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Arab-German Yearbook 2010

Construction and Consulting

Table of Content
Preface Dr. Peter Ramsauer Dr. Thomas Bach /Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlafi Olaf Hoffmann Projects Algeria The Mosque in Algiers Bahrain An Oasis in the Desert Bahrain International Circuit Egypt Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser Iraq Railway Network Project Jordan Aqaba Residence Energy Efficiency (AREE) Kuwait Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Lebanon Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Libya Design and Construction Morocco Ain Bni Mathar an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Oman Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman Palestine Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip 54 10 10 6










Projects 4 / 5

Qatar Qatars Fastest Elevators The Qipco Tornado Tower Doha Saudi Arabia Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Sudan The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Khartoum New International Airport Syria Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Tunesia The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit United Arab Emirates Lotus Garden German Maurer Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMALs Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Ultimate Flight Catering Yemen Pilot Projects for Schools in Yemen Special Topics Working Group Infrastructure and Construction Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Saudi Arabias Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies List of Contributors Imprint









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Projects 6 / 7


Dr. Peter Ramsauer Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Development

Despite the global economic and financial crisis, the Arab countries continue to be one of the most dynamic and attractive economic areas in the world. The building and property sector benefits significantly from this. The Gulf States, in particular, have pushed ahead with spectacular large-scale projects in recent years. The tallest building in the world in Dubai is an especially impressive example of this. But the construction sector is also booming in the other countries in the Arab world. In 2009, the German construction industry carried out building work worth around 850 million euros. At the same time, it received orders worth around 1.5 billion euros. This shows just how important the Arab countries are for the German construction industry. In the future, too, there will be massive investment in the infrastructure in this region. The reasons for this are an expected economic growth rate of just under five percent per year over the period to 2020, an above average annual increase in population of 2 percent and the increasing expansion of the cities. To enable these countries to manage their ambitious investment plans in the years ahead, German know-how and German investment will continue to be in demand for strategic partnerships in the region. Both sides can build on the long-standing relations, based on a spirit of trust, between Germany and the Arab world.

With their cutting-edge technologies, extensive expertise and experience in the service sector, plus their profound knowledge of the countries and markets involved, German companies are perfectly placed to assist the Arab course of modernization. This is especially true of sustainable and energy-efficient construction. In the windy and sun-kissed countries of the Arab world, there is huge potential for this. The building projects presented in the Ghorfa Yearbook illustrate just how successful the economic partnership between the Arab countries and Germany is. The Yearbook is thus also an encouragement to further expand Arab-German economic relations. The Federal Government is wholeheartedly in favour of such expansion and will continue to do everything it can to support it.


Federal Minister of Transport, Building and Urban Development


Dr. Thomas Bach President

Abdulaziz Al-Mikhla Secretary General

We are proud to present the first edition of our annual ArabGerman Yearbook. It focuses on construction and consulting and is to be the first of a new serie. In the following years other thematic priorities will be chosen to give companies from all business branches the opportunity to contribute to this new serie. The main aim of our Chamber is to develop and deepen business relations between Germany and the Arab world. Ghorfa therefore understands itself as a bridge between partners from different backgrounds. This yearbook shall therefore be a useful tool to introduce various exemplary construction and consulting projects realised or planned by German enterprises in cooperation with partners in the Arab world. The Arab world has established itself as one of the most dynamic and potentially rewarding regions for high-scale construction and consulting projects. Impressive building activities starting from designed superhomes to the tallest skyscrapers in the world are above all known from Dubai, Abu Dhabi or Riyadh. Impressive traces of the ongoing construction boom can also be found in other Arab countries and experts predict a further acceleration of the building and construction industry. The Arab region is undergoing important changes making it a location of progress and growth. Growing economic activities in the Arab world as well as the strong demand for provision of housing and rising infrastructural requirements stimulate activities in building. In Saudi Arabia for example the expansion of infrastructure needs to keep pace with the tremendous growth of population of about half a million a year.

Qatar, Libya, Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Egypt and other Arab countries invest on a large scale in infrastructure and numerous other construction projects to meet the requirements of fast growing megacities and rising demands of the populations. One of the objective targets of our new serie is to show that Arab countries welcome German enterprises as credible partners and invite them to participate in the continuing economic growth. German enterprises are appreciated for their reliability and quality of products and services as well as for the respected and trusted cooperation with Arab companies. This directory serves to further promote the relationship between the Arab world and Germany. Due to the common understanding of the principle of mutual benefits both sides can gain great advantage from increased collaboration. We are looking forward to sum up successful examples of collaboration in technology, science, education or health care in the following editions of our yearbook.




Secretary General

Projects 8 / 9


Olaf Hoffmann CEO Dorsch Holding

Dear readers, We are pleased to present the first edition of our ArabGerman Yearbook Construction and Consulting. Why have we chosen the format yearbook? At the beginning of our century the Arab markets just added colourful detail to the media business coverage: Dubai for instance was described as a firework with no long-term impact. However, in the last two years, the Arab world has shown a remarkable resilience in coping with the debilities of globalisation: on the basis of oil and oil exports, the Arab world has built up a stable, productive and growing economy. Thus, it seems to be the right time to keep track of the further development of the Arab economy by an annual publication. Despite the challenging economic situation, the Middle East remains the world leader in the construction industry: with more than 2,100 projects in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia, over 500 projects in Qatar and Kuwait, nearly 200 projects in Oman and almost 150 projects in Bahrain the construction industry lives up to the demands of a growing population, as population growth in the Arab world exceeds the average growth of the entire world population. Thus, more than 50% of the population in the Middle East is younger than 25 years. The growing population together with a strong migration and large financial resources for the realisation of development projects stimulates the demand for housing and infrastructure for public and cargo transportation as well as energy. Roads, electricity, communications and water networks have to be constructed or upgraded. At the same time, the desire

for (more) Western standards in water supply and sanitation as well as sustainability is booming. This is especially true for the newly industrialised economies which can be found among Arab countries, too. Strong growing countries like Saudi Arabia or especially Iraq with its emerging market and an economic growth rate of 5.3% offer a lot of opportunities and potential for the construction industry. However, just to put the focus on impressive architecture, big infrastructure or renewable energy projects would not show the whole picture. Thus this yearbook and its sequels are dedicated to describing the Arab world of today and tomorrow. This Arab-German Yearbook would not have been possible without the contributions of German companies considerably engaged in the Arab world like Siemens, Lufthansa, KfW, Ferrostaal, ThyssenKrupp and many others. I therefore want to very warmly thank all who contributed to our first ArabGerman Yearbook Consulting and Construction, we really appreciate their readiness of sharing their insights. Enjoy reading!

Sincerely yours,

CEO and Shareholder of Dorsch Holding Member of the Board of Directors Chairman of the Working Group Infrastructure and Construction Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Language Currency Main Cities Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria 34,180,000 (2009 estimate) 2,381,741 km2 Arabic French, English 1 Algerian Dinar (AD) = 100 centimes Algiers (Capital), Oran, Constantine, Annaba, Blida, Setif

Projects 10 / 11

The Mosque in Algiers

KSP Jrgen Engel Architekten GmbH Anke Wnschmann, Sebastian Tokarz

The Mosque in the bay of Algiers.

At present, the worlds third largest mosque is soon to be erected in the bay of Algiers. The complex complete with prayer hall, courtyard, cultural centre, Imam School, forecourt and minaret will have a GFA of about 440,000 m2 and will be able to host up to 120,000 visitors a day. Located only 6 km east of the historical town centre and not far from the airport, the mosque will encourage the future development of the adjacent district of the city. Construction is scheduled to begin before the end of 2010.

Friday mosque has always been at the centre of islamic everyday life, work, study, social and business life and not least the centre of life for all community members. The unity of these buildings, devoted to religion, teaching and prayer, is also reflected by the architecture chosen, which has been designed and developed on behalf of the Algerian government by a group consisting of KSP Jrgen Engel Architekten, Frankfurt/Berlin, and the engineering company Krebs und Kiefer Inter national, Darmstadt. Other local partners are: Krebs und Kiefer & Partners International S.A.R.L.,Tunis, and Krebs und Kiefer Algrie EURL, Algiers. All buildings in

The Floral Columns and Mosque Courtyard

The leitmotif for the design throughout the edifice are floral pillars with protruding capitals in all areas of the ensemble. The floral columns not only blend harmoniously with the local palm vegetation, but combine load-bearing properties with other technical functions: they provide a surface acoustic equipment, while also integrating ventilation and drainage. The mosques courtyard serves as an extended area for prayer during the holy days. It is embraced and clearly structured on all sides by two/three rows of colonnades featuring the graceful slender blossom-topped columns typical of the entire complex. Moreover, the courtyard links in architectural and in functional terms the sacred prayer hall to the esplanade in the west, the free plaza with the main entrance and the adjacent forecourt.

Layout plan of the complete complex.

the mosque complex share a plinth that is in places up to 5 m high; on this raised plateau, they are aligned from west to east in the direction of Mecca. The platform also ensures the complexs clear spatial separation from the parallel motorway to the north and the profane buildings in the vicinity.

Its use, design and size make the minaret unique in the history of Islam. Here, it rises up to some 265 m, and is thus on the same scale as major skyscrapers; once finished, it will be the highest building in Africa. Moreover, it will be a visible vertical landmark for the City of Algiers per se. For a building of this height, the slender tower has unusual proportions (of width to height), namely of 1:10, quite stunning in a region strongly threatened by earthquakes. The vertical configuration corresponds to the classical subdivision of towers into a plinth, shaft and upper capital. The different faade architecture reflects the different sections and functions. The minarets plinth is completely glass-covered and opens out invitingly to the plaza. Visitors can reach the upper, public floors by means of panorama elevators. These floors house the Museum of Algerian History, which will highlight the religions different epochs and dynasties. Above this will be two research areas accessible only to accredited scholars the Research Centre. Museum and Research Centre are housed in the towers shaft, which is divided into five equal sections each comprising five floors. These are clearly separated from one another by all-glass sky-lobby faades. The multilayered faade for the museum and Research Centre is made up of an outer, ornamental skin made of prefabricated, perforated Moucharabieh faade elements that protect the thermal glass skin behind from direct solar radiation. The Moucharabieh

The Mosques Prayer Hall

The prayer hall or Salle de Prire is a massive cube towering up to 45 m and able to take up to 35,000 people. Its external appearance is defined by the following triadic composition: as basic volume a cube with a footprint of 145 x 145 m, slightly set back from the edge, a cube of about 22.50 m in height, which bears the central dome. At its apex, the latter reaches a height of some 70 m and has a diametre of about 50 m at its base. The interior with its choice materials, restrained ornamentation and indirect natural light creates an impressive spatial experience. All the traditional religious elements such as the Qibla wall, the Mihrab, Minbar and Dikkah are integrated into a hall of modern aesthetics. Daylight from above steeps the hall in continually changing patterns of light and shadow. Together with the traditional elements, the insignia of the islamic religion and the regular rows of pillars, which are up to 45 m in height, the interplay of light and shadow is the real adornment of the interior, creating a space with a sacred, if not mystical character. Following the architecture of traditional islamic prayer halls, the mosques outer skin is made of natural stone, structured by folds, friezes and decorative entrance portals.

Projects 12 / 13

The top of the minaret will be transparent. The glass will cover two viewing platforms, one for visitors, the other for V.I.P. guests, and will wrap around the sommah as the minarets crowning tip. At night, the illuminated glass skin radiates, visible from afar as a point of orientation in Algiers and as its new landmark.

The Park
The mosque complex is linked to the buildings in the south, namely the cultural centre, the library and the Imam School, by a spacious park. This landscaped outdoor area can house a large number of people and also offers a haven of tranquillity. The palm is the predominant tree defining the identity of the whole area. Palm groves right round the mosque provide ample shade. The mosques plazas and forecourts, by contrast, are structured by palm trees planted in regular rows they thus serve as a supplement to the architecture. Fountains foster the overall sense of calm and concentration.

The mosques courtyard with entry to the prayer hall.

elements, designed in keeping with traditional Algerian patterns, give the tower a clear texture of light and shadow, adding an additional sense of depth and dynamism. The four access routes at the towers corners also provide the due rigidity for the minaret, and are clad in bright natural stone; the materials thus set this section off from the other parts of the minaret.

The new mosque (Djama el Djazar) in Algiers is firmly set in the lineage of the major Friday mosques in Algiers, Thlemcen, Cordoba and Medina. In terms of the tradition and the modern rejuvenation of the religion, the mosque represents the religious and social needs of the communitys members. They can practice their faith their in line with the customary ritual and can familiarise themselves in the adjacent institutions with contemporary islamic doctrine. The design by KSP Jrgen Engel Architekten, Frankfurt/ Berlin, and the engineering company Krebs und Kiefer International, Darmstadt, reinterprets traditional Algerian architecture without erasing the historical references. Instead, the building complex forms a successful combination of Algerian tradition and the present. The mosque brings together the cultural wealth of Islam and Algeria with German excellence in architecture and engineering. The high beacon of the minaret (manra) is reminiscent not only of a lighthouse showing the way to those seeking the right path, but could well emerge as the new iconic landmark for the City of Algiers, not to mention for an entire culture, namely the islamic religious community as a whole.

The prayer hall.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Language Currency Main Cities The Kingdom of Bahrain 718,306 includes 235,108 nonnationals (July 2008 estimate) 711.85 km2 Arabic French, English 1 Bahraini Dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils Manama (capital), Muharraq, Isa Town, Riffa, Hamad Town

Projects 14 / 15

An Oasis in the Desert Bahrain International Circuit

Tilke GmbH & Co. KG

Bahrain International Circuit aerial view.

Tilke Engineers & Architects, originally established in 1983, is recognised as the world leading designer for racetrack and test facilities. Tilke designs individual and state-of-the-art racetracks including grandstands, pit buildings, team buildings and other infrastructure facilities by both fulfilling clients needs and the permanently changing requirements on track layout and safety. The design of a racetrack and its appropriate buildings depends on various principles, e.g. its location, approach, picture, function and detail. Each of these principles is interconnected with one other. Removing one of them would be comparable to dislodging a supporting column: the structure would collapse.

Bahrain International Circuit

The Bahrain International Circuit is a good example of Tilkes design philosophy. Its Arabic architecture is reflected by its colours, materials, the tent-shaped roofs, the wind towers etc. Thus, Bahrains tradition and culture has been interpreted in a modern way, all of which promotes the circuits unique atmosphere. The beautiful landscape around Sakhir oasis is where the racetrack is located. The contrast between the oasis and the desert is taken as inspiration: the spectators view follows the drivers taking a ride into the outside desert coming back to

The roofs of the grandstands and several other buildings are equipped with a combination of light fabric tent structures that are based on the traditional Bedouin tents, and the traditional Bahraini wind towers (badqeer) used as basis for the wide-stretched tents. The motif of the wind towers is again taken up for some of the solid building elements. Generally, all solid building elements integrate and interpret elements of Bahraini architecture: the small window sizes, the deep embrasures and the clear sand colour represent all the compactness of traditional architecture. The dynamism of the architecture is not only noticeable during the daytime, but also at night: the external illumination provides a striking effect.
Bahrain International Circuit.

the oasis styled as a centre. This striking feature makes for the unique character of the track, which also inspired German photographer and artist Andreas Gursky to produce one of his famous oversized photo collages. The landscape design of the racetrack leads the visitor into the centre (oasis) of the circuit, which is formed by a double-serving paddock area, allowing operating two circuits independently during the day-to-day business, thus optimising the commercial benefits. The connection of both circuits forms a maximum loop length of 5,400 m for the Formula 1 track. As the tracks width varies at the end of the different straights it enables different race lines, thereby offering various possibilities for breathtaking and challenging overtaking manoeuvres. The impressive building ensemble includes all facilities necessary to host the Formula 1; they are state-of-the-art as well as fully sufficient to support the daily business. The architectural idea took all aspects into consideration: on the one hand lots of high-tech equipment is needed, on the other hand there is the unique and beautiful landscape with its colours and moods and an impressive architectural tradition with its own and distinctive materials. The intensive work with these fundamentals led to the present appearance of the circuit. Besides the character of being a desert track, the circuits particular charm is presented by an attractive mixture of traditional Bahraini and modern architecture combined with the high-tech equipment of a Formula 1 race circuit, while the outstanding V.I.P. tower, as well as the fabric-roofed grandstands, are the outstanding landmarks of this track.

Project Signicance and Impact

The significance of the project is high, as a Formula 1 racetrack is immediately popular everywhere in the world. But not only the important and famous events give the arrangement a significance, also the special architecture and the characteristics of this unique racetrack, like the double-serving paddock area, make Bahrain International Circuit stand out among all Formula 1 circuits worldwide. Thus, the impacts are many-sided: the notoriety of the racetrack leads to an increase in tourism and accordingly promotes the diversification of Bahraini economy further, as the whole economy will profit from the events and all happenings around the racetrack. Due to the immense publicity, the yearly benefits are circular und support the growing infrastructure. Thus, the racetrack can be seen as a constant impulse for the economy in combination with a high identification worldwide. The track and its buildings can become a symbol of Bahrain.

Main grandstand and the paddock area.

Projects 16 / 17

Race control.

V.I.P. tower by night.

Bahrain International Circuit by night.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Arab Republic of Egypt 76,054,112 (Jan. 2009) 1,001,450 km2 Arabic 1 Egyptian Pound = 100 piaster Cairo (Capital), Giza, Tanta, Alexandria, Shubra el-Khema, Port Said, Suez, Mahalla el-Kubra, Hurghada, Sharm el-Sheikh

Projects 18 / 19

Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser

KfW Entwicklungsbank Mandana Bahrinipour and Andreas Holtkotte; Bernd Bauerfeld (Dorsch Gruppe)

Cairo, the capital of Egypt.

Commonly known as Garbage City, Manshiet Nasser re presents one of Cairos largest informal settlements. The area among the foothills of the Mokattam mountains has been developed since the late 50s and early 60s by rural migrants from Upper Egypt. Since then, more and more impoverished people had been driven out of central Cairo a megacity with an estimated current population of around 17 million people into districts such as Manshiet Nasser in the wake of rapid urbanisation. Today, Manshiet Nasser is home to between 800,000 to 1 million people. While still a very poor district of Cairo, the former slum has grown so much over the past years that it

is now almost located in the city centre. Within the dynamic urban quarter even a little industrial area has evolved generating income from recycling and traditional handicrafts; in between the multistory buildings small enterprises, shops and teahouses shape the street scene. The community of Manshiet Nasser is beyond doubt working towards its own future, nonetheless, settlement of the government-owned land mostly took place without any authorisation, land titles and construction plans simple dwellings being erected along the Autostrada, slowly extending uphill to the east as more migrants arrived. As a result the urban development is quite haphazard and entirely lacking any legal basis and proper administrative infrastructure. People have limited

Manshiet Nasser: From informal settlement to legalised district.

access to basic services such as drinking water, sanitation and electricity or other social services such as education and health provision. After the Egyptian government had abandoned its initial plan to demolish the squatter settlement in 1997, and decided instead to turn Manshiet Nasser from an informal area into a legalised district, the German Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) has supported this decision by financing the Participatory Development Programme in Urban Areas (PDP), inter alia in Manshiet Nasser. On behalf of the German government and the Egyptian Ministry of Economic Development (MoED), KfW Entwicklungsbank (German Development Bank) and the German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) are carrying out a participatory development project to establish and secure basic needs, in close cooperation with the Cairo governorate, local administrations, civil society organisations and nongovernmental organisations. The prime

objective of this project is to improve the living conditions of and hence reduce potential health risks to poor residents in Manshiet Nasser by rehabilitating and upgrading the urban infrastructure; this involves the provision and extension of a secure water supply distribution system, the implementation of an organised sewerage system and to a lesser extent the upgrading of the road network. A participatory approach is being applied, in order to combine the demands of the residents on the one hand and the constraints related to the provision of infrastructure by the several authorities on the other. The key element is that residents are involved in the planning processes and that local democracy is promoted; the residents are encouraged to put forward their own solutions in order that aid projects can be tailored to their needs. The sense of ownership of the improved facilities by the beneficiaries will thus guarantee the sustainability of the project. Disbursements to contractors are being managed

Abdel Aal Canal in Manshiet Nasser.

Cultural centre.

Projects 20 / 21

through a local disposition account, administered externally on behalf of the client, including annual audits by an independent financial adviser to international standards. The project is implemented in the form of an open fund, to fully use the available resources, focussing on the three main infrastructure sectors of water supply, sanitation and roads, which have been identified as priorities in the Manshiet Nasser Guide Plan and the subsequent Participatory Budget Planning. The project will also influence the wider urban development of Manshiet Nasser through small Community Development Investments in public facilities and communal initiatives in cooperation with a technical cooperation programme provided by GTZ. The technical cooperation component assists the district predominantly in formalising the urban planning and community development as well as the administration on process development for legalisation. Phase I commenced in Ezbeth Bekhit, a sheikha (subdistrict) of Manshiet Nasser with a 1998 population of 28,900 in 6,490 households. The quarter covers an area of 47 feddans (20.1 ha), mainly stretching along the King Khaled Autostrada. The topography, which is characterised by extreme differences in elevation, is dominated by limestone cliffs, the result of quarrying over the centuries. Phase II extends the project to further parts of Manshiet Nasser. The funding allocated will allow full water distribution and sewerage services to be extended to approximately half of the population and to pave 4.5 km of the internal roads. Due to the low water supply standard (only 59% of households having access to the public potable supply system and some during night hours only) and lack of proper sanitation (only 56% have access to the informally constructed sewerage network, although all dwellings have privately installed septic tanks), the critical environmental and public health conditions prevail in the quarter.

At present neither the quantity of potable water resources nor the pressure in the supply network is sufficient to cover overall demand; similarly, the existing gravity sewers are in a structurally unsound and poorly maintained condition, causing sewage to overflow into the largely unpaved streets and stagnant pools to develop in depressed areas. The main objective in the design of the water and sewerage systems is to minimise the excavation depths of the gravity lines in the very narrow lanes, in order to prevent the collapse of adjacent buildings; small lifting stations are envisaged to evacuate sewage from otherwise inaccessible areas. Shortly after the start of the project things have indeed improved for thousands of people in Manshiet Nasser. A central sewage collection plant has been built and many have already been connected to the drinking water network. It seems that the whole community of Manshiet Nasser does not simply accept the programme, its people virtually identify with it and the success story is catching on: similar projects have been launched in several other suburbs of Cairo and Alexandria.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic of Iraq 28,945,657 (2009) 437,072 km2 Arabic and others 1 Iraqi Dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils Baghdad (Capital), Basra, Mosul, Kirkuk, Najat

Projects 22 / 23

Railway Network Project

Dorsch Gruppe Ulrich Beer

Training of Iraqi railway engineers at Dorsch Gruppe.

International freight traffic to and from Southeast Asia mainly use the route through the Red Sea passing by Suez Canal. However, due to the presence of Somalian pirates security has deteriorated, and the sea route through the Persian Gulf as an alternative becomes more attractive for freight carriers today and definitely in the future. Thus, the importance of Iraq as one of the most important gates in the Middle East is heightened: thanks to its favourably located harbours in the southeast of Iraq, Umm Qasr and al-Fao, it connects both Asia and Europe.

within Iraq especially the railway network in order to link Umm Qasr and al-Fao ports to the north, and vice versa. The implementation of Dry Channel will therefore play an important role in Iraqs future, as it introduces an alternative and more cost-efficient route for the logistics industry with benefits regarding travel time, operational cost, security, etc. So far, similar routes were already in operation linking Umm QasrBaghdadMosulTurkey, Umm QasrBaghdadDeer El Azour (Syria), Umm QasrBaghdadHalab-Lattakia (Syria). However, there are several reasons that hampered the operation of those routes. Apart from the technical issues (broken facilities due to lack of maintenance, low capacity, low speed, etc.), the political situation in Iraq does not allow for a competitive transport provision. It is expected that this will change to the better as soon as the newly improved railway network starts to operate.

Dry Channel
Development of strategy with regard to Iraqs long-term visions had included the discussion of the so-called Dry Channel, a basic concept to improve the transportation network

Parts of the project were conceived more than twenty years ago. During this time local conditions and constraints have changed. In addition, railway technology has been further developed, making it imperative to update all designs. Furthermore, the project sites pose particular difficulties: the project area consists partially of desert and some marsh areas, in addition to a mine field area from the Iraq-Iran war where explosive ordnance disposal services had to be executed.

IraqJordan Railway Link

The IraqJordan railway link as the major part of the planned transportation network of the Iraqi Transport Masterplan (ITMP) shall connect Iraq with its neighbouring country Jordan. From the Jordanian point of view Iraq is up to now the country that needs Jordanian transportation infrastructure to facilitate the transfer of transit goods between the Port of Aqaba and the central part of Iraq. The connection between Iraq and Jordan is currently realised by a two-lane road on which approximately 2,200,000 tons and 8,300,000 passengers are transported each year. It is expected that freight and passenger traffic will increase significantly in coming years. Therefore, both countries have agreed to expand their railway networks by realising a new railway line from the Jordanian city Zarqa to the Iraqi border at Trebil and from Trebil to Mafraq Al Rutba road junction in order to facilitate freight and passenger traffic between the two countries. The 400-km railway section comprises 14 passing stations, three small und three large stations (Al Rutbah, station 6 at km 341+800 and Trebil). It is expected that the new railway link will improve freight and passenger movement to a faster, more competitive and more secure access to the national and international markets. Iraq and Jordan have agreed to expand their railway network to achieve this goal. Design of structures include 25 wadi bridges, 19 rural road overpasses, ten rural road underpasses and approximately eighty culverts with various dimensions.

Iraqi railway engineers on-site visit by train.

Furthermore, the government of Iraq aims to improve the transport situation in general, as three wars and the imposing of sanctions in the 1990s led to the deterioration of economy in general and of infrastructure in particular: no routine transport facility maintenance or opening of new routes has come about which led to limited mobility for the Iraqi people.

Challenge of the Project

The railway network project in Iraq with a total length of 660 km comprises a new WestEast railway link as part of the Dry Channel connecting Jordan with the Iraqi railway network. The BasrahFao line to be established in southern Iraq is an important connection of the network to al-Fao. The existing HajamaSawa line from Baghdad to Basra has to be upgraded. Fourth part of the project is the RamadiKerbala track through Mesopotamia. Furthermore, the rehabilitation of al-Fat Ha Bridge, damaged severely during the Iraq war in 2003, was commissioned.

The idea to improve the transport network in Iraq was already discussed in the early 1980s, when Henderson Hughes & Busby initially analysed alternative routes. The study recommended the so-called route No. 3: the Basrahal-Fao railway project as part of the planned infrastructure network of the Master Plan shall connect the city of Basrah an industrial and cultural centre in southern Iraq with the new al-Fao port to facilitate

Survey of railway line HajamaSawa.

Projects 24 / 25

international trade. The project railway has a length of approximately 110 km. Design of structures includes pipeline overpasses, pipeline box culverts, pedestrian underpasses and standard rural road overpasses.

The HajamaSawa railway with a length of approximately 17 km is part of the existing single-track railway line from Baghdad to Basra. Iraqi Republic Railways (IRR) intends to upgrade the line between both Hajama and Sawa stations with a second track running parallel and as close as possible to the existing track. The construction of the additional track HajamaSawa starts at Hajama station 0+583,500 m and ends at Sawa station. The railway project will cross the Euphrates and two of its branches the rivers al-Suwer and al-Atshan on three major bridges. In addition, the alignment will also pass three local roads on single superstructure bridges. Design of structures includes four railway bridges, one temporary bridge, three road underpasses and 37 standard culverts.

Al-Fat Ha Railway bridge damaged in Iraq war 2003.

Al-Fat Ha Bridge
The existing railway bridge, which is an important part of the railway line between Haylaniyah to Kirkuk, has been damaged by allied bombing in the Iraq war 2003. As a consequence pipelines in the neighbourhood were set on fire. These fires affected the bridge, namely the piers, heavily. Due to this situation, the al-Fat Ha bridge has to be reconstructed. Certain members of the bridge will be reused or strengthened, others will be exchanged completely. This railway bridge is the longest bridge of the line Kirkuk BaijiHaditha (24 spans x 40 m = 960 m) and crosses the Tigris at al-Fat Ha. Due to the slope of 4.526% the eastern end of the bridge is higher than the western end by 4.345 m. This bridge is located at the midway between the al-Fat Ha Way station and the Sarai al-Fadhil Way station. Railway networks improvement projects above will result in better mobility for the Iraqi people, assuring the movement of goods and therefore boost the economy in Iraq.

Basrahal-Fao railway project.

The RamadiKerbala railway project is designed as a double track with a total length of approximately 133 km, its alignment will run through the Mesopotamian plain. The predominant soil types in the Mesopotamian plain are finegrained sediments, generally medium to stiff clayey silts and sandy silty clays. Design includes seven railway bridges, 17 road bridges, five road underpasses, and standard culverts.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan 6,198,677 (July 2009 est.) 92,300km2 Arabic official language, English widely spoken 1 Jordanian Dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils Amman (Capital), Al Ramtha, Al Mafraq, Irbid, Ajloun, Jarash, Salt, Zarqa, Aqaba

Projects 26 / 27

Aqaba Residence Energy Efciency (AREE)

Sustainable building is a recent phenomenon in Jordan. Due to rising energy prices there is a growing awareness among the public of the need to save energy. Water efficiency is also important for Jordan, as it is listed among the four poorest countries worldwide in terms of water. The biggest challenge for sustainable building in Jordan is, however, the use of materials and the reduction of construction waste: environmentally friendly materials are scarce and local suppliers are often not familiar with material specifications. On top of that, many local Jordanian contractors are not used to work with these materials and to build from drawings. Together with the Center for Study of the Built Environment in Amman, Tariq Emtairah, a Jordanian working in Sweden, commissioned the construction of a pilot project to demonstrate the advantages of sustainable building and the economic feasibility of energy-efficient buildings. The design brief for AREE did not only include residential functions, the building also had to serve as an information centre for sustainable building design and construction and should provide rooms for visiting researchers to work. Together with strict planning rules from the local municipality and a beautiful view towards the Gulf of Aqaba there were enough ingredients for a challenging design process. The result is a multifunctional, environmentally friendly building of 420 m2, three storeys high, including living room, kitchen, study, family room, six bedrooms, three bathrooms, garage, storage, and basement. All to be either used as one-family home or to be divided per floor, with the public area at the ground floor and private apartments on the upper floors.

gtz International Services Florentine Visser

conditions and views on site, together with the most common construction methods in Jordan (plastered blockwork and stone cladding), were the starting point for the architectural concept. The passive use of solar energy is optimised by the orientation and layout of the house: spaces used for brief periods (bathrooms, garage, corridor) are located on the southwest side, the hottest area of the house, to create a buffer that prevents the main spaces such as bedrooms from heating up too much in summer. Moreover, each floor has an attractive and comfortable outdoor space that is shaded and enjoys a refreshing breeze. Here, occupants can spend the day during the hot season, in a manner similar to the local Bedouin tent tradition. Additionally, natural ventilation is improved by carefully positioned windows, doors, ventilation openings and the main staircase, which is designed to work as a wind tower. Movable shades prevent solar warming in the summer period, but allow for solar heat to enter during the winter to minimise the heat load. The north-facing main volume accommodates the bedrooms to reduce the cooling load. This main volume is finished in traditional plasterwork with added straw, which further minimises the cooling load by decreasing the heat transfer.

Environmental Architecture Embedded in Local Setting

Aqaba is located in the south of Jordan, where summer temperatures rise above 40 C, and winters are mild. There is hardly any need for heating. Thus, the challenge for the passive-solar design of the building was to provide a comfortable indoor climate. An analysis of sunshine, wind

Design concept.

AREE Facts

The use of cement is reduced an environmentally important aspect, tool and the result is a nice texture that will get more expressive in time. Kitchen and dining area are designed as open-plan featuring oriental ornaments and continuous floor finishing, to connect the interior and exterior spaces between the main volume and the living area. The subvolume of the living area is cladded with recycled stone from local stone companies. The roof garden above offers a fine view to the front and an outdoor terrace. Since the 40-cm-deep garden soil has a great capacity of accumulating heat and the plants provide further shade, the roof garden works as a cooling element and contributes to reduction of the cooling load, too. Although shades prevent interior spaces from receiving solar heat, construction techniques improve the insulation and heat accumulation capacity of the building envelope significantly: the cavity walls are insulated by blocks with volcanic and perlite aggregate as well as insulation materials such as rockwool and polystyrene. In addition, the roof structure is insulated, which is uncommon in Jordan. Even more unusual for Jordanian construction practice is the insulation of heat bridges at the floor-wall connections. The heat accumulation capacity is further increased by the north cavity wall being filled with sand, the natural stone in the interior wall finishing and the roof garden. All design and construction elements were easy to plan on the drawing board, however, it required a lot of discussion with the structural engineer and contractor on site.


Florentine Visser (Netherlands)


Tariq Emtairah (Sweden)


Mohammed Abu Afeefeh (Jordan)

Garden Design:

Matilda Nilsson (Sweden)

CO -Funding:

MED ENEC (European Union)


Philips Lighting NV (Netherlands) Aqaba Special Economic Zone Authority (Jordan) National Energy Research Center (NERC) (Jordan)

Center for Study of the Built Environment (Jordan)

Project Adress:

Project address: 9th area, Aqaba, Jordan

Energy Savings
The design and construction save 30% on the cooling load compared to conventional practice. To ensure significant savings on electricity bills, the installations are the last step in the strategy for energy-efficient design. The energy-efficient lighting design provided by Philips is one aspect. Another is solar cooling, a sustainable cooling concept based on hot water from solar panels as a source of energy for an adsorption chiller that produces chilled water to cool the space: the sun heats the water needed to run the cooling system. This is the first application of a solar-cooling installation in Jordan and very promising. With the solar cooling system the total savings on electricity costs are estimated at 72%. Taking in consideration the additional investment cost, the expected payback time is less then nine years. To make AREE almost self-sustainable in terms of energy supply, the design provides the possibility

Design view.

Projects 28 / 29

Climate concept plan 1st oor.

Climate concept plan section.

Ground oor plan.

Second oor plan.

to incorporate photo-voltaic panels to generate electricity and to add further shading for outdoor spaces. The total savings could then reach 93%. So far, no funding for these additional features was available. Energy saving is important, but water saving is essential for the future of Jordan: AREE is the first residential project in Aqaba equipped with a dual plumbing system for grey and black waste. Grey water from showers and sinks is filtered by a sand-gravel bed with bamboo and supplies the required water for irrigation. In her garden design, landscape architect Matilda Nilsson selected plants and trees that are suitable for the Aqaba climate and minimise the need for irrigation, too. Together with water-saving taps, toilets and shower heads, the total expected saving on water consumption is 51%.

However, a good architectural design and improved building technology and installations are not enough to achieve sustainable building: cooperation and communication are essential in both the design and execution phases to achieve an integrated project. AREE offers a model and lessons learned on the possibilities and challenges in the field of sustainable building in Jordan. Hopefully, AREE is also an inspiring work of architecture and pleasant homes. As everything is subject to change, so is the use of the house: in early 2010, AREE opened as The Aqaba House, the first environmentally friendly Bed & Breakfast in Aqaba.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Commercial Currency Main Cities State of Kuwait 2.7 million, including 1.3 million nonnationals (2009) 17,820 km2 Arabic English 1 Kuwait Dinar (KD) = 1.000 fils Kuwait City (Capital), Salmiya, Ahmadi, Shuwaikh

Projects 30 / 31

Al-Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium)

ASS Planungs GmbH Architects and Engineers Susanne Schmid schlaich bergermann und partner structural consulting engineers Dipl.-Ing. Knut Gppert

From top to bottom, left to right: View from training eld. View from parking area. Roof, top view. Upper tier seating.

Project Site
During the first years of this century the State of Kuwait and its authorities promoted the development of a new National Sports Complex. The site selected for this International Football and Athletics Stadium is situated within the suburb of Ardiyah, north to the Sixth Ring Road and bound between Mohamed Ibn al-Qasem Street and East Ardiyah Road, ca. 12 km southwest of Kuwait City centre. After various realignments the total site comprises an area of approximately 400,000 m. The re-aligned area complies with the appropriate site requirements of an international stadium for 60,000 spectators and approximately 7,500 car parking spaces as well

as various stadium-related training and warming-up facilities comprising a 400 m running track of 8 lanes with all associated athletic (track & field) facilities, including an interior turf pitch and a special football pitch. In principle, the complete FIFA and IAAF (international sports federations for football and athletics) regulations, guidelines and recommendations were carefully taken into consideration for the planning of the facilities mentioned.

Design Idea
Out of various concept alternatives the design idea of the stadium was briefly named as dhow shape. Behind the overall

architectural configuration of the stadiums huge, bulged building mass with its saddle-shaped roof this indigenous feature is recognisable. However, the form was essentially developed out of stadium-specific conditions and was not transferred from the historic vessel of the Arabian Gulf itself: first, the preferred seats are alongside the playing field or the running track; second, spectators viewing distances grow proportionally to football-related limits at 150 m (to max. 190 m) between the extreme corner of the playing field and the spectator. Thus, to form a bowl on an almost circular footprint (although the playing field itself is rectangular) is the obvious solution, as thereby an optimum viewing circle for most spectators can be assured. The second prominent feature of the design idea is the entailing double-curved roof geometry in form of a hyperbolic paraboloid (saddle shape), a condition, which strongly influences the economy of an prestressed cable structure with translucent cladding.

front of the entrance and reception hall with a passage leading to the fully air-conditioned viewing lounge. On the western stadium side, this level includes conveniences for HH the Amir and his retinue, additionally via segregated entrances lobbies, working spaces, special boxes and studios for the media as well as offices for the administration can be found. Arranged around the central stadium axis and on the eastern side a total of 42 corporate boxes (hospitality suites) including associated lobbies are provided. On the northern, eastern and southern sides this concourse level also provides spectatorrelated facilities and access to the seating areas. The lower tier of the stadium bowls offers seating for approximately 22,000 spectators, including 250 primary V.I.P. seating in the viewing lounge and another 500 secondary V.I.P. seats; additionally, the corporate boxes provide seating for approximately 500 guests. Furthermore, a special space on the northern and southern sides of the gap at the upper edge of the lower tier provides best views for physically handicapped spectators visiting sports events with or without attendance.

Level Layouts
There is a clear structure in the functional and spatial allocation strictly following a very detailed space allocation programme, the aforementioned FIFA and IAAF handbooks and media guides as well as the overall local regulatory frame and, last but not least, stadium-specific experience and trends. Level 0 as the lowest of a total of four levels is arranged approximately 5 m below ground or access level. Access is provided by four ramps to the arena gates. An internal road corridor provides access to all functional spaces for the athletes and sports event participants and, furthermore, to all stores and the main central building services plant rooms. The arena itself with its four gates is fitted out with all footballand athletic-related facilities and has received full olympic characteristics in size, shape and visibility. Level 1 is arranged above ground at all sides and is therefore the actual ground level with respect to the access roads and the surrounding stadium perimeter apron. The V.I.P. entrance is provided on two levels, the lower assigned for V.I.P.s, the upper is dedicated to HH the Amir, state officials and honorary guests. Level 2 is placed in the approximately 3-m-high gap between the lower and the upper tier of the stadium bowl. A prominent, almost processional access system on the western side for HH the Amir and honorary guests is set up in a circular drive-up covered by an arts-craft glass canopy in

Bowl Access, Circulation and Viewing Distances

Level 3 as the upper concourse is an intermediate level and is designed to continue the concourse of level 2. It extends to all sides and forms an additional perimeter circulation area for the spectators of the upper tier and ends, where the conveniences for the Sovereign and his guests in the gap zone between the tiers begin. On all bowl sides (except main stand) the access stairways coming from level 2 lead to the lower and also upper vomitoria of the upper tier, thus fulfilling the FIFA requirements for an access and egress system of stringent order and discipline for the sake of spectators safety. The total spectator bowl lies within a 130-m circle from the centre of the playing field and the optimum viewing circle of 90 m encloses the complete lower tier on both longitudinal stadium sides.

Spectator Roong
Since a stadium roof is based on the spectators comfort requirements (or demands) for providing shelter against rain, sun, wind and dust. And since FIFA not only recommends, but requests to have stadia with world cup qualifications with at least 70% of the seats covered, the International Stadium is provided with a roof unique in structure and dimensions: the roof top view shows the almost circular roof area of

Projects 32 / 33

approximately 42,500 m; its geometry is determined by the shape of the seating bowl which results in a double-curved structural system. Its saddle shape is interrupted by an elliptical-circular opening just above the centre of the playing field which has an diametre of approximately 88/113 m. The roof cladding excludes of course not only the structurally required circular area of the central opening, but also the elliptic area above the arena. Its structure of a single-layer cable-net system is based on a bicycle wheel: the radial and ring cables are arranged within the steel compression ring (the rim of the bicycle wheel) and the inner main tension ring (replacing the central node of a typical spoked wheel). The compression ring is clearly perceptible at the exterior perimeter, as is the tension ring which encloses the inner roof opening and the cladding edge, forming thus an ellipse of 146/118 m axis lengths. The placing of the compression ring on the main concrete cantilevers, and the radial-concentric cablenet system spanned between compression and tension rings provides a visually simple but unique structural composition. The roof cladding is composed of conical membrane elements supported by flying masts. The translucent PTFE-coated glassfibre fabric is perfectly suited to provide sufficient natural light for the seating area; furthermore, its self-cleaning properties are superior. The combination of steel tubes for compression forces, high-strength prestressed cables for the tension elements and the light weight membrane material is most qualified for large roof coverings of the magnitude of the new Kuwait stadium.

programme-related requirements and standards. The strict structuring of the bowl exteriors with their boom-like vertex tops make the support positions of the compression ring as one essential roof element clearly visible, the cantilever beams further underline the bearing and stiffening function of the whole superstructure and call to mind the indigenous feature of the Arabian Gulf dhow.

Time Flow
Preliminary design was finalised by mid 2001; final design and tender documents by early 2002. Tender procedure including evaluation was concluded by end of 2002. Construction started in 2004, after an interruption due to political reasons only, and was completed in 2008.

For the study, design and planning of the Jaber al-Ahmad International Stadium Kuwait the State of Kuwait, represented by the Public Authority for Youth and Sports, appointed (the former) Weidleplan Consulting GmbH, Stuttgart/Germany, whose design and planning architects (and engineers) are now based at the architectural and engineering office of ASS Planungs GmbH, Stuttgart/Germany. ASS is an expert in the field of sports architecture and has, among others, been responsible for the planning and construction of the wrestling and the weightlifting hall for the Commonwealth Games 2010 in New Delhi. The local collaboration partner was Sief Engineering Consultants of Kuwait. The design team included as special and expert subconsultants for the projects roof structure the renowned office of schlaich bergermann und partner, with offices in Stuttgart, Berlin, New York and So Paulo. Its managing director Knut Gppert is one of the worlds leading experts in roof design, responsible for as many as twenty realised large stadium roofs, among others for Dubai Sports City, the latest new stadia in South Africa (in Port Elizabeth, Durban, Cape Town and Johannesburg) for the FIFA World Cup 2010 and many new stadia on the drawing boards.

Section-related Findings and Expertise

The sections reveal the figurative origin of the term dhowshaped: dived in the ground by one storey (arena level) and booming up to the bulged stand perimeter a similarity between the traditional vessel and the stadium cross section is evident. The arrangement of two tiers overlapping each other thus providing less distance between the spectators of the upper tier to the arena is one characteristic feature of the design; another one is the continuous slot between the two tiers promoting favourably the air circulation for spectator stands and arena by this jet principle. The sections also show the continuous ventilation gap between the upper bowl perimeter edge and the compression ring of the roof. The elevations on each side convey a stadium image of motion and emotion as well as functional compliance with the


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic of Lebanon 3,971,941 (July 2008 estimate) 10,452 km2 Arabic with both English and French widely spoken Lebanese Pound = 100 Piaster Beirut (Capital)

Projects 34 / 35

Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida

Passavant-Roediger GmbH Michael Pfeifle

Municipal solid waste treatment plant in Saida, Lebanon.

Saida is an ancient coastal city at the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km in the south of Beirut. It has a population of over 230,000 and is still growing. The landfill used for the disposal of waste is close to the seaside. The environmental impact is very high: in times of stormy weather, parts of the landfill are washed into the sea and thus pollute the beaches. However, there is no other area for the landfill available, but the municipality has been under high political pressure to find alternative solutions for the waste management of the city. In September 2003, the private Lebanese investor IBC signed a contract with several partners for the design, erection and commissioning of a complete mechanical-biological

treatment plant for the municipal solid waste of Saida. The main contractors are the Lebanese construction company Sidoon Environmental and the German company PassavantRoediger for the mechanical-electrical part of the digestion plant, sludge dewatering, biogas treatment and storage. The treatment plant is located at the southern periphery of Saida where soil had to be raised to built an artificial peninsula of approximately 20,000 m. Construction was completed by September 2008, and after performing the necessary cold tests the authorities granted the operation permit. In May 2009, the plant was ready for commissioning. Negotiations are ongoing to establish a joint venture between IBC and a German partner to guarantee an adequate management of MSWTC Saida during the next 15 to 20 years.

The Treatment Process

The company Passavant-Roediger has developed a treatment process by which household waste can be separated in various fractions, and valuable substances like metal, paper, textiles and plastics can be recycled. Another aspect of this process is the biological treatment of organic waste in order to produce biogas and fertiliser for agricultural use. The process water used for several treatment steps is to a high degree reused in the plant. 10 to 30% of process water is treated prior to its disposal into the sea or to its reuse. The residual waste is economically separated and prepared for recycling. The concept guarantees: Minimising of the total solid waste to landfill Reutilisation of recyclable matter Protection of the resources by utilisation of the produced biogas Reuse of the waste water after treatment and disinfecting Reuse of the organic fraction from waste and waste water by conditioning and utilisation as fertiliser

know-how and technology. Within the first step, the socalled mechanical pretreatment, the fractions, which are not biodegradable and/or can be reused as raw material, e.g. metal and plastics, are separated from the organic waste fraction by means of crushing, splitting and separation. Within the second step, the so-called biological treatment, the enriched organic fraction is treated anaerobically. The fine fraction produced through the mechanical treatment is fed to two feed preparation tanks (FPT) where it is transformed into a liquid suspension by adding process water coming from the process water tank. At this stage the mineral fraction containing sand, stones, glass, ceramics, etc. is separated from the organic suspension. This is particularly important as minerals, which are coming with the waste in considerable amount, may cause many incidents, i.e. sand blockages, wearing and tearing of pumps, pipes and gate valves. The separation itself is performed by a special backwashing and heavy reject-removal procedure, which is regularly applied and part of the continuous feed preparation process. The gained bio-suspension, which contains the organic matter of the waste, is finally fed to the two digesting tanks, which are build concrete and have a total height of 30 m each and an inner diametre of 19 m, comprising a total volume of 7,300 m. The temperature inside is maintained by continuous sludge heating. During the following digestion process the organic substance is decomposed by means of microorganisms. By this anaerobic process, which is run in completely closed digestion tanks without any air and light, biogas is produced, which is used for the generation of heat and electricity. The output of the digestion process is a compost-like material which contains organic carbon as well as nutrients like nitrogen and phosphate. The digestion process generates enough energy to run the entire plant without the need for any external source of energy. The bio-suspension coming from the feed preparation tanks is mixed with a certain amount of recycled sludge from the digesters. It is then pumped into the digesters. Consequently, light particles, which are entrapped in the thicker feed suspension, float to the surface of the digestion liquid. The light reject is regularly taken out of the reactor to keep the surface free of scum. The dewatered, light reject material is then collected in containers. The entire process is an intensified digestion process well mixed by the Passavant-Roediger gas injection system with 14 hanging gas lances in each digester. The gas-injection system

Daily, 300 tons of solid waste of the City of Saida are delivered to the plant with vehicles. The solid waste includes: house garbage, branches and tree leaves, vegetable market waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, tires, batteries, metals and whatever is reasonably described as municipal waste, consisting of the following:

Organic material Paper/cardboard Plastics Glass Metals Textiles Inert/others Total

63% 11% 11% 5% 3% 4% 3% 100%

58% 19% 10% 6% 3% 2% 2% 100%

60% 15% 11% 5% 3% 3% 3% 100%

The treatment concept consists of two steps: the mechanical pretreatment and the biological treatment using the principle of anaerobic digestion in which Passavant-Roediger here applied their extensive experience and integral development

Projects 36 / 37

Environmental Measures and Outlook

A comprehensive waste water and waste air management is provided in order to reduce emissions from the plant as far as possible. Therefore, the water consumption is optimised in such a manner that the water needed for the process is reused in an internal cycle as far as possible. Air emissions are captured, and the waste air is purified by means of a biological system (biofilter) and a chemical scrubber system. Especially odorous substances are thus removed and the odour of waste is after purification not noticeable . Furthermore, all noise-intensive machinery is installed inside or equipped with sound-damping so that noise emissions from the operation of the plant are reduced as far as possible. The municipal solid waste treatment plant of Saida is a first step towards an overall concept for waste management in Lebanon and is to be considered a pioneer plant for further similar projects in the Middle East and Northern Africa.

Conveyor belts transport the mechanically pretreated waste to the feed preparation tanks where the waste is mixed with recycled process water. Sand and minerals are separated through the hoppers by means of pneumatic sluices.

ensures an excellent mixture of the reactor content to maintain minimum temperature and concentration gradients. This is particularly important for a proper working digestion process with maximum organic conversion rates and a maximum gas yield to be achieved. In the digestion process 50 to 60% of the organic load is converted into reusable biogas. Measuring instruments are installed to monitor the digestion process and the gas utilisation. The biogas produced contains approximately 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide as main components. Approximately 19,000 m/d of cleaned biogas is available for further use. During normal operation the gas will be used in a cogeneration plant to produce approximately 40,000 kWh/d of electrical energy and approximately 45,000 kWh/d of thermal energy. From a buffer storage tank the anaerobically treated sludge is pumped to the four mechanical dewatering machines where it is mixed with flocculent to support the dewatering process, in which the sludge is dewatered to a dry solid content of approximately 30%. It is then treated in a postmaturation step. For this purpose approximately 11,000 m of open space is available to produce compost which can be used in agriculture as fertiliser or for landscaping. The filtrate which comes out of the dewatering machines is pumped into the process water tank for the internal recycling and reuse in the feed preparation tanks. All separated fractions with a high calorific value can be used as an auxiliary fuel, e.g. in the cement industry.


Fact File
Country name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya 6,173,579 (July 2008 estimate) 1.8 million km2 Arabic 1 Libyan Dinar = 1,000 Dirhams Tripoli (Capital), Benghazi, Misurata, Sabha, Tobruk

Projects 38 / 39

Design and Construction

Papadopoulos Associates GmbH Dipl.-Ing. Jrgen Papadopoulos

Car, shopping and ofce centre.

Opportunities and Challenges

Arab-German business relations over the last few years have been mainly dominated by the field of construction and project design, which was and will always remain one of the main business activities for German companies abroad. At the beginning of 2005, North African countries and especially Libya started to modernise their infrastructure and installed nationwide projects to develop their activities under a coordinated umbrella. In the 70s and 80s German construction companies have already contributed to the development of Libyan infrastructure. However, this came to a complete halt during the severe economic sanctions. Since their removal, the liberal opening of the Libyan market around 2001 and the huge revenues from the oil export, investments into the

infrastructure projects have been taken up again due to the high need to catch up. During this period, the Papadopoulos Group started to develop its business activities in project design, project management and project operation.

New Infrastructure Projects in Libya

Key to leading a country into the future is installing a modern infrastructure that is functioning countrywide. Libya has thus not only started infrastructure projects such as waste and real-estate projects like housing, offices, hospitals, industrial parks, tourist resorts, but is also investing in developing a nationwide railway system as well as the airport, ports and various street and traffic projects. All these are coordinated by the Ministry of Utilities, Housing and Infrastructure Board (HIB), the Organisation of Development of Administrative

Car, shopping and ofce centre.

Centres (ODAC) and the Social Economic Fund (SEF) as well as many other national planning offices. The General Board for Projects was established a few months ago in order to centrally coordinate the numerous projects, which focus at the moment on: Transportation: streets, railway, ports and airport Housing and living projects Commercial real estate projects: offices, hotel, shopping centres, etc. Public buildings: hospitals, conference centre, university, etc. Waste and infrastructure: waste, electricity, water, etc.

Vital to planning infrastructure projects is to understand that a modern infrastructure system should not simply copy western design, but should adapt modern technologies to local processes. Thus, the challenge is to avoid past mistakes other countries already made and to consider new technologies like energy-saving concepts as well as economical and reliable techniques. As it lies in the nature of those projects to be long-term, they can only be accelerated by single mandatory projects, like airports for example. Yet, an infrastructure master plan is still one of the major tasks. Albeit it is mandatory to target main infrastructure projects for rural areas too, Libyan authorities focus at the moment on the major cities, especially Tripoli: big housing projects have been realised and are still under construction. In the run-up to the 40th anniversary of the 1969 revolution, numerous projects were accelerated. However, this did not last, as after this important date projects seem to be driven by more economic principles rather than by a great logistic perspective of the infrastructure development. As mentioned already, all actual infrastructure projects are organised by state-owned coordination systems such as

In total, these infrastructure projects amount to 100 billion Libyan dinars.

New Challenge in Libya

Since 2005, PAPADOPOULOS GROUP together with its local partner is engaged on the Libyan market as it believes that Libya has and will have a high potential to realise its infrastructure projects.

Projects 40 / 41

ministries or funds. Though lately private joint ventures have taken up the initiative as well. This is possibly due to the fact that the legal environment has developed favourably. Also under way is the installation of a countrywide geographic system which will update important documents like maps.

Business Concept

In our projects, we found that a clear understanding of the quality and demand these long-term projects make on the invested competence in designing and managing them is essential for their successful completion. German expertise and know-how in terms of construction standards like DIN and project management reporting tools, such as finance control systems, are highly welcome as all concerned are interested in finding the right modus operandi for these large-scale projects.

The serious support of the projects, driven not only by business but also by a necessary identification with the project and the countrys demands are from our point of view key factors for successful business in Libya, naturally combined with a long-term engagement in the country itself. A cross-cultural communication style such as a flexible time management, planning and negotiation are necessarily important factors for success. In Libya this is known as: Without flexibility no success.

The instalment of a local office with local staff is the natural result of this. The local staff has to be trained with view to combine German expertise with local know-how to guarantee the mentioned quality. Due to absent practical experience of many Libyan engineers, employers sponsor the qualification and the expertise development. To integrate the training of staff right from the beginning is advised. Thus, foreign companies have an advantage over competitors.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Kingdom of Morocco 34,860,000 (July 2009 estimate) 710,850 km2 Arabic Moroccan dirham (MAD) = 100 centimes Rabat (Capital), Casablanca, Fes, Marrakech, Meknes, Oujda, Agadir, Tangier, Tetouan, Layoune

Projects 42 / 43

Ain Bni Mathar an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant

Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG Klaus Richardt

Erection status February 2009: First mirror mounted on site.

This article describes the technical features, financing and construction of the first integrated solar-combined cycle power plant at Ain Bni Mathar in Morocco, which is being built by Office Nationale de llectricit Morocco (ONE), Abengoa (EPC contractor) and Fichtner as consultant to ONE. Fichtner performed the initial studies, drew up the tender documents as well as assisted ONE in selection and contract negotiations with the successful bidder. At present we finalised the design review and assist ONE in assuring the quality standards

during construction are met; construction is scheduled for completion in summer 2010.

Project Description
Ain Bni Mathar is the first integrated solar-combined cycle power plant actually under construction in Moroccos northern province of Jerada. Contracts for construction and five years of initial operation and maintenance were awarded to the Abengoa Group, Spain, in April 2007 under an EPC contract. Owner of the plant is Office National de llectricit

The concept of the Ain Bni Mathar ISCC. In a conventional combined cycle power plant, the hot exhaust gases of the gas turbine(s) are used in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam which can power the steam turbine. In an ISCC integrated solar-combined cycle power plant additional steam is raised in a parabolic trough solar eld. Thus, during daytime, the electricity yield is increased.

(ONE), Morocco, the countrys national energy supplier, who awarded a contract to the Fichtner Group for consultancy services, covering the feasibility study, drawing up the tender documents, tender evaluation and, since April 2008, design review, site supervision during construction, commissioning and assistance to the client during the warranty period. The 472-MW-combined cycle power plant consists of two Alstom GT13 E2 gas turbines, two heat-recovery steam generators built by Cerrey (Mexico), one Alstom steam turbine, one evaporation pond, one 225 kV substation, one solar field with parabolic trough mirrors and heat transfer to the boilers via high temperature fluid (HTF) as well as BoP equipment, workshop and offices. The combined cycle plant receives its fuel via a 13 km connection pipeline to the MaghrebEurope gas pipeline with additional thermal energy from the solar field. The electrical rating of the plant is 472 MWe. The total annual production is 3,538 GWh/y, of which 40 GWh/y come from the solar field. The generated electricity is evacuated via two 225 kV power lines to Oujda and Bourdim. The total construction time is scheduled at 22 months for the simple cycle gas turbines and 34 months for the entire combined cycle with the solar part. The simple cycle gas turbine was

commissioned in December 2009, with commissioning of the entire plant foreseen in May 2010. The solar field consists of parabolic-cylindrical collectors concentrating the solar radiation onto a central collector tube, through which flows high temperature fluid (HTF) that transfers its heat to the steam generator of the combined cycle. Each collector consists of a row of six mirrors. The typical length of a collector is 99 m, its width is 5.76 m and its reflector surface is 545 m. Four collectors make up a row and two adjacent rows form a loop that discharges its HTF to the central piping system connected to the HTF/steam heat exchangers. There are fifty rows in the north and 62 rows in the south of the central piping system. The power

Erection status September 2008: Mirror workshop erected.

Projects 44 / 45

plant itself is set in the middle of the northern solar field, so the total number of rows here is only fifty. Cleaning and maintenance of the collectors is done from the aisles between the collectors.

In summer 2009, gas turbine no. 1 passed its performance test and gas turbine no. 2 started its commissioning. Erection of the heat recovery steam generators, steam turbine, aero condenser and solar field continued. In December 2009, the two gas turbines were operative. Since March 2010 cold commissioning of the steam turbine is underway and the solar field is complete to approximately 95% (see figure 4). We are optimistic that we will get the entire plant operational by summer 2010.

Financing of the Project

Financing of the 452-million plant is assured by following sources: 1. African Development Bank: 287.8 million 2. World Environmental Fund: 36.6 million 3. ONE and Abengoa: 127.6 million

The official inauguration of the project took place on 28 March 2008, when His Majesty Mohammed VI, King of Morocco, unveiled the traditional stone monument into which he inserted the tube containing the inauguration act. In May 2008, Abener, the engineering arm of Abengoa, together with local subsuppliers started the works by levelling the plant area and excavating the pits for the gas turbine and transformer foundations. At the same time ONE started to built its switchyard, which is not part of the Abengoa project. In September 2008, the workshop for manufacture of the solar collectors was erected (see figure 3), the gas turbine foundations were under construction and a start had been made on erecting the pipe racks for the steam generators. In October 2008, the first one of two gas turbines arrived on site, and this was mounted on its foundation. Civil construction of all other buildings progressed, and in December 2008, the main transformers had been mounted on their foundations. In February 2009, the first of 2,688 mirrors was mounted on its foundation (see figure 1) and the 13 km long 14" pipe connection to the MaghrebEurope gas pipeline was completed. Electrical installations and erection of the gas turbines continued. Between April and June 2009, the water supply and water treatment systems were finished as well as the gas turbines, the GT bypasses and the pipe racks. The two heat-recovery steam generators, aero condenser and steam turbine powerhouse main crane were under construction. First synchronisation of gas turbine no. 1 took place in May 2009.

Erection status March 2010: ISCC almost completed.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Sultanate of Oman 2.8 million (June 2009) 309,500 km2 Arabic, with English widely spoken 1 Rial = 1000 biaza (Fixed Peg with US Dollar) Muscat (Capital), Salalah, Sohar, Sur, Nizwa, Duqm

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Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy

Ferrostaal AG Dr. Matthias Mitscherlich

Ferrostaal implemented a methanol plant in Sohar, which forms an important part of the strategy to diversify the Omani economy.

The level of prosperity in Oman is mainly due to its large reserves of oil. In future, it is hoped to maintain this prosperity through explorating and refining natural gas. Ferrostaal implemented a methanol plant in Sohar for the Oman Methanol Company L.L.C., which forms an important part of the strategy to diversify the Omani economy. The Sultanate of Oman has changed greatly since it started exporting oil in the late sixties. The black gold from the desert has transformed what was once an agrarian country into a sought-after exporter of raw materials.

Up to now practically everything in the country has revolved around oil. The power supply is also largely based on it. However, the black gold from the desert is a limited resource. The reserves of over five billion barrels are expected to last just another 20 years and are relatively small when compared with those of the neighbouring United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. The production capacities are already declining. A large number of sources have been in operation for 30 years and no longer yield as much oil as they once did, while new oil fields are more difficult to exploit. Whether in the short or long term, it is essential for Oman to diversify its economy.

In future, it is hoped to maintain the prosperity in Oman through explorating and rening natural gas.

Natural Gas as an Alternative

This state in the southeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula possesses not only oil but also natural gas. The gas reserves are still largely undeveloped and open up new opportunities for value creation in the country: the confirmed gas deposits would be enough for more than 50 years at the current production rate. The demand is at present higher than the supply and will continue to grow if greater added value is to be brought into the country through various gas-based projects.

An important building block in the diversification of Omans economy is the methanol plant MO3000 in Sohar.

Reduce Dependency on the Oil Price

Ferrostaal signed a joint-venture agreement with Oman Methanol Holding Company, part of a leading privateindustrial conglomerate in Oman, and Methanol Holdings Trinidad Limited, a leading global methanol producer. The three partners founded the project company Oman Methanol

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Company L.L.C. with the purpose to develop, implement, own and operate a methanol production plant to be built in Sohar, 250 km northwest of the capital of Muscat. The location of the methanol plant is the Sohar Industrial Port Area, a previously undeveloped site, which was developed into an industrial park by the Sultanate of Oman. The aim is, by promoting private-industrial development in the downstream sector to reduce the previously strong dependence of the Omani economy on the oil price and to achieve a higher added value. To develop and operate the industrial park as well as the associated port the government of the Sultanate of Oman and the Port of Rotterdam founded a joint venture named Sohar Industrial Port Company. Today, the port is fully operational with state-of-the-art facilities. With current investments exceeding $14 billion it is one of the worlds largest port development projects.

the prereformer. Hot water vapour is added. The gas heats up and it becomes possible to break down the natural gas into its individual components. Natural gas consists mainly of a variety of hydrocarbons. Through the heating process, these hydrocarbons can be transformed into a balanced mixture of methane, hydrogen, CO and CO2. This split is a precondition for the further processing of the natural gas. After passing through the prereformer the actual conversion process begins as not all the hydrocarbons can be broken down in the prereformer. This is achieved by adding some more steam prior to introducing it into a tubular steam reformer. There, the natural gas, already partly split, heats up to about 880 C and the remaining hydrocarbons are also split and synthesis gas is formed. After the steam reforming process, the hot synthesis gas is cooled down to 250 C and mixed with the remaining split gases in the synthesis loop. The result of the catalytic synthesis is raw methanol. The process is initiated and accelerated by catalysts. Now, the real refining process starts, for the raw methanol still contains unwanted constituents which have to be removed. This takes place in two stages. By means of heat, light components of the raw methanol are first separated and fed back into the process in order to achieve more efficient methanol production. Then the raw methanol is distilled again and surplus water is removed raw methanol contains a large amount of residual water. What is left is 99% pure methanol, which is then routed to atmospheric storage tanks.

What Started in Trinidad Will Be Continued in Oman

The MO3000 methanol plant is the fifth of this type that was built by Ferrostaal over the last 20 years. The experience, knowledge and expertise gained in Trinidad played a key role in the design and construction of this plant the design and construction of the project MO3000 has been based on the same model as those on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Representing an investment of more than $500 million, the plant was designed for an operating capacity of 3,000 tons of methanol per day or one million tons per year destined for the chemical industry in Europe and Asia. The responsibilities of Ferrostaal included the development and the creation of a structured finance concept as well as the engineering and the procurement for the project. Ferrostaals partner Proman was in charge of the construction of the MO3000 plant.

Methanol is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH4O. In 2008, global consumption of methanol was 45 million tons. By 2012, an additional annual requirement of five million tons is expected. Currently, methanol is used mainly in the chemical sector, the highest increases are expected in the fuel sector. In the chemical industry, basic chemicals such as formaldehyde and acetic acid are produced out of methanol. In the energy sector, methanol is used as a raw material for the production of conventional fuels. In addition, pure methanol (M100) in engines allows sulphurfree, clean combustion and is used in fuel cells to supply hydrogen.

The Process at MO3000 in Detail

First of all, the natural gas passes through a supply pipeline into a desulphurizer. There, as natural gas contains sulphur, it is first cleaned for sulphur is aggressive and attacks some plant components. The actual conversion into methanol does not begin until after the desulphurisation. The desulphurised natural gas passes through a heated pipe into

Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman

German University of Technology in Oman (GUtech) Prof. Dr. Burkhard Rauhut

Halban Campus masterplan.

German University of Technology in Oman Masterplan

The German University of Technology in Oman (GUtech) was founded in 2007 based on a Collaborative Agreement between RWTH Aachen University and the private company Oman Educational Services LLC. The basic idea was to establish an university of technology in Oman based on German expertise in the education and training of engineers and scientists. Moreover, the university should have strong ties to the industry in order to support the industrial and economic development of Oman.

Since education is a high priority in Oman, the government of Oman supported the establishment of the university by allocating in the Halban region near Muscat 500,000 m2 for a campus enabling the university to enrol up to 10,000 students in the future, thus being the most significant cooperation between Germany and Oman in the field of higher education. In autumn 2007, GUtech took up operation on a temporary campus, consisting of rented buildings, by enrolling its first students into a pre-university programme, to which four Bachelor of Science programmes were added in the following

Projects 50 / 51

year. At the same time the masterplan for the main campus was developed by Hhler + Partner LLC, architects and engineers in Oman, with both German and Omani partners. The main idea in commissioning this German-Omani company was to combine German scientific education with Omani architecture, taking into account not only the special climatic conditions in this part of the world but also the cultural and religious traditions of Oman. The masterplan thus comprises architectural as well as urban planning aspects. Furthermore, it also considers economic and ecologic sustainability due to the necessity to use resources such as water and energy sparingly. The use of water and energy has to follow three guidelines: reduce, reuse and recycle. Water for example can be saved by avoiding evaporation and leaks, used water can be reused for different purposes depending on the initial use, and recycled water might be good for irrigation. The application of low energy standards for new buildings saves energy and cuts operational as well as future maintenance costs. The climatic conditions in Oman make high demands on the design of the whole campus. Temperatures above 40 C and a relative humidity of up to 95% are not exceptional. Ventilation and cooling are thus critical not only within the buildings but also across the campus itself. The layout of the campus is based on a grid with perpendicular axes. The main axis is defined by the connection between the main entrance and the main building. The vertical axes are assigned to specific purposes: one axis is meant for industrial settlements like research departments of companies, spinoffs from GUtech or combined research activities between

GUtech and industry. The next axis contains the buildings for different faculties, whereas the third one is dedicated to facilities used for social activities such as students club, faculty club, gym or other social facilities. All other axes are reserved for accommodating students as well as staff. The campus is surrounded by service roads so that several side entrances are possible. Northwesterly winds from the sea, which are almost unidirectional, dominate the area. Accordingly, the campus grid has been rotated against the orientation of the layout by an angle of about 45. Together with the increasing height of the buildings, which is also aligned to the wind direction, this orientation supports cooling throughout the whole year.

Main Building of GUtech Campus

The main building is the campus centre. It is a square building with a side length of around 84 m and an inner square courtyard with a side length of about 46 m which is shadowed by movable tarpaulins. The gross floor area (GFA) of the building is around 24,000 m2. The building accommodates the university administration, the main library, the cafeteria, lecture halls of different sizes, and many smaller seminar rooms. Moreover, the inner courtyard is shaped like an amphitheatre with more than 650 seats. The building dedicates also space to external institutions which are linked to the university, such as the Goethe Institute, the DAAD lectureship and the German Chamber of Commerce. The building is accessible from the main road via several parking zones and delivery ramps as well as from the plaza level. The elevated ground floor accommodates the cafeteria, the student club and the large lecture halls. The amphitheatre connects these different elements. It provides space for both formal and informal functions like graduation ceremonies, open days, music presentations and sport events. The offices of Oman Educational Services, the rectorate of GUtech, the Goethe Institute, the DAAD lectureship and the German Chamber of Commerce are all located on the second floor. All other floors accommodate small- and medium-sized lecture halls and seminar rooms as well as the central library, which is spread over three floors, covering more than 5,000 m2. The main building receives a finish of natural stone. Variations in the faade details create an impression of staggered stone blocks. Pilaster and gutter are used to create further nuances.

Halban Campus without buildings, showing sun-lines, wind direction, Mecca.


With its variations of open and closed space, rough and fine textures the faade alludes to the abundance of forms and shapes found in nature. The windows are equipped with a flexible shading and ventilation system. Photo-voltaic elements in Islamic patterns provide shade and simultaneously make use of sun light. The faade towards the inner courtyard is a semipermeable membrane. This permeability supports the interaction of corridor and ramp as a communication zone. The balustrades of the ramp are used to create a more playful atmosphere. The railing runs along the ramp like a broad dancing ribbon. It changes its appearance from small to wide, twisted to folded, enhancing the idea of ongoing communication. It is expected that GUtech moves into the main campus at the end of 2012. At that time the number of students will not exceed 1,200 or 1,500. Therefore, the campus will be built in a series of phases. In Phase I only the main building and two housing quarters for students and staff will be erected. Since the administration and the library will be relatively small at that time all the departments including offices, laboratories and research facilities will be available in the main building. Following a

well-defined schedule, the faculty buildings as well as additional housing quarters and social activity buildings will be built step by step, depending on the growth of GUtech, thus allowing administration and library to expand in the main building.

Housing Quarters and Green Axis of GUtech Campus

In order to attract students from beyond Muscat, it is absolutely necessary to provide student accommodation. Housing opportunities for staff, fly-in teachers and guests are also useful to improve the attractiveness of the university. Therefore the housing area, which covers the bigger part of the whole layout, is divided into three resorts of different size: one for students, one for staff and one for guests. The accommodations for female and male students are separated. The whole housing area is further separated into public, semipublic and semiprivate spaces. The main public area is a wide green axis prolonging the line from the main gate to the main building. Two green stripes vertical to the main green axis give access to a wide range of social facilities like another cafeteria, the student club, health services, school and kindergarten as well as sport areas. The semipublic spaces are the central areas of each housing quarter, whereas

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the garden-like courtyard of each house can be seen as a semiprivate place. The distinctive density of buildings takes into consideration traditional Omani architecture which was formed by the necessity to create a cooling microclimate. This century-old knowledge of sensible construction is not only reflected, but actually used for the campus design. The microclimate created by the dense design supports the cooling and humidification between the buildings thus reducing the costs for artificial air conditioning. In this way, the Omani building tradition strengthens the concept of sustainable building of the 21th century. In order to create a comfortable microclimate, not only the high density of buildings is copied, but also two additional tools, which were used in ancient times already: the traditional Omani falaj system and the concept of wind towers. The use of water as a design element serves two purposes: it is an aesthetic element of the landscape and it helps to humidify and cool the air. Pools in the housing quarters offer refreshment and recreation, they also cool down the air between the densely build houses. The wind towers are located at the roof of each building using the difference between high and low air pressure to channel wind into the rooms below and extract the used air from the inside. After finishing the construction of the main campus of the German University of Technology in Oman, these facilities will be an outstanding symbol of the successful cooperation between Germany and Oman.

Floor plan.

Cross-section of the main building.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Main Cities Largest City Palestinian Territories 4,013,126 (2009 estimate) 6,220 km2 Arabic Ramallah and Gaza (current location of government institutions) East Jerusalem (desired capital of a future independent Palestine) Gaza

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Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip

Dorsch Gruppe Keith Brooke

Bio-Tower PS, with pumps out of service.

The Gaza Strip suffers severe constraints in water supply and sanitation due to its location, confinement and semiarid coastal climate. In addition to its already high population density steady population growth is putting the limited water resources, sanitation and agriculture under increasing stress resulting in ground water depletion, degradation of water quality and reduced crop productivity. Evidently, water resources, health, environmental protection, and urban quality of life in Gaza are interdependent to such a large degree that integrated water resources planning is a priority need.

Recognising this context the Palestine-German Development Cooperation has launched an ambitious waste water project comprising an overall investment budget of approximately 70 million. The specific objective of the Gaza central waste water project is to ensure an environmentally and hygienically safe treatment of sewage in the central Gaza Strip, comprising Gaza City and the middle area communities (i.e. Buriej, Deir El Balah, etc.) with a total of 1.3 million population equivalents. The implementation of the project has started in 2003 and follows a double-staged approach. In the first stage the project

Waste water treatment plant project site.

Waste water discharges over the western Gaza City beaches.

will provide a fully functional sewerage and waste water treatment system, including the construction of a new central waste water treatment plant in Buriej, adjacent to the Green Line in the security area otherwise restricted for development. Altogether, the following components are planned to be constructed under four contracts: El Buriej waste water treatment plant: a mechanicalbiological plant for the year 2015, with an annual average flow of 115,000 m3/d and a summer peak daily flow of 135,000 m3/d. Provision is being made to upgrade the capacity to 200,000 m3/d, including nitrogen removal and tertiary treatment in future stages up to 2025. Wadi Gaza central pumping station: peak capacity 3.2 m3/s (2015), upgradeable to 4.4 m3/s (2025), including connection to the DN 1000 Central Communities gravity trunk main. Pressure main DN 1400: 3.7 km long from Wadi Gaza central pumping station to Buriej waste water treatment plant. Gravity trunk main DN 1500: 5.4 km long from Gaza City to the central pumping station.

Furthermore, a specific study for the optimisation of systems for dealing with the effluent and sludge has also been carried out: it exemplifies a serious effort to develop a plan to realise the opportunities for beneficial effluent and sludge reuse that will be opened by the Gaza central waste water project. The feasibility study shows the specific requirements in planning and management for waste water treatment, irrigation conveyance and aquifer recharge to meet high technical standards and sustainable economical benefits. The overall goal of the project is to use the substantial quantities of treated effluent produced by the Buriej waste water treatment plant as an efficient substitute for irrigation by ground water. Effluent that is surplus to irrigation demand is recharged to the Coastal Aquifer to reduce and ultimately reverse the decline in ground water quantity and quality. The study illustrates practicable and enforceable concepts under various scenarios and discusses the impact that waste water reuse will have on the water resources as part of the overall water balance in the Gaza Strip. Particular attention is paid to economic and financial analysis as several indicators justify effluent reuse for irrigation purposes. The principal

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economic output of the project will be an increased agricultural production that will strengthen farm profitability and ensure sustainable agricultural production while the regions dependence on fertiliser imports will gradually decline. As an integral part of the regional water strategy to provide full coverage of waste water treatment, this waste water reuse project serving Gaza City and the central communities will be the first of its kind in Palestine and therefore its successful implementation will provide a framework on which further waste water reuse projects can be developed. At this point, design for the Buriej waste water treatment plant has been completed and tender documents have been finalised. The intent is to proceed with implementation when the security situation in Gaza is sufficiently stable to allow the project to proceed without unacceptable risk.

Initial planning Gaza waste water project.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities State of Qatar 1.6 million (June 2009) 11,437 km2 Arabic with English widely used 1 Qatari Riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams Doha (Capital), Ras Laffan Industrial City, Al Khor, Dukhan, Al Wakrah, Mesaieed

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Qatars Fastest Elevators The Qipco Tornado Tower Doha

ThyssenKrupp Elevator Christian Kozma

Qibco Tower elevator cabin.

Project Overview
The West Bay district of Qatars capital will become home to a new high-rise quarter shortly. The highlight will be a distinctive 200-m tower to be known as The Tornado Tower, a tower with the dynamic form of a whirlwind in the desert. The shape is based on a construction optimised for economic and energy efficiency that can withstand heavy loads despite its own light weight, while featuring an extremely flexible interior completely free of interior supports.

Steel-reinforced concrete slabs combine the characteristic steel support structure and the inner reinforced concrete core in the eye of the tornado. The 51-storey high-rise plus three basements will accommodate offices, parking slots, several restaurants, a caf and a recreation lounge, creating a city landmark in the new quarter, also at night. Qipco Tower has been awarded the 2009 Best Tall Building in the Middle East and Africa by the Chicago-based Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, in recognition for its

The ThyssenKrupp Elevator Solution


ThyssenKrupp Elevator installed 23 elevators in the Tornado Tower. 16 high-rise elevators are divided into three groups (high-rise, mid-rise and low-rise), each group serving a certain number of storeys of the building. Eleven 1,600-kg passenger elevators can ascend at a rate up to 7 m/s, or about two storeys a second, and are the fastest ever installed in Qatar. Another group of five 1,600-kg elevators ascend at a speed of 4 m/s. In total, the building comprises sixteen high-speed passenger elevators (including 2 V.I.P. elevators ascending 51 stops up to 195 m at a speed of 7 m/s), six MRL passenger elevators (for the three floors of parking area), and one service elevator (ascending 53 stops up to 199 m at a speed of 3.5 m/s).

All high-rise elevators had to follow the strict requirements of the 77-page technical specifications prepared by JAPPSEN INGENIEURE, a top-class German elevator consultant, with very high standards to be achieved for each and every elevator component, and very demanding performance ratios for noise levels, stop lost times, acceleration, etc.

Motors for the 7 m/s lifts were our Gearless DAB 530 weighing 4,000 kg, with dimensions of 1,300 x 1,546 x 1,500 mm in width, depth and height (machine only).
Qibco Tower in Doha.

architectural form, structure, building systems, sustainable design strategy, safety for its occupants and preservation of the urban quality of life. This is the first time a building in Qatar has won such a prestigious award.

The Elevation Challenge

The elevation systems in this emblematic building were logically required to be state-of-the-art, with the following key aspects: High-speed transportation of people Safety and reliability Cutting-edge technology to compliment the building structure Minimum waiting times State-of-the-art aesthetics

DSC screen.

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16 high-rise passenger elevators in the Tornado Tower are integrated into a common Destination Selection Control (DSC), the largest number of elevators operating on a single common DSC for any high-rise project in the Gulf region and the only ThyssenKrupp Elevator project in the world with 16 elevators on a single DSC a new world record. The DSC optimises traffic flows and helps passengers reach their destinations faster through touch screen terminals placed in the lobby areas where travellers enter their destination before entering the elevator. Within seconds the computer selects the best elevator and informs the passenger via the terminal which elevator to proceed to. This results in a 30% increase in handling capacity and optimises passenger comfort and waiting times.

The DSC special features include a personal identification number code access to V.I.P. floors: through the DSC screens a password is introduced by the V.I.P. users allowing them to be the exclusive users of their lifts. A system of several personal passwords has been developed for this project. A PIN code for cleaning activities, allowing the maintenance personnel to work easily, safely and comfortably in the cabins. The initial menu of the DSC screens counts with direct access buttons to restaurants, recreation floors, ground floor, mezzanine. Buttons to change the display from English to Arabic. A handicap button which activates special handicap functions such as longer door opening times. A special feature button which activates the password function previously described.

Qibco circular.


Elevator doors: adapting to the circular lift lobby. In addition to the special architrave for the main lift lobby, the door jambs are fully walled to blend with the unique circular lift lobby. The doors have a 3-D door sensor to add to the safety and comfort feature. The sills for the landing and car doors are made of stainless steel. The main lobby and all high-rise cabins have S-5 highperformance doors. The service elevators doors were made of the dimension 1,400 x 2,800 mm which is more than the standard dimension. High-quality aesthetics: Among the special features included in the V.I.P. cabin are a Thin Filled Transistor display compatible with Internet inside the cabin, as well as

custom-built cabin interiors for passenger and V.I.P. lifts as per client requirements. Most particularly, the V.I.P. lift was decorated with Kiwi-mesh walls and an exclusive and multicolour stone-engraved car floor with a company logo. Safety and reliability: EN-81 standards have been complied with in this project; including emergency doors every two landings (every 7 m) for those parts of the shafts where no landings are available. Evacuation systems under normal and emergency power have also been included. All elevators in the project were manufactured in Germany, being all components of very high reliability, with special mention to the ThyssenKrupp motors and controllers.

Strengths of the Project

State-of-the-art elevation systems are a key component of this building. The elevators provided by ThyssenKrupp Elevator are the fastest in Qatar to date, at 7 m/s, and the bank of 16 passenger elevators on a single Destination Selection Control is the highest number to date in the Gulf region and the largest ever for ThyssenKrupp Elevator. The project included a large number of special features, both in terms of technology as well as decorative elements, to ensure a highest-quality solution for this emblematic building.

Saudi Arabia

Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 28.7 million (2009) 2,240,000 km2 Arabic is the national language, but English is now widely spoken in business and public life Saudi Arabian Rial (SAR) = 100 halalah Riyadh (Capital), Jeddah, Damman

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Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market

Lufthansa Consulting GmbH Marlene Hollwurtel

Ala Toukatli, Partner at Lufthansa Consulting, Saudi Arabian Airlines Deputy Director General and Chief of the Passenger Airline, Abdulaziz R. Alhazmi, and Gero von Goetz, Advisor to the Deputy Director General, Saudi Arabian Airlines, during the signing ceremony for the extension of the consultancy contract.

Saudi Arabian Airlines on the Way to Becoming an Aviation Group with the Support of Lufthansa Consulting
As one of the leading management consultancies in the aviation industry, Lufthansa Consulting has also been active in the Middle East for more than twenty years in the course of its worldwide activities. Its consulting services focus on airline restructuring, providing support for airline start-up

projects as well as upgrading the overall traffic infrastructure. Numerous projects were successfully concluded. Among the most important projects it has taken on in recent years are the Performance Improvement Program at EGYPTAIR Cargo, the restructuring of the Jordanian Civil Aviation Authority and the start-up of Wataniya Airways in Kuwait. The most challenging project that Lufthansa Consulting is currently managing in the region is the strategic advising of

airline group to private investors. For the airline, these plans mean the complete restructuring of the company including investments, especially in fleet modernisation, in a state-ofthe-art, standard IT platform as well as in modern management expertise. The carriers comprehensive restructuring to become an aviation concern is modeled on Lufthansas successful privatisation process. Saudi Arabian Airlines is rising to this challenge and together with Lufthansa Consulting it will tackle a range of tasks to reposition the airline. To begin with, the companys market potential was identified and defined, particularly with regard to the current, specific dynamism in the Middle East market. In the analyses, the airlines position in the international market was also taken into account. In addition, Lufthansa Consulting had to establish the extent to which Saudi Arabian Airlines is equipped for the new tasks facing it and for market requirements and its ability to face future challenges arising from the new strategic alignment. In all core areas and functions, Lufthansa Consulting conducted assessments and examined them with particular regard to best practice, processes and organisation. Here, Saudi Arabian Airlines placed special emphasis on the close integration and participation of the management and its staff. The consultants implemented a range of established change management methods to engage the support of the entire workforce for the implementation of the new strategy. Having made comprehensive structural and functional assessments, Lufthansa Consulting made the appropriate strategic recommendations to its client and presented concrete action plans. One of the main measures proposed for Saudi Arabian Airlines was the concentration on five core aims: Positioning of the company as the Middle East carrier, committed to Arab-Muslim tradition based on state-ofthe-art-methods. Future serving of the high volume of domestic traffic on a purely commercial basis. Positioning as the most important carrier for pilgrims travelling to the Muslim world. Each year more than six million Muslim pilgrims from all over the world travel via the Saudi Arabian capital Jeddah to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Carrying guest workers from Asian countries, mainly from India, Pakistan and the Philippines. Establishment of a private jet service (Royal/V.I.P./ Private Charter).

Airbus A320-200.

Saudi Arabian Airlines, one of the largest and most reputable carriers in the Middle East. Lufthansa Consulting took on the complex consulting task in March 2008 after the airline commissioned the German aviation experts to help it to validate and implement its new corporate strategy. The project was launched against the background of Saudi Arabias plans to privatise the airline sector. In this context, the government also intends to open the internal market to competition. Several airlines, predominantly low-cost carriers, have already based themselves in the region. While competition in the domestic market is strong, network carriers in the Middle East are also posting markedly higher growth figures and are achieving dominance in the region and their target markets. Furthermore, in the course of its privatisation, Saudi Arabian Airlines will not receive any more subsidies. It will have to refrain from regulating prices and also initiate the sale of the

Saudi Arabian Airlines headquarters in Jeddah.

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Business units:

Passenger Airline, Royal Fleet, Private Aviation, Cargo, Catering, Ground Services, Maintenance, Flight Training, Medical Services

28,500 employees, of whom 14,000 work in the Passenger Airline division


81 destinations, of which 26 in Saudi Arabia with 10.5 million passengers and 55 international destinations with 7.5 million passengers

120 aircraft in the business units Passenger Airline, Royal Fleet and Private Aviation

$5 billion

Since 2009, Lufthansa Consulting has been involved in the concrete implementation of strategic measures to reorganise internal structures and processes and to ensure the efficiency of operations at Saudi Arabian Airlines. The experts are currently managing 49 projects ranging from the development of a new network strategy including fleet and flight planning and the creation of a quality management system in the safety and quality area through to the restructuring of flight operations. Consultants working on site at Saudi Arabian Airlines headquarters in Jeddah are also involved in coaching top management and experts from the airline. A team of more than twenty professionals from all areas of the Lufthansa Group is based in Jeddah and is working very successfully in close coordination with the client. Saudi Arabian Airlines has an extremely sophisticated clientele and aims to offer its customers excellent, dedicated services. Many of the measures and steps identified jointly with Lufthansa Consulting meet these aspirations, and will thus help to develop the airline into one of the most important providers of airline services in the Middle East and further expand its role as one of the leading airlines.

Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert

Outotec GmbH, Oberursel Rosemarie Overstreet and Manfred Tapfer

Panorama view of the site.

Projects 66 / 67

Long aware of the dangers of being overly dependent on its oil wealth, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has developed a strategy based on its vast mineral deposits. Economic diversification has been high on the kingdoms agenda since the 1970s. Today, the country continues to pursue opportunities to broaden its industrial base and is firmly focused on making mining the third pillar of its economy. Metallic ores such as gold, silver, copper, zinc and iron can be found in the western half of the kingdom, and phosphate and bauxite deposits are found in the northeast.

Largest Sulfuric Acid Plant Worldwide

In an effort to exploit these deposits, the government set up the Saudi Arabian Mining Company (Maaden) to lead the sectors development. The company was formed in March 1997. Following its success with some gold projects, Maaden decided to expand its activities by developing fertiliser and aluminium plants. The senior management at Maaden believed that the plant had to be large enough to ensure that they would instantly become one of the top players in the fertiliser market instead of taking a more traditional approach of building up a steady market share with a number of smaller plants. Thus, in June 2007, Outotec agreed with Maaden to deliver the worlds largest sulfuric acid plant facility. To realise a project of this size and to strengthen its local presence in the kingdom, Outotec entered into a joint venture with the Saudi-based Central Mining Company Investment Ltd. in 2007 and set up a local office in the important coastal city of Al-Khobar. The challenges of a project of this scope and nature could be found at every turn: the site selected for construction is Ras Az Zawr, which is located in the middle of a desert along the Gulf coast, miles from the nearest city having any kind of infrastructure. From a technical standpoint, Outotec was to design and deliver a lump-sum, turnkey, gargantuan facility with three parallel production lines capable of turning out a total maximum capacity of 15,000 tons of sulfuric acid per day there is no benchmark on the books of a sulfuric acid plant of this size. The scope of Outotecs involvement ranged from the engineering and proprietary technology to the delivery and turnkey installation of all three sulfuric acid plants, with

First fundaments at site.

responsibility for coordinating the worldwide purchase of import equipment as well as all local supplies in addition to the installation of the facility. For the training of the plants operators, Outotec has developed a state-of-the-art, dynamic computer simulator. Roughly 31 months later, the project has reached its mechanical completion and will soon begin the re-commissioning phase before going live in 2011. Upon its completion, the facilitys entire acid production will be utilised solely for the purpose of manufacturing phosphate-based fertiliser. In addition to producing the sulfuric acid necessary for fertiliser, the three plants will also be able to produce energy in form of highpressure steam at a rate of about 800 tons per hour, similar to that of a traditional, mid-sized power plant. Because the clients goals were of a superlative nature biggest, fastest, top , it required reaching economies-of-scale for a fertiliser plant complex this size in a relatively short time frame. And it has also meant complete dedication to the task at hand especially under the turbulent conditions the global market has been faced with the kingdom can simply no longer depend on oil to guide its future.

Converter area.

Projects 68 / 69


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities The Republic of the Sudan 40,200,000 (July 2008) 2,506,000 km2 Arabic, also in use is English and about 115 tribal languages 1 Sudanese Pound = 100 piaster Khartoum (Capital), Omdurman, Atbara, Port-Sudan, El-Obeid, El-Fasher, Juba

Projects 70 / 71

The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station

Lahmeyer International GmbH Egon Failer

The Merowe Hydropower Station in March.

2010: The Merowe Spillway in operation.

The Inauguration of the Biggest Hydropower and Water Resources Infrastructure Project in Africa
The Merowe Dam and its hydropower plant is located on the Nile some 350 km north of Khartoum and some 550 km upstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. It has been designed to serve several purposes, namely: the generation of electricity from its 1,250 MW hydropower plant, the supply of water to centralised agricultural irrigation schemes (about 400,000 ha) and the protection against the devastating high floods of the Nile. Furthermore, the Merowe Dam will act as a sediment trap, reducing sedimentation of the Aswan High Dam further downstream in Egypt. Thus, this project represents one of the most economic Green Energy Generation Options worldwide with the lowest CO2 emissions. To understand the importance of the Nile to Northeast Africa, which with its length of 6,650 km is the longest river in the world, and the value of its waters to the people, it has to be noted that slightly more than 400 million inhabitants are served by its waters currently. According to studies conducted by internationally recognised organisations, this population is expected to nearly double by 2025.

In 2001, the executing agency, the Dams Implementation Unit (DIU), launched an international competitive tender for the engineering services, covering the preparation of tender documents for the various works, tendering and contracting, construction design, contracts and construction management, including construction supervision. In February 2002, this massive engineering contract was awarded to Lahmeyer International, Germany. Early in June 2003, the contract for the civil works, amounting to 555 million, was signed in Khartoum, Sudan, with a Chinese consortium of civil contractors. Further international contracts for the hydromechanical works (52 million), the electro-mechanical installations (257 million) and for the power transmission system (US$397 million) were awarded in December 2003. More than 70% of the total project costs (which reached 1.4 billion in 2010) were funded by Arab funding agencies from Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Abu Dhabi, Qatar and Oman. The remaining 30% of the projects costs were financed by the government of the Sudan. The first two of the ten generating units started commercial operation on 3 March 2009 during the inauguration ceremony of Merowe Dam, which was attended by the President of the Sudan and more

than 20,000 people of the region. With the completion of the tenth and last power generating unit, the complete power station started commercial operation with full capacity on 8 April 2010. The inauguration ceremony of this historic event was held at the dam site and was attended by more than 1,700 ministers and high-ranking government officials from Sudan and neighbouring countries. More than 55 executives of the various Arab funding agencies attended the inauguration. Prior to the inauguration of the dam in March 2009, Lahmeyer International was awarded a further services contract to assist the owner (DIU) in the operation and maintenance of the power and dam facilities and to train his staff to operate, maintain and manage the complete facilities. During the build-up period from March 2009 to April 2010, more than 2,700 GWh of electric energy were generated. This energy represents a monetary value of more than 350 million when using a crude oil price of US$70 per barrel. Since January 2010 the Merowe hydropower plant has generated more than 75% of the electricity demand of the country and has proven to be the backbone of the national electric grid.

Local people visiting the project.

A natural two-stream flow regime existed at the project site with the main channel and the secondary channel separated by a small island. During the first two years the water flow was diverted through this main channel while the spillway and power intake dam were constructed up to elevation 264 m ASL in the dewatered secondary channel. During the second stage of construction the flow was diverted through the partially completed spillway for a period of four years. During the flood season 2006 peak flows of close to 11,000 m/s were diverted, while construction of the spillway and installation of the 14 radial gates were ongoing. The powerhouse is located at the toe of the intake dam and consists of a 38 m long erection bay and five unit blocks, each 55 m long. It accommodates the ten power generating units, each with a Francis turbine with a net head of 45.5 m, a rated discharge of 306 m/s and a capacity of 125 MW, directly coupled to the 140 MVA synchronous generators. Each two generators are connected via generator circuit breakers to single-phase step-up transformers, which feed the 500 kV GIS by HV cables. The power station can generate about 5,800 GWh of low-cost and clean electricity annually. For the erection and maintenance of the power generating units, two overhead travelling cranes, each with a capacity of 3,000 kN, were installed. For the transmission of power to the city of Port Sudan via the city of Atbara, to the capital Khartoum and to the Northern Provinces (Dongola/Debba), some 981 km of 500 kV lines and 795 km of 220 kV lines were constructed. In addition, the power transmission system includes three 500/220 kV substations, one 220/110 kV substation and three 220/23 kV substations.

The 500 kV power transmission lines.

Dam Specication and Construction

Due to the topographic conditions of the dam site, the project features a dam with a total length of about 9.3 km and a maximum height of 67 m. The dam is made up of several sections, including the power intake dam, powerhouse, the nonoverflow dam, the spillway, concrete faced rockfill dams on the left and right banks, the earth core rockfill dam and dykes on both banks.

Projects 72 / 73

The spillway structure, with 12 bottom outlets and two surface spillways, is connected to the power intake dam by the nonoverflow dam. At the maximum reservoir water level of 300 m ASL the bottom outlets and surface spillways will have a combined capacity of about 20,000 m/s. The power of the water when spilled at full capacity reaches almost 10,000 MW, which is dissipated in the 35 m deep plunge pool. The main dam of the Merowe project is a classic earth core rockfill dam (ECRD) with a central earth core, fine and coarse filters and upstream and downstream rockfill shoulders. Random rockfill was used for the construction of the cofferdams. The ECRD is founded on alluvial sediments, which are up to 30 m thick. To avoid seepage through the river sediments underneath the ECRD, a 1 m thick and 40 m deep plastic concrete cut-off wall was provided. On top of the cut-off wall a cushion of highly plastic material was placed to avoid stress concentrations in the wall and cracking of the core. Concrete face rockfill dams (CFRD) were selected on both the left and right banks for economic reasons. The zoning of both CFRD is conventional, consisting of a transition zone, fine filters, coarse filters and random rockfill. The upstream and downstream slopes are inclined at 1 V:1.3 H and 1 V:1.5 H, respectively. The total volume of both CFRD is 5.3 x 106 m. The reservoir formed by the dam is about 180 km long and covers a surface area of around 800 km at the maximum reservoir water level of 300 m ASL. The volume of the total storage is about 12.5 x 109 m, which represents less than 20% of the average annual flow of the Nile. Due to the fact that almost 95% of the reservoir area is desert land, only about 40 km of agricultural land has been submerged.

Merowe Dam and the People

About 70,000 people, mainly farming families, were affected by the reservoir. Their original living conditions were very poor and the houses were without water and electricity supply, with very poor health and schooling facilities. These people were resettled in more than 6,000 new solid and modern houses, which were constructed by DIU. Furthermore, they received generous areas of agricultural land and cash payments as compensation. In total, more than US$500 million were spent by the DIU for mitigation measures to provide the same or better living conditions for the resettled people.

Start of operation of units 1 and 2 and celebration with the local people.

Khartoum New International Airport

Dorsch Gruppe Albert Mair and Frank Thimm

Main passenger terminal.

Projects 74 / 75

Sudan is the largest country in Africa. The aviation sector has therefore a tremendous importance for the economic development, especially as other transportation methods (rail, roads and rivers) are developed on limited standards only and are subject to interruptions during the rainy season. The existing Khartoum airport, that was opened in the early 50s of the last century, is enclosed by settlements of the strongly developing capital and extremely limited for extension possibilities. It does not even cater for a parallel taxiway for the increased traffic that is currently experienced in Sudan both for passengers and cargo. Furthermore, the partly lax planning policy is contributing to the fact that safety distances between settlements and air routes are not in line with international practices. This caused a popular request for the realisation of a new international airport for more than twenty years. Since the end of 2003, Dorsch Consult Airports is general planner for the development and implementation of a new international airport in Khartoum, the capital of the Republic of the Sudan.

Phase 1 of the Khartoum New International Airport (KNIA) is designed with full aircraft code-F capability, which includes the opportunity of handling up to Airbus A-380 aircraft. The runway is dimensioned with 4,000 m by 60 m and is supported by an efficient taxiway system that provides fast access to the apron areas which include passenger apron, cargo, maintenance and general aviation apron as well as a separate apron for presidential affairs. To ensure safe operation also during the rainy season with partly impressive sandstorms, an ILS landing system with category II will be installed. The urban development of the airport is separated in a passenger and an industrial area, which will be split by the centrally located passenger apron. The new passenger terminal is an iconographic building for KNIA, a welcome gate to Khartoum and to the Sudan. This kind of building is unprecedented in Sudan and should set a new standard for state-of-the-art construction and architectural design in both country and region. The band structure of the roof is uniting the different characters of the country and contributes to establishing a harmonic relation between building and landscape. It is furthermore a leading principle for all other buildings of the airport. Another landmark building is the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC). It is located at the centre of the airport with a height of 58 m. It dominates the landscape from the distance and contributes to the spatial and aesthetic identity and image of KNIA. The ATC Tower incorporates all functions for Air Traffic Control and Apron Control and has a separate training area. The vertical concrete shaft and the 10-inclined textile external membrane are creating a translucent volume between the tower cabin and the tower footprint. A constantly changing silhouette against changing light conditions can be experienced. Further important elements of Khartoum New International Airport are facilities like cargo centre, aircraft maintenance hangar, fuel farm for aircraft fuelling and a separate presidential terminal. All facilities are supported by the necessary infrastructure with access roads, fence and access gates, power and water supply system as well as waste water treatment. Waste water will be treated outside the airport area in a separate plant and may be used by the airport after treatment (e.g. for irrigation). Future development of the airport also incorporates a separate Hajj terminal, a General Aviation Terminal, aircraft catering facilities, hotel with conference centre, mosque, shopping mall, a residential area and own solid waste treatment.

Site Selection
During a site selection analysis, which was finalised in June 2004, Dorsch Consult Airports evaluated different locations around Khartoum for suitability. After analysing aeronautical, infrastructural, regional and environmental factors, an area approximately 40 km southwest of the city centre was selected as the most promising one.

Planning Process
For this location, an airport masterplan was developed. The project foresees total integration to a larger scale development strategy for the entire Khartoum region. This potential has been translated into an overall vision and strategy for developing a well-balanced mix of business, commercial, industrial, residential and recreational areas with their respective facilities. The underlying objectives in designing the project were: To provide a modern state-of-the-art international airport catering for todays and future aviation needs To provide opportunities for economic growth, prosperity, employment and future industrial development both on a regional and national level To guarantee the highest level of safety standards in air transportation

Project Realisation
An important step towards project realisation was taken in 2005, when the site was handed over to local construction companies. Their scope includes the construction of an access road to the airport area, the installation of a power supply system for the construction phase, the drilling of water wells and installation of a water supply system up to the airport area, the construction of a perimeter road and fencing as well as the construction of 16 building units which will be used during construction. The start of these works was celebrated in a public ceremony, incorporating residents and high-ranking officials from politics and economy. The KNIA project, the second largest infrastructure project in Sudan next to Merowe Dam, has the highest priority and is dedicated to

a special Ministry of Presidential Affairs. The responsible project unit is carrying out highly engaged public relation activities to ensure support by local communities and the public. The preparatory works of local companies that were supervised by Dorsch Consult Airports are now nearing finalisation and ensure a quick start of the main construction works. These will on the one hand be carried out by an international contractor, based on FIDIC Red Book planning that is currently under preparation. On the other hand, parts of the work like cargo facilities, aircraft fuel supply, maintenance hangar and ground handling activities will be given to concessionaires. During the construction phase, Dorsch Consult will act as Owners Engineer in the construction management and construction supervision.

Main access corridor.

Projects 76 / 77

Khartoum new international airport aerial view.

After the expected construction time of 36 months for the main construction works, Khartoum New International Airport will be a new gateway to the Republic of the Sudan with hub functions to East Africa and the Middle East, serving a growing air travel and freight market. The project is designed as a modern and attractive airport. Its outstanding importance for the prosperity and future development of the Sudan and the region of Khartoum and Omdurman also becomes apparent in the context of the harmonisation of conflicts between the north and the south of Sudan and the resulting opening of the country for economic activities.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Syrian Arab Republic 20.18 million (2009 est.) 185,170 km2 Arabic, both English and French are widely used Syrian Pound = 100 piaster Damascus (Capital), Aleppo, Homs, Hama, Idleb, al-Hasakeh, Dayr al-Zur, Latakia, Dara, al-Raqqa and Tartous

Projects 78 / 79

Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East

Wacker Chemie AG Dr. Stefano Iannacone and Dimitrios Moussios

The Merowe Dam

VINNAPAS polymer powder is added to the adhesive mortar to ensure a stable bond between the EIFS insulation materials and the wall.

Using Polymeric Binders to Save Energy and Protect the Climate

The costs for energy and raw materials are rising worldwide, while resources are becoming scarcer. Even in regions with large oil reserves, people have started looking for ways to conserve energy. The greatest potential for saving energy in buildings is through the right insulation. Suitable thermal insulation not only optimises the indoor climate, but also significantly lowers energy use. In a pilot project, WACKER experts helped to fit a customised state-of-the-art exterior insulation and finish system to a building in Syria for the first time to save energy and protect the climate.

Oriental bazaars, narrow alleys and high minarets: Damascus, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, is a cultural and religious centre of the orient and redolent of tales of 1001 nights. Traces of settlement date back to 5,000 BC. Today, the capital of Syria has a population of 1.6 million, with around six million living in the surrounding metropolitan area. Typical Arabian architecture is best viewed in the picturesque old town, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. However, Syrian architecture is recently undergoing a transformation in order to adapt to changing needs. Though Syria is an oil producer, its reserves are exhaustible. So, when the government announced that it intended to double oil prices, people started to rethink how they use energy. Now, Syrians are looking at ways to save energy and want to take appropriate measures and thermal insulation has become a hot topic.

The greatest potential for saving energy in buildings is through thermal insulation. The better a building is insulated, the less energy is needed to create a permanently comfortable interior climate regardless of whether the building needs to be heated or cooled. Previously, EIFS were mostly used in regions with cold and damp winters. But buildings in hot and dry areas, too, are increasingly being fitted with modern EIFS systems. And with good reason: a faade covered with an EIFS wards off heat very efficiently. Applied to a buildings exterior, the EIFS will protect the walls from heating up unnecessarily on even the hottest of days. In addition, EIFS systems reduce temperature differences between indoor air and wall surfaces. By doing so, they significantly improve the comfort level inside regardless of the weather outside. EIFS are multilayered material systems, with each layer fulfilling a different task. The most important thing is that they bond well to the substrate. And that is only possible with special dispersible polymer powders, such as VINNAPAS, since modern insulating materials such as styrofoam sheets do not form a stable bond to cement. Only after dispersible polymer powder has been added can a strong and stable insulation system result. Starting from the wall, the first EIFS layer is an adhesive mortar modified with polymer powder. The mortar levels irregularities in the substrate, creates a stable bond between the insulation board and the wall, and provides the system with the necessary flexibility. This bonding layer is followed by the thermal insulation board, which is made of rigid polystyrene foam or other materials. The thermal insulation board is protected from weathering and mechanical stresses by a reinforcing layer, consisting of a glass-scrim fabric embedded in a mortar modified with polymer powder. The outermost layer is a decorative plaster or a paint coat. In close collaboration with Syrias National Energy Research Center (NERC) and other local partners, some 500 m2 of faade at their sites were extensively renovated with state-ofthe-art EIFS systems. The goal was to improve the buildings energy balance, and so conserve energy and reduce operating costs. The reference building is the two-storey kindergarten that takes care of the NERC employees children. For this, extensive tests had to be performed, both at WACKERs Burghausen site and its Dubai technical centre, in finding the right VINNAPAS polymer powder formulation to be used in polymer-modified dry-mix mortars for the regional construction industry.

Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate

Why insulate buildings in a land of deserts? What may seem paradoxical at first sight, is actually quite logical as temperature differences in Syria are comparable to those of central Europe: outdoor and indoor temperatures normally differ by about 30 C. The climate in Damascus is continental, with hot and dry summers and mild, sometimes damp winters. Temperatures below freezing point are not unusual. Not surprisingly, Syrias main concern has been to save heating costs in winter. This is in contrast to other Arabian states, where exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are mainly used to keep buildings cool in the summer heat. However, the systems are ideal for both purposes.

Reference building in Syria: equipping buildings with state-of-the-art EIFS results in longterm energy savings and thus helps protect the climate (photo: Wacker Chemie AG).

Projects 80 / 81

Construction workers t an exterior insulation and nish system to a house in Syria. In a pilot project, WACKER experts helped to develop an optimal adhesive-mortar formulation to suit the climatic conditions in Damascus .

Construction specialists expect to lower the kindergartens energy costs by about 50% with EIFS. Although more exact figures will not be available for another year, the pilot project has already won over the Syrian Ministry of Energy, which wants to insulate further buildings. NERC is even considering making EIFS obligatory for all new buildings.

Some parts of the United Arab Emirates have already gone a step further: since January 2008, all new construction projects must meet a local adaptation of the US Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standard for

environmentally sustainable construction. Dubai is the first city in the region to do this and one of only a few in the world to commit itself to this standard. EIFS systems have been used successfully in the Emirates for over three years. And as, according to Middle East Economic Digest Magazine, the construction boom is continuing uninterrupted, the demand for intelligent, energy-saving insulation such as WACKERs EIFS systems will rise, too.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Languages Currency Main Cities Tunisian Republic 10,490,000 (July 2009 estimate) 163,600 km2 Arabic and French for business Tunisian Dinar ( 1 = 1.9 D (2009)) Tunis (Capital), Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, Kairoaun, El Kef, Gabes, Hammamet, Tozeur, Gafsa and Monastir

Projects 82 / 83

The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit

Siemens AG Hans-Jrgen Schweer

The Tunis light rail transit system.

For over 20 years, the Tunis light rail transit (LRT) system has been a reliable mode of transportation for more than 270,000 people a day. When it was built, Siemens Mobility was the general contractor responsible for the entire turnkey project. To this day, the Tunis LRT system continues to be the German rail industrys showcase turnkey LRT system: the Mtro Lger de Tunis is still the most modern LRT system not only in Africa, but in the whole Arab world. By the end of the 1970s, it had become obvious that the existing transportation system in Tunis could no longer cope with the exploding number of inhabitants. About one quarter of Tunisias total population was living and working

in the capital. Around half of all industrial enterprises were headquartered in Tunis. The effects of the global trends of urbanisation and concentration of population in metropolitan regions were also clearly apparent here in North Africa. In light of these trends, a French-Belgian-Tunisian engineering consultancy was commissioned to conduct a preliminary survey for constructing a new LRT system. The goal: to permanently reduce the use of private cars and relieve the strain on the bus network. Upon completion of the review phase in 1980, the signal was given to go ahead with the project under the leadership of Siemens Mobility. Besides supplying the vehicles, Siemens was also responsible

for the entire electrification equipment, the traction power supply, the signaling and train protection systems as well as the civil works. In October 1985, after a mere 36 months of construction, the first 10-km stretch of track opened for commercial operation. The northern line opened in 1989, followed in the next year by the northwestern and western lines. Upon completion of the project, the Socit du Mtro Lger de Tunis (SMLT) comprised some 30 km of track, making it the backbone of urban mass transit system for the capital citys population of over 2.3 million people, of which around 600,000 live in the city itself, with a further 2 million in the Greater Tunis area. Today, a fleet of 134 Siemens trains provide enough capacity to transport around 20,000 people per hour per direction or over 100 million passengers a year with fast, punctual and frequent service. Line 1 connects the port (Tunis-Marine station) with the main train station (Place Barcelone) and the suburb of Ben Arous in the south of the city. Lines 2 to 4 extend from the main train station to the Place de la Rpublique at the northern edge of the new town by way of the magnificent Avenue Habib Bourguiba. From there, Line 2 continues on to Ariana, while Lines 3 and 4 pass north of Medina, ending in Ibn Khaldoun and Den Den respectively. Safety has top priority at Mtro Lger: the tracks are segregated from the other traffic by means of kerbstones. Siemens computerised traffic guidance systems ensure that the trains have right of way at all intersections. All stations are arranged at surface level and equipped with high platforms and barriers that open only upon the arrival or departure of trains. This means that passengers cannot access the train without passing the ticket kiosks. The trains can be boarded from both sides, and even simultaneously at many stations, which greatly speeds up the flow of passengers. Total investment in the LRT system was 165 million Tunisian dinars, or around 250 million based on the exchange rate at the time. In return, the African metropolis was provided with a high-capacity infrastructure and state-of-the-art technology such as the deadman safety device, which stops the vehicle automatically and immediately if the driver does not keep it depressed.

The contract went far beyond the mere delivery of vehicles, however. Siemens Mobility managed the entire project including all subprojects, a multitude of suppliers and a considerable number of local services. For the sake of clarity, the overall project was divided into eight subprojects:

78 cars (8-axle double-articulated) with two 240 kW chopperfed traction motors. The vehicles can reach a maximum speed of 70 km/h. The 2.50 m wide and 30 m long LRT vehicles consist of three mechanical sections, have four trucks and can carry a maximum of 360 passengers. During braking power is returned to the overhead system to save energy. This section of the contract also included the supply of two diesel-hydraulic shunting locomotives and the heavy workshop-equipment.

More than 70 km of track were required. The 100,000 or so oak sleepers came from Germany.

The track system was constructed in very narrow streets without impeding the flow of traffic along a route of over 30 km and at the Tunis-Marine depot before the entire trackworks including switches and connections were laid and welded.

The 750 V from the substations is supplied to the catenary suspension system and on the other hand to the direct suspension system in the Tunis-Marine depot. The system is mostly suspended by approximately 1,400 H-beam steel masts, of which 80% are located between the tracks, while the rest are on the side. Normally, block foundations are used, only in the depot area foundation plates are requested, due to the nature of the ground. The maximum span length is 60 m whereas the messenger wire (95 mm2) is fixed and the contact wire (120 mm2) is automatically tensioned. All deliveries and the installation were under the Siemens scope.

The power supply, which was also delivered by Siemens, is provided by 13 wayside rectifier substations, each rated at 2 x 1,600 kW. The supply is taken from the 10 kV system of the public utility supply and converted to 750 V DC by cast-resin transformers and natural-convection-cooled silicon rectifiers. The DC supply is distributed in a truck-type switch-gear unit with high-speed DC circuit-breakers which protect the track sections and is fed to the catenary system through load

Projects 84 / 85

interrupters. The substations are controlled and monitored from central load dispatch station.

The signals at the terminals and at the stations with turning possibilities are controlled manually from the console in the station or inductively from the train. Where the line crosses a road with the train having absolutely priority, the signals are controlled automatically from the train. The most important crossings, where the transit system has only limited priority, are controlled by the urban traffic computer supplied by Siemens to Tunis in 1980. As part of section 6, Siemens also supplied telephone systems for communication, a passenger information system for the stations and the safety system for the vehicle holding yard at the Tunis-Marine depot, including the signal station controlling the signals and turnouts.

Such as the buildings in the Tunis-Marine depot, the 13 substations, the high-level platforms and station equipment.

More than 13 bridges, underpasses, cuttings and support walls were required. As responsible party for this total turnkey project, Siemens performed the project management at the site including technical supervision of planning documentation, monitoring of schedules, quality standards and coordination of the construction works. Siemens also trained Tunisian drivers using a similar system in Hanover, Germany. After a period of theoretical and practical training and prior to final commissioning, the LRT network in Tunis was tested without passengers over a 2-week period. At the end of the project, the customer and general contractor unanimously agreed that the tasks involved could not have been distributed more effectively an essential prerequisite for managing large projects of this kind. The cost per kilometer of track was equivalent to a mere 6 million including the first consignment of 78 vehicles. Thus, the Tunis LRT system is one of the most cost-effective passenger transport projects to date.

United Arab Emirates

Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities United Arab Emirates 4.8 million (2009) 83,600 km2 Arabic UAE Dirham Dh (AED) = 100 fils Abu Dhabi is the administrative centre of the Federation, and Dubai is the main commercial centre; Sharjah, Al Ain, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah, Fujairah, Umm Al Qawain

Projects 86 / 87

Lotus Garden
Project Background
Mainland Development in conjunction with other development projects is one of the solutions to the challenging requirement of delivering sufficient facilities to cope with Plan Abu Dhabi 2030, the overall development plan, in an appropriate way. Besides zones for residential units and different kinds of housing (e.g. apartments, town houses) the masterplan includes a variety of common facilities integrated both within the various townships and along the central spine for the overall development.

Dorsch Gruppe Rembert Wsthoff

Project Data
The following overview of key project figures indicates among others the total percentages between the built and unbuilt environment of Mainland Development:

Project Objective and Vision

With an area of 3,700 ha and about 83,000 inhabitants, the Mainland Development encompasses an area of a mediumsized city. To avoid in general a competitive position to the city of Abu Dhabi, a decentralised urban development concept was considered most convincing. Due to this insight the Lotus concept was created with its township composition of blossoms, blossom leaves, suburban centres, spine centres as droplets and landscaped parks that has a clear spatial concept with the potential of becoming a unique and lively environment. This decentralised concept fits well with the timetable of a development area of this size, where the phasing within complete development modules is easily realised and avoids for example disruption to the inhabitants by construction works of later scheduled extensions. This successive development allows for a general flexibility and variability of the urban constellation. The urban constellation of blossoms, blossom leaves, suburban centres, spine centres as droplets and the landscaped parks is a well-balanced spatial concept which provides multifaceted relationships, links, connections and interfaces. Those elements are landscaped areas, various footpaths and traffic connections that tie the spine-centre functions to the blossoms and the overall area.

Left and right: Birds views Mainland Development (north south and west east).

Key to a successful development is a strong social infrastructure offering kindergartens, schools and development centres etc. for the residents. Mainland Development therefore has: 17 kindergartens, 9 primary schools, 4 intermediate schools and 4 secondary schools.

Public infrastructure facilities are placed strategically throughout the development area: 2 police stations 4 civil defence stations 4 post offices 4 health centres 2 small hospitals

The schools are designed to be coeducational, with primary schools being integrated in the Lotus blossom and intermediate/secondary schools being located on the edges of the blossom. Religious life is a foundation for each Arab community. Mainland Development will have easy-to-reach local mosques as well as stately Friday mosques (located e.g. in the leaf apex): 67 local mosques 8 Friday mosques The cultural, personal improvement, social facilities located in the green spines and suburban centres in Mainland Development consist of: 9 women development centres 3 youth centres 6 cultural centres

Commercial activities are focused on the suburban as well as the spine centres. Overall Mainland Development will offer a range from small-scale local shops (integrated in the green spines or residential zones), neighbourhood centres (at the suburban centres) to a large-scale mall and cinema (at the CBD spine centre) serving the needs of the total population.

Mainland Development will enjoy a good connection to the regional transportation network via the Emirates Desert Highway as well as with the connective street grid of Abu Dhabi providing convenient access to the capitals city centre and the CBD areas. The introduction of new public transport systems to the city of Abu Dhabi will connect to Mainland Development as well, giving residents and visitors more choices in choosing alternative modes of transportation in the future, thus reflecting the objectives of Plan Abu Dhabi 2030 to make the city one of short trips.

Projects 88 / 89


A few main ideas are determining the concept developments: The general consideration of water as a valuable resource has been influencing the overall concept. Future growth of population and further land use has been considered although decreasing consumption due to educated usage of water and minimised losses are expected. Future topography (based on road design) has been considered by developing the water supply concept. Independent networks have been developed for each phase due to the former objective to develop the whole project stepwise (in phases). Synergy effects with further infrastructure are projected considering common corridors and required measurements, esp. slopes. Main lines are running along/underneath arterials. Maintenance should be minimised by for eyample locating manholes at the edge of residential roads resulting in higher investments in the beginning but avoiding the necessity of closing complete clusters in case of problems at one single location.

Irrigation The demand of water could be estimated at 12 l/m2 for intensive landscape, 10 l/m2 for roads and intensive/ extensive landscape, 8 l/m2 for extensive landscape. The total demand of daily water for the whole project will account for approximately 140,000 m3.

Generally, the area is not dominated by any distinct feature. There are some sand dunes which are visible from a distance. However, these do not spatially enclose the future housing areas. Secondly, there is a large water reservoir and some sparsely planted areas in the form of farmland, afforestation, a nursery and roadside greenery, which create a pleasant although minimal contrast to the surrounding desert. Thus, landscaping will obviously be a desideratum to create an attractive environment, where plants are of vital importance, not only aesthetically, but also in terms of their contribution to improving the microclimate and thus human comfort. The landscape design is therefore based upon ecological principles taking local conditions into account.

Urban Design Rsum

The strong population growth in Abu Dhabi (projected two million residents by 2020) has created a surge in demand for suitable residential units by Emirati as well as expatriate families. The Mainland Development project located in the southeast of the city of Abu Dhabi developed by the Urban Development Committee (UDC) addresses these needs by creating a low- to medium-density residential and mixed-use development for up to 100,000 residents. The focus on the needs of Emirati families and their desire to live in low-density communities will create a viable new modern community. Nevertheless, Mainland Development will offer choices with different living possibilities (villa, town house, courtyard house and apartments). Its unique and distinctive layout will promote the values, social arrangements and culture of an Arab community to flourish. It will therefore become an important part of the unique and truly memorable Arab capital Abu Dhabi.


The area is tentatively designed to be drained by gravity. The low lying areas are filled to cause gravity flow. Similarly, high spots are cut to have reasonable depths of sewerage pipes. The trunk sewer line is ranging in diametre from DN 300 to DN 1000 and has a maximum depth of about 14.00 m due to high ground at that location. The branch collectors are ranging in diametre from DN 200 to DN 350.

Electrical Power System Design concept for the power network according to: Connected load of network Voltage drop calculations as per latest Wiring Regulations of ADWEA Peak load demand of the network Street Lighting The lighting system accommodates the visual needs of night traffic, vehicular and pedestrian respectively. Its illumination levels follow both the recommendation of Commission International Eclarge (CIE) and the specifications of ADDC/ADWEA.

German MAURER Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi

Maurer Shne GmbH & Co. KG Raad Hamood

View of work site.

Data and Contributory

Project name: Sheikh Zayed Bridge Structural type: Arch Bridge Project client: UAE/Abu Dhabi Municipality Design architect: Zaha Hadid Limited (ZHL) Design checker: COWI Consult Consulting and structural design engineer: High Point Rendel (HPR) Project contractor: Archirodon Construction (Overseas) Co. S.A. Manufacturer for dynamic loaded joints: Maurer Shne GmbH & Co. KG Project status: Under construction Anticipated completion: 2010

Projects 90 / 91

General Information
A project, a sculpture, a challenge, a desert-sand-dune design for a bridge with a touch of the Arabic that is the Sheikh Zayed Bridge in Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates. Behind the architectural design of this unusually challenging project is a power woman: Iraqi-born architect Zaha Hadid, renowned for pushing the limits of architectural design. Her special architectural design for the bridge in Abu Dhabi makes for a challenging assignment and certainly one of COWIs more unusual bridge projects. The bridge links Abu Dhabi Island with the mainland, including Dubai and the International Airport, and is shaped like a gigantic sculpture weaving its extreme proportions of concrete and steel between the traffic lanes.

Bridge view at night.


Design and Construction of Sheikh Zayed Bridge


At first the architect bridge design bureau proposed two concepts: the first design was characterised by a linear framework and was referred to as the zigzag option, the second design was characterised by an asymmetric arch in the shape of dune sand hills, referred to as the dune option. The client approved the dune option. After months of cooperation and in teamwork between the consultant and the architect, an architecturally unique form which was considered to be buildable and structurally feasible was developed.

The overall length of the main bridge is 850 m with a central span of 150 m. The level of the roadway at the centre will be 22.5 m high. The overall height of the main steel arch is 63 m. The main bridge is a prestressed concrete cellular box with large cross beams linking the two carriageways. The archs above deck level are steel boxes and have large cable hangars helping to support the concrete deck. The bridge has two carriageways each with four 3.65 m wide traffic lanes, two 3.0 m wide shoulders and a 2.5 m wide emergency sidewalk on the outer edge.

The design had to be carried out according to AASHTO LRFD.

Bridge location.

Bridge construction.

Google bridge position.

impressed current cathodic protection system. In the outer layers in the splash zone stainless steel has been specified.

Construction Sequence
The construction sequence for this project required very careful consideration. As the structure is irregular, with each span being unique, no obvious sequence presented itself. The form and mode of action of the structure made it difficult to allow for construction of the deck span by span out from the abutments towards the middle. A reference sequence was adopted for design, which had to be revised at each stage as the design evolved. The reference construction sequence starts with:
Bridge construction.

The following interpretations and additional requirements were adopted to suit local conditions. The bridge is required to have a service life of 100 years. The selected vehicular live load is twice AASHTO HL93, mainly due to presence of exceptionally heavy trucks on the existing road network. A single permit vehicle type with total weight 1,400 KN was also considered in the design. The removal of any hanger in cable-supported spans for repair works or due to accidents will be possible under service conditions. High-containment vehicle parapets are specified for the inner edge of the deck to provide extra protection to the hangers. On the outside of the carriageway, standard New-Jersey-type barriers are provided, beyond which there is a walkway with pedestrian parapets on the outside. The design temperature range is 0 to +60 C. The design wind gust velocity is 160 km/h, equivalent to 45 m/s. The bridge has been designed for a 475-year return period earthquake, zone 2. The corresponding peak spectral acceleration was assessed to be 22.5%g. It was also checked for a 750-year event with 27.5%g peak acceleration.

The construction of the piled foundations. The piers and the crossheads, which support the decks on half joints, are then cast. The steel arches, which are curved boxes 5 to 8 m deep, are fabricated in sections weighing up to 800 tons, then brought to site and erected on staging and welded in situ. The connection of the steel box to the arch is with highstrength alloy prestressed bars anchored deep in the concrete pier arms.

The decks are cast in situ on staging, in some cases several spans are cast together to provide the required continuity and locked in stress in the deck, arches and cross-ties. The deck cross section is a multicellular prestressed box that provides the necessary torsional stiffness and strength to resist the constructional effects. The outer section, being open with cantilevers, meets the architectural requirements but this feature adds problems due to the nonsymmetry of the section. It also restricts the width available for placing bearings of support. A constant section was required by the architect throughout the length of the bridge, and a 5-m depth was selected to meet all of these design conditions. The deck slab is also prestressed transversely to minimise any cracking.

Regarding the corrosion protection system, the Abu Dhabi climate is hot, often humid, and the bridge is in a marine environment.These conditions require exceptional precautions to achieve durability. Thus, all exposed concrete surfaces have silane treatment and are painted, whereas all reinforcement is made of uncoated black steel for future connection to an

Construction steps.

Projects 92 / 93

The arches and piers form a continuous integral structure. At each marine pier, there are outer pier arms which support the deck via the pier crossheads and half joints. Seen in elevation, these arms are within the overall arch profile. In cross section, they have been sculpted to maintain the architectural concept of the deck floating through or around the arches. The arches rise to over 60 m above sea level, and it was considered by the designer that at this elevation it would be more practical and quicker to lift them in prefabricated steel box sections rather than to construct concrete arches in situ. In addition, the dominant stresses in the arches are bending rather than compressing with high torsions. For these reasons, the sections of arch above deck level are all designed in steel. The four main piers, West Main, Marina, Central and East Main are all constructed within double-walled sheet-piled cofferdams. These are initially filled above water level while the foundation piling is carried out from a working platform at around +2.0 m. The filling is then excavated to pile cut-off level, typically 6.0 m and the pile cap is constructed.

Bridge construction.

Maurer Shne Involvement in the Sheikh Zayed Bridge

Maurer Shne GmbH & Co. KG, founded in Munich in 1876, is one of the leading companies in the field of structural steel engineering, mechanical and plant engineering. Its structural protection system helps to avoid damages caused by forces in motion by seismically isolators and energy dissipaters, the antiseismic expansion joints MAURER Swivel Joist Expansion Joint. The Sheikh Zayed Bridge has been designed for a 475-year return period earthquake, zone 2, and was also checked for a 750-year event with 27.5%g peak acceleration. Therefore, the bridge accessory devices have been designed to absorb the resulting loads and any movement in all directions (multidirectional by full stroke) as there are bridge isolators and movement expansion joints part of this bridge. The chosen system was approved by the bridge designer and consultant as the joints cannot only follow the main movement of the bridge in carriageway direction but also distinctive movements in two spatial directions perpendicular to the main direction. Even rotations of the bridge on three spatial axes are easily coped with.

Bridge view at night.

Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMALs Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi

Outotec GmbH, Kln Manfred Beilstein

HSE award to Outotec for 1 million construction manhours worked without lost-time incident.

Projects 94 / 95

Emirates Aluminium Company (EMAL) is a strategic joint venture between aluminium producer Dubai Aluminium (DUBAL) and Abu Dhabi investment vehicle MUBADALA. The joint venture was established in 2007 under the leadership of HH Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the United Arab Emirates, by Emiri Decree Number 7 of 2007. EMAL is constructing one of the largest single-site primary aluminium smelters in the world at the new Khalifa Port and Industrial Zone at Al Taweelah, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

cooled in a water-cooling system. These anode blocks, after baking, are consumed in the reduction lines for producing aluminium metal. The EMAL green anode plant has two anode production lines, each rated at 50 t/h capacity, along with a crushing plant for recycled carbon materials. Ancillary facilities, like the calcined coke and liquid pitch unloading and storage system, HTF heating system, plant operation centre and production control laboratory are part of the scope. Innovative technologies, such as regenerative thermal oxidisation (RTO) for pitch fume treatment are being employed, as the best available technology (BAT) for this purpose.

Largest Industrial Project Outside the Gas and Oil Sector

The construction of a new high-tech aluminium smelter in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi is already making history: it will be the largest greenfield aluminium smelter project ever and one of the largest industrial projects in the United Arab Emirates outside the oil and gas sector. It is the flagship project of Abu Dhabis industrialisation and diversification strategy. The aluminium smelter will be built in two phases: phase one commenced operation on 2 December 2009, and once fully operational will produce 750,000 tons of aluminium per annum, doubling to 1.5 million tons annually at the end of phase two, making it the worlds largest single-site aluminium smelter and making EMAL the fifth largest aluminium producer in the world. Building the first phase will cost approximately US$5.7 billion and will comprise 756 reduction cells arranged in two potlines, an on-site 2,000-MW power plant, anode manufacturing plant and multiproduct casthouse. For the anode manufacturing plant, EMAL had awarded the contract to design and construct the green anode manufacturing plant and carbon scrap crushing facility on EPC basis to Outotec, a global leader in minerals and metals technologies. The green anode plant has the purpose of producing in a fully automated process green anode blocks from calcined petroleum coke and recycled green and baked anode scrap, with coal tar pitch being added as binder. After grading, proportioning and preheating, the carbon materials are continuously mixed with binder pitch to produce a homogenous paste before molding it into green anode blocks on vibrocompacting machines, also known as vibrocompactors. The molded blocks are then

Ultimate Flight Catering

i+o Industrieplanung + Organisation GmbH & Co. KG Torsten Brendel

Exterior view: Emirates ight catering facility at Dubai International Airport.

Projects 96 / 97

Ambitious plans for expansion and large construction projects have been the special characteristic of the Gulf region. One example is Dubai. Despite the current crisis, the emirate is expanding its airport, which experienced strong growth last year. The most important hub in the Middle East possesses the worlds largest inflight catering facility. The Heidelberg-based consultancy i+o Industry Planning + Organization was responsible for the planning and realisation of the facility. Dubai International Airport is the headquarters of Emirates airline and more than another 100 international airlines, which fly from Dubai to more than 150 destinations. In the course of constant growth, in 2008 the new terminal T3 started operation. The terminal is designed for wide body planes of the type A380 and belongs to the largest terminals worldwide, with an utilised area of more than 1 million m2. Even during difficult economic times, the airport of the desert metropolis sets benchmarks: in 2009 alone, 40.9 million passengers were processed, an increase of 9.2% compared to the previous year. The worlds largest inflight catering facility stresses the efforts for expansion at Dubai airport. Emirates Flight Catering, a subsidiary of Emirates, authorised i+o Industry Planning + Organization to plan this large-scale project, where 1,800 employees, working on three floors, produce up to 115,000 meals a day. During the conceptual phase, which lasted about one and a half year, the team consisting of i+o representatives and the management of Emirates Flight Catering worked hand in hand. Together, each corner and each process step in the facility, which has a total size of 55,000 m2, was planned down to the very last detail. Thanks to decades of experience in realising inflight catering systems, e.g. in Frankfurt, Hong Kong, Korea and Singapore, i+o was once again able to set benchmarks.

A main target of the new catering facility is flexibility with regard to construction, to make sure that it quickly adapts to an increasing demand. As a solution, i+o planned a building which allows capacity expansion into all directions without stopping production. A central, space-saving and covered transport area on the ground floor connects incoming and outgoing goods across from each other. Moreover, the frontages of the building remain free for further expansion in the future. A traffic yard with 84 ramps simplifies transport to and from the planes parked on the airfield and shortens the process of the internal material flow, which starts at the socalled inbound. In addition to receiving groundside goods, the inbound receives, empties and cleans the airplane trolleys. With regard to the cleaning process, the new Emirates Flight Catering facility is full of superlatives. A hall as big as a soccer field with 20 washing facilities, a length of 10 to 17 m each, is provided for used dishes and cutlery only. The dirty trolleys are sent through two washing systems that have a length of 25 m, currently the most powerful washing plant in inflight catering worldwide.

Sophisticated Logistics Systems

An electronic state-of-the-art trolley conveyor is the mode of transport of the sophisticated intralogistics and forms the backbone of the new catering facility. It automatically transports the incoming trolleys up to 13,000 per day. The facility consists of three storeys and has a size of 160 x 130 m. Next to dishes in different ethnic varieties like Arabic, Middle Eastern, Asian subcontinental, Japanese, Chinese or Western there are also trolleys for non-food items like drugs or duty-free items for on-board sale.

Cool Despite Desert Climate

The biggest conceptual challenge was to not interrupt the cold chain, despite the fact that the temperature in Dubai can rise up to 50 C in the shade during the day. Further developing the cook & chill principle is an essential part of i+os cooling concept. Cook & chill means that conveyer belts automatically forward cooked, warm meals to a central cooling room before they are portioned and cooled down to 2 C in speed coolers. This process not only saves precious time, it also increases the durability of the food.

Due to this reason a modern container conveyor system equipped with six automatic storage systems was designed and implemented. The system manages up to 40,000 container movements per day. In total, high bay warehouses with about 1,800 pallet spaces for storing more than 1,000 airline-specific items from napkins and tableware to blankets and duty-free goods are available. All processes of the new Emirates flight catering facility are operated by a central control station.

keep up with this development. This also leads to an increasing demand for professional consultancy know-how, especially in the logistics segment. Until today, the Emirates flight catering facility is a major project i+o has realised in the Middle East which still sets benchmarks in the market. Since the beginning of its activities in the Gulf region in 2005, i+o has constantly broadened its portfolio offering many additional services and core competencies. In early 2008, the German consultancy established its office in Dubai and acquired further largescale projects in the Persian Gulf region. One good example is the New Doha International Airport in the neighbouring Emirate of Qatar. Located directly at the shore, the new hub will develop at an area of 20 km2. i+os task is to create a comprehensive logistics concept which focuses on planning inhouse logistics for the terminal building, the catering facilities, the warehouses for the duty-free goods and the cargo centre. Furthermore, another inflight catering facility is being established for Qatar Airways. Just recently, i+o was also authorised by the investment company Emirates Advanced Investments (EAI) to plan a new food company that produces sterilised meals according to the latest international GMP and HACCP standards

Well-connected: Dubai and the Gulf Region

The GCC states, the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council, will certainly continue to develop strongly in order to prepare themselves for the times of decreasing oil reserves. Ambitious megaprojects such as the Al-Maktoum International Airport are already under way. Dubais second airport will be located close to the freeport Jebel Ali Free Zone, wherefrom more than 6,000 international companies do business. The first construction stage is supposed to start operating in June 2010. In this context, the region will become more important in their function as a central hub for trade between Asia and Europe. At the same time it will be absolutely necessary to intensively develop the infrastructure in order to be able to

Covering three oors and an area of 55.000 m, the catering facility sets new technical, logistical and organisational standards.

Projects 98 / 99

Emirates airline aircraft and crew.


Fact File
Country Name Population Land Area Official Language Currency Main Cities Republic Of Yemen 22 million (2009) 536,869 km2 Arabic, with English as the main business language 1 Yemeni riyal = 100 fils Sanaa (Capital)

Projects 100 / 101

Pilot Projects for Schools in Yemen

Kere Architecture Dibdo Francis Kr

Cross section.

Due to the inadequate education situation in Yemen the Ministry of Education of Yemen and the Reconstruction Loan Corporation (KfW) have decided to implement a school project. Targets of the project carried out by the Society for Organization, Planning and Education (GOPA) are the development and the construction of new schools corresponding to the educational, social-religious, climatic and topographic as well as resulting constructional requirements. The existing school buildings are predominantly in a very bad condition. They have big structural defects and lack sanitary facilities, clean drinking water and electricity. Since schools do not exist at all places, some of the children have to walk to their school up to three hours on foot. Within this context, particularly girls in Yemen are very disadvantaged. The lack of partition (e.g. walls around the school buildings) and lack of latrines frequently contribute to the fact that girls do not attend school at all. The projects aim is to achieve schools that provide a peaceful and democratic environment. Several prototypes have been developed which can be adapted to different regions in Yemen

and thus promote an economic, practical and innovative variant for the construction of schools in Yemen.

Task: Area Programme and Concept

The preliminary draft is planned on a fictitious estate with the minimum dimensions of 31 x 40 m and is intended as a measure catalogue. According to the area programme there are two variants, a one-storey and a two-storey construction, each consisting of eight classrooms for about 30 boys or girls respectively. The rooms are simple, but sufficiently equipped to be able to teach the pupils adequately. The classrooms are strictly separated between the user groups of boys and girls. Each user group has its own courtyard, which is partly covered with greenery and serves as ground for the pupils and contributes to the improvement of the climate. Teachers get their own building which is structured as a multipurpose room and thus meets various requirements. The detailed adaptation to the genius loci can only be made when specific estates have been designated. But basically the draft is a module construction consisting of a classroom to which a porch is added. Depending on the orientation and offer of space the element can be added in various ways.


In principle the one-storey building clearly separates the two user groups by space. Two classes are allocated a building established at the outermost edge of the estate. In their midst two further buildings, which are connected to each other, are placed. By this, a clearly defined courtyard is created, to which four classes are connected. A separation according to age groups or sex can easily be achieved this way. This common courtyard can be placed in the shadow or partly be covered with greenery. The created space constitutes a buffer zone, which is used for the ventilation of the classrooms. Due to the low height of the construction less scaffolding is needed. In case of a one-storey construction there are no stairs, no floor slabs and no exterior corridors, which cause relatively high costs at the common way of construction. A great part of the mandatory surrounding wall is used as part of the buildings.
Floor plan.


Foundations of the Architectural Concept

Though Yemen is an economically very poor and hardly developed country, it is very rich in culture and trade, with a long, highly developed tradition of architecture. This includes particularly the use of clay in all conceivable areas of utilisation. There are whole towns in which all buildings were made of clay. This tradition and the treatment of local materials should not get lost, but has to be cultivated and supported nowadays. Thus people should be encouraged to deal with the local materials of their region and impart their utilisation to future generations. It would also ensure that people can identify themselves with the project, and use their thus gained experience in the construction of other buildings at a later stage. Furthermore, the use of prefabricated components requires a sufficient transport infrastructure, so that their utilisation rather seems to be inappropriate in Yemen. If it becomes obvious that certain indispensable building components have to be supplied, these should be designed in such a way that they also can be transported with a donkey. Primarily, however, building components and materials should be used, which are available on the spot, are manufactured there or at least can be repaired and maintained on the spot so that construction can be as economically as possible.

The two-storey building is the ideal solution in case of a very small estate. By means of an intelligent form this variant attempts not only to achieve climatic but also economic advantages. There is a subdivision of the classes into two user groups, which is achieved by a gap between them. This gap constitutes a shadowed area and guarantees the air-conditioning of the classes. By not integrating an exterior corridor, which would be obligatory in case of an entry installed at the side, a great deal of construction material is saved.


Projects 102 / 103


As far as possible, combinations of fanlights and low-situated openings are preferred to optimally ventilate and light the rooms, and, additionally, to protect the girls against gazes from the outside. The ventilation of the rooms is guaranteed by openings installed in a well-directed way, which however protect the pupils against the climate (e.g. insolation/rain).

protection against gazes the girls can freely move behind the wall. In some places openings in the wall are planned, which can be developed from diagonally placed stones or plantings that give the wall a structure and guarantee ventilation as well as protection against sight. The wall thus will become a decisive component of the architecture.

The roof can be formed as a massive barrel-shaped roof or as light sheet metal construction. Depending on the region it is decided which construction is readily available.

In hot areas latrines are a source of stench. To avoid this, the latrines have to be placed in a corresponding distance to the classrooms. In both drafts two units were planned, which stand in the front area of the estates. They are very plain bodies, which are formed like a snail due to the protection of sight. Each class is to receive its own latrine, which can be locked as this makes it easier to supervise the cleanness and efficiency.

If possible, local materials such as BTC-stones/adobe, bamboo, sand or pieces of rock are to be used. Only when it is indispensable, materials like steel or concrete are used at the construction.

A big room is planned in the entry sector, which is structured as multipurpose room, e.g. as conference room for the teachers, as a place of encounter between teachers and parents. Furthermore, a part of the room can also serve as school library. A small room is separated from the multipurpose room to the front and determined for the schools guard. This room can also serve as a small store. Thus, the guard has the possibility to sell something to earn himself a small income. This is also advantageous for those families, who live in remote villages with the nearest market miles away, as their children could buy small things after finishing school and take them home.

The climatic conditions on the spot are of central importance for any architectural draft as they have effects on almost all parts of a building. Thus, according to the various climate regions in Yemen, the individual building components and openings are adapted and optimised. For example, in the coast region attention is paid to a strong ventilation of the rooms in order to avoid dampness collecting in the rooms. In the mountain region, smaller openings and more massive walls are planned. By this, the high variations in temperature between day and night can be compensated. The massive walls store the heat of the day and guarantee a constant temperature in the rooms. Further precautions will be taken in the deserts so that dust caused by sandstorms will be kept away from the rooms. In order to fulfil the requirements of the climate in desert regions one will work with massive elements comparable to those used in the mountains, too. A special challenge is the topography of the terrain. Here an installation of terraces may become necessary. However, the system of the module with its diverse possibilities of combination will facilitate the implementation.

The plantings are very important to guarantee fresh, cool air for the pupils not only in the classrooms but also on the school playground. They are oriented towards the openings of the rooms. Apart from this, the plantings are installed as protection of sight between the two user groups.

The wall is not only a sheer element of separation. It is used to establish a room and correspondingly engineered. The buildings are part of the wall and not surrounded by it. Together, building and wall, form the courtyards, which are designed and covered with greenery. Within the context of the often extremely barren Yemen landscape an oasis with a high quality of staying is created. With reference to the wished

Special Topics

Special Topics 104 / 105

Working Group Infrastructure and Construction

The Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry is currently undergoing a transformation process driven by the President Dr. Thomas Bach, the Secretary General Abdulaziz Al-Mikhlafi, the Executive Board, the Board of Directors and the members. With the introduction of industry-sector-specific working groups Ghorfa is offering its members the possibility of actively building industryspecific networks, thus making it possible for each member to adjust its level of activity within the Ghorfa individually, dependent on individual time frames and personal or business interests. As overall issues are discussed on the executive level, every member is invited to now take over a shaping role within the Ghorfa on a sector-specific level, thus not only broadening ones own horizon but Ghorfas as a whole. The Board of Directors agreed on the following working groups: education and training, financial services, energy, health, infrastructure and construction, investment and technology transfer, information technology and communications, legal affairs, security technologies, tourism, transport and logistics, and environment and water. Each of these will be self-organised and will be led by a CEO of a company doing business in the specific field. In autumn 2009, the working group infrastructure and construction was established. With the construction industry in the Arab world continously growing and its tremendous business opportunities the exchange of views is getting ever more important for German construction companies doing business in the Arab world. Thus, the idea is

Dorsch Gruppe Olaf Hoffmann

1. to built up a dynamic network of professionals to analyse, anticipate and discuss developments in the Arab markets. 2. to use our experiences and common business contacts in an ever more synergetic and target-oriented way. 3. to mark and visualise the main trends and important developments in the region on the basis of our daily insights.
We are convinced that clearly defined points of contact, based on individual interests, will not only build an effective and well-connected platform but will also expand and cultivate professionals relationship to the Arab world by gaining valuable insights and by discovering new and profitable business opportunities.

Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia
Legal and Administrative Background of Construction Consortia Business in Syria
Syria is opening its country to foreign investment and business. Thus, many laws dealing with commercial and civil law as well as finance and tax issues have undergone fundamental changes during the past few years. Among these are the commercial law, the companies law and the investment law. These laws now provide a much more reliable legal basis for foreign companies entering the Syrian market as contractors or investors. The strong desire to reform the legal framework and to provide an attractive environment for foreign investors comes along with an increased number of infrastructure projects commissioned by Syrian ministries and state organisations. It is a recent development that international contractors may now bid on infrastructure contracts in Syria as part of construction consortia. This provides for better risk sharing among participating companies. However, the laws in Syria are not yet prepared to deal with this structure. Hence, many legal issues must be solved by trial and error. This paper shall set forth recent observations relating to doing business as a construction consortium in Syria and shall offer practical suggestions for overcoming obstacles such consortia may face.

Amereller Rechtsanwlte Dr. Wolfgang Graf von Armansperg

choose noncompetitive or sole-source contracting. Even under the new law, contracting with public entities still means more or less accepting the contract terms and conditions presented by the customer. All procurement contracts refer to the Special Book of Conditions, which clearly shapes the contract in favour of the government customer. Although Syrian law thus far does not specifically address the consortium structure, state customers have, in the meantime, accepted consortia as contract partners in large infrastructure projects. Since the customer tends to consider the consortium as one contract partner and prefers to communicate only with one spokesperson for the consortium, it is in the interests of consortium members to set out in the contract the shares of the respective consortium members and, in addition, to separate the price of its off-shore component (all supplies and services effected outside Syria) from its on-shore component (all supplies and services provided inside Syria). As the combination of both components into one overall price could have a negative tax impact on the project. For example, one overall price could apply that value to the entire contract taxation, including all off-shore components of the project. For a foreign contract partner, also being taxed in its home country, this could mean general or partial double taxation of the income from the contract. Accordingly, it is also recommended that the invoicing should distinguish between the contributions of various consortium members.

The Customer Contract

Syrian civil law is far more liberal after its reform, and public procurement can now be found in Law No. 51/2004, which repealed several old laws dealing with the tender process for public entities. For all high-value contracts, the law still requires a public tender. Only in urgent cases may state organisations

Place of Jurisdiction and Applicable Law

Contracts with public entities in Syria regularly provide for application of Syrian law and for legal disputes to be decided by Syrian courts. This is clearly in favour of the customer as

Special Topics 106 / 107

there are almost no examples of a private claimant successfully being awarded a judgment against a public defendant. In practice, it is difficult to enforce any judgement, even an arbitration award, against a public entity in Syria. With private contract partners, such as Syrian consortium partners or subcontractors, there is a much better basis for agreeing on foreign law and on arbitration procedures. Swiss law and the rules of the ICC in Paris are well known and well accepted in Syria. In any event, the chances of enforcing a foreign judgment in Syria are rather limited. Reciprocity under Syrian procedural law still does not exist in practice, and it is unlikely that a Syrian civil court would affirm any foreign judgement.

offene Handelsgesellschaft (oHG). In addition, if the leader of the consortium had the authority to issue directives and was responsible for controlling the performance of the other partners, that member could be made liable for all the companys business activities.

Branch or Agency Requirements under Syrian Civil Law

In theory, a foreign contractor may supply its customers in Syria without the involvement of a local entity or agent. However, on 3 July 2001, Legislative Decree No. 15 (effective 3 January 2002) was released. According to this Decree, all foreign parties who wish to conclude contracts with the Syrian public sector require a commercial agent or a branch office in the country. Both must be registered with the Ministry of Commerce and Economy. The agent must be registered as the exclusive agent for the company. In contracts with the Syrian private sector no branch office or agent is required. Usually, foreign companies operate through an agent or authorised dealer. Agency law is partly contained in the Syrian Civil Code and, in addition, in the new Agency Law No. 34/2008. It is important to note that only Syrian nationals may operate as agents. In the case of a company agent, the company must be registered in Syria and its shareholders must be Syrian nationals. Law No. 34/2008 also is the basis for regulating the establishment of a branch office of a foreign company. In the case of a registered branch office, the general manager of the office must be resident in Syria. Branches of foreign companies are required to keep their accounting books and records in Arabic. This requirement must be fulfilled even if the tax on the entity is not assessed based on the profits shown in its books, but is levied, instead, as a withholding tax from the payments of its customers. In contracts combining off-shore and on-shore components, the books and records also must include the off-shore component of contract income. How will these principles be applied to a construction consortium? As long as the consortium is not considered to be a partnership or a de-facto company, it is not required to have a branch office or agent on its own. Consequently, the requirement for an agent or branch office registration is applied to every member of the consortium separately. Moreover, every branch office of a consortium member must have its own set of books and records.

Liability under the Customer Contract and towards Third Parties

Under Syrian law, contracting with public entities under the consortium structure always involves joint and several liability of all consortium members, even if this is not specifically stipulated in the contract. This is the result of Law No. 51, describing the conditions for public procurement. As was previously the case with Decree 195 and Decision 1336, Law No. 51 states that the actions of one member of the consortium impute the same liability to all consortium members, and with a similar effect. Moreover, if the customer gives notice to one consortium member, this is considered notice to all consortium members. The consortium structure, as such, does not result in liability to third parties not contractually connected with the consortium. An association of contractors and suppliers carrying out a common goal to fulfil the obligations of a customer contract does not automatically result in a partnership relationship. As long as this entity does not do business with the public and does not hold itself out as a partnership, it is a purely undisclosed partnership. In Syria, this could be compared with a Sharekat al-Mahassa, an undisclosed partnership that is not a legal entity. The analysis would be different if the company had a fixed place of business and operated as a commercial firm with the general public. Such a company would constitute a de-facto company (Art. 56 Commercial Code) and all participating partners would have unlimited liability. The company, therefore, could be compared with the German

Taxation of Construction Consortium Activities in Syria

In principal, Syrias income tax on commercial activities, selfemployment and industrial activities is levied on the profit generated from these activities. However, with the introduction of the new Income Tax Law No. 24/2003, the law provides for a withholding tax approach to income generated by foreign companies or individuals. The withholding tax is defined as a certain percentage of all payments for supplies and services and must be withheld by the Syrian customer in settlement of the foreign contractors tax obligation under the Syrian income tax law. It not only covers the income tax obligation of the foreign contractor, but also extends to salaries for all personnel employed under the contract. If the customer contract provides for a clear price differentiation between off-shore and on-shore components of the contract, the tax withheld is 5% for income tax, and 2% for the salaries tax, on the amount invoiced for the domestic component of the contract. Should the contract not provide for such a clear price differentiation, a 3% income tax and 1% salaries tax will be due on the combined components of the customer contract. Under a consortium structure it is advisable that every member of the consortium submit its own invoices to the customer. In practice it is accepted that payments to the consortium are collected in an account of the consortium leader, who in parallel transfers part of his or her payments to the other consortium members. In addition, the consortium leader should provide a statement allocating the overall tax deduction to the respective consortium members.

and transferability, payments in foreign currency typically will be operated from accounts abroad. Contractors, therefore, often request the customer to make payments in foreign currency to their overseas accounts. A letter of credit also is an accepted tool to secure customer payments. It is not yet common practice to accept individual letters of credit from all participating consortium members. Normally, documents on consortium letterhead are used to request payment of all consortium members. This is typically handled by the consortium leader. It is obvious, however, that this approach involves the risk of illiquidity for individual members in the event the money is paid to the consortium leaders own account. Therefore, it is important to structure this account as an escrow account.

Bid Bond and Performance Bond

Bid bonds and performance bonds customary in international project business also are common in Syrian project business. However, in contracts with public entities, it is still a challenge to get a performance bond returned immediately after all tasks under the contract have been fulfilled. This is surprising since, under The Special Book on Conditions for Syrian public entities, the contract is fulfilled when the work is completed, and not after an additional guarantee period. However, the request to pay or extend is a frequent experience for foreign contractors. Under certain circumstances it may be worth trying to seek relief in Syrian courts. There are cases where foreign contractors have been successful in settling their cases and having their bonds returned.

Bank Account Currency Issues Transfer of Money Letter of Credit

Since the consortium is not a legal entity and has no registered place of business, it is not allowed to open a bank account in its own name. A local bank account in Syria must be opened by one of the registered members of the consortium under its own name. This is normally the account that will receive customer payments and pay local debts. In the event the account is held by a branch office of a foreign company, all transfers must be reflected in the accounting books and records of the branch office. The local bank account normally is used only for payments in local Syrian currency. Due to legal restrictions on convertibility

Foreign and Local Workers Employed with the Project

If a foreign contractor performs any local work in Syria, the full scope of an employers legal obligations are applicable. Syrian labour law is still regulated by Law No. 91/1959 and by Art. 640 to 664 of the Syrian Civil Code, as amended. There is a new law under consideration, however, it is not known if or when this will be implemented. Syrian labour law is considered employee-friendly. Termination of an employment contract is an especially severe obstacle for any employer. The practical solution of many local employers making moderate compensation payments is probably not easily available to foreign companies. In practice, many hire their personnel through local third-party companies. However, this is now seen as by-passing the law and should not be used. In some

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cases, but not all, actually subcontracting local work may help to overcome these labour law issues. In addition, a local work permit is required for foreign experts or supervising personnel. This is regardless of the duration of their stay. Only in exceptional cases may an exemption be granted. Due to the withholding tax approach in project business, which includes the tax on salaries, there is no need to declare the salaries tax by individual employee. However, the obligation to contribute to the local social security system is also applicable to foreigners. This contribution amounts to 24.1% of the gross salary. Furthermore, the employer must furnish the Ministry of Labour with a bank guarantee in the amount of 100,000 Syrian pounds for every foreign employee. The Ministry will draw down on this guarantee in part or in full if payment obligations with respect to the employee are not fulfilled. The employer must provide for the immediate filling of any gap that may arise.

Many of the mentioned legal requirements appear complicated and impose an administrative burden on foreign contractors entering the Syrian market. Moreover, despite legal reforms, contracting with the government in Syria is still slow and complicated. Legal and administrative support, therefore, may be necessary to avoid the obstacles that crop up during any project activity. On the other hand the opening of the Syrian economy to private investment, and Syrias interest in European imports, especially German technological products, will further improve conditions for foreign entities doing project work in Syria. The practical solutions currently in use by foreign consortia may be viewed as evidence of an evolving business environment going beyond narrow legal regulations. Syria likely will continue to develop in this area and become an interesting market for large international infrastructure projects.

Saudi Arabias Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies

Apricum The Cleantech Advisory Romy Schildhauer

Business park within King Abdullah economic city at the Red Sea.

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Following a slight recession in 2009, Saudi Arabias economy returns to robust annual growth rates of 3 to 4% in 2010. The high oil prices of the past years have provided the strongest economy of the Arabian peninsula with a sound capital base. Apart from the petrochemical industry, primarily the construction business has profited from oil and gas revenues. The people of Saudi Arabia, too, experienced a notable improvement in living standards. However, Saudi Arabia continues to face a broad range of economic and social challenges. The sudden improvement in living standards of a vast majority of people combined with the economic focus on the heavy industry sector have also led to a rapid increase in energy demand. The kingdoms energy infrastructure however is not prepared for peak demand. Thus, blackouts are a frequent occurrence during peak times. In the future, blackouts are predicted to worsen, as both the usage of electric appliances and water consumption increase. Producing potable water through desalination processes is highly energy-intensive. Energy demand in the kingdom is therefore predicted to have doubled by 2020. In addition to the above developments, Saudi Arabias population is growing at above average rates. Nearly half of the 25 million Saudis are still enrolled at school. And with rising levels of education, many of these graduates aim for a position in management or in the technology sector. Such positions however are short in supply in Saudi Arabias current economy. The Saudi government is therefore keen to diversify the national industry. While todays lions share of GDP is produced by the petrochemical industry and related industries, in the future, attention will also be paid to other modern, high-tech industries. Of those selected industries, the solar industry is especially suited to generate long-term growth and to respond adequately to social challenges.

energy both as one of the future pillars of national energy supply as well as an export product. The utilities and power stations needed would at first be imported from Europe or Asia. In the long run, the kingdom plans to attract high-tech solar enterprises to profit from the benefits of a national solar industry, such as creating a large number of highly skilled jobs. The national strategy for attracting enterprises focuses on large industrial parks, which will foster the creation of industry clusters. These clusters comprise various stages of a products value chain, the associated suppliers and relevant research institutes. Already today, Saudi Arabia lists more than 30 industrial parks, where mainly the petrochemical and the crude-oil industry are represented. The parks are located throughout the entire country, but concentrate in particular in coastal regions along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea. Several parks have already reached the limits of their capacities and cannot accept any more enterprises, as is for example the case with Jubail 1 Park. Others are still in the exploration phase. Some parks, such as Petro Rabigh und Yanbu, are currently actively searching for investors and are intentionally geared towards becoming sites for the solar industry. In the context of a national solar study for the Saudi Arabian government, Apricum, a globally operating strategic management consultancy specialised in Cleantech and renewable energies particulary focussed on solar energy, has assessed the suitability of the kingdoms industrial parks and structural characteristics for attracting solar manufacturing companies.

Solar Energy a Future Pillar of Saudi Arabian Economy

Thanks to its geographic location, Saudi Arabia fulfils all requirements for the profitable production of solar electricity: vast spaces and one of the worlds most excellent solar irradiation. As such, the Saudi government has identified solar

Petro Rabigh Conversion Industrial Park is located at the Red Sea, next to a large petrochemical complex approximately 120 km north of Jeddah. The park encloses 240 ha. The petrochemical complex was created through a joint venture between oil giant Saudi Aramco and the Japanese Sumitomo Chemical Corporation. It marks Aramcos first entry into the petrochemical sector and is the first of several downstream investments designed to keep as much value as possible inside Saudi Arabia from domestic oil output, while trying to create jobs for a young and rapidly growing population. The project was put into operation in 2008. It produces a diverse set of petrochemical derivatives including polyethylene, polypropylene monoethylene glycol and propylene oxide mounting up to a total of 2.4 million tons of petrochemical products per year. RCIP is a nonprofit base project where power and water will be provided at cost bases. It is targeted to attract investors for producers of high value-added and

Modern service centres within the industrial parks are to offer high standard support for international companies.

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export-oriented products, like high-performance plastic films that for example are used in photo-voltaic modules.

Also near the Red Sea lies Yanbu Industrial Park. At 158 km, it is one of the largest industrial parks of Saudi Arabia. The Yanbu site is a perfect example how park developers successfully managed the challenges imposed by geographical and infrastructural conditions in Saudi Arabia. When preparations at Yanbu started, the site lacked everything required to support even a minimum level of human existence, let alone full-blown industrial development. Unlike its neighbouring facility Jubail, the site was far from the nearest metropolitan area and ready access to essential goods and services. The challenge, therefore, was enormous: to provide power, water, roads, airport, industrial port, telephones, housing, schools, health care facilities and all other services and facilities required by a modern industrial city. Today, Yanbu is home to approximately 20 heavy hydrocarbon, petrochemical and mineral facilities as well as 37 light manufacturing and support operations. Its power needs are supplied by nine gas-turbine and three steam-turbine generators, all capable of burning either gas or fuel oil. Together, these units can produce 900 MW of electricity. Also in the central utility complex, water from the Red Sea is fed to nine desalination units producing 95,000 m3 fresh water daily. With the large amount of energy readily available at low cost, Yanbu is especially suited for upstream PV production, e.g. polysilicon ingot and wafer production.

From the outside, the park is accessible via several multilane main highways, a future seaport within city boundaries and the Jeddah International Airport. Contrary to the industrial park approach, the economic city concept rather focuses on establishing light industries and service providers. It therefore seems predominantly poised to become a manufacturing location for PV-module or thin-film companies.

Saudi Arabias industrial parks and economic cities offer attractive manufacturing conditions for various high-tech industries, including solar. Beyond those facilities, the country offers a wide range of assets that are especially advantageous for high-tech manufacturers: Low energy costs, which are primarily relevant for energy-intensive manufacturing processes, the first steps of the photo-voltaic value chain Excellent financing opportunities including practically zero tax burdens for industrial companies Very high market potential within Saudi Arabia and neighbouring countries

The King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC) pursues a concept reaching beyond industrial park development to foster national industrial cluster creation. KAEC is located north of the Jeddah metropolitan area, directly on the Red Sea coast and in close proximity to the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). It is a major development project with six districts including industrial, commercial and residential zones covering a total area of 168 km. KAEC planners envision a futuristic new form of living and working for the inhabitants of their city. They intend the city to be built for intelligent living, which means that communities will enjoy a suite of value-added services such as eGovernment, home automation, efficient health care and an advanced transportation infrastructure.

List of Contributors

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Amereller Rechtsanwlte
Project: Project Contracting of Foreign Companies in Syria Legal Issues of Foreign Construction Consortia Contact: Dr. Florian Amereller, Partner Lenbachplatz 4 D-80333 Mnchen Germany Tel: +49 89 549019-0 Fax: +49 89 549019-99 E-mail:

Dorsch Gruppe
Project: Railway Network Project Contact: Ulrich Beer, Project Manager Kerstin Schneider, Head of Marketing and Public Relations Dorsch Holding GmbH Berliner Strasse 74-76 D-63065 Offenbach am Main Tel: +49 69 130257-0 Fax: +49 69 130257-32 E-mail: Project: Waste Water Treatment and Reuse in the Gaza Strip Contact: Keith Brooke, Regional Director Dorsch Consult Wasser und Umwelt GmbH Regional Office Cairo 6 El Sad El Ali St., P.O. Box 31 11431 Maadi, Cairo Egypt Tel: +20 2 23802563 Fax: +20 2 23802394 E-mail: Internet: Project: Khartoum New International Airport Contact: Albert Mair, Project Director Hansastrasse 20 D-80686 Mnchen Germany Tel: +49 89 5797-0 Fax: +49 89 5797-874 E-mail:

Apricum The Cleantech Advisory

Project: Saudi Arabias Industrial Parks Offering Opportunities to Solar Companies Contact: Nikolai Dobrott, Managing Partner Neue Gruenstrasse 17 D-10179 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 308776-221 Fax +49 30 308776-225 E-mail:

ASS Planungs GmbH Freie Architekten

Project: Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Contact: Susanne Schmid, Managing Partner Seestrasse 65 D-70174 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 220226-60 Fax: +49 711 220226-66 E-mail:

Project: Lotus Garden Contact: Hany Labib Dorsch Consult Abu Dhabi Office Salam Street P.O. Box 26417 Abu Dhabi, UAE Tel: +971 26721923 Fax: +971 26720809 E-mail:

German University of Technology in Oman (Gutech)

Project: Masterplan and Main Building of the German University of Technology in Oman Contact: Prof. Dr. Burkhard Rauhut, Rector P.O. Box 1816 Athaiba PC 130, Muscat Sultanate of Oman Tel: +968 98134616 Fax: +968 24495568 E-mail:

Ferrostaal AG
Project: Construction of a Methanol Plant: A Strategy to Diversify the Omani Economy Contact: Adalbert Graff, Head of Petrochemical Industry Hohenzollernstrasse 24 D-45128 Essen Germany Tel: +49 201 8182099 Fax: +49 201 8182822 E-mail:

gtz International Services

Project: Aqaba Residence Energy Efficiency (AREE) Contact: Florentine Visser, Architect, Project Manager 4D, El Gezira Street 11211 Zamalek/Cairo Egypt Tel: +20 2 24181578/9 E-mail:

Fichtner GmbH & Co. KG

Project: Ain Bni Mathar an Integrated Solar-Combined Cycle Plant Contact: Mansour Hamza, Managing Director Sarweystrasse 3 D-70191 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 8995371 Fax: +49 711 8995459 E-mail:

i+o Industrieplanung + Organisation GmbH & Co. KG

Project: Ultimate Flight Catering Contact: Martina Dandl, Business Unit Manager Marketing/PR Roemerstrasse 245 D-69126 Heidelberg Germany Tel: +49 6221 379-0 Fax: +49 6221 379-200 E-mail:

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Kere Architecture
Project: Pilot Project for Schools in Yemen Contact: Dibdo Francis Kr, Architect, Owner Arndtstrasse 34 D-10965 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 789523-91 Fax: +49 30 789523-98 E-mail:

Lahmeyer International GmbH

Project: The Merowe Dam and Hydropower Station Contact: Egon Failer, Executive Director Friedberger Strasse 173 D-61118 Bad Vilbel Germany Tel: +49 6101 55-1745 Fax: +49-6101 55-1414 E-mail:

KfW Entwicklungsbank
Project: Improving the Living Conditions of the Poor in Manshiet Nasser Contact: Mandana Bahrinipour, Project Manager Palmengartenstrasse 5-9 D-60325 Frankfurt Main Germany Tel: +49 69 7431-0 Fax: +49 69 7431-3559 E-mail:

Lufthansa Consulting GmbH

Project: Strategic Consulting in the Rapidly Expanding Middle East Aviation Market Contact: Marlene Hollwurtel, Manager Public Relations Von-Gablenz-Strasse 2-6 D-50679 Kln Germany Tel: +49 221 826-8101 Fax +49 221 826-8263 E-mail:

KSP Jrgen Engel Architekten GmbH

Project: The Mosque in Algiers Contact: Sebastian Tokarz, PR Hanauer Landstrasse 287-289 D-60314 Frankfurt/Main Germany Tel: +49 69 944394 0 Fax: +49 69 944394-38 E-mail:

MAURER Shne GmbH & Co. KG

Project: German Maurer Bridge Expansion Joint System for Sheikh Zayed Sculptural Bridge in Abu Dhabi Contact: Raad Hamood, Sales Director Middle East Frankfurter Ring 193 D-80807 Mnchen Germany Tel: +49 89 323 94-354 Fax: +49 89 323 94-306 E-mail:

Outotec GmbH, Kln

Project: Outotec Supplies Anode Paste Plant for EMALs Aluminium Smelter Project in Abu Dhabi Contact: Dipl.-Ing. Manfred Beilstein, Vice President Sales and Process Aluminium Technologies, Paste Plants Albin-Kbis-Strasse 8 D-51147 Kln Germany Tel: +49 2203 9921-0 Fax +49 2203 9921-333 E-mail:

Passavant-Roediger GmbH
Project: Design and Construction of a Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Saida Contact: Mazen Bachir, PhD, Managing Director Kinzigheimer Weg 104-106 D-63450 Hanau Germany Tel: +49 6181 309-250 Fax: +49 6181 309-320 E-mail:

Outotec GmbH, Oberursel

Project: Banking on Fertiliser in the Middle of the Desert Contact: Steffen Dietzig, Director Sales & Marketing, Head of Middle East Market Region Ludwig-Erhard-Strasse 21 D-61440 Oberursel Germany Tel: +49 617 19693-0 E-mail:

schlaich bergermann und partner- structural consulting engineers

Project: Al-Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Stadium (Kuwait International Stadium) Contact: Dipl.-Ing. Knut Gppert, Managing Director Hohenzollernstrasse 1 D-70178 Stuttgart Germany Tel: +49 711 6487134 Fax: +49 711 487166 E-mail:

Papadopoulos Associates GmbH

Project: Design and Construction Contact: Dipl.-Ing. Jrgen Papadopoulos, Managing Director Arnulfstrasse 124 D-80636 Mnchen Germany Tel: +49 89 540184-0 Fax: +49 89 540184-18 E-mail:

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Siemens AG
Project: The Backbone of Urban Mass Transit Contact: Hans-Juergen Schweer, Head of Business Development Complete Transportation Mozartstrasse 33b D-91053 Erlangen Germany Tel: +49 9131 726134 Fax: +49 9131 725170 E-mail:

Wacker AG
Project: Thermal Insulation in a Desert Climate: Sustainable Construction in the Middle East Contact: Dr. Stefano Iannacone, Branch Manager Dubai, Wacker Chemicals Middle East P.O. Box 341071; Dubai Silicon Oasis 0001 Dubai United Arab Emirates Tel: +971 4 709-9999 Fax: +971 4 709-9911 E-mail:

ThyssenKrupp Elevator
Project: Qatars Fastest Elevators The Qipco Tornado Tower Doha Contact: Christian Kozma, Country Manager 1st Floor, Office No. 104 Shk. Khalifa Bin Jassim Building, Al Sadd District P.O. Box 47405, Doha Qatar Tel: +974 434 1950/1 Fax: +974 434 1949 E-mail:

Tilke GmbH & Co KG

Project: An Oasis in the Desert Bahrain International Circuit Contact: N. Baxter, Marketing & Public Relations Krefelder Strasse 147 D-52070 Aachen Germany Tel: +49 241 9134-0 Fax: +49 241 9134-400 E-mail:


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Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry Garnisonkirchplatz 1 D-10178 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 278907-0 Fax: +49 30 278907-49 E-mail: Dr. Thomas Bach, President Abdulaziz Al-Mihlafi, Secretary General Olaf Hoffmann, Chairman of the working group infrastructure and construction

Marktforschung und Kommunikation GmbH Friedrichstrasse 187 D-10117 Berlin Germany Tel: +49 30 2061343 Fax: +49 30 2061344 E-mail:

Kindly supported by

Rafaela Rahmig, Ghorfa Arab-German Chamber of Commerce and Industry Kerstin Schneider, Dorsch Holding GmbH

May 2010

Editorial Ofce
Tanja Reindel Lektorat & Redaktion Nordendstrasse 19 D-60318 Frankfurt/M. Germany Tel: +49 69 449140 Mobile: +49 173 3413118 E-mail:

Cover picture: Jeanet Dijkstra Other pictures: Kindly provided by the contributing companies and the Economic and Commercial Office of the Embassy of the Arab Republic of Egypt.