy)
COPIES
When copies are sent to people other than the
named recipient, c.c. (carbon copy) is added,
usually at the end of the letter, before the
name(s) or initials of the recipient(s) of the
copies
c.c. Messrs Poole & Jackson Ltd, Solicitors
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COPIES
When copies are sent to people other than the
named recipient, c.c. (carbon copy) is added,
usually at the end of the letter, before the
name(s) or initials of the recipient(s) of the
copies
c.c. Messrs Poole & Jackson Ltd, Solicitors
PUNCTUATION
Lecture 4 (alternate)
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Punctuation
Using the correct punctuation is an essential
part of making your writing clear to your
readers. Very often when sentences or texts are
difficult to read or do not seem to make sense, it
is because they contain errors in punctuation.
The following punctuation marks are used in
English.
FULL STOP .
The full stop, or period (US), marks the end of a
sentence.
The firms expect Brussels to approve the deal
within three weeks.
Full stops are also used after some abbreviations
and can be used after numbers which appear in
lists:
i.e. 1. 2.
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COMMA ,
Commas help the reader to pause at the right point in a sentence
and to avoid confusing the meaning within the sentence:
After two months of discussions, the fate of the company has been
decided.
Commas are also used when a clause is inserted in the middle of a
sentence:
Lagardere, the media-to-missiles group, will not become the biggest
publisher.
Commas are particularly important when part of a sentence or word
group could be interpreted in different ways:
Most important aid should be lavished on the countries that can use it.
Most important, aid should be lavished on the countries that can use it.
The investors said the fund managers were fools.
The investors, said the fund managers, were fools.
QUESTION MARK ?
Question marks are only used at the end of
direct questions (DQ). They are not used in
indirect questions (IQ):
How long will Mr Marchionne be able to survive
in his present position? (DQ)
Many analysts are wondering how the new
strategy will work. (IQ)
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EXCLAMATION MARK !
Exclamation marks give extra impact to a
sentence and show surprise or shock:
Take it or leave it!
No one was expecting that!
COLON :
Colons indicate that what follows is an illustration
or example of what has been referred to before:
The company is in a strong position financially: its
shares are now trading at 4.5 times their original
price.
Colons can also be used to introduce lists:
The issues that will be discussed are the following:
Education
Trade
Governance
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SEMI-COLON ;
Semi-colons mark a pause that is longer than a
comma and shorter than a full stop:
Getting accurate results with this method is
tricky; two different samples will not produce the
same result.
APOSTROPHE
An apostrophe shows that something either belongs to a particular
person or is closely associated with either a person, a group of
people or with another thing or things:
Messiers biggest mistake was to have underestimated shareholder
discontent.
The apostrophe comes before the possessive s with a singular noun,
even when the noun itself ends with an s:
Londons traffic problems
My bosss office
The apostrophe comes after the final letter of a plural noun ending
with an s:
The employees complaints
But with irregular plural nouns it is followed by the s:
Womens preferences
An apostrophe is also used to show that a letter (or letters) is
missing:
Well agree to your offer if you dont make any further demands.
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INVERTED COMMAS or
Inverted commas, or quotation marks, are used
when citing the exact words that somebody
used:
Just 50m out of 750m Africans have a mobile
phone. There is much more room for growth,
says Marten Pieters of Celtel.
BRACKETS () or []
Brackets, or parentheses (US Eng), are used to
present additional information:
Lagardere wants to stop making missiles (his
firm owns 15% of the European Aerospace
Defence and Space group) and instead
concentrate on the companys media interests.
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DASH
Dashes introduce explanations and comments
that are connected to what precedes and can,
like brackets , show interruptions to the flow of a
sentence:
The company shouldnt have agreed to the
merger it wasnt in its best interests.
Last weekend in Sydney only half of the
properties for auction the most common
method of sale in Australia were actually sold.
HYPHEN -
Hyphens connect two words when they are used
as compounds:
State-owned
Asia-Pacific region
Debt-equity ratio
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COVERING LETTERS
Lecture 5
PURPOSES
introducing the CV;
highlighting your strengths in terms of benefits
to the recruiter;
gaining an interview.
N.B.
The letter of application/cover
letter/covering letter is a sales letter, it sells
your talents and tries to beat the competition.
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LENGTH and PARTS OF THE LETTER
should have three primary parts:
An opening that gains attention
A body that builds interest and reduces resistance
A closing that motivates action.
GAINING ATTENTION IN THE OPENING
PERSONAL TOUCH (distinguishes the letter and
demonstrates serious interest)
address the contact person by name (no Dear Personnel
Manager or To the Human Resources Department)
call the organization for the correct spelling and the
complete address.
SOLICITED vs. UNSOLICITED LETTERS
The opening of the letter depends on this
DIRECT APPROACH: if an employment position has been
announced and applicants are being solicited
the opening should attract the attention of the reader.
(Strive for openings that are more imaginative than Please
consider this letter of application for the position of or I
would like to apply for )
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OPENINGS FOR SOLICITED JOBS
If possible, refer to the name of an employee in the
company. Remember that employers always hope to
hire known people rather than complete strangers.
Mitchell Sims, a member of your Customer Service
Department, told me that IntriPlex is seeking an
experienced customer service representative. The
attached summary of my qualifications demonstrates
my preparation for this position.
At the suggestion of Ms Jennifer Larson of your
Human Resources Department. I submit my
qualifications for the position of staffing coordinator.
OPENINGS FOR SOLICITED JOBS
Refer to the source of your information precisely. If you are
answering an advertisement, include the exact position
advertised and the name and date of the publication.
Your advertisement in Section C-3 of the June 1 Daily News for
an accounting administrator greatly appeals to me. With my
accounting training and computer experience, I believe I could
serve Quad graphics well.
The September 10 issue of The Washington Post reports that
you are seeking a mature, organised and reliable administrative
assistant with excellent communication skills.
Susan Butler, placement director at Sierra University, told me
that Data Tech has an opening for a technical writer with
knowledge of Web design and graphics.
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OPENINGS FOR SOLICITED JOBS
Refer to the job title and describe how recruiters
are looking for a match between an applicants
credentials and the job needs:
Will an honors graduate with a degree in recreation
and two years of part-time experience organising
social activities for a convalescent hospital qualify for
your position of activity director?
Because of my specialised training in computerised
accounting at Boise State University, I feel confident
that I have the qualifications you described in your
advertisement for a cost accountant trainee.
OPENINGS FOR UNSOLICITED JOBS
use a more persuasive opening
Demonstrate interest in and knowledge of
the recruiters business. Show them that you
have done research and that this organisation is
more than a mere name to you:
Since Signa HealthNet, Inc., is organising a new
information management team for its recently
established group insurance division, could you
use the services of a well-trained information
systems graduate who seeks a professional
systems analyst?
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OPENINGS FOR UNSOLICITED JOBS
Show how your special talents and background
will benefit the company. Recruiters need to be
convinced that you can do something for
them:
Could your rapidly expanding publications
division use the services of services of an editorial
assistant who offers exceptional language skills,
an honors degree from the University of Maine,
and two years experience in producing a campus
literary publication?
Building Interest in the BODY
the body of the letter builds interest and reduces
resistance.
Keep in mind that your CV emphasizes what you have
done; your application letter stresses what you can do
for the employer.
relate your remarks to a specific position.
SOLICITED APPLICATION: you will want to explain
how your participation and experience fill the stated
requirements.
UNSOLICITED APPLICATION: Your employment
research and knowledge of your field, however, should
give you reasonably good idea of what is expected for
this position.
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Building Interest in the BODY
emphasize recruiter benefits:
you should describe your strong points in relation to the needs of the
employer.
Instead of I have completed courses in business communication, report
writing and technical writing, try:
Courses in business communication, report writing and technical writing
have helped me develop the research and writing skills required of your
technical writers.
Choose your strongest qualifications and show how they fit
the targeted job. (Spotlight your education and practical
applications if you lack work experience):
Because you seek an architects apprentice with proven ability. I
submit a drawing of mine that won second place in the Sinclair
College drafting contest last year.
Successfully transcribing over 100 letters and memos in my college
transcription class gave me experience in converting the spoken
word into the written word, an exacting communication skill
demanded of your administrative assistants.
Building Interest in the BODY
discuss relevant personal traits.
Notice how the following paragraph uses action verbs to
paint a picture of a promising candidate:
In addition to developing technical and academic skills at
Mid-State University. I have gained interpersonal,
leadership and organisational skills. As vice president
of the business students organisation I helped organise
and supervise two successful fund-raising events. These
activities involved in conceptualising the tasks,
motivating others to help, scheduling work sessions,
and coordinating the efforts of 35 diverse students in
reaching our goal. I enjoyed my success with these
activities and look forward to applying such experience
in your management trainee program.
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Building Interest in the BODY
refer the recruiter to your CV. Do so
directly or as part of another statement:
Please refer to the attached/enclosed rsum for
additional information regarding my education,
experience and references.
As you will notice from my CV, I will graduate in
June with a bachelors degree in business
administration.
Motivating Action in the CLOSING
ask for an interview, never ask for the job.
suggest reader benefits or review your strongest
points.
sound sincere and appreciative.
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Motivating Action in the CLOSING
E.g.
I hope this brief description of my qualifications and the additional
information on my rsum indicate to you my genuine desire to
put my skills in accounting to work for you. Please call me at (405)
488-2291 before 10 a.m. or after 3 p.m. to arrange an interview.
To add to your staff an industrious, well-trained administrative
assistant with proven word processing and communication skills,
call me at (350) 492 1433 to arrange an interview. I can meet with
you at any time convenient to your schedule.
Next week, after you have examined the enclosed rsum, I will call
you to discuss the possibility of arranging an interview.
CHECKLIST FOR WRITING A
PERSUASIVE COVER LETTER
OPENING
Use the recipients name. Whenever possible, address the
proper individual by name.
Identify your information source, if appropriate. In
responding to an advertisement, specify the position
advertised as well as the date and publication name. If
someone referred you, name that person.
Gain the readers attention. Use one of these techniques:
Tell how your qualifications fit the job specifications;
Show knowledge of the recruiters business;
Describe how your special talents will be assets to the company;
Use an original and relevant expression.
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CHECKLIST FOR WRITING A
PERSUASIVE COVER LETTER
BODY
Describe what you can do for the recruiter.
Demonstrate how your background and training fill
the job requirements.
Highlight your strengths. Summarize your
principal assets from education, experience, and
special skills. Avoid repeating specific data from
your CV.
Refer to your CV. In this section or the closing,
direct the recruiter to the enclosed / attached CV.
Do so directly or incidentally as part of another
statement.
CHECKLIST FOR WRITING A
PERSUASIVE COVER LETTER
CLOSING
Ask for an interview. Also consider reviewing
your strongest points or suggesting how your
assets will benefit the company.
Make it easy to respond. Tell when you can
be reached during office hours or announce
when you call the company. Note that some
recruiters prefer that you call them.
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1501 Deer Park Lane
Pasadena, TX 77830
May 23, 2010
Ms. Kesha M. Scott
Manager, Human Resources
Del Rio Enterprises
Houston, TX 77073
Dear Ms. Scott:
Your advertisement for an assistant product manager, appearing May 22 in Section C of the
Houston Chronicle, immediately caught my attention because my education and training
closely parallel your needs.
According to your advertisement, the job includes assisting in the coordination of a wide range
of marketing programs as well as analyzing sales results and tracking marketing budgets. A
recent internship at Ventana Corporation introduced me to similar tasks. I assisted the
marketing manager in analyzing the promotion, budget and overall sales success of two
products Ventana was evaluating. My ten-page report examined the nature of the current
market, the products life cycles and the companys sales/ profit return. In addition to this
research, I helped formulate a product merchandising plan and answered consumers questions
at a local trade show. This brief but challenging introduction to product management convinced
me that I could be successful and happy in a marketing career.
Intensive course work in marketing and management, as well as
proficiency in computer spreadsheets and databases, has given
me the kind of marketing and computing training that Del Rio
demands in a product manager. Moreover, I have had some retail
sales experience and have been active in campus organizations. I
am confident that my academic preparation, my marketing
experience and my ability to work well with others qualify me for
this position.
After you have examined the enclosed rsum for details of my
qualifications, I would be very happy to answer questions. Please
call me to arrange an interview at your convenience so that we
may discuss how my marketing, computing and interpersonal
skills could contribute to Del Rio Enterprises.
Sincerely,
Angelica Avila Luna
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2250 Turtle Creek Drive
Monroeville, PA 15146
May 29, 2010
Mr. Richard M. Jannis
Vice President, Operations
Sports World, Inc.
4907 Allegheny Boulevard
Pittsburgh, PA 16103
Dear Mr. Jannis:
Todays Pittsburgh Examiner reports that your organization plans to expand its operations to
include national distribution of sporting goods and it occurs to me that you will be needing
highly motivated, self-starting sales representatives and marketing managers. I have these
qualifications to offer:
Four years of formal training in business administration, including specialized courses in sales
management, retailing, marketing promotion and consumer behavior.
Practical experience in demonstrating and selling consumer products, as well as successful
experience in telemarketing.
A strong interest in most areas of sports and good communication skills (which helped me
become a sportscaster at Penn State radio station WGNF).
I would like to talk with you about how I can put these
qualifications and others summarized in the enclosed
rsum, to work for Sports World as it develops its national
sales force. I will call the week of June 5 to discuss your
companys expansion plans and the opportunity for an
interview.
Sincerely,
Donald W. Vinton
Encl.
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INTERVIEWING FOR
EMPLOYMENT
Lecture 6
JOB INTERVIEWS
A face-to-face encounter between a recruiter and
a job candidate in which the recruiter assesses
the candidates
background,
skills,
job objectives,
interests and
attitudes;
in turn, the candidate asks questions about the
position and the organisation.
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JOB INTERVIEWS
Recruiters ask a series of probing questions to learn if the candidate
is right for the job.
Among the most common qualities for which interviewers are
looking for when they question job candidates there are:
1. Intelligence and analytical ability
2. Creativity and flexibility
3. Communication skills
4. Work experience and required technical skills
5. Leadership qualities/team-playing ability
6. Initiative and entrepreneurship
7. Energy and stamina
8. Maturity
9. Interest in the position
10. Personal qualities and personality
What is missing from the list?
JOB INTERVIEWS
Trained recruiters use this general structure of
an interview:
1. Establish a cordial relationship
2. Elicit information about the candidate
3. Give information about the job and company.
GOALS:
THE RECRUITERS: try to uncover any negative
information that would eliminate a candidate.
THE CANDIDATE: tries to minimize faults and
emphasize strengths to avoid being eliminated.
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BEFORE THE INTERVIEW
RESEARCH THE ORGANIZATION. Learn something about the
companys size, type of organization, number of employees
(workforce), competitors, reputation, strengths and weaknesses.
LEARN ABOUT THE POSITION. Obtain as much information
as possible. What are the functions of an individual in this position?
What is the typical salary range? What career paths are generally
opened to this individual? What did the last person in this position
do right or wrong?
PLAN TO SELL YOURSELF. Identify three to five of your major
selling points regarding skills, training, personal characteristics and
specialized experience. Memorize them; then in the interview be
certain to find a place to insert them.
PREPARE ANSWERS TO POSSIBLE QUESTIONS. Imagine
the kinds of questions you may be asked and work out sample
answers. Although you cant anticipate precise questions, you can
expect to be asked about your education, skills, experience and
availability.
BEFORE THE INTERVIEW
PREPARE SUCCESS STORIES. Rehearse two or three incidents
that you can relate about your accomplishments. These may focus
on problems you have solved, promotions you have earned, or
recognition or praise you have received.
ARRIVE EARLY. Get to the interview five or ten minutes early. If
you are unfamiliar with the area where the interview is to be held,
you might visit it before the scheduled day. Locate the building,
parking facilities and office. Time yourself.
DRESS APPROPRIATELY. Use the advice of one expert: dress
and groom like the interviewer is likely to dress but cleaner.
Dont overdo perfume, jewelry, or after-shave lotion. Avoid loud
colours; create a natural appearance. Favourite power colours for
interviews are grey and dark blue. Its not a bad idea to check your
appearance in a toilet before entering the office.
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DURING THE INTERVIEW
ESTABLISHTHE RELATIONSHIP. Shake hands firmly, dont be afraid
to offer your hand first. Address the interviewer formally. Allow the
interviewer to put you at ease with small talk.
ACT CONFIDENT BUT NATURAL. Establish and maintain eye contact,
but dont get into a staring contest. Sit up straight, facing the interviewer.
Dont cross your arms and legs at the same time, since this suggests
defensive behaviour. Dont manipulate objects, like a pencil or keys, during
the interview. Try to remain natural and at ease.
DONT CRITICIZE. Avoid making negative comments about previous
employers, instructors or others. Such criticism may be taken to indicate a
negative personality. Employers are not willing to hire people who
complain. Moreover, such criticism may suggest that you would do the
same to this organisation later.
STAY FOCUSED ON YOUR STRENGTHS. If the interviewer asks a
question that does not help you promote your strongest qualifications,
answer briefly. Alternatively, try to turn your response into a positive selling
point (e.g., I have not have extensive paid training in that area, but I have
completed a 50-hour training programme that provided hands-on
experience using the latest technology and methods. My recent training
taught me to be open to new ideas and showed me how I can continue
learning on my own. I was commended for being a quick learner.)
DURING THE INTERVIEW
FIND ABOUT THE JOB EARLY. Because your time will be
short, try to learn all you can about the target job early in the
interview. Ask about its responsibilities and the kinds of people who
have done well in the position before. Enquiring about the
companys culture will help you decide if your personality fits with
the organisation.
PREPARE FOR SALARY QUESTIONS. Remember that salaries
are negotiable, depending on your qualifications. Knowing the
typical salary range for the target position will help. The recruiter
can tell you the salary ranges but you will have to ask. If youve
had little experience, you will probably be offered a salary
somewhere the low point and the middle point in the range. With
more experience, you can negotiate for a higher figure. However,
one HR manager warns that candidates who emphasize money are
suspect because they may leave if they are offered more money
elsewhere.
BE READY FOR INAPPROPRIATE QUESTIONS. If you are
asked a question that you think is illegal, politely ask the interviewer
how that question is related to this job. Ask the purpose of the
question. Perhaps valid reasons exist that are not obvious.
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DURING THE INTERVIEW
ASK YOUR OWN QUESTIONS. Often, the
interviewer concludes an interview with Do you
have any questions about the position? Enquire
about career paths, orientation or training for new
employees, or the companys promotion policies.
Prepare a list of relevant questions.
CONCLUDE POSITIVELY. Summarize your
strongest qualifications, show your enthusiasm for
obtaining this position, and thank the interviewer
for a constructive interview. Be sure you understand
the next step in the employment process.
AFTER THE INTERVIEW
MAKE NOTES ON THE INTERVIEW.
While the events are fresh in your mind, write
the key points good or bad.
WRITE A THANK YOU LETTER
(FOLLOW-UP LETTER). Immediately write
a follow-up letter thanking the interviewer for a
pleasant and enlightening discussion.
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