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Gas Welding

1. Gas Welding

Although the oxy-acetylene process has been introduced long time ago it is still applied for its flexibility and mobility. Equipment for oxyacetylene welding consists of just a few elements, the energy necessary for welding can be transported in cylinders, igure 1.1.
density in normal state !"g#m $



1 . & * 1 . 17




) +



ignition temperature ! -$ . +)'

1* &

+ )'

+(( '1( )*( )(( %(( %%' &((

1 oxygen cylinder with pressure reducer acetylene cylinder with pressure reducer % oxygen hose acetylene hose ) ' welding torch + welding rod wor"piece , welding no00le * welding flame
%&(( )% 1%' (

f l a me t e m pe ra t u re w it h .

f la m e ef f i ci en c y w it h .

fl a m e / el o ci t y w it h .

1(. % %7 (


&77( ,. ' %% (

( # 1- # 2 W " & cm

b r-e r1 -( 1. c d r

345 &((&

b r-e r1 -(& . c dr

345 &((&

67uipment -omponents for Gas Welding

8roperties of uel Gas in -ombination with .xygen

igure 1.1

igure 1.&

8rocess energy is obtained from the exothermal chemical reaction between oxygen and a combustible gas, igure 1.&. 5uitable combustible gases are - 9 , lighting gas, 9 , - 9 and
&& %, &%,

natural gas: here - 9 has the highest calorific /alue. ;he highest flame intensity from point of /iew of calorific /alue and flame propagation speed is, howe/er, obtained with 9.


1. Gas Welding
&& loading funnel

, - 9 is produced in acetylene gas generators by the exothermal transformation of calcium carbide with water, igure 1.%. -arbide
material loc"

is obtained from the reaction of lim e and carbon in the arc furnace.
gas exit feed wheel

- 9 tends to decompose already at a pres&&

sure of (.& <8a. =onetheless, commercial 7uantities can be stored when C H is dis22 grille sludge

solved in acetone >1 l of acetone dissol/es approx. &) l of - 9 at (.1 <8a?, igure 1.).

to sludge pit
b r-e r1 -( % . cd r 3 45 & ( (&

Acetylene Generator

igure 1.% more than 1., <8a, i.e., with a filling pressure of 1.' <8a the storage of +m@ of - 9 is possi&&

acetone acetylene Acetone disintegrates at a pressure of

ble in a standard cylinder >)( l?.

or gas exporous mass

change >storage and drawing of 7uantities up

acetylene cylinder
to 7(( l#h? a larger surface is necessary,

acetone 7uantity A therefore the gas cylinders are filled with a B1% l acetylene 7uantity A +((( l porous mass >diatomite?.

Gas consumption obser/ed from the weight reduction of the gas cylinder.
filling 7uantity A up to 7(( l#h

cylinder pressure A 1' bar during welding can be

br-e r1 -( ) . cd r

3 45


5torage of Acetylene

igure 1.)

1. Gas Welding

* .xygen is produced by fractional distillation of

gaseous cooling

li7uid air and stored in cylcylinder nitrogen air

inders with a filling presbundle

o xyg e n

sure of up to &( <8a,


ure 1.'. or higher oxygen

pipeline li7uid

consumption, storage in a
air tan" car nitrogen /apori0ed cleaning compressor separation
br-e r1 -( ' . cd r 3 45 &( ( &

li7uid o xyg e n

li7uid state and cold gasification is more profitable.


8rinciple of .xygen 6xtraction

igure 1.' ;he standard cylinder >)( l? contains, at a

'( l oxygen cylinder

filling pressure of 1' <8a, +m@ of . sureless state?,

>presp ro t e ct i/ e ca p cy li n de r /a l/ e

& gaseous

igure 1.+. <oreo/er, cylint a" e -o f f c o n ne c t io n

ders with contents of 1( or &( l >1' <8a? as

p C c yl in d e r p re ss u re A & ( ( b ar

well as '( l at &( <8a are common. Gas consumption can be calculated from the pressure difference by means of the general gas e7uation. f o o t rin g


/o l u me o f cy li n de r A ' ( l E C /o l u me o f ox yg e n A 1 ( ( ( ( l c o n t en t co n t ro l

E C p D

ma n o m e te r sa f e t y / al /e /a p o ri0 e r

f i ll in g c o n ne c t io n u se r s t il l l i7 u id g a se o u s

b r-e r1-( + . c dr

5torage of .xygen

igure 1.+


1. Gas Welding


4n order to pre/ent mista"es, the gas cylinders are colour-coded. igure 1.7 shows a sur/ey of the present colour code and the future colour code which is in accordance with F4= 6= 1(,*. ;he cylinder /al/es are
old condition F4= 6= 1(,*
blue white

old condition F4= 6= 1(,*

also of
grey brown grey blue >grey?

different designs. .xygen cylinder connec-

oxygen techn.
yellow brown


tions show a
red red


thread union nut. Acetylene

grey dar" green


cylinder /al/es are

grey /i/id green

dar"green blac"

argon-carbon-dioxide mixture
grey grey

e7uipped with screw clamp retentions. -ylinder /al/es for other combustible

grey grey


b r-e r 1 -( 7 . c d r 3 45 &( ( +




thread-connection with a
Gas -ylinder-4dentification according to F4= 6= 1(,*

circumferential groo/e. Pressure regulators re-

igure 1.7
cylinder pressure wor"ing pressure

duce the cylinder pressure to the re7uested wor"ing pressure, igures 1., and 1.*.

b r-e r1- (, . c d r

3 4 5 &( ( &

5ingle 8ressure Geducing Dal/e during Gas Fischarge .peration

igure 1.,


1. Gas Welding


At a low cylinder pressure >e.g. acetylene cylinder? and low pressure fluctuations, singlestage regulators
discharge pressure loc"ing pressure

are applied: at higher cylinder pressures normally two-stage pressure regulators are used. ;he re7uested pressure is set by the adjusting screw. 4f the pressure increases on the low pressure side, the throttle /al/e closes the increased pressure onto
3 4 5 &( ( &





5ingle 8ressure Geducing Dal/e,

the membrane. 5hut Fown igure 1.* ;he injector-t ype torch consists of a body with /al/es and welding chamber with welding no00le, igure 1.1(. Hy the selection of suitable welding chambers, the flame intensity can be adjusted for welding different plate thic"nesses. ;he special form of the mixing chamber guarantees highest possible flash ac! , igure 1.11.
welding torch

safet y against

;he high outlet speed of the escaping . gener&

injector or blowpipe
coupling nut hose connection for oxygen

ates a negati/e pressure in the acetylene gas line, in conse7uence - 9 is


mixer tube mixer no00le oxygen /al/e

A+x1#)I right


suc"ed and drawn-in.

pressure no00le hose connection suction no00le for fuel gas && fuel gas /al/e welding no00le A* x G%#,J left

- 9 is therefore a/ail-

able with a /ery low

welding torch head torch body
b r-e r1 -1 ( . cd r 3 4 5 & ( (&

pressure of (.(& up to

(.(' <8a -compared

Welding ;orch

with . >(.& up to

igure 1.1( (.% <8a?.


1. Gas Welding A neutral flame adjustment allows the differentiation of three 0ones of a igure 1.1&A (. dar" coreA escaping gas mixture 1. brightly shining centre coneA acetylene decomposition 9 -K &-L9
&& &

1& chemical reaction ,

&- L 9 )-. L &9 )-. complete reactionA )-. &-

st &. welding 0oneA L . >cylinder? -K &-. L 9 && nd &

1 &

stage of combustion stage of combustion

%. outer flameA
& &

L %. >air? -K L &9 .
& &

9 L '. -K
&& & & &

L &9 .

acetylene oxygen acetylene welding torch head injector no00le pressure no00le coupling nut torch body

b r-e r1 -1 1. c d r

3 45


4njector-Area of ;orch

igure 1.11


1. Gas Welding


welding flame welding flame ratio of mixture com ustion

excess of welding 0one


excess of >neutral? outer flame

oxygen acetylene welding no00le centre cone

# 2 $ $% C

2 " $$ % C

& ' $ $% C

&& $ $% C

effects in welding of steel spar"ing foaming spattering ( $ $% C consequences) carburi0ing hardening

br -er1 -1 % . cd r b r-e r1 -1 &. c d r

reducing oxidi0ing
3 4 5 &( ( & 3 4 5 & ( (&

;emperature Fistribution in the Welding lame

6ffects of the Welding lame Fepending on the Gatio of <ixture

igure 1.1&

igure 1.1%
welding flame

Hy changing the mixture ratio of the /olumes

balanced >neutral? flame

. A- 9 the weld pool can greatly be influ- no00le

&-) mm &&& discharging /elocity and weld heat-input rateA low

si0eA for plate thic"ness of


igure 1.1%. At a neutral flame ad&&&

justment the mixture ratio is . A- 9 C 1A1. Hy reason of the higher flame temperature, an
soft flame

excess oxygen flame might allow faster

discharging /elocity and weld heat-input rateA middle #

welding of steel, howe/er, there is the ris" of oxidi0ing >flame cutting?. Area of application A brass
moderate flame
discharging /elocity and weld head-input rateA high (

;he excess acetylene causes the carburising of steel materials. Area of applicationA cast iron

hard flame
b r-e r1 -1 ). c d r 3 4 5 & ( (&

6ffects of the Welding lame Fepending on the Fischarge Delocity


igure 1.1)

1. Gas Welding


Hy changing the gas mixture outlet speed the flame can be adjusted to the heat re7uirements of the welding job, for example when welding plates >thic"nessA & to ) mm ? with the welding chamber si0e %A M& to ) mmJ, igure 1.1). ;he gas mixture outlet speed is 1(( to 1%( m#s when using a medium or normal flame , applied to at, for example, a % mm plate. Nsing a soft flame , the gas outlet speed is lower >,( to 1(( m#s? for the & mm plate, with a flame it is higher >1%( to 1+( m #s? for the ) mm plate. Fepending on the plate thic"ness are the wor"ing methods Mleftward weldingJ and Mrightward weldingJ applied, igure 1.1'. A decisi/e factor for the designation of the wor"ing method is the se7uence of flame and welding rod as well as the manipulation of flame and welding rod. ;he welding direction itself is of no importance. 4n leftward welding the flame is pointed at the open gap and MwetsJ the molten pool: the heat input to the molten pool can be well controlled by a slight mo/ement of the torch >s % mm?.


*eftward welding is applied to a plate thic"ness of up to % mm. ;he weld-rod dips into the molten pool from time to time, but remains calm otherwise. ;he torch swings a little. +dvantages)

plate thic"ness
easy to handle on thin plates

gap preparations denotation symbol

range s !mm$ from to


flange weld

we l di ng -ro d f la me we l di ng b ea d

1,( plain butt ,ightward welding ist applied to a plate thic"ness of %mm weld 1,( ),( upwards. ;he wire circles, the torch remains calm. +dvantages) - the molten pool and the weld "eyhole are easy to obser/e %,( 1&,( - good root fusion - the bath and the melting weld-rod are permanently protected from the air

D - weld

- narrow welding seam corner weld 1,( ,,( - low gas consumption

1,( ,,(

lap seam

fillet weld 1,( ,,(

w el d -ro d fl am e

b r-e r1 -1+ . c d r

3 4 5 & ( (& b r-e r1 -1 'e . c dr

3 4 5 &( ( &

lame Welding

Gap 5hapes for Gas Welding

igure 1.1'

igure 1.1+


1. Gas Welding
butt-welded seams in

1' 4n rightward welding the flame is directed onto the molten pool: a weld "eyhole is
gra/ity position

8A formed >s % mm?.

gra/ity fillet welds

langed welds and plain butt welds can be applied to a plate thic"ness of approx. 8H hori0ontal fillet welds 1.' mm without filler material, but this does
/ertical fillet and butt welds

not apply to any other plate thic"ness and 8

/ertical-upwelding position
s f

/ertical-down position

weld shape, igure 1.1+.

hori0ontal on /ertical wall

8Hy the specific heat input of the different welding methods all welding positions can be 86

o/erhead position

carried out using the oxyacetylene welding method, igures 1.17 and 1.1, 8F
hori0ontal o/erhead position

b r-e r1 -1 7. c d r

3 45

&( ( &

Welding 8ositions 4

When wor"ing in tan!s and confined spaces- the welder >and all other persons presentO? ha/e to be protected against the

igure 1.17 welding heat, the gases produced during welding and lac" of oxygen >>1.' P >/ol.? .

per & P >/ol.? - 9 are ta"en out from the


8A ambient atmosphere??,

igure 1.1*.

;he addition of pure oxygen is unsuitable >explosion

8 8H

ha0ardO?. A special type of autogene method is flamestraightening , where specific locally applied flame heating allows for shape correction of wor"pieces, igure 1.&(. <uch experience is needed to carry out flame straightening processes. ;he basic principle of flame straightening depends on locally applied heating in connection with pre/ention of expansion. ;his procigure 1.1,


8G 8F 86

3 4 5 & (( & b r-e r1- 1, . c dr

Welding 8ositions 44

1. Gas Welding


ess causes the appearance of a heated 0one. Furing cooling, shrin"ing forces are generated in the heated 0one and lead to the desired shape correction.

5afety in welding and cutting inside of lame straightening tan"s and narrow rooms

welded parts

first warm up both 9a0ards through gas, fumes, explosi/e mixtures, lateral plates, then belt electric current protecti/e measures # safety precautions 1. re7uirement for a permission to enter &. extraction unit, /entilation butt weld % to ' heat sources close to the weld-seam ). illumination and electric machinesA max )&/olt '. after weldingA Gemo/ing the e7uipment from the tan" double fillet weld 1,% or ' heat sources %. second person for safety reasons

b r-e r1 -1 * e. c d r

3 45

&((& br- er1 -& ( . cd r 3 45 &((&

Gas Welding in ;an"s and lame 5traightening =arrow Gooms

igure 1.1*

igure 1.&(