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The Socio-economic Characteristics of Rubber Smallholding Farms in Southern Thailand : Case Study in Songkhla Province

Farms in Southern Thailand : Case Study in Songkhla Province Assoc. Prof. Dr. Buncha Somboonsuke (Faculty
Farms in Southern Thailand : Case Study in Songkhla Province Assoc. Prof. Dr. Buncha Somboonsuke (Faculty

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Buncha Somboonsuke (Faculty of Natural Resource/PSU)

Dr. Benedicte Chambon (Cirad)

Mr. Chaiya Kongmanee (Faculty of Economics/PSU)

Important of Rubber in Thai Economy

Manufacturing;

134,378.29;

88.35% Mining; 2,173.37; 1.43% Agriculture; 11,852.48; Forestry; 32.99; Fishery; 2,472.46; 1.63% 7.79% 0.02%
88.35%
Mining;
2,173.37; 1.43%
Agriculture;
11,852.48;
Forestry; 32.99;
Fishery;
2,472.46; 1.63%
7.79%
0.02%

Other; 1,188.13;

0.78%

Total value of exports by product group; 2007

Total value of exports: 152,097.74 m.US $

Manufacturing products: 134,378.29 (88.35%)

Agricultural products: 11,852.48 (7.79%)

Total value of exports of agricultural product; 2007

Total value of exports of agricultural products

Rubber 5,640.05 (47.59%)

Rice 3,467.47(29.26%)

Tapioca 1,403.76 (11.84%)

0.98% Fruit, Fresh Duck and Chicken, Maize Fresh and and Frozen, Maize Products, 35.25, 0.30%
0.98%
Fruit, Fresh
Duck and Chicken,
Maize Fresh and and Frozen,
Maize Products, 35.25, 0.30%
112.19, 0.95%
Others, 116.22,
Misc.
Agricultural
and Frozen,
Products, 803.42,
274.08, 2.31%
Rice, 3,467.47,
29.26%
Tapioca Products,
1,403.76, 11.84%

Rubber, 5,640.05,

47.59%

Source: Bank of Thailand, 2008

Unit: million US$

The Situation of Natural Rubber in Thailand, 2008

East and Central 271,675 ha (11%)
East and Central
271,675 ha
(11%)

Rubber planting area

North

64,354 ha

(2.6 %)

• North-East 342,913 ha (14%) •
North-East
342,913 ha
(14%)

Total planting area 2.46 million hectares

Tapping area 1.77 million hectares (72% of total planting areas)

Thai Rubber farm size

Number of rubber farm household; 1.25 million farms

93% (1.16 million farm) of smallholder farm size

5% (0.06 million farm) medium farm

2% (0.03 million farm) estate farm

South 1.78 m. ha (72.4%)
South
1.78 m. ha
(72.4%)

Source: Office of Agricultural Economics, 2008

Rubber Production and Yield, 2007

Rubber Production and Yield, 2007 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 North North-East Central
3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 North North-East Central South Region Smallholder sector
3000000
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0
North
North-East
Central
South
Region
Smallholder sector
Estate sector
Production (Tons)

Total rubber production: 3.02 million tons

South: 2.54 million tons (84 % of total rubber production)

28% 72%
28%
72%

Rubber production of smallholding sector:

2.17 million tons

Source: Office of Agricultural Economics, 2008

Rubber Production in Southern Thailand

 

Rubber Area (rai)

Tapping Area (rai)

Production

Province

(Tons)

Chumphon

459,039

391,891

103,067

Ranong

125,625

100,859

22,053

Surat Thani

1,830,161

1,551,660

394,270

Phangnga

658,427

525,936

139,154

Phuket

101,985

93,929

26,018

Krabi

610,147

523,836

136,721

Trang

1,309,313

1,094,765

322,956

Nakhon Si Thammarat

1,400,808

1,102,911

280,535

Phatthalung

538,411

477,842

140,008

Songkhla

1,444,012

1,241,698

366,301

Satun

289,811

227,955

65,651

Pattani

294,607

246,725

64,149

Yala

1,046,438

837,858

233,762

Narathiwatt

1,004,532

888,501

249,669

Narathiwatt

Yala

Overviews of Rubber Farm Situation in Songkhla Province,

2007

Rubber area (ha.) 2,000,000 1,800,000 1,600,000 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 400,000 200,000
Rubber area (ha.)
2,000,000
1,800,000
1,600,000
1,400,000
1,200,000
1,000,000
800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
- • Total area: 231,041 ha • Tapping area: 198,671 ha • Total production: 366,301tons
-
Total area: 231,041 ha
Tapping area: 198,671 ha
Total production: 366,301tons
Yield: 1843.7 kg/ha
81,254 households
Chumphon
Ranong
Surat
Thani
Phangnga
Phuket
Si Krabi
Trang
Nakhon
Thammarat
Phatthalung
Songkhla
Satun
Pattani

Source: 1) Office of Agricultural Economics, 2008 2) Songkhla agricultural Office, 2008

Objective of Study

To describe the rubber smallholding farm characteristics in terms of agricultural system approach , with a socio-economic perspective, in Southern Thailand.

Identifying the current issues: labour issue, tapping system and economic performance.

Methodology • Study Area: 5 Districts of Three Rubber ecolgical Zones in Songkhla Province: Khuanneng,
Methodology • Study Area: 5 Districts of Three Rubber ecolgical Zones in Songkhla Province: Khuanneng,
Methodology • Study Area: 5 Districts of Three Rubber ecolgical Zones in Songkhla Province: Khuanneng,

Methodology

Study Area: 5 Districts of Three Rubber ecolgical Zones in Songkhla Province: Khuanneng, Bangklam, Hat yai, Namom and Rattaphum

118 Rubber smallholding farm samples

Structure interview and In-depth interview

Data collection period : August 2007 –Feb. 2008

Methodology (cont.)

RSF Production System Model: Agricultural System Components and Interlinkage

Farm Farm Objective Objective Farm Farm recommendation recommendation Farm Farm achievement achievement
Farm Farm Objective Objective
Farm Farm recommendation recommendation
Farm Farm achievement achievement
Farm recommendation recommendation Farm Farm achievement achievement Source: Somboonsuke, 2000 adapted from Conway 1985
Farm recommendation recommendation Farm Farm achievement achievement Source: Somboonsuke, 2000 adapted from Conway 1985
Farm recommendation recommendation Farm Farm achievement achievement Source: Somboonsuke, 2000 adapted from Conway 1985
Farm recommendation recommendation Farm Farm achievement achievement Source: Somboonsuke, 2000 adapted from Conway 1985
Farm recommendation recommendation Farm Farm achievement achievement Source: Somboonsuke, 2000 adapted from Conway 1985
Farm recommendation recommendation Farm Farm achievement achievement Source: Somboonsuke, 2000 adapted from Conway 1985

Source: Somboonsuke, 2000 adapted from Conway 1985

Methodology (cont.)

RSF Economics Analysis Model

Farm Farm efficiency efficiency measurement measurement
Farm Farm efficiency efficiency measurement measurement
Physical Physical efficiency efficiency measurement measurement Financial Financial efficiency efficiency measurement
Physical Physical efficiency efficiency measurement measurement
Financial Financial efficiency efficiency measurement measurement
Farm capacity and productivity Investment appraisal Sensitivity analysis
Farm capacity and productivity
Investment appraisal
Sensitivity analysis

Source; Somboonsuke, 2002

Result of Study

Typology of Smallholding Rubber-Based Farming System in Songkhla Province, Thailand

Rubber timber System Rubber integrated System

10%

7%

Rubber Monoculture System

Rubbe –livestock Systm

4%

10% 7% Rubber Monoculture System Rubbe –livestock Systm 4% 13% 19% 30% 17% Rubber-fruit tree System

13%

19%

30%

17%

Rubber-fruit tree System

Rubber-rice System

Rubber intercrop System

Classified by criteria of farm household activities from previous research of Buncha Somboonsuke, 2002.

Seven Major Types of Smallholding Rubber -Based Farming System in Southern Thailand (Farm-household activity classification)

Southern Thailand (Farm-household activity classification) Rubber Monoculture System Rubber-intercropping System

Rubber Monoculture System

activity classification) Rubber Monoculture System Rubber-intercropping System Rubber-rice System Rubber-fruit

Rubber-intercropping System

Rubber Monoculture System Rubber-intercropping System Rubber-rice System Rubber-fruit tree System Rubber-livestock

Rubber-rice System

System Rubber-intercropping System Rubber-rice System Rubber-fruit tree System Rubber-livestock System

Rubber-fruit tree System

System Rubber-rice System Rubber-fruit tree System Rubber-livestock System Rubber-integrated System R u b b

Rubber-livestock System

System Rubber-fruit tree System Rubber-livestock System Rubber-integrated System R u b b e r - T
System Rubber-fruit tree System Rubber-livestock System Rubber-integrated System R u b b e r - T

Rubber-integrated System

Rubber-Teak

Rubber Agro ecological Zones in Songkhla Province

Characteristic

III

II

I

Topographic

High land

Unfolded Plain

Flooded plain

High altitude (m)

100-500

20-100

0-20

Slop

20-30

10-20

<10

Soil texture

Loam soil, Sandy clay soil

Loam clay soil, Clay soil, Sandy clay soil

Sandy loam soil, Sandy clay soil

Soil pH

4.5-5.5

4.5-5.5

5.0-5.5

Temperature (c)

26.5

28.2

28.0

Relative Humidity

76

73

73

Rainfall (mm.)

1,969

1,505

1,916

Rubber-based farming system

Rubber monoculture

Rubber monoculture Rubber-intercrop Rubber-rice farm Rubber-fruit tree farm Rubber-livestock Rubber-integrated farm

Rubber monoculture

Rubber-fruit tree farm

Rubber-intercrop

 

Rubber-rice farm

Rubber-rice farm

Rubber-timber

Rubber-fruit tree farm

Rubber-livestock

Rubber-integrated farm

Typology of Smallholding Rubber-based Farming System of Rubber Agro Ecological Zone

Zone III: High land

Zone II: Unfolded plain

Zone I: Flooded plain

Z o n e I : F l o o d e d p l a
60 50 40 % 30 55 20 25 10 15 5 0 R1 R4 R6
60
50
40
% 30
55
20
25
10
15
5
0
R1
R4
R6
R7

%

25 20 15 25 22 20 10 13 15 5 5 0 R1 R2 R3
25
20
15
25
22
20
10
13 15
5
5
0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
30 25 20 % 15 26 20 20 10 18 10 5 6 0 R1
30
25
20
%
15
26
20
20
10
18
10
5
6
0
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6

System

system

system

Legend; R1: rubber-monoculture, R2: Rubber-intercrop, R3: Rubber-rice, R4:

Rubber-fruit tree, R5: Rubber-livestock, R6: Rubber-integrated, R7: Rubber- timber

Sources: Interview and Department of Agricultural Extension

Zone I: Flooded Plain Area

Flooded area in rainy season with low soil fertility (clay-sandy soil).

In case of new rubber planting (Paddy field area), not recommended by ORRAF and RRIT.

For rubber production:

- More than 50% of rubber trees have

girth less than 50 cm girth. (at 1.5 m. from

ground) of 7.2 year old trees.

- High cost of production such as land

preparation , fertilizer, labor management.

- Long unproductive period 7.2 years.

- Yield 1,331.25 kg./ha.

- Still use RRIM 600 in poly bag and

bud stump.

Future trend shows change from rice to rubber and oil palm???.

- Still use RRIM 600 in poly bag and bud stump. • Future trend shows change
- Still use RRIM 600 in poly bag and bud stump. • Future trend shows change

Agricultural Production System of Zone I: Flooded Plain Area

Agricultural Production System of Zone I: Flooded Plain Area Farm’s objective and goal Income of family
Farm’s objective and goal Income of family Characteristics of Agroecozone  Plain land and Coastal
Farm’s objective and goal
Income of family
Characteristics of Agroecozone
 Plain land and Coastal area
Main occupation of family
Improve living standard
High in altitude: 0 – 100 m.
Slop: < 10 o
Soil type: Loam-Sandy clay
pH:5.0 – 5.5
Rainfall: 1,916 mm.
Temperature: 28C
Relative Humidity: 73%
Farm’s constraint and Potential
Farmer’s recommendation
• Establish farm’s group for buy input and sell
rubber product
• Increase to use organic fertilizer and makes its by
farm’s group
Low productivity due to
Re-planting rubber in old paddy rice area
High cost of Input
Labor shortage
Disease and pest
Flooding in some year
• Reduce frequency of tapping
Farm Owner
Good farm management
Good skill of tapping labor
Better infrastructure
Member of farm’s group
High soil fertilizer
• Provide government policy for reduced price
fluctuation, price of input and marketing
Farm’s achievement
•Rubber yield 213.0 kg/ria/year
Total Income 248,600 bath/year
Total farm income 220,600 bath/year
 Rubber income 212,00 bath/year
 Other farm income 86,000 bath/year
Off-farm income 28,000 bath/year
Household Saving 66,200 bath/year
Total Expenditure 117,800 bath/year
Household Dept 171,200 bath/year
Farm’s conduct and management
Land: Total area 17.97, total farm area 16.06, rubber area 13.96 rais.
Tapping Labor: Total labor 1.89, HL 1.60 (M0.86:F0.74), SC 0.29
(M0.12:F0.17) person
Capital: Farm expenditure 31,537; rubber 13,581, other farm7,956
bath/year
Breed: RRIM600,BPM24, space 3x7, Nb.tree per rais 72
Chemical Fertilizer:15-15-15, Quan. 55.9 kg/ria, Freq. 1.46 time/year
Organic Fertilizer: Bio-fertilizer, Quan. 54.8 kg/ria, Freq. 1.3 time/year
Plant disease and Past: 94.7%, Quan. 50.2 kg/ria, Freq. 3.1 time/year
Weed: 95.4%, Mechanical method, Freq. 1.3 time/year
Initial tapping age: 7.0 yearsCurrent rubber age: 16.0 years
Tapping system:1/3S 3d/4, 1/2S 2d/3, 1/2S 3d/4, 1/2S d/2
Product form: Latex
Benefit share ratio: 55:45, 50:50
Market: Local Market

Zone II: Unfolded Plain Area ( Rolling Area)

Unfolded plain area or rolling area with soil type with clay and loamy clay soil.

High rubber diversification.

Mainly 2 rd -3 th round of ORRAF replanting program and more than 70% of the farm participating in ORRAF’s replanting program.

Approximately 90% used RRIM

600.

Long unproductive period (7 years)

Yield 1,562.5 kg./ha

program. • Approximately 90% used RRIM 600. • Long unproductive period (7 years) • Yield 1,562.5
program. • Approximately 90% used RRIM 600. • Long unproductive period (7 years) • Yield 1,562.5

Agricultural Production System of Zone II: Unfolded Plain or Rolling Area

Farm’s objective and goal Income of family Characteristics of Agroecozone Main occupation of family Improve
Farm’s objective and goal
Income of family
Characteristics of Agroecozone
Main occupation of family
Improve living standard
Household consumption
Rolling area
High in altitude: 20 – 100 m.
Slop: 10 – 20 o
Soil type: Loam clay soil, Clay soil
Sandy clay soil
 pH: 4.5 – 5.5
Rainfall: 1,505 mm.
Temperature: 28.2 C
Relative Humidity: 73%
Farm’s constraint and Potential
Farmer’s recommendation
•Establish farm’s group for buy input and sell rubber
product
•Increase to use organic fertilizer and makes its by
High cost of Input
Labor shortage
Disease and pest
Small rubber area
Deficient capital for investment
farm’s group
•Provide tapping system properly with rubber age
•Provide government policy for reduced price
fluctuation, price of input and marketing
Farm Owner
High soil fertilizer
Convenience to sell in Local
market
No flooding
Better infrastructure
Farm’s conduct and management
Farm’s achievement
•Rubber yield 250.4 kg/ria/year
Total Income 153,100 bath/year
Total farm income 135,600 bath/year
Land: Total area 20.17, total farm area 14.11, rubber area 13.56 rais.
Tapping Labor: Total labor 2.06, HL 1.45 (M0.76:F0.69), SC 0.61
(M0.41:F0.20) person
Capital: Farm expenditure 25,222; rubber 17,833, other farm7,388 bath/year
Breed: RRIM600, space 3x7, 3x6, Nb.tree per rais 74
Chemical Fertilizer:15-15-15, Quan. 53.3 kg/ria, Freq. 1.50 time/year
 Rubber income 135,600 bath/year
 Other farm income - bath/year
Off-farm income 17,600 bath/year
Total Expenditure 91,500 bath/year
 Household Saving 73,000 bath/year
Household Dept 217,500 bath/year
Organic Fertilizer: Bio-fertilizer, Quan. 54.0 kg/ria, Freq. 1.4 time/year
Plant disease and Past: 66.7%, Stop tapping and chemical, Freq. 3.1
time/year
Weed: 95.0%, Mechanical and chemical method, Freq. 2.5 time/year
 Initial tapping age: 7.4 years
Current rubber age: 16.9 years
Tapping system:1/3S 3d/4, 1/2S 2d/3, 1/2S 3d/4, 1/2S d/2
Product form at present: Latex
Benefit share ratio: 55:45
Market: Local Market

Zone III: High land (Mountain Area)

High slop in more than 30% and normally 40% of the total rubber planting area is the illegally area (national park, forest). Rubber small holders have no land ownership that affect the technology development opportunity.

High cost of management such as tapping, fertilization, transportation that affect the benefit ratio.

Long unproductive period 6.5 years.

Yield 1,437.5 kg./ha. Observation: Increased disease and the land slide due to clone, wind and land preparation???.

Yield 1,437.5 kg./ha . Observation : Increased disease and the land slide due to clone, wind
Yield 1,437.5 kg./ha . Observation : Increased disease and the land slide due to clone, wind

Agricultural Production System of Zone III: High land or Mountain Area

Farm’s objective and goal Income of family Improve living standard Household consumption Farmer’s
Farm’s objective and goal
Income of family
Improve living standard
Household consumption
Farmer’s recommendation
•Establish farm’s group for buy input and sell rubber
product
•Provide government policy for reduced price
fluctuation, price of input and marketing
Farm’s achievement
•Rubber yield 171.6 kg/ria/year
Total Income 126,300 bath/year
Total farm income 122,400 bath/year
 Rubber income 115,600 bath/year
 Other farm income 6,800 bath/year

Off-farm income 3,900 bath/year Total Expenditure 80,800 bath/year

Household Saving 16,000 bath/year Household Dept 102,500 bath/year

Characteristics of Agroecozone

High land or Mountain area High in altitude: 100 – 500 m. Slop: 20 – 30 o

Soil type: Loam soil, Sandy clay soil Loam soil

Rainfall: 1,969 mm. pH: 4.5-5.5 Temperature: 26.5 C Relative Humidity: 76%

Farm’s constraint and Potential

High cost of Input Disease and pest High slop of land

High Weed Deficient capital for investment

Farm Owner High soil fertilizer Better infrastructure

Farm’s conduct and management Land:Total area 20.0, total farm area 15.60, rubber area 9.80 rais. Tapping Labor: Total labor 2.0, HL 1.4 (M0.7:F0.7), SC 0.6 (M0.4:F0.2) person Capital: Farm expenditure 27,000; rubber 14,600, other farm 12,400 bath/year Breed: RRIM600, space 3x7, 3x6, Nb.tree per rais 70

Chemical Fertilizer:15-15-15, Quan. 46.0 kg/ria, Freq. 1.75 time/year Organic Fertilizer: Bio-fertilizer, Quan. 50.0 kg/ria, Freq. 2.0 time/year Plant disease and Past: 80.0%, Stop tapping and chemical, Freq. 1.0 time/year

Weed: 100%, Mechanical and chemical method, Freq. 2.5 time/year

Initial tapping age: 7.0 years

Tapping system: 1/2S 2d/3, 1/2S 3d/4 Product form at present: Latex, Un-smoked sheet Benefit share ratio: 55:45 Market: Local Market

Current rubber age: 19.5 years

%

Tapping System

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

38

21 16 13 6 2 2 1 1 1/3S 3d/4 1/2S 2d/3 1/2S 3d/4 1/2S
21
16
13
6
2
2
1
1
1/3S 3d/4
1/2S 2d/3
1/2S 3d/4
1/2S d/2
1/3S 2d/3
1/3S 4d/5
1/3S 5d/6
1/3S 6d/7
1/2S 4d/5

Tapping system

Four main current tapping system :

1/3S 3d/4, 1/2S 2d/3, 1/2S 3d/4 and 1/2S d/2

Average tapping day per

month:21.52

Average tapping day per

year:137.17

Day

200

150

100

50

0

Average (day per moth) Average (day per year) 142.81 144.75 138.31 140.11 140.02 141.21 136.12
Average (day per moth)
Average (day per year)
142.81
144.75
138.31
140.11
140.02
141.21
136.12
135.21
116.02
21.25
21.31
22.36
20.1
23.1
24.14
25.1
22.47
13.85
1/3S
3d/4
1/2S
2d/3
1/2S
3d/4
1/2S
d/2
1/3S
2d/3
1/3S
4d/5
1/3S
5d/6
1/3S
6d/7
1/2S
4d/5

Tappingsystem

Factors Relate to the Decision Making Selected Tapping System

Labor Situation Topography and Farm size Socio-economic Clone status Condition of decision to select tapping
Labor Situation
Topography
and Farm size
Socio-economic
Clone
status
Condition of
decision to select
tapping system
Tapping Method
and Management
Farm practice and
management
Tapping system
Experiences
Extension from
government

Labour Issue

Two types of rubber labor force 1) Household labour (72 %). 2) Shared cropper labour (28 %) (high mobilization and migration).

Rubber production requires 5-8 hrs/day/ha

The quantity of rubber labor per household 2 persons.

Labor efficiency:

- Production/labor 6.46 kg./hr. (household labor) and 5.35 kg./hr. (share cropper labor).

- Total income/labor 439.9 baht/hr. (household labor) and 364.3 bath/hr. (shared cropper labor).

Economic Analysis

Cost and Income : Study in Rubber Monoculture System

Items

1/3S 3d/4

1/2S 2d/3

1/2S 3d/4

1/2S d/2

1. Total cost (baht/ha/year)

55,715.31

59,115.18

63,905.25

54,750.30

2. Total variable cost (baht/ha/year)

52,950.43

56,708.50

60,377.31

50,945.93

3. Fixed cost (baht/ha/year)

2,764.87

2,406.68

3,527.93

3,804.37

4.Total farm income (baht/ha/year)

136,857.50

120,190.62

100,096.87

110,237.5

5.Netfarm income (baht/ha/year)

81,142.19

61,075.44

36,191.62

59,291.25

6.Return to total cost(baht/ha/year)

2.45

2.03

1.56

2.01

7.Return to variable cost(baht/ha/year)

2.58

2.11

1.65

2.16

8.Return to fix cost(baht/ha/year)

49.49

49.94

28.37

28.97

Farm Efficiency Measurement

: Study in Rubber Monoculture System

 

Measurement

1/3S 3d/4

1/2S 2d/3

1/2S 3d/4

1/2S d/2

1. Physical efficiency measurement

       

1.1

Aggregate measurement

       

1) Total area (ha/household)

3.17

3.84

2.96

2.35

2) Total plantation area (ha/household)

2.41

3.00

2.68

2.19

3) Total tapping area(ha/household)

1.29

1.80

1.77

1.2

4) Total production (kg/year)

2,105.5

1,849.08

1,539.95

1,831.25

1.2

Ratio measurement

       

1.2.1

Land use efficiency

       

1) Yield per area (kg/ha/year)

1,667.00

1,537.87

1,173.75

1,331.25

2) Production efficiency (PE, %)

102.52

81.86

71.85

108.20

3) Crop year index (CYI, %)

114.56

105.68

80.66

91.48

4) Crop intensity (CI, %)

15.52

17.93

15.59

11.38

1.2.2

Labor efficiency

       

1) Total labor (md/ha/yr)

178.0

99.6

115.1

142.4

2) Productive manpower (kg/md)

9.4

15.4

10.2

9.3

Farm Efficiency Measurement

: Study in Rubber Monoculture System

 

Measurement

1/3S 3d/4

1/2S 2d/3

1/2S 3d/4

1/2S d/2

2. Financial efficiency measurement

       

2.1) Aggregate measure

       

1) Total cost (baht/ha/year)

55,715.31

59,115.87

64,849.68

54,750.03

2) Total variable cost(baht/ha/year )

52,950.43

56,708.50

60,377.31

50,945.93

3) Total fixed cost(baht/ha/year )

2,764.87

2,406.68

4,472.37

3,804.37

4) Total farm income (baht/ha/year)

136,857.50

120,190.62

100,096.87

110,237.5

5) Net farm income (baht/ha/year)

81,142.19

61,074.75

35,247.19

59,291.25

2.2) Ratio measure

       

1) Gross output per gross input

2.46

2.03

1.54

2.01

2) Fertilizer per unit area

312.50

362.50

330

482

2.2.1

Cost ratio

       

1) Operation cost ratio

0.39

0.47

0.60

0.46

2) Fixed cost ratio

0.02

0.02

0.03

0.03

3) Total cost ratio

0.41

0.46

0.64

0.50

4) Total cost per area

1,100.55

837.03

934.77

1,168.01

2.2.2

Income ratio

       

1) Net farm income per area (baht/ha)

62,900.92

33,930.41

19,913.66

49,409.37

Investment Appraisal

Index

1/3S 3d/4

1/2S 2d/3

1/2S 3d/4

1/2S d/2

BCR

2.17

1.83

2.09

1.76

NPV

64,286.22

53,015.88

69,439.42

35,853.46

IRR (%)

25

23

28

20

Sensitivity Analysis

1/3S

3d/4

1/2S

2d/3

1/2S

3d/4

1/2S

d/2

Indicators

5%

10%

15%

5%

10%

15%

capital

capital

capital

production

production

production

Increase

Increase

Increase

decline

decline

decline

BCR

2.07

1.98

1.89

2.07

1.96

1.85

NPV

61559.3

58832.4

56105.5

58345.0

52403.7

46462.5

IRR

24.0

23.0

22.0

24.0

23.0

21.0

BCR

1.90

1.81

1.73

1.89

1.79

1.69

NPV

55,256.4

52,331.50

49,406.70

52,347.30

46,513.40

40,679.50

IRR

24.00

23.00

22.00

24.00

22.00

21.00

BCR

1.99

1.90

1.82

1.99

1.88

1.78

NPV

66,277.20

63,115.00

59,952.80

62,805.20

56,171.00

49,536.90

IRR

27.00

26.00

25.00

27.00

25.00

24.00

BCR

1.68

1.60

1.53

1.67

1.58

1.50

NPV

33,511.5

31,169.60

28,827.70

31,718.80

27,584.3

23,449.70

IRR

19.00

18.00

17.00

19.00

18.00

17.00

Conclusion

Although RRIT has recommended the tapping system appropriate to the particular area, In fact, the smallholders do not always adopt but they have modified the tapping system in accordance with the factors differing in each area.

The limitations regarding the land tenure ship in protected land and natural forests are important factors in the smallholding rubber development in the future.

The biological diversity in Rubber smallholding farms is an indicator for adoption of smallholder in unfolded plain and flooded plain ecological zone.

In the future, there is a trend of shortage of household labor due to the migration of skillful labor as a result of changing in socio-economic condition and preference, replaced by unskillful labor (From neighboring country), that effect the quality, productivity and farm practice management.

Thank Thank you you … …
Thank Thank you you … …

ThankThank youyou

Thank Thank you you … …
ผลการศกษาึ (ตอ)
ผลการศกษาึ (ตอ)
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ปริมาณน้ําฝนและการคายระเหยน้ํา (มิลลิเมตร)
อุณหภูมิ(องศาเซลเซียส)
390
40
360
35
330
300
30
270
240
25
210
20
180
150
15
120
10
90
60
5
30
0
0

.. .. มี.. เม.. .. มิ.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. มี..

2550 2551
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2551

ภาพที่ 8 ลักษณะภมู ิอากาศของอาเภอหาดใหญ จังหวดสงขลา ระหวางเดอนมกราคม 2550-เดอนมีนาคม 2551 ที่มา: สถานตรวจอากาศเกษตรคอหงสตําบลคอหงสอําเภอหาดใหญ จังหวดสงขลา

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ผลการศกษาึ (ตอ)

จํานวนวนกรั ีด 164 วัน

จํานวนวันกรีดที่คาดหวัง
จํานวนวันกรีดที่คาดหวัง จํานวนวันกรีดที่กรีดไดจริง
30
20
10
0
จํานวนว ัน (วัน)

เม.. .. มิ.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. มี.. เดือน

2550 2550
2550
2550

ภาพที่ 9 เปรียบเทยบจานวนวนกรีดที่คาดหวงกับจํานวนวนกรีดที่กรีดไดจริง ใน ระบบกรีด 1/3S 2d/3