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Raw material

Raw material represents about 50-70% of the manufacturing cost of a short staple yarn. This fact alone is sufficient to indicate the significance of the raw material for the yarn producer. 1.1 Selection and purchase of cotton Selection of cotton variety for purchase is the job of "cotton division who reports for the best varieties of cotton. It is the report of this expert on which the selection and purchase is dependent. Other factors affecting selection and purchase of cotton are quantity and quality of the desired production. Cotton season ranges from august to mid-January; the whole season consists of three or four pickings. The first picking is not good as regards the uniformity ratio and maturity of the fibers. In the early season cotton rate are too high, so Mill purchases second picking on cash. 1.1.1 Fiber parameter (For cotton) Cotton is a natural fiber. The properties which vary very much between bales are: Fiber micronaire Fiber length Fiber strength Fiber color Fiber maturity

Out of these, fiber mic, color, maturity and the origin of growth results in dye absorption variation. Therefore it is a good practice to check the maturity, color and mic of all the bales and to maintain the following to avoid dye pick up variation in the finished fabric. 1.1.2 Polyester Polyester fabrics and fibers are extremely strong. Polyester is very durable: resistant to most chemicals, stretching and shrinking, wrinkle resistant, mildew and abrasion resistant. Polyester is hydrophobic in nature and quick drying. It can be used for insulation by manufacturing hollow fibers. Polyester retains its shape and hence is good for clothing for harsh climates. It is easily washed and dried.

1.2 Cotton grading Cotton is a natural fiber; it has variety in its characteristics from field to field, from bale to bale. The grading of cotton is a task of great experience, grading mean to watch all the factors (i-e staple length, moisture regain, f.f %age) and then to allot the grade to the cotton. For all the characteristics, we have to allot some points, according to its behavior as: for example if the cotton has longer staple length, it will be given more points, as compared to short staple cotton, Grading is also necessary to mix the cotton properly. Some grades are given to cotton after following tests of cotton. Span length 2.5% Strength (GPT) Micronare value Moisture regain UR % FFI Trash % 2.5% S.L. = 28 to 30 mm U% = 53% FFI % = 6 -14 Micronaire = 3.8 to 4.2 Fibre strength = 24 to 28 gms/tex

1.2.1 Over-all grading Over-all grading system can be seen in table 1.1. Table 1.1 Over-all grading system. Values 90 or above 80 to 89 70 to 79 60 to 69 50 to 59 49 or below Points A grade B+ grade B grade B- grade C grade D grade

1.3 Stacking 1.3.1 Bale identification system Bales coming into the mill received by the contractor and the mill watch man. A serial number is allotted to each bale according to the station. There is a tag consisting four parts, two parts of it are pasted on each side of the bales while the third part is send along with the sample to fiber testing lab. There is a serial number for each station for example: for Pakistani cotton the serial number is 000-****. 1.3.2 Bale stacking planning Cotton is transported in the form of bales.Generally, the dimensions of the bales are: Length of Pakistani Cotton Bale = 40 46 Width of Pakistani cotton Bale = 28 36 Height of Pakistani Cotton Bale = 17 20 And weight of single cotton bale varies from 160 170 kg The bale received at Arshad Spinning Mill had a Height = 20 Width = 36 Length = 40 Total no. of godowns in Arshad Spinning Mills is 12. Bales are stacked in different order according to the count being manufactured and to get the proper issue for the mixing. Godown volume = 23310sq.ft 1.3.3 Bale plan
All the bales are placed in a way that there is a way through the bales up to the end of the godown. The bales are placed in such a manner and are tagged as Stack A and Stack B. bales are taken off according to a proper plan to maintain the godown and also to take appropriate properties bale from different lots.

1.4 Bales issue Bales issue is according to mixing plan. This plan is according to the bales fiber-o-graph report and the stacking report in the godowns. Thirdly, according to the count machine settings would be changed. Cotton is available of different origins mainly of Buraywala

Cheechawatni Jalalpur Khanewal Muridwala Sharifabad Mianchanno Gakkharrmandi Anitwala

These bales are taken from different godowns containing different lots of cotton, according to the mixing plan made by the head office which is made to maintain the stock and arrangement as well. These cottons are having different characteristics and different trash percentage in it, which are further classified in to grades. Total no. of bales issued is 40 1.5 Mixing A term applied to the combination of similar raw materials to produce a single product. The objectives of mixing are to achieve a basic product uniformity which results from the combination of a variety of raw materials, each of which exhibits a degree of variability Continuity of supply; if one component in a mixing becomes unobtainable owing to shortage or cost, it can be replaced by a similar alternative without seriously affecting the product characteristics. Mixing is done between various cotton varieties or between various grades of same variety to get the following objectives; Economic reasons, by using relatively cheaper cotton or cotton waste. To improve processing performance of carding and roving formation through control of NEP level and variation, waste level and variation, m/c adjustment, comber noil level and uniformity. To improve processing efficiency of the ring frame trough its effect on the levels and variation of the yarn count, its properties and twist, ends down and m/c adjustment Effect the processing efficiency of the m/c used for weaving operation, weaving process and the weave through its effect on the yarn properties

To improve dying and finishing. To improve physical properties (i.e. tensile and tear strength, elasticity, abrasion resistance and shrinkage resistance), aesthetic properties (i.e. appearance, cover factor, and luster) or subjective properties( i.e. handle and touch, comfort and softness)