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Water Treatment

Mathematical
Formulas
5th Edition

Fleming Training Center


Murfreesboro, TN
1
Water Treatment Formulas

Index
Area..................................................................................................................................2
Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness........................................................................11
Chemical Feeders.............................................................................................................7
Chlorination.....................................................................................................................10
Conversion Factors...........................................................................................................1
Corrosion Control............................................................................................................14
Detention Time.................................................................................................................8
Dosage.............................................................................................................................4
Filtration............................................................................................................................9
Flow..................................................................................................................................2
Flow Conversion Chart.....................................................................................................3
Fluoridation.....................................................................................................................13
Hypochlorination.............................................................................................................10
Lime Dosage.....................................................................................................................9
Metric Conversions...........................................................................................................6
Pounds..............................................................................................................................4
Power................................................................................................................................4
Preliminary Treatment......................................................................................................7
Pumps............................................................................................................................5,6
Sedimentation...................................................................................................................8
Softening.........................................................................................................................12
Solution Preparation.........................................................................................................8
Substitution of Bleach for HTH, etc.................................................................................11
Temperature.....................................................................................................................2
Volume..............................................................................................................................2
Well Formulas...................................................................................................................6

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Water Treatment Formulas

Conversion Factors
1 acre

43,560 ft2

1 foot of head

0.433 psi

1 psi

2.31 feet of head

1 yd3

27 ft3

1 gal

3.785 Liters

1 gallon of water

8.34 lbs

1 cubic foot of water

7.48 gallons

1 lb

453.6 grams

1 mile

5280 feet

1%

10,000 mg/L

Converting mg/mL to lb/gal

lbs

gal

453.6

3.785

gram

Liter

1000

1000

mg

mL

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. mg/mL). Then, find the box that
coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. lbs/gal). The numbers between the starting point and ending point are the
conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When
moving from a larger box to a smaller box, divide by the factor between them. For final number, divide top number by
bottom number.
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Water Treatment Formulas

Area
Rectangle:

Area, ft2

(length, ft)(width, ft)

Circle:

Area, ft2

(0.785)(Diameter, ft)2

Triangle:

Area, ft2

(0.5)(base, ft)(height, ft)

Volume
Rectangle:

Volume, ft3

(length, ft)(width, ft)(depth, ft)

Cylinder:

Volume, ft3

(0.785)(Diameter, ft)2(depth or length, ft)

Cone:

Volume, ft3

(0.785)(Diameter, ft)2(height, ft)


3

Volume, gallons

(volume, ft3)(7.48 gal/ft3)

Temperature
C
F

=
=

5/9(F 32)
9/5 (C) + 32

Flow
Q

AV

(Area)(Velocity)

Q (channel), cfs

(width, ft)(depth, ft)(Velocity, fps)

Q (pipeline), cfs

(0.785)(Diameter, ft)2(Velocity, fps)

Velocity, fps

Distance, ft
Time, sec

sum of daily flows, MGD


Number of daily flows

Average Flow, MGD

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Water Treatment Formulas

Flow Conversions
cfs

cfm
60

cfd

1440

7.48

7.48

7.48

MGD
1,000,000

gps

gpm

60

8.34

lb

cfs
cfm
cfd

8.34

lb

/sec

=
=
=

1440

60

cubic feet per second


cubic feet per minute
cubic feet per day

gpd

8.34

/min

1440

gps
gpm
gpd

=
=
=

lb

/day

gallons per second


gallons per minute
gallons per day

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. gpm). Then, find the box that
coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. cfs). The numbers between the starting point and ending point are the
conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When
moving from a larger box to a smaller box, divide by the factor between them.

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Water Treatment Formulas

Dosage
Dosage, mg/L

(grams/min)(1,000 mg/gram)
(flow, gpm)(3.785 L/gal)

Dosage, mg/L

chemical feed, lbs/day


(flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Pounds
Chemical Feed, lbs

(dose, mg/L)(volume, MG)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Chemical Feed, lbs

(dose, mg/L)(volume, MG)(8.34 lbs/gal)


% chemical purity, expressed as decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day

(dose, mg/L)(flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Feed Rate, lbs/day

(dose, mg/L)(flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)


% chemical purity, expressed as decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day

(conc., mg/L)(vol. pumped, mL)(1440 min/day)


(time pumped, min)(1000 mL/L)(1000 mg/g)(453.6 g/lb)

Power
1 Horsepower

746 watts or 0.746 kilowatts

Power, watts

(volts)(amps)

Amps, single-phase

(746)(horsepower)
(volts)(% efficiency, as decimal)(power factor)

Amps, three-phase

(746)(horsepower)
(1.732)(volts)(% efficiency, as decimal)(power factor)

Horsepower

(volts)(amps)
746

Kilowatts, single-phase

(volts)(amps)(power factor)
1000

Kilowatts, three-phase

(volts)(amps)(power factor)(1.732)
1000

Power Factor

watts
(volts)(amps)
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Water Treatment Formulas

Pumps
MHP

Motor

BHP

% motor eff

Pump

WHP

% pump eff

Pumping Rate, gpm

volume, gal
time, min

Pumping Rate, gpm

(length, ft)(width, ft)(depth, ft)(7.48 gal/ft3)


time, min

Pumping Rate, gpm

(0.785)(Diameter, ft)2(depth, ft)(7.48 gal/ft3)


time, min

Time to fill, min

tank volume, gal


flow rate, gpm

Water hp

(flow, gpm)(head, ft)


3960

Brake hp

(flow, gpm)(head, ft)


(3960)(%pump efficiency, as decimal)

Motor hp

=
(flow, gpm)(head, ft)
(3960)(%pump efficiency, as decimal)(%motor efficiency, as decimal)

Brake hp

water hp
%pump efficiency, as decimal

Motor hp

brake hp
%motor efficiency, as decimal

% Motor Efficiency

brake hp x 100
motor hp

% Pump Efficiency

water hp x 100
brake hp

% Efficiency

hp output
hp supplied

% Efficiency, overall

water hp x 100
motor hp

Wire-to-water Efficiency, %

x 100

(% pump eff., as decimal)(% motor eff., as decimal)(100)

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Water Treatment Formulas

Pumps, cont
Static Head, ft

suction lift, ft + discharge head, ft

Static Head, ft

discharge head, ft suction head, ft

Friction Loss, ft

(0.1)(static head, ft) **use this formula in absence of other data**

Total Dynamic Head, ft

static head, ft + friction losses, ft

Cost, $/hr

(motor hp)(0.746 kW/hp)(cost, $/kW-hr)

Metric Conversions
Primary Unit

mega . .
(M)
1,000,000

kilo
(k)
1,000

hecto
(h)

deka
(da)

no
prefix

100

10

deci
(d)
1

/10

centi
(c)

milli
(m)

/100

/1,000

..

micro
()
1

/1,000,000

meter linear measurement


liter volume measurement
gram weight measurement

Well Formulas
Well yield, gpm

volume, gal
time, min

Drawdown, ft

pumping water level, ft static water level, ft

Specific capacity, gpm/ft

well yield, gpm


drawdown, ft

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Water Treatment Formulas

Preliminary Treatment
Copper sulfate, lbs
=
(0.9 lbs/acre-ft)(volume, acre-ft)
(total alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO3)
Copper sulfate, lbs
=
(surface area, acre)(5.4 lbs/acre)
(total alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO3)
Copper sulfate, lbs
(as copper)

(dosage, mg/L)(volume, MG)(8.34 lbs/gal)


0.25(% copper, expressed as a decimal)

Citric acid, lbs

(copper sulfate, lbs)(1 lb citric acid)


2 lbs copper sulfate

Area, acres

(length, ft)(width, ft)


43,560 ft2/acre

Volume, acre-feet

(area, acres)(depth, ft)

Pond volume, acre-feet

(length, ft)(width, ft)(depth, ft)


43,560 ft2/acre

Pond volume, gal

(volume, acre-feet)((43,560 ft2/acre)(7.48 gal/ft3)

Pond volume, gal

(area, acre)(depth, ft)(43,560 ft2/acre)(7.48 gal/ft3)

Chemical Feeders
Liquid feeder setting,
mL/min

(chem. dose, mg/L)(flow, gpd)(3.785 L/gal)


(chem. conc., mg/mL)(1440 min/day)

Liquid feeder setting, gpd =

(chem. dose, mg/L)(flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)


(chem. conc., lbs/gal)

Liquid feeder setting, gpd =

(chem. dose mg/L)(flow, MGD)


(% available chem., as decimal)(specific gravity)

Feeder setting, gram/min =

(dose, mg/L)(flow, gpd)(3.785 L/gal)


(1440 min/day)(1000 mg/gram)

9
Water Treatment Formulas

Solution Preparation
% by weight

weight chemical, lbs


x 100
weight of water, lbs + weight of chemical, lbs

% strength

weight of chemical x 100


weight of solution

(Concentration1)(Volume1) =

(Concentration2)(Volume2)

(Normality1)(Volume1)

(Normality2)(Volume2)

Detention Time
Detention time, sec

(volume, gal)(1440 min/day)(60 sec/min)


flow, gpd

Detention time, min

(volume, gal)(1440 min/day)


flow, gpd

Detention time, hr

(volume, gal)(24 hr/day)


flow, gpd

Sedimentation
Surface overflow rate (SOR),
gpd,ft2

flow, gpd
area, ft2

Weir overflow rate (WOR),


gpd/lineal ft

flow, gpd
length of weir, ft

Length of weir (circular), ft

(3.14)(diameter, ft)

Length of weir (rectangular), ft

2(length) + 2(width)

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Water Treatment Formulas

Filtration
Sand Area, ft2

(sand bed length, ft)(sand bed width, ft)

Volume, ft3

(filter bay length, ft)(filter bay width, ft)(water drop, ft)

Volume, gal

(volume, ft3)(7.48 gal/ft3)

Average time, sec =

Test 1, sec + Test 2, sec + Test n, sec


n (number of tests)

Average time, min =

average time, sec


60 sec/min

Filter rate, gpm


(Hook Gauge)

volume, gal
average time, min

Filter rate/sq. area =


gpm/ft2

filter rate, gpm


sand area, ft2

Filter production rate,


gpm

(filter rate, gpm/ft2)(filter area, ft2)

Filter production rate,


gpd

(filter rate, gpm)(1440 min/day)

Backwash vol., gal =

(filter rate, gpm/ft2)(time, min)(sand area, ft2)

%Backwash water =

(backwash water, gal) x 100


water filtered, gal

Lime Dosage
Lime dosage, mg/L

(0.37 mg/L lime)(alum, mg/L)


1 mg/L alum

Lime feed, gram/min

(lime dose, mg/L)(flow, gpd)(3.785 L/gal)


(1440 min/day)(1000 mg/gram)

Lime dosage, lbs/day

(alum, lbs/day)(0.37)
% commercial purity, expressed as decimal

11
Water Treatment Formulas

Chlorination
Chlorine demand, mg/L

chlorine dose, mg/L chlorine residual, mg/L

Total chlorine residual, mg/L

Chlorine, lbs/day

(dosage, mg/L)(flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/day)


% chem. purity, expressed as a decimal

combined residual, mg/L + free residual, mg/L

Hypochlorination
HTH, lbs
=
(solution mix)

(% desired conc., hypo, expressed as decimal)(desired hypo, gal)(8.34 lbs/gal)


% available, HTH, expressed as decimal

Dosage, mg/L

(lbs/day)(% available chlorine, expressed as decimal)


(MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Dosage, mg/L

(hypochlorite, gpd)(% conc. hypo, expressed as decimal)


MGD

% concentration

(HTH, lbs)(% available chlorine, expressed as decimal) x 100


(hypochlorite, gal)(8.34 lbs/gal)

% concentration

(bleach, gal)(% available chlorine, expressed as decimal) x 100


hypochlorite, gal

Hypochlorite, gpd

(dosage, mg/L)(MGD)
% concentration, hypo, expressed as decimal

Bleach, gal (dilution)=

(% desired conc., expressed as decimal)(desired volume, gal)


% bleach conc., expressed as decimal

12
Water Treatment Formulas

Substitution of Bleach for HTH, Cl2 for Bleach, etc.


lbs, Cl2

(%available, bleach, expressed as decimal)(bleach, gal)(8.34 lbs/gal)

lbs, Cl2

(lbs, HTH)(% available, HTH, expressed as decimal)

lbs, HTH

lbs, chlorine
% available, HTH, expressed as decimal

lbs, HTH

(%available, bleach, expressed as decimal)(bleach, gal)(8.34 lbs/gal)


% available, HTH, expressed as decimal

gal, bleach

lbs, chlorine
(% available, bleach, expressed as decimal)(8.34 lbs/gal)

gal, bleach

(% available, HTH, expressed as decimal)(HTH, lbs)


(% available, bleach, expressed as decimal)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Hardness, Carbonate and Noncarbonate


Noncarbonate

Laboratory Results
TH = Total Hardness
TA = Total Alkalinity

Hardness
(Lime & Soda Ash
used)

Carbonate

Lime Dosage

Hardness

Formula

(Lime only used)

To be Used

(1) TH less than TA

TH

(2) TH = TA

TH

TH TA

TA

II

(3) TH greater than TA

( ) means concentration of
I

Lime Dosage, mg/L

(CO2) + (total hardness) + (Mg) + (excess)

II

Lime Dosage, mg/L

(CO2) + (HCO3) + (Mg) + (excess)

Soda Ash Dosage, mg/L

(total hardness) (HCO3) + (excess)

Total Hardness, mg/L

Chemical Required, lbs/day

(Ca) + (Mg)
(dose, mg/L)(flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/day)
% commercial purity, expressed as decimal

13
Water Treatment Formulas

Softening
Alkalinity Constituents
Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3
Titration Results

Bicarbonate

Carbonate

Hydroxide

P=0

P is less than T

T 2P

2P

P=T

2P

P is greater than T

2T 2P

2P T

P=T

Where

P = phenolphthalein alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3


T = total alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Alkalinity:
A

mL of titrant used to reach pH 8.3

total mL of titrant used

acid normality

Phenolphthalein Alkalinity, =
mg/L as CaCO3

(A) (N) (50,000)


mL of sample

Total Alkalinity,
mg/L as CaCO3

(B) (N) (50,000)


mL of sample

14
Water Treatment Formulas

Fluoridation
Available Fluoride Ion

Purity
Chemical

(AFI)

Formula

Sodium Fluoride
Sodium
Fluorosilicate
Fluorosilicic Acid

Percent

Decimal

Percent

Decimal

NaF

98%

0.980

45.2%

0.452

Na2SiF6

98.5%

0.985

60.7%

0.607

H2SiF6

23%

0.230

79.2%

0.792

Feed rate, lbs/day =

(dose, mg/L)(flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)


(AFI, expressed as decimal)(purity, expressed as decimal)

Feed rate, lbs/min =

(dose, mg/L)(flow, gpm)(8.34 lbs/gal)


(1,000,000)(AFI, expressed as decimal)(purity, expressed as decimal)

Feed rate, grams/min

(feed rate, lbs/day)(453.6 grams/lb)


(1440 min/day)

Feed rate, gpm


(Saturator)

(flow, gpm)(dose, mg/L)


18,000 mg/L

Calculated Dose,
mg/L

(fluoride, lbs)(AFI, expressed as decimal)(purity, expressed as decimal)


(flow, MG)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Calculated Dose,
mg/L (Saturator)

(solution fed, gpd)(18,000 mg/L)


flow, gpd

15
Water Treatment Formulas

Corrosion Control
Calculating the Langelier and Aggressive Indices
Langelier Index (LI) = pH - pHs
pH of saturation (pHs) = A + B log Calcium Hardness log Total Alkalinity
Aggressive Index (AI) = pH + log Calcium Hardness + log Total Alkalinity
Values of A for various temperature Values for B for various levels of TDS
Temperature, C

TDS, mg/L

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
40
50
60

2.34
2.27
2.2
2.12
2.04
1.98
1.91
1.76
1.62
1.47

0
50
100
200
400
800
1,600

9.63
9.72
9.75
9.8
9.86
9.94
10.04

Values of log of Ca or Alkalinity as CaCO3 in mg/L


Ca or Alkalinity as CaCO3 Ca or Alkalinity as CaCO3
mg/L

log10

mg/L

log10

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

1.00
1.30
1.48
1.60
1.70
1.78
1.84
1.90
1.95
2.00

200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000

2.30
2.48
2.60
2.70
2.78
2.84
2.90
2.95
3.00

Corrosivity Characteristics as Addressed by Indices


Corrosive Characteristics Langelier Index (LI) Aggressive Index (AI)
Highly Aggressive

< - 2.0

< 10.0

Moderately Aggressive

- 2.0 to < 0.0

10.0 to < 12.0

Non-aggressive

> 0.0

> 12.0

16
Water Treatment Formulas